Your browser doesn't support javascript.
loading
Mostrar: 20 | 50 | 100
Resultados 1 - 20 de 18.728
Filtrar
1.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33008116

RESUMO

During the first outbreak of the SARS-CoV-2 pandemic the population, focusing primarily on the risk of infection, was generally inattentive to the quality of indoor air. Spain, and the city of Madrid in particular, were among the world's coronavirus hotspots. The country's entire population was subject to a 24/7 lockdown for 45 days. This paper describes a comparative longitudinal survey of air quality in four types of housing in the city of Madrid before and during lockdown. The paper analysed indoor temperatures and variations in CO2, 2.5 µm particulate matter (PM2.5) and total volatile organic compound (TVOC) concentrations before and during lockdown. The mean daily outdoor PM2.5 concentration declined from 11.04 µg/m3 before to 7.10 µg/m3 during lockdown. Before lockdown the NO2 concentration values scored as 'very good' 46% of the time, compared to 90.9% during that period. Although the city's outdoor air quality improved, during lockdown the population's exposure to indoor pollutants was generally more acute and prolonged. Due primarily to concern over domestic energy savings, the lack of suitable ventilation and more intensive use of cleaning products and disinfectants during the covid-19 crisis, indoor pollutant levels were typically higher than compatible with healthy environments. Mean daily PM2.5 concentration rose by approximately 12% and mean TVOC concentration by 37% to 559%. The paper also puts forward a series of recommendations to improve indoor domestic environments in future pandemics and spells out urgent action to be taken around indoor air quality (IAQ) in the event of total or partial quarantining to protect residents from respiratory ailments and concomitantly enhanced susceptibility to SARS-CoV-2, as identified by international medical research.


Assuntos
Poluição do Ar em Ambientes Fechados/análise , Infecções por Coronavirus , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral , Betacoronavirus , Dióxido de Carbono , Cidades , Habitação/classificação , Humanos , Óxido Nítrico , Material Particulado , Espanha , Compostos Orgânicos Voláteis
2.
West J Emerg Med ; 21(5): 1048-1053, 2020 Aug 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32970553

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: The unfolding COVID-19 pandemic has predictably followed the familiar contours of well established socioeconomic health inequities, exposing and often amplifying preexisting disparities. People living in homeless shelters are at higher risk of infection with severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) compared to the general population. The purpose of this study was to identify shelter characteristics that may be associated with higher transmission of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). METHODS: We conducted a cross-sectional assessment of five congregate shelters in Rhode Island. Shelter residents 18 years old and older were tested for SARS-CoV-2 from April 19-April 24, 2020. At time of testing, we collected participant characteristics, symptomatology, and vital signs. Shelter characteristics and infection control strategies were collected through a structured phone questionnaire with shelter administrators. RESULTS: A total of 299 shelter residents (99%, 299/302) participated. Thirty-five (11.7%) tested positive for SARS-CoV-2. Shelter-level prevalence ranged from zero to 35%. Symptom prevalence did not vary by test result. Shelters with positive cases of SARS-CoV-2 were in more densely populated areas, had more transient resident populations, and instituted fewer physical distancing practices compared to shelters with no cases. CONCLUSION: SARS-CoV-2 prevalence varies with shelter characteristics but not individual symptoms. Policies that promote resident stability and physical distancing may help reduce SARS-CoV-2 transmission. Symptom screening alone is insufficient to prevent SARS-CoV-2 transmission. Frequent universal testing and congregate housing alternatives that promote stability may help reduce spread of infection.


Assuntos
Betacoronavirus , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Disparidades nos Níveis de Saúde , Pessoas em Situação de Rua/estatística & dados numéricos , Habitação/estatística & dados numéricos , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Infecções por Coronavirus/diagnóstico , Infecções por Coronavirus/prevenção & controle , Infecções por Coronavirus/transmissão , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Política de Saúde , Inquéritos Epidemiológicos , Humanos , Controle de Infecções/métodos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Pandemias/prevenção & controle , Pneumonia Viral/diagnóstico , Pneumonia Viral/prevenção & controle , Pneumonia Viral/transmissão , Prevalência , Rhode Island/epidemiologia , Adulto Jovem
3.
BMC Public Health ; 20(1): 1337, 2020 Sep 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32878612

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: People who are houseless (also referred to as homeless) perceive high stigma in healthcare settings, and face disproportionate disparities in morbidity and mortality versus people who are housed. Medical students and the training institutions they are a part of play important roles in advocating for the needs of this community. The objective of this study was to understand perceptions of how medical students and institutions can meet needs of the self-identified needs of the houseless community. METHODS: Between February and May 2018, medical students conducted mixed-methods surveys with semi-structured qualitative interview guides at two community-based organizations that serve people who are houseless in Portland, Oregon. Medical students approach guests at both locations to ascertain interest in participating in the study. Qualitative data were analyzed using thematic analysis rooted in an inductive process. RESULTS: We enrolled 38 participants in this study. Most participants were male (73.7%), white (78.9%), and had been houseless for over a year at the time of interview (65.8%). Qualitative themes describe care experiences among people with mental health and substance use disorders, and roles for medical students and health-care institutions. Specifically, people who are houseless want medical students to 1) listen to and believe them, 2) work to destigmatize houselessness, 3) engage in diverse clinical experiences, and 4) advocate for change at the institutional level. Participants asked healthcare institutions to use their power to change laws that criminalize substance use and houselessness, and build healthcare systems that take better care of people with addiction and mental health conditions. CONCLUSIONS: Medical students, and the institutions they are a part of, should seek to reduce stigma against people who are houseless in medical systems. Additionally, institutions should change their approaches to healthcare delivery and advocacy to better support the health of people who are houseless.


Assuntos
Assistência à Saúde , Pessoas em Situação de Rua , Transtornos Mentais , Defesa do Paciente , Relações Profissional-Paciente , Estigma Social , Estudantes de Medicina , Adulto , Atitude Frente a Saúde , Comportamento Aditivo , Feminino , Necessidades e Demandas de Serviços de Saúde , Pessoas em Situação de Rua/psicologia , Habitação , Humanos , Masculino , Transtornos Mentais/complicações , Saúde Mental , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Oregon , Saúde da População , Pesquisa Qualitativa , Mudança Social , Apoio Social , Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Substâncias/complicações , Inquéritos e Questionários
5.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 99(38): e22245, 2020 Sep 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32957371

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: CMS recently decided to produce private "healthcare disparities reports" that include dual eligibility (DE) as the sole stratifying variable used to assess pneumonia readmission disparities. RESEARCH DESIGN: We measure the relationship between DE status and readmissions, both with and without conceptually relevant social risk factors, including air pollution, severe housing problems, and food insecurity, using data from county- and hospital-level readmission rates, DE status, and social risk factors. RESULTS: At the county level, the relationship between DE status and readmissions is partially confounded by at least three social risk factors. DE populations vary widely across hospitals, creating unequal between-hospital comparisons. CONCLUSIONS: Because of differences in the DE population, between-hospital comparisons could be misleading using a methodology that stratifies by DE only. We suggest viable alternatives to sole-factor stratification to properly account for social risk factors and better isolate quality differences that might yield readmission rate inequities. IMPLICATIONS: CMS's healthcare disparities reports provided to hospitals are limited by relying exclusively on DE proportion as the measure of social risk, undercutting the power of quality measurement and its related incentives to close or minimize healthcare inequities.


Assuntos
Definição da Elegibilidade , Disparidades em Assistência à Saúde , Medicaid/organização & administração , Medicare/organização & administração , Determinantes Sociais da Saúde , Poluição do Ar/efeitos adversos , Abastecimento de Alimentos , Habitação , Humanos , Readmissão do Paciente , Pneumonia/terapia , Fatores de Risco , Estados Unidos
6.
J Environ Radioact ; 222: 106351, 2020 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32892905

RESUMO

Radon, a gaseous radioactive decay product of naturally-occurring uranium is widely distributed in the environment in rocks and soils and, in certain circumstances, can accumulate in the built environment. Initial studies confirmed a direct link between exposure to both radon gas and its short-lived radioactive progeny, and increased lung-cancer incidence, and demonstrated that radon levels in domestic housing can be sufficiently high to expose occupants to increased risk of lung-cancer. Subsequent studies worldwide have shown that it is cost-effective to detect and reduce domestic radon levels in order to reduce this risk. Recent advances in the early detection of lung-cancer, coupled with the development of improved treatment procedures, have progressively improved survival from the disease, with the numbers surviving at 5 years doubling over recent years, during which period the real costs of lung cancer treatment have risen by around 30%. In the meantime, however, in addition to radon and tobacco-smoke, other airborne pollutants have been identified as risk-factors for lung-cancer. This paper reviews both these actual developments and anticipated future trends, and concludes that since these advances in diagnosis and treatment of lung-cancer have had only a modest effect on cost-effectiveness, it is still important to conduct radon monitoring and remediation programmes. While the general increase in life-expectancy improves the cost-effectiveness of radon remediation programmes significantly, reducing tobacco-smoking incidence reduces that cost-effectiveness but with the overall benefit of reducing radon-related lung-cancers. The challenge remains of encouraging affected householders to remediate their homes to reduce radon levels.


Assuntos
Poluição do Ar em Ambientes Fechados , Neoplasias Pulmonares , Monitoramento de Radiação , Radônio , Poluição do Ar em Ambientes Fechados/economia , Poluição do Ar em Ambientes Fechados/prevenção & controle , Análise Custo-Benefício , Habitação , Humanos , Neoplasias Pulmonares/epidemiologia , Reino Unido
7.
Environ Health Prev Med ; 25(1): 49, 2020 Sep 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32892744

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The health hazards of indoor air pollution are well-established but studies of the health effects due to pollution from heating are rare. This study investigated the association of heating and disability for activities of daily living among Chinese middle-aged and elderly. METHODS: We used two consecutive surveys in a cohort of over 17,000 adults aged 45 or older, who were interviewed first in 2011-2012 and then in 2013. In these surveys, taking advantage of random survey time, we applied a random effects logit regression model that included an interaction between pollution-producing heating fuel and a dummy variable, which measured interview time based on whether or not it was heating season. RESULTS: Exposure to pollution-producing heating fuel was associated with a 39.9% (OR 1.399; 95%CI 1.227-1.594) and 71.0% (OR 1.710; 95%CI 1.523-1.920) increase in the likelihood of disability in activities of daily living (DADL) and disability in instrumental activities of daily living (DIADL), respectively. In heating season between year 2011 and 2013, moving from clean heating energy for heating to pollution-producing fuel was linked with an increase in the likelihoods having DADL and DIADL, with the OR of 2.014 (95%CI 1.126-3.600) and 1.956 (95%CI 1.186-3.226), respectively. However, disability increases due to change from clean energy to pollution-producing heating energy did not appear in advantaged education respondents. CONCLUSIONS: We found that exposure to heating by burning of coal, wood, or crop residue was associated with disability in performing daily living activities. Health policymakers should take indoor pollution due to heating into consideration as it is a major determinant of activities of daily living in elderly people; especially, such policy should focus on elderly people who have disadvantaged education.


Assuntos
Atividades Cotidianas , Poluição do Ar em Ambientes Fechados/efeitos adversos , Pessoas com Deficiência/estatística & dados numéricos , Calefação/efeitos adversos , Habitação , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Poluição do Ar em Ambientes Fechados/análise , China , Feminino , Calefação/estatística & dados numéricos , Humanos , Estudos Longitudinais , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade
8.
Sci Total Environ ; 743: 140704, 2020 Nov 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32927527

RESUMO

Indoor pests, and the allergens they produce, adversely affect human health. Surprisingly, however, their effects on indoor microbial communities have not been assessed. Bed bug (Cimex lectularius) infestations pose severe challenges in elderly and low-income housing. They void large amounts of liquid feces into the home environment, which might alter the indoor microbial community composition. In this study, using bed bug-infested and uninfested homes, we showed a strong impact of bed bug infestations on the indoor microbial diversity. Floor dust samples were collected from uninfested and bed bug-infested homes and their microbiomes were analyzed before and after heat interventions that eliminated bed bugs. The microbial communities of bed bug-infested homes were radically different from those of uninfested homes, and the bed bug endosymbiont Wolbachia was the major driver of this difference. After bed bugs were eliminated, the microbial community gradually shifted toward the community composition of uninfested homes, strongly implicating bed bugs in shaping the dust-associated environmental microbiome. Further studies are needed to understand the viability of these microbial communities and the potential risks that bed bug-associated microbes and their metabolites pose to human health.


Assuntos
Percevejos-de-Cama , Microbiota , Idoso , Animais , Temperatura Alta , Habitação , Humanos , Pobreza
9.
Lancet Public Health ; 5(9): e493-e500, 2020 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32888442

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Many children are exposed to second-hand smoke in the home and are at increased risk of asthma and other respiratory conditions. In Scotland, a public health mass-media campaign was launched on March 24, 2014, called Take it Right Outside (TiRO), with a focus on reducing the exposure of children to domestic second-hand smoke. In this study, our aim was to establish whether the TiRO campaign was followed by a decrease in hospital admissions for childhood asthma and other respiratory conditions related to second-hand smoke exposure across Scotland. METHODS: For an interrupted time-series analysis, data were obtained on all hospital admissions in Scotland between 2000 and 2018 for children aged younger than 16 years. We studied changes in the monthly incidence of admissions for conditions potentially related to second-hand smoke exposure (asthma, lower respiratory tract infection, bronchiolitis, croup, and acute otitis media) per 1000 children following the 2014 TiRO campaign, while considering national legislation banning smoking in public spaces from 2006. We considered asthma to be the primary condition related to second-hand smoke exposure, with monthly asthma admissions as the primary outcome. Gastroenteritis was included as a control condition. The analysis of asthma admissions considered subgroups stratified by age and area quintile of the Scottish Index of Multiple Deprivations (SIMD). FINDINGS: 740 055 hospital admissions were recorded for children. 138 931 (18·8%) admissions were for respiratory conditions potentially related to second-hand smoke exposure, of which 32 342 (23·3%) were for asthma. After TiRO in 2014, we identified a decrease relative to the underlying trend in the slope of admissions for asthma (-0·48% [-0·85 to -0·12], p=0·0096) in younger children (age <5 years), but not in older children (age 5-15 years). Asthma admissions did not change after TiRO among children 0-15 years of age when data were analysed according to area deprivation quintile. Following the 2006 legislation, independent of TiRO, asthma admissions decreased in both younger children (-0·36% [-0·67 to -0·05], p=0·021) and older children (-0·68% [-1·00 to -0·36], p<0·0001), and in children from the most deprived (SIMD 1; -0·49% [-0·87 to -0·11], p=0·011) and intermediate deprived (SIMD 3; -0·70% [-1·17 to -0·23], p=0·0043) area quintiles, but not in those from the least deprived (SIMD 5) area quintile. INTERPRETATION: Our findings suggest that smoke-free home interventions could be an important tool to reduce asthma admissions in young children, and that smoke-free public space legislation might improve child health for many years, especially in the most deprived communities. FUNDING: University of Aberdeen Research Excellence Framework 2021 Impact Support Award Scheme.


Assuntos
Poluição do Ar em Ambientes Fechados/prevenção & controle , Promoção da Saúde , Hospitalização/estatística & dados numéricos , Habitação , Poluição por Fumaça de Tabaco/prevenção & controle , Adolescente , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Análise de Séries Temporais Interrompida , Masculino , Avaliação de Programas e Projetos de Saúde , Escócia
11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32785108

RESUMO

(1) Background: The COVID-19 pandemic poses substantial threats to Latinx farmworkers and other immigrants in food production and processing. Classified as essential, such workers cannot shelter at home. Therefore, knowledge and preventive behaviors are important to reduce COVID-19 spread in the community. (2) Methods: Respondents for 67 families with at least one farmworker (FWF) and 38 comparable families with no farmworkers (nonFWF) in North Carolina completed a telephone survey in May 2020. The survey queried knowledge of COVID-19, perceptions of its severity, self-efficacy, and preventive behaviors. Detailed data were collected to document household members' social interaction and use of face coverings. (3) Results: Knowledge of COVID-19 and prevention methods was high in both groups, as was its perceived severity. NonFWF had higher self-efficacy for preventing infection. Both groups claimed to practice preventive behaviors, though FWF emphasized social avoidance and nonFWF emphasized personal hygiene. Detailed social interactions showed high rates of inter-personal contact at home, at work, and in the community with more mask use in nonFWF than FWF. (4) Conclusions: Despite high levels of knowledge and perceived severity for COVID-19, these immigrant families were engaged in frequent interpersonal contact that could expose community members and themselves to COVID-19.


Assuntos
Infecções por Coronavirus/etnologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/prevenção & controle , Fazendeiros , Conhecimentos, Atitudes e Prática em Saúde/etnologia , Hispano-Americanos , Pandemias/prevenção & controle , Pneumonia Viral/etnologia , Pneumonia Viral/prevenção & controle , Betacoronavirus , Feminino , Comportamentos Relacionados com a Saúde , Habitação , Humanos , Masculino , North Carolina/epidemiologia , Autoeficácia , Índices de Gravidade do Trauma
12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32824594

RESUMO

Since the World Health Organization (WHO) declared the coronavirus infectious disease 2019 (COVID-19) outbreak a pandemic on 11 March, severe lockdown measures have been adopted by the Italian Government. For over two months of stay-at-home orders, houses became the only place where people slept, ate, worked, practiced sports, and socialized. As consolidated evidence exists on housing as a determinant of health, it is of great interest to explore the impact that COVID-19 response-related lockdown measures have had on mental health and well-being. We conducted a large web-based survey on 8177 students from a university institute in Milan, Northern Italy, one of the regions most heavily hit by the pandemic in Europe. As emerged from our analysis, poor housing is associated with increased risk of depressive symptoms during lockdown. In particular, living in apartments <60 m2 with poor views and scarce indoor quality is associated with, respectively, 1.31 (95% CI: 1046-1637), 1.368 (95% CI: 1166-1605), and 2.253 (95% CI: 1918-2647) times the risk of moderate-severe and severe depressive symptoms. Subjects reporting worsened working performance from home were over four times more likely to also report depression (OR = 4.28, 95% CI: 3713-4924). Housing design strategies should focus on larger and more livable living spaces facing green areas. We argue that a strengthened multi-interdisciplinary approach, involving urban planning, public mental health, environmental health, epidemiology, and sociology, is needed to investigate the effects of the built environment on mental health, so as to inform welfare and housing policies centered on population well-being.


Assuntos
Betacoronavirus/isolamento & purificação , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Habitação , Saúde Mental , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/psicologia , Humanos , Itália/epidemiologia , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral/psicologia
13.
PLoS Negl Trop Dis ; 14(8): e0008411, 2020 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32776929

RESUMO

Approximately 150 triatomine species are suspected to be infected with the Chagas parasite, Trypanosoma cruzi, but they differ in the risk they pose to human populations. The largest risk comes from species that have a domestic life cycle and these species have been targeted by indoor residual spraying campaigns, which have been successful in many locations. It is now important to consider residual transmission that may be linked to persistent populations of dominant vectors, or to secondary or minor vectors. The aim of this project was to define the geographical distributions of the community of triatomine species across the Chagas endemic region. Presence-only data with over 12, 000 observations of triatomine vectors were extracted from a public database and target-group background data were generated to account for sampling bias in the presence data. Geostatistical regression was then applied to estimate species distributions and fine-scale distribution maps were generated for thirty triatomine vector species including those found within one or two countries and species that are more widely distributed from northern Argentina to Guatemala, Bolivia to southern Mexico, and Mexico to the southern United States of America. The results for Rhodnius pictipes, Panstrongylus geniculatus, Triatoma dimidiata, Triatoma gerstaeckeri, and Triatoma infestans are presented in detail, including model predictions and uncertainty in these predictions, and the model validation results for each of the 30 species are presented in full. The predictive maps for all species are made publicly available so that they can be used to assess the communities of vectors present within different regions of the endemic zone. The maps are presented alongside key indicators for the capacity of each species to transmit T. cruzi to humans. These indicators include infection prevalence, evidence for human blood meals, and colonisation or invasion of homes. A summary of the published evidence for these indicators shows that the majority of the 30 species mapped by this study have the potential to transmit T. cruzi to humans.


Assuntos
Insetos Vetores , Triatominae/parasitologia , Trypanosoma cruzi , Distribuição Animal , Animais , Doença de Chagas/epidemiologia , Doença de Chagas/transmissão , Habitação , Humanos , América Latina/epidemiologia , Modelos Teóricos
14.
Epidemiol Psychiatr Sci ; 29: e154, 2020 Aug 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32787983

RESUMO

Forced migrants are at an increased risk of mental disorder compared to host country populations. To effectively address this, programmatic and policy responses need to be underpinned by rigorous evidence. Drawing on our experience conducting a systematic review of post-migration risk factors for mental disorder among asylum seekers and our appraisal of related systematic reviews, this paper discusses four challenges facing the field: (1)The reliance on Western conceptions of mental health.(2)The investigation, to date, of a relatively narrow range of potential risk factors.(3)The lack of consistency in the measurement and reporting of risk factor variables.(4)The use of the legal term 'asylum seeker' to define study populations.We suggest potential ways forward, including using mental health measures developed in collaboration with communities affected by forced migration, the examination of key risk factors around homelessness and workers' rights, the development of a core set of risk factors to be investigated in each study, and defining study populations using the conceptual category of 'sanctuary seekers' - people who have fled their country and are asking another country for safety and residence.


Assuntos
Assistência à Saúde Culturalmente Competente , Transtornos Mentais , Refugiados/psicologia , Migrantes/psicologia , Habitação , Humanos , Transtornos Mentais/etnologia , Transtornos Mentais/psicologia , Saúde Mental , Política
15.
Math Biosci ; 328: 108436, 2020 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32758501

RESUMO

Residential colleges and universities face unique challenges in providing in-person instruction during the COVID-19 pandemic. Administrators are currently faced with decisions about whether to open during the pandemic and what modifications of their normal operations might be necessary to protect students, faculty and staff. There is little information, however, on what measures are likely to be most effective and whether existing interventions could contain the spread of an outbreak on campus. We develop a full-scale stochastic agent-based model to determine whether in-person instruction could safely continue during the pandemic and evaluate the necessity of various interventions. Simulation results indicate that large scale randomized testing, contact-tracing, and quarantining are important components of a successful strategy for containing campus outbreaks. High test specificity is critical for keeping the size of the quarantine population manageable. Moving the largest classes online is also crucial for controlling both the size of outbreaks and the number of students in quarantine. Increased residential exposure can significantly impact the size of an outbreak, but it is likely more important to control non-residential social exposure among students. Finally, necessarily high quarantine rates even in controlled outbreaks imply significant absenteeism, indicating a need to plan for remote instruction of quarantined students.


Assuntos
Betacoronavirus , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Análise de Sistemas , Universidades , Técnicas de Laboratório Clínico , Simulação por Computador , Busca de Comunicante , Infecções por Coronavirus/diagnóstico , Infecções por Coronavirus/prevenção & controle , Infecções por Coronavirus/transmissão , Surtos de Doenças/prevenção & controle , Surtos de Doenças/estatística & dados numéricos , Educação a Distância , Habitação , Humanos , Máscaras , Conceitos Matemáticos , Pandemias/prevenção & controle , Pandemias/estatística & dados numéricos , Pneumonia Viral/prevenção & controle , Pneumonia Viral/transmissão , Quarentena , Processos Estocásticos
18.
A A Pract ; 14(6): e01218, 2020 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32784318

RESUMO

Patient care duties will expose health care workers to severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). Many are concerned about subsequent household exposure to their families, particularly those family members with high risk of complications or mortality, potentiating additional community spread. Herein is described a temporary isolation room that can be created within a home, thereby decreasing bioburden exposure to family members. The design is simple, expedient, and can be built with locally sourced inexpensive supplies. A viewing and access window facilitates safe family interaction and decreases the emotional costs of isolation while providing a route to pass items as necessary.


Assuntos
Betacoronavirus , Infecções por Coronavirus/prevenção & controle , Pessoal de Saúde , Pandemias/prevenção & controle , Pneumonia Viral/prevenção & controle , Quarentena/métodos , Arquitetura , Habitação , Humanos
19.
MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep ; 69(33): 1139-1143, 2020 Aug 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32817597

RESUMO

Preventing coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) in correctional and detention facilities* can be challenging because of population-dense housing, varied access to hygiene facilities and supplies, and limited space for isolation and quarantine (1). Incarcerated and detained populations have a high prevalence of chronic diseases, increasing their risk for severe COVID-19-associated illness and making early detection critical (2,3). Correctional and detention facilities are not closed systems; SARS-CoV-2, the virus that causes COVID-19, can be transmitted to and from the surrounding community through staff member and visitor movements as well as entry, transfer, and release of incarcerated and detained persons (1). To better understand SARS-CoV-2 prevalence in these settings, CDC requested data from 15 jurisdictions describing results of mass testing events among incarcerated and detained persons and cases identified through earlier symptom-based testing. Six jurisdictions reported SARS-CoV-2 prevalence of 0%-86.8% (median = 29.3%) from mass testing events in 16 adult facilities. Before mass testing, 15 of the 16 facilities had identified at least one COVID-19 case among incarcerated or detained persons using symptom-based testing, and mass testing increased the total number of known cases from 642 to 8,239. Case surveillance from symptom-based testing has likely underestimated SARS-CoV-2 prevalence in correctional and detention facilities. Broad-based testing can provide a more accurate assessment of prevalence and generate data to help control transmission (4).


Assuntos
Técnicas de Laboratório Clínico/estatística & dados numéricos , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Surtos de Doenças/prevenção & controle , Programas de Rastreamento , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Prisões , Infecções por Coronavirus/diagnóstico , Infecções por Coronavirus/prevenção & controle , Habitação/estatística & dados numéricos , Humanos , Pandemias/prevenção & controle , Pneumonia Viral/prevenção & controle , Prevalência , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia
20.
PLoS Med ; 17(7): e1003172, 2020 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32628679

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The "trimorbidity" of substance use disorder and mental and physical illness is associated with living in precarious housing or homelessness. The extent to which substance use increases risk of psychosis and both contribute to mortality needs investigation in longitudinal studies. METHODS AND FINDINGS: A community-based sample of 437 adults (330 men, mean [SD] age 40.6 [11.2] years) living in Vancouver, Canada, completed baseline assessments between November 2008 and October 2015. Follow-up was monthly for a median 6.3 years (interquartile range 3.1-8.6). Use of tobacco, alcohol, cannabis, cocaine, methamphetamine, and opioids was assessed by interview and urine drug screen; severity of psychosis was also assessed. Mortality (up to November 15, 2018) was assessed from coroner's reports and hospital records. Using data from monthly visits (mean 9.8, SD 3.6) over the first year after study entry, mixed-effects logistic regression analysis examined relationships between risk factors and psychotic features. A past history of psychotic disorder was common (60.9%). Nonprescribed substance use included tobacco (89.0%), alcohol (77.5%), cocaine (73.2%), cannabis (72.8%), opioids (51.0%), and methamphetamine (46.5%). During the same year, 79.3% of participants reported psychotic features at least once. Greater risk was associated with number of days using methamphetamine (adjusted odds ratio [aOR] 1.14, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.05-1.24, p = 0.001), alcohol (aOR 1.09, 95% CI 1.01-1.18, p = 0.04), and cannabis (aOR 1.08, 95% CI 1.02-1.14, p = 0.008), adjusted for demographic factors and history of past psychotic disorder. Greater exposure to concurrent month trauma was associated with increased odds of psychosis (adjusted model aOR 1.54, 95% CI 1.19-2.00, p = 0.001). There was no evidence for interactions or reverse associations between psychotic features and time-varying risk factors. During 2,481 total person years of observation, 79 participants died (18.1%). Causes of death were physical illness (40.5%), accidental overdose (35.4%), trauma (5.1%), suicide (1.3%), and unknown (17.7%). A multivariable Cox proportional hazard model indicated baseline alcohol dependence (adjusted hazard ratio [aHR] 1.83, 95% CI 1.09-3.07, p = 0.02), and evidence of hepatic fibrosis (aHR 1.81, 95% CI 1.08-3.03, p = 0.02) were risk factors for mortality. Among those under age 55 years, a history of a psychotic disorder was a risk factor for mortality (aHR 2.38, 95% CI 1.03-5.51, p = 0.04, adjusted for alcohol dependence at baseline, human immunodeficiency virus [HIV], and hepatic fibrosis). The primary study limitation concerns generalizability: conclusions from a community-based, diagnostically heterogeneous sample may not apply to specific diagnostic groups in a clinical setting. Because one-third of participants grew up in foster care or were adopted, useful family history information was not obtainable. CONCLUSIONS: In this study, we found methamphetamine, alcohol, and cannabis use were associated with higher risk for psychotic features, as were a past history of psychotic disorder, and experiencing traumatic events. We found that alcohol dependence, hepatic fibrosis, and, only among participants <55 years of age, history of a psychotic disorder were associated with greater risk for mortality. Modifiable risk factors in people living in precarious housing or homelessness can be a focus for interventions.


Assuntos
Pessoas em Situação de Rua/estatística & dados numéricos , Transtornos Psicóticos/mortalidade , Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Substâncias/mortalidade , Adulto , Alcoolismo/mortalidade , Colúmbia Britânica/epidemiologia , Feminino , Habitação , Humanos , Estimativa de Kaplan-Meier , Masculino , Metanfetamina , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Transtornos Psicóticos/epidemiologia , Transtornos Psicóticos/etiologia , Características de Residência , Fatores de Risco , Fatores de Tempo
SELEÇÃO DE REFERÊNCIAS
DETALHE DA PESQUISA