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1.
Waste Manag ; 102: 391-403, 2020 Feb 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31733563

RESUMO

The paper evaluates for the first time the embodied impact in CDW during the buildings life cycle by means of the bill of quantities of construction projects. The main objective is to be able to predict the future CDW to be generated by a project in the design stage, by means of the bill of quantities of the urbanization, construction, renovation, rehabilitation and demolition projects. The tools already in place for cost control can be used as an instrument for the introduction of sustainability considerations in construction projects. The methodology proposes a connection between the different stages of a building's life cycle, more precisely its budget. The latter is linked to other future budgets for building renovations or retrofitting projects. The result shows that urbanization and demolition generate 90% of CDW, the former is caused by earthworks and the latter is due to the elimination of all building materials. The building is removed 1.3 times, in terms of material weight, energy and water. Finally, traditional models for economic control and waste management in construction projects can be the vector which introduce environmental assessment through the building life cycle.


Assuntos
Indústria da Construção , Gerenciamento de Resíduos , Materiais de Construção , Habitação , Espanha
2.
Sci Total Environ ; 698: 134137, 2020 Jan 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31493575

RESUMO

This study conducted on-site measurements of indoor volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in 251 occupied residences in China, with multiple visits throughout a whole year. Over 1000 samples were collected for measurement of VOCs in 8 cities, covering different climate regions. Overall, the concentrations of total VOCs (TVOCs) in occupied residences are in the range of 104-1151 µg/m3, with 20% of the samples over the Chinese standard of 600 µg/m3. A higher concentration was evident in the summer (mean = 705 µg/m3) compared to other seasons, especially winter (mean = 289 µg/m3). The TVOCs of residences in areas with central heating (severe cold regions and cold regions) are generally higher than those in areas without central heating. In winter, temperature was the dominant factor, whereas in summer, the building infiltration rate was the key factor influencing the indoor TVOC levels. The TVOCs concentration was also found to be directly proportional to the city economy level. Twenty-nine VOC species with a detection frequency higher than 40% were identified in all samples. Toluene is the most common VOC, with the highest detection rate (90%). The median concentration for a single VOC was between 1 and 14 µg/m3. Aldehydes were found to be the largest contributors to total VOCs in the Chinese residential buildings (mass proportion 22%), followed by benzene series (20%), alkenes (18%), and alkanes (15%). Aldehydes, especially long-chain saturated carbonyls, are likely to be the characteristic VOCs in the Chinese dwellings, with Chinese cooking as the major emission source. In addition, n-butane/i-butane showed maximum concentration in some residences (approximately 105 µg/m3 higher than other VOCs) owing to cooking fuel.


Assuntos
Poluição do Ar em Ambientes Fechados/estatística & dados numéricos , Monitoramento Ambiental , Compostos Orgânicos Voláteis/análise , Poluentes Atmosféricos/análise , Poluição do Ar em Ambientes Fechados/análise , China , Cidades , Habitação , Estações do Ano
3.
J R Soc Med ; 112(12): 492, 2019 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31825282
5.
JAMA ; 322(21): 2115-2124, 2019 12 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31794624

RESUMO

Importance: Although neighborhoods are thought to be an important health determinant, evidence for the relationship between neighborhood poverty and health care use is limited, as prior studies have largely used observational data without an experimental design. Objective: To examine whether housing policies that reduce exposure to high-poverty neighborhoods were associated with differences in long-term hospital use among adults and children. Design, Setting, and Participants: Exploratory analysis of the Moving to Opportunity for Fair Housing Demonstration Program, a randomized social experiment conducted in 5 US cities. From 1994 to 1998, 4604 families in public housing were randomized to 1 of 3 groups: a control condition, a traditional Section 8 voucher toward rental costs in the private market, or a voucher that could only be used in low-poverty neighborhoods. Participants were linked to all-payer hospital discharge data (1995 through 2014 or 2015) and Medicaid data (1999 through 2009). The final follow-up date ranged from 11 to 21 years after randomization. Exposures: Receipt of a traditional or low-poverty voucher vs control group. Main Outcomes and Measures: Rates of hospitalizations and hospital days, and hospital spending. Results: Among 4602 eligible individuals randomized as adults, 4072 (88.5%) were linked to health data (mean age, 33 years [SD, 9.0 years]; 98% female; median follow-up, 11 years). There were no significant differences in primary outcomes among adults randomized to receive a voucher compared with the control group (unadjusted hospitalization rate, 14.0 vs 14.7 per 100 person-years, adjusted incidence rate ratio [IRR], 0.95 [95% CI, 0.84-1.08; P = .45]; hospital days, 62.8 vs 67.0 per 100 person-years; IRR, 0.93 [95% CI, 0.77-1.13; P = .46]; yearly spending, $2075 vs $1977; adjusted difference, -$129 [95% CI, -$497 to $239; P = .49]). Among 11 290 eligible individuals randomized as children, 9118 (80.8%) were linked to health data (mean age, 8 years [SD, 4.6 years]; 49% female; median follow-up, 11 years). Receipt of a housing voucher during childhood was significantly associated with lower hospitalization rates (6.3 vs 7.3 per 100 person-years; IRR, 0.85 [95% CI, 0.73-0.99; P = .03]) and yearly inpatient spending ($633 vs $785; adjusted difference, -$143 [95% CI, -$256 to -$31; P = .01]) and no significant difference in hospital days (25.7 vs 28.8 per 100 person-years; IRR, 0.92 [95% CI, 0.77-1.11; P = .41]). Conclusions and Relevance: In this exploratory analysis of a randomized housing voucher intervention, adults who received a housing voucher did not experience significant differences in hospital use or spending. Receipt of a voucher during childhood was significantly associated with lower rates of hospitalization and less inpatient spending during long-term follow-up.


Assuntos
Gastos em Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Hospitalização/estatística & dados numéricos , Habitação/economia , Habitação Popular , Adulto , Criança , Feminino , Seguimentos , Hospitalização/economia , Humanos , Masculino , Áreas de Pobreza , Habitação Popular/economia , Características de Residência , Estados Unidos
6.
Ann Agric Environ Med ; 26(4): 636-643, 2019 Dec 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31885239

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: The aim of the study is to compare the hope of rural and urban inhabitants in the terminal stage of a neoplastic disease covered by stationary hospice care. MATERIAL AND METHODS: The study was carried out among patients in the terminal phase of a neoplastic disease. They were patients of both 24-hour and daily palliative and hospice care units throughout the country. The study group consisted of 246 patients, average age - 59.5, the youngest respondent was 18 and the oldest - 90. The B. L. Block (NCN-36) test, prepared for people struggling with serious life-threatening diseases, was used. Comparison of the results with regard to the place of residence was based on the test Friedman ANOVA and Kendall compatibility factor. The general comparison of hope in individual dimensions and globally with the division into the degree of urbanization, was based on the Kruskal-Wallis test. RESULTS: On the basis of factor analysis, 4 scales constructed from 8 items branch were distinguished. The following scales are used to study hope in the situational dimension - health, the telek-temporal dimension - goals, the spiritual dimension - religious beliefs and in the emotional-affective (affective) dimension - motivations. CONCLUSIONS: The strength of hope in people in the terminal phase of cancer, residing in villages, settlements, small, medium and large cities, was similar and depended on its magnitude. Of all the manifestations of hope, the greatest variation in results occurred in the subjects when they encountered serious problems and difficulties. The inhabitants of medium-sized cities were characterized by a higher hope at that time.


Assuntos
Neoplasias/psicologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Feminino , Esperança , Habitação , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Pacientes/psicologia , Adulto Jovem
7.
Huan Jing Ke Xue ; 40(8): 3618-3625, 2019 Aug 08.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31854768

RESUMO

As a key component of green roofs, vegetation may have significant impacts on both the quantity and quality of runoff. In this study, the effects of vegetation on both the quantity and quality of runoff from green roofs are investigated through monitoring the rainfall and runoff processes of green roofs with four different types of vegetation cover (Portulaca grandiflora, Sedum lineare, Festuca elata, and a non-vegetated bed as control) during 2017. The growth characteristics of the vegetation were also monitored, and the nutrients (NH4+-N, NO3--N, NO2--N, and PO43--P) and heavy metals (Cr, Cd, Cu, and Ni) in the rainwater and runoff were measured. The results show that the average rainfall event-based runoff reduction rates for the four green roof types were 51.3%, 41.5%, 36.3%, and 33.0%, respectively. Furthermore, the runoff reduction rates of the green roof planted with Portulaca grandiflora were significantly higher than both the Festuca elata green roof and the non-vegetated bed (P<0.05). The green roofs planted with Portulaca grandiflora and Sedum lineare both acted as sinks for the nutrients. The Portulaca grandiflora green roof, which had a higher biomass, provides higher nutrient load reduction rates (59.6%, 99.9%, 82.5%, and 25.7% for NH4+-N, NO3--N, NO2--N, and PO43--P, respectively) than the Sedum lineare green roof (52.5%, 89.3%, 75.3%, and 7.8%, respectively). The Festuca elata green roof and the non-vegetation bed acted as sinks for NH4+-N and NO2--N but were sources of NO3--N and PO43--P. All four of the green roofs were sinks for DCd, with pollution load reduction rates of 19.2%, 41.5%, 38.4%, and 31.1%, respectively. However, all the green roofs acted as the sources of DCr, DCu, and DNi.


Assuntos
Metais Pesados , Sedum , Conservação dos Recursos Naturais , Habitação , Plantas , Chuva , Movimentos da Água
9.
Pan Afr Med J ; 34: 40, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31762907

RESUMO

Introduction: Poor urban communities are likely to bear the brunt of climate change impacts on health and well-being. The City of Johannesburg, South Africa, is predicted to experience an average increase in ambient temperature of 4°C by 2100. Focusing on the urban environment, this study aimed to determine socio-economic, infrastructural and health-related risk factors for heat-related adverse health effects. Methods: This was a cross-sectional study. Data of interest were collected using a pretested and validated questionnaire administered to parents of children attending schools participating in a school heat study. Information related to demographic, socio-economic and household-level determinants of health, which has an impact on the individual prevalence of adverse heat-health effects associated with hot weather, was collected for 136 households and 580 individuals. Results: Sweating (n = 208 individuals; 35%), headache and nausea (n = 111; 19%) and weakness, fatigue and dizziness (n = 87; 15%) were the most common heat-health effects reportedly experienced by individuals (n = 580) during hot weather. Individuals who suffered from hypertension (OR = 2.32, 95% CI: 1.34 - 4.05, p = 0.003) and individuals older than 60 years (OR = 1.81, 95% CI: 1.27-1.99, p < 0.001) compared to other age groups were more likely to experience 'any heat-health effects'. Living in government-sponsored detached housing and in houses with asbestos roofs were associated with an increase in reported experience of 'any heat-health effects' compared to living in other housing types. Conclusion: Heat-health awareness campaigns should target people suffering from pre-existing diseases and the elderly, as these groups are especially vulnerable to heat. Focus should also be given to appropriate roofing and insulation in government-sponsored housing since summertime temperatures are projected to increase.


Assuntos
Mudança Climática , Temperatura Alta/efeitos adversos , Habitação/estatística & dados numéricos , População Urbana , Fatores Etários , Estudos Transversais , Características da Família , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Pais , Pobreza , Fatores de Risco , Fatores Socioeconômicos , África do Sul , Inquéritos e Questionários , Tempo (Meteorologia)
10.
Aust N Z J Public Health ; 43(6): 544-550, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31667969

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To investigate the association between hearing impairment (HI) and Year 1 school attendance in Aboriginal children in the Northern Territory (NT) of Australia. METHODS: Observational cohort study (n=3,744) by analysing linked individual-level information for Aboriginal children from the NT Government school attendance records, NT Perinatal Register and Remote Hearing Assessment dataset, and community level data for relative remoteness, socioeconomic disadvantage and housing crowdedness. RESULTS: Children with unilateral hearing loss, mild HI and moderate or worse HI had significantly lower Year 1 attendance than those with normal hearing, attending 5.6 (95%CI, -9.10 ∼-2.10), 4.0 (95%CI, -7.17 ∼-0.90) and 6.1 (95%CI, -10.71 ∼-1.49) days fewer, respectively. Other variables that yielded significant association were: male gender, having attended preschool less than 20% of available days, speaking English as second language, twin birth and average household size >5. CONCLUSIONS: Aboriginal children with any level of HI are likely to have lower school attendance rates in Year 1 than their peers with normal hearing. Implications for public health: In this population, where the prevalence of otitis media and accompanying HI remains extremely high, the early detection and management of hearing loss on entry into primary school should be included in the measures to improve school attendance.


Assuntos
Perda Auditiva/etiologia , Habitação , Grupo com Ancestrais Oceânicos/psicologia , Otite Média/complicações , Instituições Acadêmicas , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Estudos de Coortes , Feminino , Serviços de Saúde do Indígena , Perda Auditiva/epidemiologia , Perda Auditiva/etnologia , Humanos , Masculino , Northern Territory , Grupo com Ancestrais Oceânicos/estatística & dados numéricos , Otite Média/epidemiologia , Otite Média/etnologia , Prevalência , Fatores Socioeconômicos
11.
BMC Public Health ; 19(1): 1446, 2019 Nov 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31684916

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Standardized, research-based strategies to guide the implementation and evaluate the effects of housing adaptations (HA) on client outcomes are rare. We hypothesized that, compared to ordinary practice, a standardized assessment and evaluation protocol for HA implementation would better maintain or improve client outcomes over 1 year. METHOD: Using a cluster design, South Swedish municipalities were recruited to an intervention or control group. Data on activities of daily living, usability of the home, health related quality of life, and participation frequency and satisfaction were collected at home visits 1 month before the HA (baseline; T1), and at 3 (T2), 6 (T3) and 12 (T4) months after. In the intervention group (n = 112) data were collected according to a standardized protocol while in the control group (n = 129) ordinary routines were applied. Changes from baseline to subsequent time points were categorized as no deterioration (i.e. improvement or no change) or deterioration, for each outcome item separately. Differences in "no deterioration" between the groups were assessed using logistic regression. RESULTS: Little effect of using the standardized protocol was detected. For activities of daily living, statistically significant differences between the groups were found for toileting (T1-T4; OR 3.14), dressing (T1-T4; OR2.89) and cooking (T1-T3 and T1-T4; OR 3.14). For usability of the home differences were found in personal hygiene (T1-T2; OR 2.32) using a wheelchair (T1-T2 and T1-T3; OR 9.50), picking up the mail (T1-T3; OR 4.06), and in participation, helping others (T1-T3 and T1-T4; OR 2.33 and 3.36). CONCLUSION: The applied standardized protocol for HA implementation did not show any convincing effect, possibly due to the complexity of the intervention itself, and the implementation process. A process evaluation might generate in-depth knowledge about the reasons behind the findings. TRIAL REGISTRATION: ClinicalTrials.gov . NCT01960582.


Assuntos
Acessibilidade Arquitetônica , Habitação , Projetos de Pesquisa/normas , Atividades Cotidianas , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Cidades , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Satisfação Pessoal , Qualidade de Vida , Suécia
12.
BMC Public Health ; 19(1): 1508, 2019 Nov 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31718590

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Noise exposure is considered a stressor that may potentially exert negative health effects among the exposed individuals. On a population basis, the most prevalent and immediate response to noise is annoyance, which is an individually experienced phenomenon that may activate physiological stress-responses and result in both physical and mental symptoms. Health implications of traffic noise have been investigated thoroughly, but not of neighbour noise. The aim of the present study was to examine the associations between neighbour noise annoyance and eight different physical and mental health symptoms. METHODS: Cross-sectional data from the Danish Health and Morbidity Survey 2017 were used. The present study included a random sample of 3893 adults living in multi-storey housing. Information on neighbour noise annoyance and various health symptoms (e.g. pain in various body parts, headache, sleeping problems, depression, and anxiety) during the past two weeks was obtained by self-administered questionnaires. The question on neighbour noise annoyance and health symptoms, respectively, had three possible response options: 'Yes, very annoyed/bothered', 'Yes, slightly annoyed/bothered', 'No'. The associations between neighbour noise annoyance and very bothering physical and mental health symptoms were investigated using multiple logistic regression models. RESULTS: Being very annoyed by neighbour noise was significantly associated with higher odds of being very bothered by all eight health symptoms (adjusted OR = 1.73-3.32, all p-values < 0.05) compared to individuals not annoyed by noise from neighbours. Statistically significant interactions were observed between sex and two of the eight health symptoms. Among women, a strong association was observed between neighbour noise annoyance and being very bothered by pain or discomfort in the shoulder or neck, and in the arms, hands, legs, knees, hips or joints. Among men, no associations were observed. CONCLUSIONS: Based on the findings from this study, neighbour noise annoyance is strongly associated with eight different physical and mental health symptoms. Future studies are encouraged to 1) determine the direction of causality using a longitudinal design, 2) explore the biological mechanisms explaining the sex-specific impact of neighbour noise annoyance on symptoms of musculoskeletal pain or discomfort and the other outcomes as well.


Assuntos
Exposição Ambiental , Habitação , Ruído/efeitos adversos , Características de Residência , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Ansiedade/etiologia , Estudos Transversais , Dinamarca , Depressão/etiologia , Feminino , Cefaleia/etiologia , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Ruído dos Transportes/efeitos adversos , Razão de Chances , Dor/etiologia , Fatores Sexuais , Transtornos do Sono-Vigília/etiologia , Inquéritos e Questionários , Adulto Jovem
13.
BMC Public Health ; 19(1): 1440, 2019 Nov 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31675932

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: San Francisco has implemented several programs addressing the needs of two large vulnerable populations: people living with HIV and those who are homeless. Assessment of these programs on health outcomes is paramount for reducing preventable deaths. METHODS: Individuals diagnosed with HIV/AIDS and reported to the San Francisco Department of Public Health HIV surveillance registry, ages 13 years or older, who resided in San Francisco at the time of diagnosis, and who died between January 1, 2002, and December 31, 2016 were included in this longitudinal study. The primary independent variable was housing status, dichotomized as ever homeless since diagnosed with HIV, and the dependent variables were disease-specific causes of death, as noted on the death certificate. The Cochran-Armitage test measured changes in the mortality rates over time and unadjusted and adjusted Poisson regression models measured prevalence ratios (PR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) for causes of death. RESULTS: A total of 4158 deceased individuals were included in the analyses: the majority were male (87%), ages 40-59 years old at the time of death (64%), non-Hispanic White (60%), men who have sex with men (54%), had an AIDS diagnosis prior to death (87%), and San Francisco residents at the time of death (63%). Compared to those who were housed, those who were homeless were more likely to be younger at time of death, African American, have a history of injecting drugs, female or transgender, and were living below the poverty level (all p values < 0.0001). Among decedents who were SF residents at the time of death, there were declines in the proportion of deaths due to AIDS-defining conditions (p < 0.05) and increases in accidents, cardiomyopathy, heart disease, ischemic disease, non-AIDS cancers, and drug overdoses (p < 0.05). After adjustment, deaths due to mental disorders (aPR = 1.63, 95% CI 1.24, 2.14) were more likely and deaths due to non-AIDS cancers (aPR = 0.63, 95% CI 0.44, 0.89) were less likely among those experiencing homelessness. CONCLUSIONS: Additional efforts are needed to improve mental health services to homeless people with HIV and prevent mental-health related mortality.


Assuntos
Causas de Morte/tendências , Infecções por HIV/diagnóstico , Pessoas em Situação de Rua/estatística & dados numéricos , Habitação/estatística & dados numéricos , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Feminino , Infecções por HIV/mortalidade , Humanos , Estudos Longitudinais , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , São Francisco/epidemiologia , Adulto Jovem
14.
Psicol. ciênc. prof ; 39(2,n.esp): 87-99, ago.-nov. 2019.
Artigo em Português | LILACS, Index Psicologia - Periódicos técnico-científicos | ID: biblio-1026107

RESUMO

Esse artigo tem por objetivo refletir sobre as possibilidades de contribuição da Psicologia a ações de enfrentamento a práticas violentas, e junto às lutas transversais travadas pelos grupos com os quais trabalhamos. Para tanto, partimos do conceito de lutas transversais de Michel Foucault, entendidas como lutas antiautoritárias e democratizantes que têm por alvo os mecanismos de dominação, exploração e submissão. Entendemos que os saberes psis, ao se colocarem a serviço das lutas transversais, podem servir como ferramentas de análise e enfrentamento a estes mecanismos. Nesse sentido, trazemos duas experiências de pesquisa e extensão realizadas em territórios que se encontravam em meio a processos de remoção, um deles na Comunidade Indiana, no bairro Tijuca, no Rio de Janeiro e o outro na Grande Cruzeiro, em Porto Alegre. Tais análises assumem o caráter de denúncia das violências decorrentes de gestões estatais, dando visibilidade às formas de submissão que operam pela produção do que chamaremos de uma "subjetividade culpada" e pela inscrição das populações alvo das remoções no lugar de não cidadãos, de sujeitos de um não direito. Buscaremos, ainda, evidenciar as articulações entre essas ferramentas de produção de subjetividade e as problemáticas materiais, decorrentes das desigualdades de acesso à moradia e à cidade. Por fim, afirmamos o caráter de resistência presente na compreensão de subjetividade como processo em constante construção e nas possibilidades de produzirmos rupturas nas práticas que encerram determinados modos de habitar e viver nas cidades como mais ou menos legítimos....(AU)


This article aims to reflect on the possibilities of contribution of Psychology to actions to confront violent practices, and the transversal struggles waged by the groups with which we work. To do so, we start from the concept of transverse struggles of Michel Foucault, understood as anti-authoritarian and democratizing struggles that aim at the mechanisms of domination, exploitation and submission. We understand that psis knowledge, when placed in the service of the transversal struggles waged by the groups with which we work, can serve as tools of analysis and coping with these mechanisms. In this sense, in this article, we bring two research and extension experiments carried out in territories that were in the midst of removal processes, one in the Indiana Community, in the Tijuca neighborhood in Rio de Janeiro, and the other in the region of Grande Cruzeiro in Porto Alegre. Such analyses assume the character of denunciation of the violence arising from state management, promoted through the removal processes of Indiana and part of the Grande Cruzeiro, giving visibility to the forms of submission that operate through the production of what we will call a "guilty subjectivity" and by the inscription of the target populations of the removals in the place of non-citizens, of subjects of a non-right, of illegitimate inhabitants of the city. We will also seek, with our analyses, to highlight the articulations between these tools of production of subjectivity and the concrete material problems arising from the inequalities of access to housing and the city. Finally, we affirm the character of resistance present in the understanding of subjectivity as a process in constant construction and in the possibilities of producing ruptures in practices that contain certain ways of living in cities as more or less legitimate....(AU)


Este artículo tiene como objetivo reflexionar sobre las posibilidades de la contribución de la Psicología para hacer frente a las prácticas violentas, y junto con las luchas transversales que libran los grupos con los que trabajamos. Con este fin, partimos del concepto de luchas transversales de Michel Foucault, entendido como luchas antiautoritarias y democratizadoras que apuntan a los mecanismos de dominación, explotación y sumisión. Entendemos que el conocimiento psis, al ponerse al servicio de las luchas transversales, puede servir como herramienta para el análisis y para hacer frente a estos mecanismos. En este sentido, traemos dos experiencias de investigación y extensión llevadas a cabo en territorios que se encontraban en medio de procesos de remoción, una en la Comunidad de Indiana, en el barrio de Tijuca, en Río de Janeiro y la otra en Grande Cruzeiro, en Porto Alegre. Dichos análisis asumen el carácter de denunciar la violencia resultante de la gestión estatal, dando visibilidad a las formas de sumisión que operan produciendo lo que llamaremos una "subjetividad culpable" y por la inscripción de las poblaciones objetivo de los retiros en el lugar de los no ciudadanos, de sujetos de un no derecho. También buscaremos resaltar las articulaciones entre estas herramientas de producción de subjetividad y los problemas materiales que surgen de las desigualdades en el acceso a la vivienda y la ciudad. Finalmente, afirmamos el carácter de resistencia presente en la comprensión de la subjetividad como un proceso en constante construcción y en las posibilidades de producir rupturas en las prácticas que incluyen ciertas formas de vivir y vivir en ciudades como más o menos legítimas....(AU)


Assuntos
Humanos , Propriedade , Psicologia Social , Política Pública , Violência , Dominação-Subordinação , Exploração Social , Habitação , Psicologia , Fatores Socioeconômicos
15.
Health Serv Res ; 54 Suppl 2: 1454-1466, 2019 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31659745

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To examine reported experiences of discrimination against lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender, and queer (LGBTQ) adults in the United States, which broadly contribute to poor health outcomes. DATA SOURCE AND STUDY DESIGN: Data came from a national, probability-based telephone survey of US adults, including 489 LGBTQ adults (282 non-Hispanic whites and 201 racial/ethnic minorities), conducted January-April 2017. METHODS: We calculated the percentages of LGBTQ adults reporting experiences of discrimination in health care and several other domains related to their sexual orientation and, for transgender adults, gender identity. We report these results overall, by race/ethnicity, and among transgender adults only. We used multivariable models to estimate adjusted odds of discrimination between racial/ethnic minority and white LGBTQ respondents. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Experiences of interpersonal discrimination were common for LGBTQ adults, including slurs (57 percent), microaggressions (53 percent), sexual harassment (51 percent), violence (51 percent), and harassment regarding bathroom use (34 percent). More than one in six LGBTQ adults also reported avoiding health care due to anticipated discrimination (18 percent), including 22 percent of transgender adults, while 16 percent of LGBTQ adults reported discrimination in health care encounters. LGBTQ racial/ethnic minorities had statistically significantly higher odds than whites in reporting discrimination based on their LGBTQ identity when applying for jobs, when trying to vote or participate in politics, and interacting with the legal system CONCLUSIONS: Discrimination is widely experienced by LGBTQ adults across health care and other domains, especially among racial/ethnic minorities. Policy and programmatic efforts are needed to reduce these negative experiences and their health impact on sexual and/or gender minority adults, particularly those who experience compounded forms of discrimination.


Assuntos
Disparidades em Assistência à Saúde , Assédio Sexual , Minorias Sexuais e de Gênero/estatística & dados numéricos , Adolescente , Adulto , Feminino , Disparidades em Assistência à Saúde/etnologia , Disparidades em Assistência à Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Habitação , Humanos , Masculino , Assédio Sexual/etnologia , Assédio Sexual/estatística & dados numéricos , Minorias Sexuais e de Gênero/psicologia , Inquéritos e Questionários , Telefone , Estados Unidos , Adulto Jovem
16.
Malar J ; 18(1): 345, 2019 Oct 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31601226

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Malaria is a public health problem in the Brazilian Amazon region. In integrated vector management for malaria (anopheline) control, indoor residual spraying (IRS) represents one of the main tools in the basic strategy applied in the Amazonian states. It is essential to understand the residual efficacy of insecticides on different surfaces to determine spray cycles, ensure their rational use, and prevent wastage. This study aimed to evaluate the residual efficacy of six insecticide formulations used in the National Malaria Control Programme on four different types of walls in a field simulation at a "test house". METHODS: The tests were performed as a field-simulating evaluation at a "test house" built in the municipality of Macapá. Six insecticide formulations comprising four pyrethroids, a carbamate, and an organophosphate were used, and evaluated when applied on different wall surfaces: painted wood, unpainted wood, plastered cement, and unplastered cement. The insecticides were applied to the interior walls of the "test house" by a trained technician. RESULTS: In the bioassays performed with pyrethroids, deltamethrin water-dispersible granules (WG) performed particularly well, presenting residual bioefficacy of 8 months on both wood surfaces after the IRS, whereas alpha-cypermethrin suspension concentrate (SC) and etofenprox wettable powder (WP) demonstrated residual bioefficacy of 4 months on at least one of the wood surfaces; however, the pyrethroid lambda-cyhalothrin WP showed a low residual bioefficacy (< 3 months) on all tested surfaces, demonstrating its inefficiency for areas with a long transmission cycle of malaria. For the carbamate-bendiocarb WP, residual bioefficacy for 3 months was achieved only on wood surfaces. In general, the organophosphate pirimifos-methyl capsule suspension (CS) demonstrated the best result, with a mortality rate < 80% over a period of 6 months on all surfaces tested. CONCLUSION: Insecticide efficiency varies among different types of surface; therefore, a "test house" is a valuable evaluation tool. This work highlights the usefulness of associating the residual efficacy of insecticides on the surfaces commonly found in houses in endemic areas, together with knowledge about the transmission cycle duration of the transmission cycle and the insecticide susceptibility of the vector. This association helps in the decision-making for the malaria control intervention regarding.


Assuntos
Anopheles , Inseticidas , Malária/prevenção & controle , Controle de Mosquitos , Mosquitos Vetores , Animais , Brasil , Habitação
18.
Forensic Sci Int ; 304: 109971, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31610332

RESUMO

In November 2016, whilst in draft, the New Zealand Standard (NZS8510:2017) for the "Testing and Decontamination of Methamphetamine-Contaminated Properties" considered two acceptable post-decontamination re-occupancy methamphetamine levels; 1.5µg/100cm2 if the contamination was caused by smoking methamphetamine and 0.5µg/100cm2 if the contamination was caused by the manufacture of methamphetamine. In response to this, research carried out at this laboratory included the analysis of data obtained from over a thousand pre-decontamination property test reports with the aim of understanding the variation in the levels of contamination, that could be expected, among the wider New Zealand (contaminated) housing stock. The vast majority of the reports originated from public sector agency properties where methamphetamine was suspected to have been used. Although it could not be ruled-out, none of the properties had been associated with any suspicion of drug production. Thus, a further intention of the study was to assess and portray the levels of contamination that would be expected to be produced through methamphetamine use, commonly smoking. As such, it is expected that the data might be useful from an environmental exposure perspective and inform further research in this area. The assessment also discusses its potential as evidence in criminal cases where there may be discrepancies concerning the source of the methamphetamine contamination in relation to "Use of premises" and associated charges under Section 12 of the Misuse of Drugs Act (New Zealand) 1975. Regardless, the final New Zealand standard, released in June 2017, set a single decontamination level for 'high-use areas' of 1.5µg/100cm2 and a less stringent decontamination level for 'limited-use areas' of 3.8µg/100cm2, with no requirement to determine the origin of the contamination.


Assuntos
Estimulantes do Sistema Nervoso Central/análise , Tráfico de Drogas , Substâncias Perigosas/análise , Habitação , Metanfetamina/análise , Humanos , Nova Zelândia
19.
J Environ Manage ; 252: 109659, 2019 Dec 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31610447

RESUMO

This study scrutinizes the impacts of efficiency innovations as well as affluence on residential energy consumption, which is a major driver of greenhouse gas emissions. The study draws on the ecological-modernization perspective, which is optimistic about how technological innovations and affluence can help societies overcome environmental challenges associated with production and consumption, and the political-economy perspective, which raises doubts about whether these factors are beneficial to the environment, given their tendency to drive more consumption. Analysis of nationally representative longitudinal data reveals mixed relationships between efficiency innovations and residential energy consumption: while some measures of efficiency innovations, generally those not requiring human-technology interactions, are negatively related to residential energy consumption, others are either unrelated to it or drive more consumption. These findings suggest efficiency innovations offer only minimal opportunities for conserving energy, and may depend on the nature of the innovation. Raising doubts about the potential for rising affluence to promote environmental protection, this study reveals positive relationships between our measures of affluence and residential energy consumption.


Assuntos
Conservação dos Recursos Naturais , Habitação , Eficiência , Humanos , Mudança Social , Tecnologia
20.
Malar J ; 18(1): 335, 2019 Oct 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31570107

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The decline in malaria cases and vectors is major milestone in fighting against malaria. The efficacy of MAGNet long-lasting insecticidal nets (MAGNet LLIN), an alpha-cypermethrin incorporated long-lasting net, with the target dose ± 25% of 5.8 g active ingredient (AI)/kg (4.35-7.25 g AI/kg) was evaluated in six veranda-trap experimental huts in Muheza, Tanzania against freely flying wild population of Anopheles funestus. METHODS: MAGNet LLINs were tested against wild, free-flying, host-seeking An. funestus mosquitoes over a period of 6 weeks (total of 36 nights in the huts). MAGNet LLIN efficacy was determined in terms of mosquito mortality, blood-feeding inhibition, deterrence, induced exiting, personal protection, and insecticidal killing over 20 washes according to WHO standardized procedures. Efficacy was compared with reference to a WHOPES recommended approved LLINs (DuraNet) and to a net conventionally treated (CTN) treated with alpha-cypermethrin at WHO-recommended dose and washed to just before cut-off point. The efficacy of MAGNet was evaluated in experimental huts against wild, free-flying, pyrethroid-resistant An. funestus. The WHO-susceptibility method was used to detect resistance in wild Anopheles exposed to 0.75% permethrin. Mosquito mortality, blood-feeding inhibition and personal protection were compared between untreated nets and standard LLINs. Blood-feeding rates were recorded and compared between the 20 times washed; blood-feeding rates between 20 times washed MAGNet LLIN and 20 times washed WHOPES-approved piperonyl butoxide (PBO)/pyrethroid were not statistically different (p > 0.05). RESULTS: The results have evidently shown that MAGNet LLIN provides similar blood-feeding inhibition, exophily, mortality, and deterrence to the standard approved LLIN, thus meeting the WHOPES criteria for blood feeding. The significantly high feeding inhibition and personal protection over pyrethroid-resistant An. funestus recorded by both unwashed and 20 times washed MAGNet compared to the unwashed DuraNet, the WHOPES-approved standard pyrethroid-only LLIN provides proof of MAGNet meeting Phase II WHOPES criteria for a LLIN. CONCLUSION: Based on this study, MAGNet has been shown to have a promising impact on protection when 20 times washed against a highly resistant population of An. funestus.


Assuntos
Anopheles , Mosquiteiros Tratados com Inseticida , Inseticidas , Lavanderia , Piretrinas , Animais , Habitação , Resistência a Inseticidas , Controle de Mosquitos/instrumentação , Tanzânia
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