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1.
Cells ; 10(9)2021 08 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34571822

RESUMO

As viruses are obligatory intracellular parasites, any step during their life cycle strictly depends on successful interaction with their particular host cells. In particular, their interaction with cellular membranes is of crucial importance for most steps in the viral replication cycle. Such interactions are initiated by uptake of viral particles and subsequent trafficking to intracellular compartments to access their replication compartments which provide a spatially confined environment concentrating viral and cellular components, and subsequently, employ cellular membranes for assembly and exit of viral progeny. The ability of viruses to actively modulate lipid composition such as sphingolipids (SLs) is essential for successful completion of the viral life cycle. In addition to their structural and biophysical properties of cellular membranes, some sphingolipid (SL) species are bioactive and as such, take part in cellular signaling processes involved in regulating viral replication. It is especially due to the progress made in tools to study accumulation and dynamics of SLs, which visualize their compartmentalization and identify interaction partners at a cellular level, as well as the availability of genetic knockout systems, that the role of particular SL species in the viral replication process can be analyzed and, most importantly, be explored as targets for therapeutic intervention.


Assuntos
Esfingolipídeos/metabolismo , Viroses , Transporte Biológico , Membrana Celular/química , Ceramidas/metabolismo , Sistemas de Liberação de Medicamentos , HIV/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Interações entre Hospedeiro e Microrganismos , Membranas Intracelulares/química , SARS-CoV-2/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Vírion , Replicação Viral , Vírus/crescimento & desenvolvimento
2.
Elife ; 102021 08 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34387543

RESUMO

Background: It remains unclear whether combination antiretroviral therapy (ART) regimens differ in their ability to fully suppress human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) replication. Here, we report the results of two cross-sectional studies that compared levels of cell-associated (CA) HIV markers between individuals receiving suppressive ART containing either a non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor (NNRTI) or a protease inhibitor (PI). Methods: CA HIV unspliced RNA and total HIV DNA were quantified in two cohorts (n = 100, n = 124) of individuals treated with triple ART regimens consisting of two nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors (NRTIs) plus either an NNRTI or a PI. To compare CA HIV RNA and DNA levels between the regimens, we built multivariable models adjusting for age, gender, current and nadir CD4+ count, plasma viral load zenith, duration of virological suppression, NRTI backbone composition, low-level plasma HIV RNA detectability, and electronically measured adherence to ART. Results: In both cohorts, levels of CA HIV RNA and DNA strongly correlated (rho = 0.70 and rho = 0.54) and both markers were lower in NNRTI-treated than in PI-treated individuals. In the multivariable analysis, CA RNA in both cohorts remained significantly reduced in NNRTI-treated individuals (padj = 0.02 in both cohorts), with a similar but weaker association between the ART regimen and total HIV DNA (padj = 0.048 and padj = 0.10). No differences in CA HIV RNA or DNA levels were observed between individual NNRTIs or individual PIs, but CA HIV RNA was lower in individuals treated with either nevirapine or efavirenz, compared to PI-treated individuals. Conclusions: All current classes of antiretroviral drugs only prevent infection of new cells but do not inhibit HIV RNA transcription in long-lived reservoir cells. Therefore, these differences in CA HIV RNA and DNA levels by treatment regimen suggest that NNRTIs are more potent in suppressing HIV residual replication than PIs, which may result in a smaller viral reservoir size. Funding: This work was supported by ZonMw (09120011910035) and FP7 Health (305522).


Assuntos
DNA Viral/genética , Infecções por HIV/tratamento farmacológico , Inibidores da Protease de HIV/uso terapêutico , HIV/efeitos dos fármacos , RNA Viral/genética , Inibidores da Transcriptase Reversa/uso terapêutico , Replicação Viral/efeitos dos fármacos , Adulto , Estudos Transversais , Quimioterapia Combinada , Europa (Continente) , Feminino , HIV/genética , HIV/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Infecções por HIV/diagnóstico , Infecções por HIV/virologia , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto , Fatores de Tempo , Resultado do Tratamento , Carga Viral
3.
PLoS One ; 16(3): e0247750, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33730043

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: On October 4, 2016, Hurricane Matthew struck southwest Haiti as a category 4 storm. The goal of this study was to evaluate the impact of the hurricane on tuberculosis (TB) services and patient outcomes in the three severely affected departments-Sud, Grand'Anse, and Nippes-of southwest Haiti. METHODS: We developed a standard questionnaire to assess a convenience sample of health facilities in the affected areas, a patient tracking form, and a line list for tracking all patients with drug-susceptible TB registered in care six months before the hurricane. We analyzed data from the national TB electronic surveillance system to determine outcomes for all patients receiving anti-TB treatment in the affected areas. We used logistic regression analysis to determine factors associated with treatment success. RESULTS: Of the 66 health facilities in the three affected departments, we assessed 31, accounting for 536 (45.7%) of 1,174 TB patients registered in care when Hurricane Matthew made landfall in Haiti. Three (9.7%) health facilities sustained moderate to severe damage, whereas 18 (58.1%) were closed for <1 week, and five (16.1%) for ≥1 week. Four weeks after the hurricane, 398 (73.1%) of the 536 patients in the assessed facilities were located. Treatment success in the affected departments one year after the hurricane was 81.4%. Receiving care outside the municipality of residence (adjusted odds ratio [aOR]: 0.46, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.27-0.80) and HIV positivity (aOR: 0.31, 95% CI: 0.19-0.51) or unknown HIV status (aOR: 0.49, 95% CI: 0.33-0.74) were associated with significantly lower rates of treatment success. CONCLUSIONS: Despite major challenges, a high percentage of patients receiving anti-TB treatment before the hurricane were located and successfully treated in southwest Haiti. The lessons learned and results presented here may help inform policies and guidelines in similar settings for effective TB control after a natural disaster.


Assuntos
Antituberculosos/uso terapêutico , Tempestades Ciclônicas , Infecções por HIV/tratamento farmacológico , Administração de Instituições de Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Tuberculose Pulmonar/tratamento farmacológico , Adolescente , Adulto , Coinfecção , Feminino , HIV/efeitos dos fármacos , HIV/crescimento & desenvolvimento , HIV/patogenicidade , Infecções por HIV/epidemiologia , Infecções por HIV/virologia , Haiti/epidemiologia , Instalações de Saúde , Humanos , Modelos Logísticos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Mycobacterium tuberculosis/efeitos dos fármacos , Mycobacterium tuberculosis/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Mycobacterium tuberculosis/patogenicidade , Estudos Retrospectivos , Inquéritos e Questionários , Resultado do Tratamento , Tuberculose Pulmonar/epidemiologia , Tuberculose Pulmonar/microbiologia
4.
Lancet HIV ; 8(5): e284-e293, 2021 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33667411

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Monitoring knowledge of HIV status among people living with HIV is essential for an effective national HIV response. This study estimates progress and gaps in reaching the UNAIDS 2020 target of 90% knowledge of status, and the efficiency of HIV testing services in sub-Saharan Africa, where two thirds of all people living with HIV reside. METHODS: For this modelling study, we used data from 183 population-based surveys (including more than 2·7 million participants) and national HIV testing programme reports (315 country-years) from 40 countries in sub-Saharan Africa as inputs into a mathematical model to examine trends in knowledge of status among people living with HIV, median time from HIV infection to diagnosis, HIV testing positivity, and proportion of new diagnoses among all positive tests, adjusting for retesting. We included data from 2000 to 2019, and projected results to 2020. FINDINGS: Across sub-Saharan Africa, knowledge of status steadily increased from 5·7% (95% credible interval [CrI] 4·6-7·0) in 2000 to 84% (82-86) in 2020. 12 countries and one region, southern Africa, reached the 90% target. In 2020, knowledge of status was lower among men (79%, 95% CrI 76-81) than women (87%, 85-89) across sub-Saharan Africa. People living with HIV aged 15-24 years were the least likely to know their status (65%, 62-69), but the largest gap in terms of absolute numbers was among men aged 35-49 years, with 701 000 (95% CrI 611 000-788 000) remaining undiagnosed. As knowledge of status increased from 2000 to 2020, the median time to diagnosis decreased from 9·6 years (9·1-10) to 2·6 years (1·8-3·5), HIV testing positivity declined from 9·0% (7·7-10) to 2·8% (2·1-3·9), and the proportion of first-time diagnoses among all positive tests dropped from 89% (77-96) to 42% (30-55). INTERPRETATION: On the path towards the next UNAIDS target of 95% diagnostic coverage by 2025, and in a context of declining positivity and yield of first-time diagnoses, disparities in knowledge of status must be addressed. Increasing knowledge of status and treatment coverage among older men could be crucial to reducing HIV incidence among women in sub-Saharan Africa, and by extension, reducing mother-to-child transmission. FUNDING: Steinberg Fund for Interdisciplinary Global Health Research (McGill University); Canadian Institutes of Health Research; Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation; Fonds the recherche du Québec-Santé; UNAIDS; UK Medical Research Council; MRC Centre for Global Infectious Disease Analysis; UK Foreign, Commonwealth & Development Office.


Assuntos
Infecções por HIV/diagnóstico , Infecções por HIV/epidemiologia , Teste de HIV/estatística & dados numéricos , Conhecimentos, Atitudes e Prática em Saúde , Transmissão Vertical de Doenças Infecciosas/prevenção & controle , Adolescente , Adulto , África ao Sul do Saara/epidemiologia , Idoso , Feminino , HIV/crescimento & desenvolvimento , HIV/patogenicidade , Infecções por HIV/mortalidade , Infecções por HIV/transmissão , Nível de Saúde , Humanos , Incidência , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Modelos Estatísticos , Análise de Sobrevida
5.
Lancet HIV ; 8(2): e106-e113, 2021 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33539757

RESUMO

Ending the AIDS epidemic by 2030 will require addressing stigma more systematically and at a larger scale than current efforts. Existing global evidence shows that stigma is a barrier to achieving each of the 90-90-90 targets; it undermines HIV testing, linkage to care, treatment adherence, and viral load suppression. However, findings from both research studies and programmatic experience have helped to inform the growing body of knowledge regarding how to reduce stigma, leading to key principles for HIV stigma reduction. These principles include immediately addressing actionable drivers of stigma, centring groups affected by stigma at the core of the response, and engaging opinion leaders and building partnerships between affected groups and opinion leaders. Although there is still room to strengthen research on stigma measurement and reduction, in particular for intersectional stigma, the proliferation of evidence over the past several decades on how to measure and address stigma provides a solid foundation for immediate and comprehensive action.


Assuntos
Síndrome de Imunodeficiência Adquirida/prevenção & controle , Síndrome de Imunodeficiência Adquirida/psicologia , Epidemias/prevenção & controle , Medo/psicologia , Estigma Social , Síndrome de Imunodeficiência Adquirida/diagnóstico , Síndrome de Imunodeficiência Adquirida/virologia , Fármacos Anti-HIV/uso terapêutico , Feminino , HIV/efeitos dos fármacos , HIV/crescimento & desenvolvimento , HIV/patogenicidade , Teste de HIV/ética , Humanos , Masculino , Cooperação do Paciente/psicologia , Cooperação do Paciente/estatística & dados numéricos , Isolamento Social/psicologia , Cooperação e Adesão ao Tratamento/psicologia , Cooperação e Adesão ao Tratamento/estatística & dados numéricos , Carga Viral/efeitos dos fármacos
6.
Mol Biol Rep ; 48(1): 691-699, 2021 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33409715

RESUMO

Lung cavitation is the classic hallmark of TB, which facilitates the disease development and transmission. It involves the degradation of lung parenchyma which is mainly made up of collagen fibers by metalloproteinases (MMPs) produced by activated monocyte-derived cells, neutrophils and stromal cells. The following population-based preliminary case-control study of adults with TB (50) and controls (112) without TB was used to investigate possible association between rs1800012 in COL1A1, rs12722 in COL5A1 genes and pulmonary TB in Kazakhstan. We examined 162 samples (50 cases and 112 controls) to study the associations between TB disease status and demographic variables along with single nucleotide polymorphisms related to COLA1 and COL5A1. The unadjusted χ2 and multivariable logistic regression was performed to find out relationships between SNP and other predictors. Preliminary findings suggest that there is a statistically significant association of age (AOR = 0.97, 95% CI:0.94-0.99, p value = 0.049), social status (AOR = 2.41, 95% CI:1.16-5.02, p value = 0.018), HIV status (AOR = 7.12, 95% CI:1.90-26.7, p value = 0.004) and heterozygous rs12722 SNP (AOR = 2.47, 95% CI:1.17-5.19, p value = 0.018) polymorphism of COL5A1 gene with TB susceptibility. The association of collagen genes with TB pathogenesis indicates that anti TB programs can include development of new drug regimens that include MMP inhibitors which has been found to be helpful in collagen remodeling and repair. Therapeutic targeting of MMPs will prevent extracellular matrix and collagen degradation and granuloma maturation.


Assuntos
Colágeno Tipo I/genética , Colágeno Tipo V/genética , Infecções por HIV/genética , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Tuberculose Pulmonar/genética , Adulto , Fatores Etários , Alelos , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Coinfecção , Feminino , Expressão Gênica , Frequência do Gene , Genótipo , HIV/crescimento & desenvolvimento , HIV/patogenicidade , Infecções por HIV/diagnóstico , Infecções por HIV/virologia , Heterozigoto , Humanos , Cazaquistão , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Mycobacterium tuberculosis/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Mycobacterium tuberculosis/patogenicidade , Tuberculose Pulmonar/diagnóstico , Tuberculose Pulmonar/microbiologia
7.
J Med Virol ; 93(2): 726-732, 2021 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32692406

RESUMO

Since its first appearance in Wuhan, China, severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) has rapidly spread throughout the world and has become a global pandemic. Several medical comorbidities have been identified as risk factors for coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). However, it remains unclear whether people living with human immunodefeciency virus (PLWH) are at an increased risk of COVID-19 and severe disease manifestation, with controversial suggestion that HIV-infected individuals could be protected from severe COVID-19 by means of antiretroviral therapy or HIV-related immunosuppression. Several cases of coinfection with HIV and SARS-CoV-2 have been reported from different parts of the globe. This review seeks to provide a holistic overview of SARS-CoV-2 infection in PLWH.


Assuntos
Fármacos Anti-HIV/uso terapêutico , COVID-19/epidemiologia , Infecções por HIV/epidemiologia , Hospedeiro Imunocomprometido , Pandemias , SARS-CoV-2/patogenicidade , Adulto , Terapia Antirretroviral de Alta Atividade/estatística & dados numéricos , Linfócitos T CD4-Positivos/efeitos dos fármacos , Linfócitos T CD4-Positivos/imunologia , Linfócitos T CD4-Positivos/virologia , COVID-19/imunologia , COVID-19/mortalidade , COVID-19/virologia , Coinfecção , Comorbidade , Diabetes Mellitus/epidemiologia , Diabetes Mellitus/fisiopatologia , Feminino , HIV/efeitos dos fármacos , HIV/crescimento & desenvolvimento , HIV/patogenicidade , Infecções por HIV/tratamento farmacológico , Infecções por HIV/mortalidade , Infecções por HIV/virologia , Humanos , Hipertensão/epidemiologia , Hipertensão/fisiopatologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , SARS-CoV-2/imunologia , Análise de Sobrevida , Resultado do Tratamento
9.
Kaohsiung J Med Sci ; 37(4): 346-347, 2021 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33340392

Assuntos
Infecções por Vírus Epstein-Barr/tratamento farmacológico , Gengiva/patologia , Infecções por HIV/tratamento farmacológico , Mandíbula/patologia , Linfoma Plasmablástico/tratamento farmacológico , Adulto , Protocolos de Quimioterapia Combinada Antineoplásica/uso terapêutico , Terapia Antirretroviral de Alta Atividade/métodos , Biópsia , Ciclofosfamida/uso terapêutico , Doxorrubicina/uso terapêutico , Infecções por Vírus Epstein-Barr/diagnóstico por imagem , Infecções por Vírus Epstein-Barr/patologia , Infecções por Vírus Epstein-Barr/virologia , Raios gama , Gengiva/diagnóstico por imagem , Gengiva/efeitos dos fármacos , Gengiva/virologia , HIV/efeitos dos fármacos , HIV/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Infecções por HIV/diagnóstico por imagem , Infecções por HIV/patologia , Infecções por HIV/virologia , Herpesvirus Humano 4/efeitos dos fármacos , Herpesvirus Humano 4/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Humanos , Masculino , Mandíbula/diagnóstico por imagem , Mandíbula/efeitos dos fármacos , Mandíbula/virologia , Linfoma Plasmablástico/diagnóstico por imagem , Linfoma Plasmablástico/patologia , Linfoma Plasmablástico/virologia , Tomografia por Emissão de Pósitrons combinada à Tomografia Computadorizada , Prednisona/uso terapêutico , Costelas/diagnóstico por imagem , Costelas/efeitos dos fármacos , Costelas/patologia , Costelas/virologia , Escápula/diagnóstico por imagem , Escápula/efeitos dos fármacos , Escápula/patologia , Escápula/virologia , Vincristina/uso terapêutico
10.
Curr HIV Res ; 18(5): 354-361, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32652911

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Serum cytokine levels over the course of HIV infection usually increase with immunosuppression and decrease after antiretroviral treatment (ART). OBJECTIVES: The aim of the study is to compare cytokine levels between HIV-infected patients (HIP) and controls and investigate the relationship between CD4+T cell count, HIV-RNA levels, and cytokine levels. METHODS: The study subjects comprised ART-naive HIP (n=30) with no comorbidities and age-and sex-matched healthy controls. We measured levels of IL-6, IL-1ß, TNF-α, and IFN-γ in serum samples of HIP at the beginning and at month 6 of ART and in controls. RESULTS: The mean age of the study subjects was 38.7 ±10.3 years, with men making up 86.7% of the study subjects (n=26). IL-6, IL-1ß, and TNF-α levels were significantly higher in both ART-naive (p<0.001, p=0.002, p=0.001) and ART-experienced HIP (p<0.001) than controls. The IFN-γ level was lower in both ART-naive and ART-experienced HIP compared to controls (p=0.082 and p=0.002). There was a positive correlation between the CD4+T cell count and serum concentration of IFN- γ(r=0.320, p<0.05). While the serum IFN-γ concentration showed a negative correlation with the HIVRNA level(r=-0.412, p<0.001), the serum IL-1ß, IL-6, and TNF-α concentrations showed a positive correlation with the HIV-RNA level (r=0.349, p<0.001; r:0.54, p<0.001; r:0.438, p<0.00). CONCLUSION: Although serum concentrations of IL-6, IL-1ß and TNF-α showed a significant decrease after ART, they were still significantly higher than the controls. IFN-γ responded differently to ART compared to the other cytokines, indicating that it may play a distinct and important role in the pathogenesis of HIV infection.


Assuntos
Antirretrovirais/uso terapêutico , Infecções por HIV/tratamento farmacológico , HIV/efeitos dos fármacos , HIV/crescimento & desenvolvimento , HIV/genética , Adulto , Linfócitos T CD4-Positivos/virologia , Citocinas/metabolismo , Feminino , Infecções por HIV/virologia , Humanos , Interleucina-1beta/metabolismo , Interleucina-6/metabolismo , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade
11.
AIDS Res Ther ; 17(1): 46, 2020 07 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32703286

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The COVID-19 has been a severe pandemic all around the world. Nowadays the patient with co-infection of HIV and SARS-CoV-2 was rarely reported. Here we reported a special case with HIV and SARS-CoV-2 co-infection, which showed a prolonged viral shedding duration. CASE PRESENTATION: The patient was infected with HIV 8 years ago through sexual transmission and had the normal CD4+T cell count. She was found SARS-CoV-2 positive using real-time Polymerase Chain Reaction (RT-PCR) during the epidemic. Most importantly, the patient had a prolonged viral shedding duration of SARS-CoV-2 about 28 days. CONCLUSION: The viral shedding duration may be prolonged in people living with HIV. The 14 days isolation strategy might not be long enough for them. The isolation or discharge of these patients needs further confirmation for preventing epidemics.


Assuntos
Antirretrovirais/uso terapêutico , Betacoronavirus/isolamento & purificação , Infecções por Coronavirus/diagnóstico , Infecções por HIV/complicações , Pneumonia Viral/diagnóstico , Eliminação de Partículas Virais , Alcinos , Benzoxazinas/administração & dosagem , Betacoronavirus/genética , Betacoronavirus/imunologia , Proteína C-Reativa/análise , Contagem de Linfócito CD4 , COVID-19 , Calafrios , Infecções por Coronavirus/diagnóstico por imagem , Infecções por Coronavirus/tratamento farmacológico , Ciclopropanos , Fadiga , Feminino , Febre , HIV/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Infecções por HIV/tratamento farmacológico , Infecções por HIV/imunologia , Humanos , Hospedeiro Imunocomprometido , Imunoglobulina M/sangue , Lamivudina/administração & dosagem , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Pandemias , Faringite , Pneumonia Viral/diagnóstico por imagem , Pneumonia Viral/tratamento farmacológico , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase em Tempo Real , SARS-CoV-2 , Escarro/virologia , Fatores de Tempo , Tomografia Computadorizada por Raios X , Eliminação de Partículas Virais/imunologia , Zidovudina/administração & dosagem
12.
Curr HIV Res ; 18(3): 154-164, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32539678

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Emergence of Kaposi's Sarcoma in the cases other than HIV, following the use of immunosuppressant drugs, demonstrates that it is related to weak immunity. The fact that this malignancy does not occur in every HIV-positive patient suggests that genetic predisposition may also be effective. Replacement of one of the base pairs of adenine, guanine, cytosine, and thymine that constitute the DNA sequence in the human genome with another base pair can affect susceptibility to disease, response to treatment, and immunity. OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study is to analyze the Single Nucleotide Polymorphism that could predispose to Kaposi's sarcoma of an HIV-infected patient and to identify which nucleotides such SNPs correspond to, using the microarray technology. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The blood samples of individuals, one of whom was diagnosed with Kaposi's Sarcoma HIV (+) visiting the outpatient clinic of infectious diseases polyclinic of Harran University Research and Practice Hospital and of a healthy individual with no Kaposi's Sarcoma, were used in the study. Following the DNA isolation of the blood samples taken from the respective individuals, a SNP analysis was conducted on the microarray device. 204,000 SNPs obtained were scanned later on in the databases in an attempt to identify the SNPs related to Kaposi's Sarcoma. RESULTS: In the 204,000 SNP screenings, we scrutinized the SNPs that differ in the case of Kaposi's Sarcoma [KS (+) and HIV (+)] on the basis of Control [KS(-) and HIV(-)] and HIV+ [KS(-)], and two SNPs of the ENDRA gene, three SNPs of the ADRA1A gene, six SNPs of the STIM1 gene, four SNPs of the EFNB2 gene, and one SNP of the CD209 gene were found to be different. However, when it comes to all SNPs (all the 204.000 SNPs) screened in terms of allele, it was observed that the AA and BB alleles were lower in the patient with Kaposi's Sarcoma [KS (+) and HIV (+)] compared to other groups and AB alleles were found to be higher than others in the patient with Kaposi's sarcoma [KS] (+) and HIV (+)]. CONCLUSION: In the microarray study we have conducted, 204,000 SNPs were screened for Control (HIV-) HIV (+) and HIV (+) patient with Kaposi's Sarcoma. It was found that 32,362 of those SNPs had different alleles in the Kaposi's Sarcoma [KS + HIV (+)] patient, while they had the same ones in the control [KS (-) and HIV (-)] and HIV + [KS (-)] group. 16 of the 32,362 SNPs took place among the genes related to Kaposi's Sarcoma. In the cases of Kaposi's Sarcoma with suspected diagnosis, it can be used as a beneficial laboratory test.


Assuntos
Moléculas de Adesão Celular/genética , Efrina-B2/genética , Infecções por HIV/genética , Lectinas Tipo C/genética , Proteínas de Neoplasias/genética , Receptor de Endotelina A/genética , Receptores Adrenérgicos alfa 1/genética , Receptores de Superfície Celular/genética , Sarcoma de Kaposi/genética , Molécula 1 de Interação Estromal/genética , Adulto , Alelos , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Moléculas de Adesão Celular/imunologia , Efrina-B2/imunologia , Expressão Gênica , Predisposição Genética para Doença , HIV/crescimento & desenvolvimento , HIV/patogenicidade , Infecções por HIV/complicações , Infecções por HIV/imunologia , Infecções por HIV/virologia , Interações Hospedeiro-Patógeno/genética , Interações Hospedeiro-Patógeno/imunologia , Humanos , Lectinas Tipo C/imunologia , Masculino , Análise em Microsséries , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Proteínas de Neoplasias/imunologia , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Receptor de Endotelina A/imunologia , Receptores Adrenérgicos alfa 1/imunologia , Receptores de Superfície Celular/imunologia , Sarcoma de Kaposi/complicações , Sarcoma de Kaposi/imunologia , Sarcoma de Kaposi/virologia , Molécula 1 de Interação Estromal/imunologia
13.
Curr HIV Res ; 18(4): 277-282, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32493198

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Disseminated Kaposi sarcoma (DKS) is present in patients with advanced HIV infection in whom co-infection with other opportunistic pathogens can occur. Bone marrow (BM) aspirate and biopsy comprise a robust diagnostic tool in patients with fever, cytopenias, and abnormal liver tests. However, the yield in patients with DKS has not been determined. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to evaluate the utility of BM aspirate and biopsy in patients with DKS. METHODS: We included 40 male patients with a recent diagnosis of DKS. BM aspirate and biopsy was performed as part of the workup to rule out co-infections. RESULTS: In four patients, Mycobacterium avium complex (MAC) was recovered from culture. In other four patients, intracellular yeasts were observed in the Grocott stain, diagnosed as Histoplasma. The yield of BM was calculated in 20%. Only 12 patients (30%) had fever and 11 (27.5%) had pancytopenia. Alkaline phosphatase (ALP) above normal values and C-reactive protein (CRP) were higher in patients with positive results for BM than in those with negative results (63% vs. 21.9%, and 3.0 vs. 1.2 mg/L; p = 0.03 in both comparisons). No differences were found when complete blood-count abnormalities were compared. CONCLUSION: We recommend performing a BM aspirate for stains, culture, and biopsy in all HIV patients with DKS, as this will permit the early diagnosis of co-infections and prevent further complications in those who receive chemotherapy.


Assuntos
Infecções Oportunistas Relacionadas com a AIDS/diagnóstico , Medula Óssea/microbiologia , Infecções por HIV/diagnóstico , Histoplasma/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Histoplasmose/diagnóstico , Sarcoma de Kaposi/diagnóstico , Infecções Oportunistas Relacionadas com a AIDS/microbiologia , Infecções Oportunistas Relacionadas com a AIDS/patologia , Infecções Oportunistas Relacionadas com a AIDS/virologia , Adulto , Fosfatase Alcalina/metabolismo , Biomarcadores/metabolismo , Biópsia , Hemocultura , Medula Óssea/metabolismo , Medula Óssea/cirurgia , Medula Óssea/virologia , Proteína C-Reativa/metabolismo , HIV/crescimento & desenvolvimento , HIV/patogenicidade , Infecções por HIV/microbiologia , Infecções por HIV/patologia , Infecções por HIV/virologia , Histoplasma/isolamento & purificação , Histoplasma/patogenicidade , Histoplasmose/microbiologia , Histoplasmose/patologia , Histoplasmose/virologia , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Sarcoma de Kaposi/microbiologia , Sarcoma de Kaposi/patologia , Sarcoma de Kaposi/virologia
14.
Sci Rep ; 10(1): 6736, 2020 04 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32317646

RESUMO

Hepatic steatosis (HS) is frequently observed in HIV-infected patients. It is not known whether HIV infection is an independent risk factor for HS development. We aimed to analyze whether HIV coinfection was associated with a higher frequency of HS in patients with chronic hepatitis C. This was a retrospective cross-sectional study. 574 subjects with chronic hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection were included, 246 (43%) of them coinfected with HIV. All of them underwent transient elastography with controlled attenuation parameter (CAP) measurement. HS was defined as CAP ≥ 248 dB/m. 147 individuals (45%) showed HS in the HCV-monoinfected group and 100 (40.7%) in the HIV/HCV-coinfected group (p = 0.318). HS was associated with body mass index (BMI) [<25 Kg/m2 vs. ≥25 Kg/m2, 67 (23.5%) vs. 171 (62.9%); p = 0.001], with plasma HDL-cholesterol [<50 mg/dL vs. ≥50 mg/dL, 122 (48.6%) vs. 95 (37.5%), p = 0.012], with plasma triglycerides [<150 mg/dL vs. ≥150 mg/dL, 168 (40.2%) vs. 65 (52.4%); p = 0.016] and with plasma total cholesterol [<200 mg/dL vs. ≥200 mg/dL, 181 (41%) vs. 53 (52.5%); p = 0.035]. In the multivariate analysis, HS was associated with BMI [adjusted OR (AOR) = 1.264 (1.194-1.339); p = 0.001], age [AOR = 1.029 (1.001-1.058); p = 0.047] and HCV genotype 3 infection [AOR = 1.901 (1.081-2.594); p = 0.026]. HIV coinfection was not associated with HS [AOR = 1.166 (0.719-1.892); p = 0.534]. In conclusion, HIV coinfection is not related with an increased frequency of HS in HCV-infected patients.


Assuntos
Fígado Gorduroso/epidemiologia , Infecções por HIV/epidemiologia , HIV/patogenicidade , Hepacivirus/patogenicidade , Hepatite C Crônica/epidemiologia , Fígado/patologia , Índice de Massa Corporal , HDL-Colesterol/sangue , LDL-Colesterol/sangue , Coinfecção , Estudos Transversais , Técnicas de Imagem por Elasticidade , Fígado Gorduroso/diagnóstico por imagem , Fígado Gorduroso/patologia , Fígado Gorduroso/virologia , Feminino , HIV/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Infecções por HIV/diagnóstico por imagem , Infecções por HIV/patologia , Infecções por HIV/virologia , Hepacivirus/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Hepatite C Crônica/diagnóstico por imagem , Hepatite C Crônica/patologia , Hepatite C Crônica/virologia , Humanos , Fígado/diagnóstico por imagem , Fígado/virologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Prevalência , Estudos Retrospectivos , Fatores de Risco , Espanha/epidemiologia , Triglicerídeos/sangue
15.
Curr HIV Res ; 18(3): 219-226, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32294041

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: In China, although quite a few bold programmes have been made for HIV/AIDS, the epidemic has still shown an increasing trend. OBJECTIVES: The study was aimed to investigate the characteristics of new HIV/AIDS and the major factors of false positives (FP) for HIV testing. METHODS: A retrospective review was performed in a teaching hospital in Xi'an between 2013 and 2018. The overall characteristics and trends of new HIV/AIDS were described. Moreover, the major factors of FP were determined by the Pareto analysis. RESULTS: A total of 469 new HIV/AIDS were diagnosed, with an increasing prevalence of the new HIV/AIDS from 0.0626% (41/65503) in 2013 to 0.0827% (115/139046) in 2018. Of them, the majority occurred in the males (88.50%), people aged 21-50 years (76.97%), migrants (60.98%), and sexual contact route (88.70%). There was a rapid increase in the annual number of new HIV/AIDS and increasing trends in groups of young individuals, students, and homosexual mode; however, a downward trend in the percentage of injecting drug use was also observed. Over 50 years old and patients from oncology, obstetrics, hepatobiliary surgery, nephrology, cardiology, and infectious disease constituted the major factors of FP. CONCLUSION: The HIV/AIDS epidemic in Xi'an is still evolving, therefore, effective strategies, appropriate education and scaling up HIV testing should be developed. In addition, old adults and specific departments were associated with FP.


Assuntos
Erros de Diagnóstico/estatística & dados numéricos , Epidemias , Infecções por HIV/diagnóstico , Infecções por HIV/epidemiologia , HIV/patogenicidade , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , China/epidemiologia , Reações Falso-Positivas , Feminino , HIV/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Infecções por HIV/transmissão , Teste de HIV/métodos , Homossexualidade Masculina , Humanos , Masculino , Programas de Rastreamento/métodos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Prevalência , Estudos Retrospectivos , Sexo sem Proteção/psicologia , Sexo sem Proteção/estatística & dados numéricos
16.
J Neurovirol ; 26(3): 382-390, 2020 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32270469

RESUMO

The causes of cognitive impairment among older HIV+ individuals may overlap with causes among elderly HIV seronegative (HIV-) individuals. The objective of this study was to determine if beta-amyloid (Aß) deposition measured by [18F] AV-45 (florbetapir) positron emission tomography (PET) is increased in older HIV+ individuals compared to HIV- individuals. Forty-eight HIV+ and 25 HIV- individuals underwent [18F] AV-45 PET imaging. [18F] AV-45 binding to Aß was measured by standardized uptake value ratios (SUVR) relative to the cerebellum in 16 cortical and subcortical regions of interest. Global and regional cortical SUVRs were compared by (1) serostatus, (2) HAND stage, and (3) age decade, comparing individuals in their 50s and > 60s. There were no differences in median global cortical SUVR stratified by HIV serostatus or HAND stage. The proportion of HIV+ participants in their 50s with elevated global amyloid uptake (SUVR > 1.40) was significantly higher than the proportion in HIV- participants (67% versus 25%, p = 0.04), and selected regional SUVR values were also higher (p < 0.05) in HIV+ compared to HIV- participants in their 50s. However, these group differences were not seen in participants in their 60s. In conclusion, PET imaging found no differences in overall global Aß deposition stratified by HIV serostatus or HAND stage. Although there was some evidence of increased Aß deposition in HIV+ individuals in their 50s compared to HIV- individuals which might indicate premature aging, the most parsimonious explanation for this is the relatively small sample size in this cross-sectional cohort study.


Assuntos
Peptídeos beta-Amiloides/metabolismo , Mapeamento Encefálico/métodos , Disfunção Cognitiva/diagnóstico por imagem , Infecções por HIV/diagnóstico por imagem , HIV/patogenicidade , Idoso , Compostos de Anilina , Transporte Biológico , Encéfalo , Disfunção Cognitiva/metabolismo , Disfunção Cognitiva/fisiopatologia , Disfunção Cognitiva/virologia , Estudos Transversais , Etilenoglicóis , Feminino , Radioisótopos de Flúor , HIV/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Infecções por HIV/metabolismo , Infecções por HIV/fisiopatologia , Infecções por HIV/virologia , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Tomografia por Emissão de Pósitrons , Índice de Gravidade de Doença
17.
J Neurovirol ; 26(3): 358-370, 2020 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32193795

RESUMO

Inflammation in people living with HIV (PLWH) correlates with severity of HIV-associated neurocognitive disorders. The objective of this study is to identify blood-based markers of neurocognitive function in a demographic balanced cohort of PLWH. Seven neurocognitive domains were evaluated in 121 seropositive Black/African American, Non-Hispanic White, and White Hispanic men and women using computerized assessments. Associations among standardized neurocognitive function and HIV-related parameters, relevant sociodemographic variables, and inflammation-associated cytokines measured in plasma and cellular supernatants were examined using multivariate and univariate regression models. Outlier and covariate analyses were used to identify and normalize for education level, CD4 T cell count, viral load, CNS and drug abuse comorbidities, which could influence biomarker and neurocognitive function associations. Plasma levels of chemokine (C-C motif) ligand (CCL) 8 significantly associated with memory, complex attention, cognitive flexibility, psychomotor speed, executive function, and processing speed. Plasma tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinases 1 associated with the aforementioned domains except memory and processing speed. In addition, plasma interleukin-23 significantly associated with processing speed and executive function. Analysis of peripheral blood cell culture supernatants revealed no significant markers for neurocognitive function. In this cohort, CD4 T cell count and education level also significantly associated with neurocognitive function. All identified inflammatory biomarkers demonstrated a negative correlation to neurocognitive function. These cytokines have known connections to HIV pathophysiology and are potential biomarkers for neurocognitive function in PLWH with promising clinical applications.


Assuntos
Disfunção Cognitiva/sangue , Citocinas/sangue , Infecções por HIV/sangue , HIV/patogenicidade , Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Substâncias/sangue , Inibidor Tecidual de Metaloproteinase-1/sangue , Adulto , Idoso , Atenção/fisiologia , Biomarcadores/sangue , Contagem de Linfócito CD4 , Sistema Nervoso Central/metabolismo , Sistema Nervoso Central/fisiopatologia , Sistema Nervoso Central/virologia , Cognição/fisiologia , Disfunção Cognitiva/diagnóstico , Disfunção Cognitiva/fisiopatologia , Disfunção Cognitiva/virologia , Escolaridade , Função Executiva/fisiologia , Feminino , HIV/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Infecções por HIV/diagnóstico , Infecções por HIV/fisiopatologia , Infecções por HIV/virologia , Humanos , Inflamação , Masculino , Memória/fisiologia , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Desempenho Psicomotor/fisiologia , Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Substâncias/diagnóstico , Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Substâncias/fisiopatologia , Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Substâncias/virologia
18.
Infectio ; 24(1): 35-41, ene.-mar. 2020. tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS, COLNAL | ID: biblio-1090541

RESUMO

Abstract Objective: Our objective was to quantitatively describe the research on HIV infection carried out in Colombia. Materials and methods: A bibliometric review of all studies that included people infected or affected by HIV between January 1, 1983, and August 31, 2018, was performed. Results: 587 studies were identified. Most were descriptive studies. There are a lower number of studies in the fields of prevention, education and public health. Most of the published studies were carried out in 3 departments. 72% were published in Q3, Q4 or unclassified journals. Discussion: The research performed has given priority to the description of figures and is not enough to understand and know how to treat factors like late diagnosis, the stigma and the prevention of the disease. Conclusion: There does not seem to be a national strategy to define the research needs. There is a low dissemination of the results and a low cover of the research in the country.


Resumen Objetivo: Describir cuantitativamente la investigación sobre infección por VIH realizada en Colombia. Materiales y métodos: Se realizó una revisión bibliométrica de estudios que incluyeran personas infectadas o afectadas por el VIH entre el 1 de enero de 1983 y el 31 de agosto de 2018. Resultados: Se identificaron 587 estudios. La mayoría fueron descriptivos. Hay un menor número en los campos de prevención, educación y salud pública. La mayoría se llevaron a cabo en 3 departamentos. El 72% se publicaron en Q3, Q4 o revistas no clasificadas. Discusión: La investigación realizada ha dado prioridad a la descripción de las cifras y no es suficiente para comprender y saber cómo tratar factores como el diagnóstico tardío, el estigma y la prevención de la enfermedad. Conclusión: No parece haber una estrategia nacional para definir las necesidades de investigación. Hay una baja difusión de los resultados y una baja cobertura de la investigación en el país.


Assuntos
Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , HIV/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Indicadores Bibliométricos , Bibliometria , HIV/classificação , Colômbia , Estudos de Avaliação como Assunto
19.
Curr HIV Res ; 18(3): 181-193, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32065091

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Poorer working memory function has previously been associated with alcohol misuse, Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) positive status, and risky behavior. Poorer working memory performance relates to alterations in specific brain networks. OBJECTIVE: The current study examined if there was a relationship between brain networks involved in working memory and reported level of alcohol consumption during an individual's period of heaviest use. Furthermore, we examined whether HIV status and the interaction between HIV and alcohol consumption was associated with differences in these brain networks. METHODS: Fifty adults, 26 of whom were HIV positive, engaged in an n-back working memory task (0-back and 2-back trials) administered in a magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scanner. The Kreek- McHugh-Schluger-Kellogg (KMSK) scale of alcohol consumption was used to characterize an individual's period of heaviest use and correlates well with their risk for alcohol dependence. Connectivity analyses were conducted using data collected during n-back task. RESULTS: Functional connectivity differences associated with greater alcohol consumption included negative connectivity, primarily from parietal attention networks to frontal networks. Greater alcohol consumption was also associated with positive connectivity from working memory nodes to the precuneus and paracingulate. HIV positive status was associated with more nodes of negative functional connectivity relative to alcohol consumption history alone, particularly in the frontoparietal networks. The HIV positive individuals with heavier drinking history related to negative fronto-parietal connectivity, along with positive connectivity from working memory nodes to mesolimbic regions. CONCLUSION: Findings allow for a better understanding of brain networks affected by HIV and alcohol and may provide avenues for interventions.


Assuntos
Alcoolismo/fisiopatologia , Etanol/toxicidade , Lobo Frontal/fisiopatologia , Infecções por HIV/fisiopatologia , Lobo Parietal/fisiopatologia , Adulto , Alcoolismo/complicações , Alcoolismo/diagnóstico por imagem , Alcoolismo/tratamento farmacológico , Fármacos Anti-HIV/uso terapêutico , Terapia Antirretroviral de Alta Atividade , Conectoma/métodos , Lobo Frontal/diagnóstico por imagem , Lobo Frontal/efeitos dos fármacos , HIV/crescimento & desenvolvimento , HIV/patogenicidade , Infecções por HIV/complicações , Infecções por HIV/diagnóstico por imagem , Infecções por HIV/tratamento farmacológico , Humanos , Imageamento por Ressonância Magnética , Masculino , Memória de Curto Prazo/fisiologia , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Testes Neuropsicológicos , Lobo Parietal/diagnóstico por imagem , Lobo Parietal/efeitos dos fármacos
20.
Curr HIV Res ; 18(3): 172-180, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32106801

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: In HIV negative population metabolic syndrome and steatosis are related to poorer neurocognitive (NC) performance. We investigated if similar relation exists in people living with HIV (PLWH). METHODS: We included male PLWH aged 20-65, with undetectable viral load for at least 6 months. Data on levels of education, anthropometric measurements, CD4 levels, ART, markers of metabolic syndrome, smoking and concurrent treatment were collected from database. Concentrations of TNF-α and IL-6 were measured. An ultrasound was used to establish the presence of steatosis, visceral fat thickness and carotid intima media thickness. An extensive NC assessment was done by an experienced neuropsychologist. Cognitive domains were defined as executive functions, divergent reasoning, visuo-constructional abilities, delayed recall and working memory and learning and were measured using a battery of 12 tests. RESULTS: 88 PLWH were included (mean age 39,9 years), 51% on PIs, 46% on NNRTI; 20,4% had metabolic syndrome, 42% patients had steatosis. Weak but statistically significant negative correlations were found between the presence of metabolic syndrome, steatosis and VFT and cognitive domains (divergent reasoning, delayed recall and working memory). Poorer perfomrance in the domains of divergent reasoning and in the working memory were found in participants with steatosis (p=0,048 and 0,033 respectively). CONCLUSION: Although the sample size was relatively small, our results show consistent correlations between the observed neurocognitive variables and metabolic parameters. As central obesity is one of the contributors to NCI, it would be one of the modifiable factors to prevent further neurocognitive decline.


Assuntos
Disfunção Cognitiva/complicações , Fígado Gorduroso/complicações , Infecções por HIV/complicações , Síndrome Metabólica/complicações , Obesidade/complicações , Adulto , Idoso , Fármacos Anti-HIV/uso terapêutico , Terapia Antirretroviral de Alta Atividade , Biomarcadores/sangue , Contagem de Linfócito CD4 , Linfócitos T CD4-Positivos/metabolismo , Linfócitos T CD4-Positivos/virologia , Espessura Intima-Media Carotídea , Disfunção Cognitiva/sangue , Disfunção Cognitiva/fisiopatologia , Disfunção Cognitiva/virologia , Estudos Transversais , Fígado Gorduroso/sangue , Fígado Gorduroso/fisiopatologia , Fígado Gorduroso/virologia , HIV/crescimento & desenvolvimento , HIV/patogenicidade , Infecções por HIV/sangue , Infecções por HIV/fisiopatologia , Infecções por HIV/virologia , Humanos , Interleucina-6/sangue , Gordura Intra-Abdominal/patologia , Masculino , Memória de Curto Prazo/fisiologia , Rememoração Mental/fisiologia , Síndrome Metabólica/sangue , Síndrome Metabólica/fisiopatologia , Síndrome Metabólica/virologia , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Testes Neuropsicológicos , Obesidade/sangue , Obesidade/fisiopatologia , Obesidade/virologia , Fator de Necrose Tumoral alfa/sangue
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