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1.
AIDS Behav ; 25(5): 1366-1372, 2021 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33738698

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Our study describes changes in HIV care service delivery and continuity of HIV antiretroviral therapy (ART) for people living with HIV (PLHIV) during the 8 weeks before and after diagnosis of the first coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) cases in Haiti on March 19, 2020. METHODS: Using data from 96 out of 167 health facilities offering ART services, we compared four ART program indicators: (1) count of HIV visits; (2) proportion of ART dispenses in community-based settings (DAC); (3) proportion of multi-month dispensing of ART medications > 6 months (> 6 m MMD); and (4) proportion of timely ART refills. We used uncontrolled interrupted time series (ITS) models to estimate slope and level changes in each indicator with the arrival of COVID-19. RESULTS AND DISCUSSION: From week 1 to week 16, the average number of HIV visits fell from 121.5 to 92.5 visits, the proportion of DAC rose from 22.7% to 36.7%, the proportion of > 6 m MMD rose from 29.4% to 48.4%, and the proportion of timely ART refills fell from 51.9% to 43.8%. The ITS models estimated abrupt increases of 36% in > 6 m MMD (p < 0.001) and 37% in DAC (p < 0.001) at the time of COVID-19 arrival, and no change after arrival of COVID-19. The was an abrupt decline of 18% in timely ART refills with the arrival of COVID-19 and a decline of 1% per week thereafter, both non-statistically significant changes. CONCLUSIONS: The sudden changes in HIV service utilization represent dramatic adaptations needed to mitigate primary and secondary effects of the COVID-19 pandemic on PLHIV. This study underscores the urgency of optimizing ART delivery models in Haiti and beyond, in order to maintain progress toward HIV epidemic control.


Assuntos
Fármacos Anti-HIV , Infecções por HIV , Fármacos Anti-HIV/uso terapêutico , Infecções por HIV/tratamento farmacológico , Infecções por HIV/epidemiologia , Haiti/epidemiologia , Humanos , Pandemias
2.
Biol Lett ; 17(3): 20200760, 2021 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33726563

RESUMO

Worldwide decline in biodiversity during the Holocene has impeded a comprehensive understanding of pre-human biodiversity and biogeography. This is especially true on islands, because many recently extinct island taxa were morphologically unique, complicating assessment of their evolutionary relationships using morphology alone. The Caribbean remains an avian hotspot but was more diverse before human arrival in the Holocene. Among the recently extinct lineages is the enigmatic genus Nesotrochis, comprising three flightless species. Based on morphology, Nesotrochis has been considered an aberrant rail (Rallidae) or related to flufftails (Sarothruridae). We recovered a nearly complete mitochondrial genome of Nesotrochis steganinos from fossils, discovering that it is not a rallid but instead is sister to Sarothruridae, volant birds now restricted to Africa and New Guinea, and the recently extinct, flightless Aptornithidae of New Zealand. This result suggests a widespread or highly dispersive most recent common ancestor of the group. Prior to human settlement, the Caribbean avifauna had a far more cosmopolitan origin than is evident from extant species.


Assuntos
DNA Antigo , Extinção Biológica , África , Animais , Região do Caribe , DNA Mitocondrial/genética , Fósseis , Haiti , Humanos , Ilhas , Nova Zelândia , Filogenia
3.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33670949

RESUMO

Child domestic work (CDW) is a hidden form of child labour. Globally, there were an estimated 17.2 million CDWs aged 5-17 in 2012, but there has been little critical analysis of methods and survey instruments used to capture prevalence of CDW. This rapid systematic review identified and critically reviewed the measurement tools used to estimate CDWs in Low- and Middle-Income Countries, following PRISMA guidelines (PROSPERO registration: CRD42019148702). Fourteen studies were included. In nationally representative surveys, CDW prevalence ranged from 17% among 13-24-year-old females in Haiti to 2% of children aged 10-17 in Brazil. Two good quality studies and one good quality measurement tool were identified. CDW prevalence was assessed using occupation-based methods (n = 9/14), household roster (n = 7) and industry methods (n = 4). Six studies combined approaches. Four studies included task-based questions; one study used this method to formally calculate prevalence. The task-based study estimated 30,000 more CDWs compared to other methods. CDWs are probably being undercounted, based on current standard measurement approaches. We recommend use of more sensitive, task-based methods for inclusion in household surveys. The cognitive and pilot testing of newly developed task-based questions is essential to ensure comprehension. In analyses, researchers should consider CDWs who may be disguised as distant or non-relatives.


Assuntos
Família , Adolescente , Adulto , Brasil/epidemiologia , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Feminino , Haiti , Humanos , Prevalência , Inquéritos e Questionários , Adulto Jovem
4.
RECIIS (Online) ; 15(1): 249-267, jan.-mar. 2021. ilus
Artigo em Português | LILACS | ID: biblio-1177454

RESUMO

Com a globalização, os fluxos migratórios intensificaram-se e as razões financeiras são umas das principais impulsionadoras de tais eventos. As populações migrantes têm diferentes necessidades, sendo o acesso à saúde algo primordial para garantir a qualidade de vida. Assim, este estudo objetivou analisar a produção científica sobre atenção à saúde de imigrantes internacionais haitianos em diferentes contextos e países, buscando compreender quais são os desafios e as perspectivas para a atenção à saúde dessa população nos contextos investigados. Trata-se de uma Revisão Integrativa de Literatura, realizada a partir de pesquisas nas bases Sistema Online de Busca e Análise de Literatura Médica (Medline/PubMed) e Scientific Electronic Library Online (SciELO), com os descritores padronizados 'Health Care' ('Public Health'), 'Haiti' e 'Emigrants and Immigrants', combinados por meio do operador booleano AND. Selecionaram-se artigos publicados no período de 2015 a 2019 que fossem em português, inglês ou espanhol e que tratassem desse tema. A partir da análise dos artigos, identificaram-se três categorias de análise temática: Impactos das regulamentações imigratórias na integração dos imigrantes haitianos; Competência intercultural para a atenção à saúde de imigrantes haitianos; e Condições de saúde e acesso a serviços por imigrantes haitianos. Destaca-se a importância da inclusão de aspectos políticos interculturais nas políticas de saúde voltadas à atenção à saúde do imigrante.


With globalization, migration flows have intensified and financial reasons are one of the main drivers of these events. Migrant populations have different needs, and access to health is essential to ensure their quality of life. Accordingly, this study aimed to analyze the scientific production on health care of international Haitian immigrants in different contexts and countries, seeking to understand what are the challenges and perspectives for the health care of this population in the investigated contexts. This is an Integrative Literature Review, performed from searches in the Medical Literature Analysis and Retrieval System Online (Medline/PubMed) and Scientific Electronic Library Online (SciELO), with the standardized descriptors 'Health Care' ('Public Health'), 'Haiti' and 'Emigrants and Immigrants', combined through the Boolean operator AND. We selected articles published in the period 2015-2019, in Portuguese, English or Spanish, that dealt with this theme. From the analysis of the articles, we identified three categories of thematic analysis: Impacts of immigration regulations on the integration of Haitian immigrants; Intercultural competency for the health care for Haitian immigrants; and Health conditions and access to services by Haitian immigrants. We should highlight the importance of including intercultural political aspects in health policies focused on the health care for immigrants.


Con la globalización, los flujos migratorios se han intensificado y las razones financieras son uno de los principales impulsores de tales eventos. Las poblaciones migrantes tienen diferentes necesidades, siendo el acceso a la salud fundamental para garantizar la calidad de vida. Así, este estudio tuvo como objetivo analizar la producción científica en salud de inmigrantes haitianos internacionales en diferentes contextos y países, buscando comprender cuáles son los desafíos y perspectivas para la atención de la salud de esta población en los contextos investigados. Se trata de una Revisión Integrativa de Literatura, realizada a partir de la investigación del Sistema de Análisis y Búsqueda de Literatura Médica en Línea (Medline / PubMed) y Biblioteca Electrónica Científica en Línea (SciELO), con los descriptores estandarizados 'Health Care' ('Salud Pública'), 'Haití' y 'Emigrantes e inmigrantes', combinados a través del operador booleano AND. Se seleccionaron artículos publicados en el período de 2015 a 2019 que estuvieran en portugués, inglés o español y abordaran este tema. Del análisis de los artículos se identificaron tres categorías de análisis temático: Impactos de las regulaciones migratorias en la integración de inmigrantes haitianos; Competencia intercultural para la atención de la salud de los inmigrantes haitianos; y Condiciones de salud y acceso a servicios de inmigrantes haitianos. Se destaca la importancia de incluir aspectos políticos interculturales en las políticas de salud dirigidas a la atención de la salud de los inmigrantes.


Assuntos
Humanos , Política Pública , Emigração e Imigração , Competência Cultural , Assistência à Saúde Culturalmente Competente , Haiti , Literatura de Revisão como Assunto , Vulnerabilidade Social , Saúde do Viajante , Necessidades e Demandas de Serviços de Saúde
5.
BMJ Case Rep ; 14(1)2021 Jan 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33509855

RESUMO

Infection by human T-lymphotropic virus 1 (HTLV-1) is often seen as the cause of chronic infection or lymphoproliferative disorders, but many clinicians do not recognise its association with severe immunosuppression. We report the case of a woman in her 70s from the Caribbean who sought care at the emergency department for weakness, fatigue and weight loss. Further work-up showed atypical lymphocytosis with floral lymphocytes and smudge cells in the peripheral blood smear and hypercalcaemia. Chest CT demonstrated a moderate right pleural effusion. Results of HIV testing were negative, and screening and confirmatory tests for HTLV-1 were positive. Empiric antibiotic therapy was administered, and the patient was discharged home. Five days later, she was readmitted with shortness of breath and severe abdominal pain. A disseminated infection with Cryptococcus neoformans was diagnosed. Despite aggressive intravenous antifungal therapy, the patient died on day 7 of hospitalisation.


Assuntos
Criptococose/diagnóstico , Infecções por HTLV-I/diagnóstico , Infecções Fúngicas Invasivas/diagnóstico , Leucemia-Linfoma de Células T do Adulto/diagnóstico , Idoso , Antifúngicos/uso terapêutico , Ascite/diagnóstico por imagem , Criptococose/complicações , Criptococose/tratamento farmacológico , Emigrantes e Imigrantes , Evolução Fatal , Feminino , Infecções por HTLV-I/complicações , Haiti/etnologia , Vírus Linfotrópico T Tipo 1 Humano , Humanos , Infecções Fúngicas Invasivas/complicações , Infecções Fúngicas Invasivas/tratamento farmacológico , Leucemia-Linfoma de Células T do Adulto/complicações , Linfadenopatia/diagnóstico por imagem , Derrame Pleural/diagnóstico por imagem
6.
Psychiatry Res ; 297: 113714, 2021 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33453497

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Currently, there is little data on the mental health consequences of the COVID-19 pandemic in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs). This study aims to examine the pooled and separate prevalence and determinants of depression during the pandemic in samples from four LMICs. METHODS: Participants (N= 1267, 40.9% women) were recruited from the Democratic Republic of the Congo (DRC), Haiti, Rwanda, and Togo. They completed an online cross-sectional survey on sociodemographics, exposure and stigmatization related to COVID-19, the Hopkins Symptom Checklist depression subscale, and the Connor-Davidson Resilience Scale-2. RESULTS: The pooled prevalence for depression symptoms was 24.3% (95% CI: 22.08-26.79%), with significant differences across countries. Younger age, gender (women), and high levels of exposure and stigmatization related to COVIID-19, and resilience were associated with depression in the pooled data. There were significant variations at the country level. Stigmatization (but not exposure to COVID-19 and resilience) was a strong predictor among the four countries. CONCLUSIONS: The prevalence of depression symptoms in the LMICs are similar to those reported in China and in most high-income countries during the pandemic. The findings emphasize the need for implementing non-fear-based education programs during epidemics to reduce stigmatization.


Assuntos
Ansiedade/epidemiologia , Depressão/epidemiologia , Estigma Social , Adulto , Ansiedade/psicologia , Estudos Transversais , República Democrática do Congo/epidemiologia , Escolaridade , Feminino , Haiti/epidemiologia , Humanos , Renda , Masculino , Saúde Mental , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Pandemias , Pobreza , Prevalência , Ruanda/epidemiologia , Estereotipagem , Togo , Adulto Jovem
7.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33430401

RESUMO

Based on the work-family enrichment theory, this study analyzes the contribution of work-family and family-work enrichment to explain the military's well-being during a peacekeeping mission. The data used were collected in a sample of 306 Brazilian soldiers, who were married and/or had children, during the phase named "employment of troops" (i.e., when peacekeepers had been in the Haitian territory and, as a result, away from their families, for between three to five months). Data analysis was performed using the Structural Equations Model. It was observed that the military's perception of their spouses' support for their participation during the mission had a positive relationship with both family-to-work enrichment and work-to-family enrichment, and the work-to-family enrichment mediated the relationship between the perception of the spouses' support and the military's health perception and general satisfaction with life. Theoretical and practical implications were discussed and limitations and suggestions for future research were presented.


Assuntos
Militares , Brasil , Criança , Emprego , Haiti , Humanos , Psicologia Positiva , Cônjuges
8.
J Psychiatr Res ; 132: 13-17, 2021 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33035760

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Studies have documented the significant direct and indirect psychological, social, and economic consequences of the Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) in many countries but little is known on its impact in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs) already facing difficult living conditions and having vulnerable health systems that create anxiety among the affected populations. Using a multinational convenience sample from four LMICs (DR Congo, Haiti, Rwanda, and Togo), this study aims to explore the prevalence of anxiety symptoms and associated risk and protective factors during the COVID-19 pandemic. METHODS: A total of 1267 individuals (40.8% of women) completed a questionnaire assessing exposure and stigmatization related to COVID-19, anxiety, and resilience. Analyses were performed to examine the prevalence and predictors of anxiety. RESULTS: Findings showed a pooled prevalence of 24.3% (9.4%, 29.2%, 28.5%, and 16.5% respectively for Togo, Haiti, RDC, and Rwanda, x2 = 32.6, p < .0001). For the pooled data, exposure to COVID-19 (ß = 0.06, p = .005), stigmatization related to COVID-19 (ß = 0.03, p < .001), and resilience (ß = -0.06, p < .001) contributed to the prediction of anxiety scores. Stigmatization related to COVID-19 was significantly associated to anxiety symptoms in all countries (ß = 0.02, p < .00; ß = 0.05, p = .013; ß = 0.03, p = .021; ß = 0.04, p < .001, respectively for the RDC, Rwanda, Haiti, and Togo). CONCLUSIONS: The findings highlight the need for health education programs in LMICs to decrease stigmatization and the related fears and anxieties, and increase observance of health instructions. Strength-based mental health programs based on cultural and contextual factors need to be developed to reinforce both individual and community resilience and to address the complexities of local eco-systems.


Assuntos
Ansiedade/epidemiologia , Países em Desenvolvimento/estatística & dados numéricos , Conhecimentos, Atitudes e Prática em Saúde , Resiliência Psicológica , Estigma Social , Adulto , Ansiedade/etiologia , Congo/epidemiologia , Feminino , Haiti/epidemiologia , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Prevalência , Fatores de Proteção , Fatores de Risco , Ruanda/epidemiologia , Togo/epidemiologia
9.
PLoS One ; 15(12): e0243457, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33315898

RESUMO

A widening evidence base across low- and middle-income countries (LMICs) points towards mutually reinforcing linkages between poverty and mental health problems. The use of validated and culturally relevant measures of mental health outcomes is crucial to the expansion of evidence. At present, there is a paucity of measures that have been tested and validated in contexts of extreme poverty. Using data from adult women living in extreme poverty in rural Haiti this study assesses the cross-cultural validity of the widely used Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale (RSES) and its applicability in assessing linkages between poverty and mental health outcomes. We find no evidence for a one-dimensional 10-factor structure of the RSES within our data and agree with other authors that the standard self-esteem model does not fit well in this cultural context. Comparisons with another widely used measure of mental health-the K6 measure-indicate that the RSES cannot be used as a proxy for mental health outcomes. We conclude that the use of the RSES in different cultural contexts and with samples with different socioeconomic characteristics should be undertaken with caution; and that greater consideration of the validity of psychosocial constructs and their measurement is vital for gaining robust and replicable insights into breaking the cycle between poverty and mental health problems.


Assuntos
Saúde Mental , Psicometria/métodos , Autoimagem , Adulto , Feminino , Haiti , Humanos , Masculino , Pobreza , População Rural , Inquéritos e Questionários
10.
Artigo em Inglês | PAHO-IRIS | ID: phr-53012

RESUMO

[ABSTRACT]. Objective. To assess coverage and inequalities in maternal and child health interventions among Haitians, Haitian migrants in the Dominican Republic and Dominicans. Methods. Cross-sectional study using data from nationally representative surveys carried out in Haiti in 2012 and in the Dominican Republic in 2014. Nine indicators were compared: demand for family planning satisfied with modern methods, antenatal care, delivery care (skilled birth attendance), child vaccination (BCG, measles and DPT3), child case management (oral rehydration salts for diarrhea and careseeking for suspected pneumonia), and the composite coverage index. Wealth was measured through an asset-based index, divided into tertiles, and place of residence (urban or rural) was established according to the country definition. Results. Haitians showed the lowest coverage for demand for family planning satisfied with modern methods (44.2%), antenatal care (65.3%), skilled birth attendance (39.5%) and careseeking for suspected pneumonia (37.9%), and the highest for oral rehydration salts for diarrhea (52.9%), whereas Haitian migrants had the lowest coverage in DPT3 (44.1%) and oral rehydration salts for diarrhea (38%) and the highest in careseeking for suspected pneumonia (80.7%). Dominicans presented the highest coverage for most indicators, except oral rehydration salts for diarrhea and careseeking for suspected pneumonia. The composite coverage index was 79.2% for Dominicans, 69.0% for Haitian migrants, and 52.6% for Haitians. Socioeconomic inequalities generally had pro-rich and pro-urban pattern in all analyzed groups. Conclusion. Haitian migrants presented higher coverage than Haitians, but lower than Dominicans. Both countries should plan actions and policies to increase coverage and address inequalities of maternal health interventions.


[RESUMEN]. Objetivo. Evaluar la cobertura y las desigualdades en las intervenciones de salud maternoinfantil entre haitianos, migrantes haitianos en la República Dominicana y dominicanos. Métodos. Estudio transversal con datos de encuestas representativas a nivel nacional realizadas en Haití en 2012 y en la República Dominicana en 2014. Se compararon nueve indicadores: demanda de planificación familiar satisfecha con métodos modernos, atención prenatal, atención del parto (por personal de salud calificado), vacunación infantil (BCG, sarampión y DPT3), gestión de casos de enfermedad en la infancia (administración de sales de rehidratación oral para la diarrea y búsqueda de atención sanitaria ante la sospecha de neumonía), e índice de cobertura compuesto. La riqueza se midió mediante un índice basado en los activos, dividido en terciles, y el lugar de residencia (urbano o rural) se determinó según la definición del país. Resultados. La población haitiana mostró la menor cobertura respecto de la demanda de planificación familiar satisfecha con métodos modernos (44,2%), atención prenatal (65,3%), asistencia calificada en el parto (39,5%) y búsqueda de atención sanitaria ante la sospecha de neumonía (37,9%), y la mayor respecto de la administración de sales de rehidratación oral para la diarrea (52,9%); los migrantes haitianos presentaron la menor cobertura en DPT3 (44,1%) y la administración de sales de rehidratación oral para la diarrea (38%) y la mayor en la búsqueda de atención sanitaria ante la sospecha de neumonía (80,7%). La población dominicana presentó la cobertura más alta en la mayoría de los indicadores, excepto en la administración de sales de rehidratación oral para la diarrea y en la búsqueda de atención sanitaria ante la sospecha de neumonía. El índice de cobertura compuesto fue de 79,2% para los dominicanos, 69,0% para los migrantes haitianos y 52,6% para los haitianos. Las desigualdades socioeconómicas generalmente tenían un patrón prorrico y prourbano en todos los grupos analizados. Conclusión. Los migrantes haitianos en la República Dominicana presentaron una mayor cobertura que la población haitiana residente en Haití, pero menor que la población dominicana. Ambos países deberían planificar acciones y políticas para aumentar la cobertura y abordar las desigualdades existentes en las intervenciones de salud materna.


Assuntos
Migração Humana , Saúde Materna , Saúde da Criança , Disparidades em Assistência à Saúde , Haiti , República Dominicana , Migração Humana , Saúde Materna , Saúde da Criança , Disparidades em Assistência à Saúde , Haiti , República Dominicana
11.
Neurology ; 95(19): e2605-e2609, 2020 11 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33004606

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Asylum seekers experience a high burden of physical and psychological trauma, yet there is a scarcity of literature regarding the epidemiology and sequelae of head injury (HI) in asylum seekers. We examined HI prevalence and association with neuropsychiatric comorbidities in asylum seekers. METHODS: A retrospective cross-sectional study was performed through review of 139 medical affidavits from an affidavit database. Affidavits written from 2010 to 2018 were included. Demographic and case-related data were collected and classified based on the presence of HI. For neuropsychiatric sequelae, the primary study outcome was headache and the secondary outcomes were depression, posttraumatic stress disorder, and anxiety. Multivariable logistic regression was performed to examine the association between HI and neuropsychiatric sequelae, adjusted for demographic and clinical characteristics. RESULTS: A total of 139 medical affidavits of asylum seekers were included. The mean age was 27.4 ± 12.1 years, 56.8% were female, and 38.8% were <19 years. Almost half (42.5%) explicitly self-reported history of HI. Compared to clients who did not report HI, clients with HI were older and more likely to report a history of headache, physical abuse, physical trauma, concussion, and loss of consciousness. After adjustment for demographic and clinical characteristics, clients with HI had greater odds for neuropsychological sequelae such as headache (odds ratio [OR] 4.2, 95% confidence interval [CI] 2.0-8.7) and depression (OR 2.5, 95% CI 1.1-5.7). CONCLUSIONS: We observed a high prevalence of HI in asylum seekers. Comprehensive screening for HI and neuropsychiatric comorbidities is encouraged when evaluating asylum seekers.


Assuntos
Ansiedade/epidemiologia , Traumatismos Craniocerebrais/epidemiologia , Depressão/epidemiologia , Cefaleia/epidemiologia , Refugiados/estatística & dados numéricos , Transtornos de Estresse Pós-Traumáticos/epidemiologia , Violência/estatística & dados numéricos , Adolescente , Adulto , Ansiedade/psicologia , Concussão Encefálica/epidemiologia , Concussão Encefálica/psicologia , Traumatismos Craniocerebrais/psicologia , Estudos Transversais , Depressão/psicologia , El Salvador/etnologia , Feminino , Guatemala/etnologia , Haiti/etnologia , Cefaleia/psicologia , Honduras/etnologia , Humanos , Masculino , Transtornos da Memória/epidemiologia , Transtornos da Memória/psicologia , México/etnologia , Nicarágua/etnologia , Razão de Chances , Questionário de Saúde do Paciente , Prevalência , Trauma Psicológico/epidemiologia , Trauma Psicológico/psicologia , Refugiados/psicologia , Estudos Retrospectivos , Distribuição por Sexo , Delitos Sexuais/psicologia , Delitos Sexuais/estatística & dados numéricos , Distúrbios do Início e da Manutenção do Sono/epidemiologia , Distúrbios do Início e da Manutenção do Sono/psicologia , Transtornos de Estresse Pós-Traumáticos/psicologia , Inconsciência/epidemiologia , Inconsciência/psicologia , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia , Ferimentos e Lesões/epidemiologia , Ferimentos e Lesões/psicologia , Adulto Jovem
12.
Zootaxa ; 4768(3): zootaxa.4768.3.6, 2020 May 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33055650

RESUMO

Limia mandibularis, a new livebearing fish of the family Poeciliidae is described from Lake Miragoane in southwestern Haiti on Hispaniola. The new species differs from all other species in the genus Limia by the presence of a well-developed lower jaw, the absence of preorbital and preopercular pores, and preorbital and preopercular canals forming an open groove each. The description of this new Limia species from Lake Miragoane confirms this lake as an important center of endemism for the genus with a total of nine described species so far.


Assuntos
Ciprinodontiformes , Animais , Haiti , Lagos
13.
Artigo em Inglês | PAHO-IRIS | ID: phr-52938

RESUMO

[ABSTRACT]. Objective. To investigate the magnitude and distribution of the main causes of death, disability, and risk factors in Haiti. Methods. We conducted an ecological analysis, using data estimated from the Global Burden of Disease Study 2017 for the period 1990-2017, to present life expectancy (LE), healthy life expectancy (HALE) at under 1-year-old, cause-specific deaths, years of life lost (YLLs), years lived with disability (YLDs), disability adjusted life-years (DALYs), and risk factors associated with DALYs. Results. LE and HALE increased substantially in Haiti. People may hope to live longer in 2017, but in poor health. The Caribbean countries had significantly lower YLLs rates than Haiti for ischemic heart disease, stroke, lower respiratory infections, and diarrheal diseases. Road injuries were the leading cause of DALYs for people aged 5-14 years. Road injuries and HIV/AIDS were the leading causes of DALYs for men and women aged 15-49 years, respectively. Ischemic heart disease was the main cause of DALYs for people older than 50 years. Maternal and child malnutrition were the leading risk factors for DALYs in both sexes. Conclusion. Haiti faces a double burden of disease. Infectious diseases continue to be an issue, while non-communicable diseases have become a significant burden of disease. More attention must also be focused on the increase in worrying public health issues such as road injuries, exposure to forces of nature and HIV/AIDS in specific age groups. To address the burden of disease, sustained actions are needed to promote better health in Haiti and countries with similar challenges.


[RESUMEN]. Objetivo. Investigar la magnitud y la distribución de las principales causas de muerte, discapacidad y factores de riesgo en Haití. Métodos. Se llevó a cabo un análisis ecológico con datos estimados a partir del estudio Carga Global de Morbilidad 2017 para el período 1990-2017 para presentar la esperanza de vida (LE), la esperanza de vida saludable (HALE), la mortalidad por causas específicas, los años de vida perdidos (YLL), los años vividos con discapacidad (YLD), los años de vida ajustados por discapacidad (DALY), y los factores de riesgo asociados a los DALY. Resultados. La LE y la HALE aumentaron sustancialmente en Haití. En 2017, la población puede esperar vivir más, pero con mala salud. Los países del Caribe tuvieron tasas de YLL significativamente más bajas que Haití en cuanto a cardiopatías isquémicas, accidentes cerebrovasculares, infecciones respiratorias bajas y enfermedades diarreicas. Las lesiones debidas a accidentes de tránsito fueron la principal causa de DALY para las personas de 5 a 14 años. Las lesiones debidas a accidentes de tránsito y el VIH/sida fueron las principales causas de DALY en hombres y mujeres de 15 a 49 años de edad, respectivamente. Las cardiopatías isquémicas fueron la principal causa de DALY para las personas mayores de 50 años. Las desnutriciones materna e infantil fueron los principales factores de riesgo de DALY en ambos sexos. Conclusión. Haití se enfrenta a una doble carga de enfermedad. Las enfermedades infecciosas siguen siendo un problema, mientras que las enfermedades no transmisibles se han convertido en una carga significativa de enfermedad. También debe prestarse más atención al aumento de problemas de salud pública preocupantes, como las lesiones por accidentes de tránsito, la exposición a fenómenos naturales y el VIH/sida en grupos etarios específicos. Para hacer frente a la carga de morbilidad es necesario adoptar medidas sostenidas para promover una mejor salud en Haití y en los países con desafíos similares.


Assuntos
Expectativa de Vida , Morte , Mortalidade , Anos Potenciais de Vida Perdidos , Pessoas com Deficiência , Haiti , Expectativa de Vida , Morte , Mortalidade , Anos Potenciais de Vida Perdidos , Pessoas com Deficiência , Haiti
15.
Am J Trop Med Hyg ; 103(5): 1986-1988, 2020 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32978934

RESUMO

The COVID-19 pandemic poses a unique threat to patients with multidrug-resistant tuberculosis (MDR-TB). We describe a case of a patient with pulmonary MDR-TB and COVID-19 in Port-au-Prince, Haiti, and highlight the challenges and approach to managing a patient with both diseases.


Assuntos
Betacoronavirus , Infecções por Coronavirus/complicações , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Pneumonia Viral/complicações , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Tuberculose Resistente a Múltiplos Medicamentos/complicações , Tuberculose Resistente a Múltiplos Medicamentos/epidemiologia , Adulto , Haiti/epidemiologia , Humanos , Masculino , Pandemias
17.
PLoS Negl Trop Dis ; 14(8): e0008661, 2020 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32866145

RESUMO

Household spraying is a commonly implemented, yet an under-researched, cholera response intervention where a response team sprays surfaces in cholera patients' houses with chlorine. We conducted mixed-methods evaluations of three household spraying programs in the Democratic Republic of Congo and Haiti, including 18 key informant interviews, 14 household surveys and observations, and 418 surface samples collected before spraying, 30 minutes and 24 hours after spraying. The surfaces consistently most contaminated with Vibrio cholerae were food preparation areas, near the patient's bed and the latrine. Effectiveness varied between programs, with statistically significant reductions in V. cholerae concentrations 30 minutes after spraying in two programs. Surface contamination after 24 hours was variable between households and programs. Program challenges included difficulty locating households, transportation and funding limitations, and reaching households quickly after case presentation (disinfection occurred 2-6 days after reported cholera onset). Program advantages included the concurrent deployment of hygiene promotion activities. Further research is indicated on perception, recontamination, cost-effectiveness, viable but nonculturable V. cholerae, and epidemiological coverage. We recommend that, if spraying is implemented, spraying agents should: disinfect surfaces systematically until wet using 0.2/2.0% chlorine solution, including kitchen spaces, patients' beds, and latrines; arrive at households quickly; and, concurrently deploy hygiene promotion activities.


Assuntos
Cólera/epidemiologia , Cólera/prevenção & controle , Desinfecção/métodos , Características da Família , Cloro , Congo/epidemiologia , Surtos de Doenças/prevenção & controle , Feminino , Haiti/epidemiologia , Conhecimentos, Atitudes e Prática em Saúde , Humanos , Masculino , Inquéritos e Questionários , Toaletes , Vibrio cholerae
18.
Psychol Trauma ; 12(6): 569-571, 2020 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32816516

RESUMO

In the 1st trimester of 2020, there were mixed feelings among Haitians about the spread of the COVID-19 pandemic. In effect, many of the concerns emanating from the relatively weak health infrastructure in Haiti were analyzed from a resilience perspective. Many professionals living in Haiti with whom we have conversed believe that Haitians were better prepared to cope with the social distancing and mental health outcomes associated with the pandemic because of their 3-month exposure to the effects of Peyi Lòk ("country in lockdown") as well as previous major natural disasters. In that regard, previous traumatic exposures may serve as a buffer against the debilitating effects of the COVID-19 pandemic among Haitians. For the past 3 months, Haitians have naturally adopted a practical posture to cope with the pandemic where only school buildings are closed. Consequently, we remain convinced that from a psychological perspective, individuals from high-income countries that are severely affected by the COVID-19 pandemic could learn from the Haitian way of coping with large-scale disasters. (PsycInfo Database Record (c) 2020 APA, all rights reserved).


Assuntos
Adaptação Psicológica , Atitude Frente a Saúde , Betacoronavirus , Infecções por Coronavirus/psicologia , Pneumonia Viral/psicologia , Resiliência Psicológica , Haiti , Humanos , Pandemias
20.
J Natl Black Nurses Assoc ; 31(1): 32-40, 2020 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32853494

RESUMO

The prevalence of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) is 19.7% in Haiti (DeGennaro et al., 2018). Haitian American women (HAW) experience difficulties with adherence to T2DM treatment and management (Bivins, 2016; Magny-Normilus et al., 2019; Vimalananda et al., 2011; Huffman et al., 2013); however, no previous study was found that focused exclusively on Haitian American women with T2DM. Van Manen's six research activities guided this phenomenological qualitative inquiry. Recruitment included 25 Haitian American women (N = 25) with T2DM from three South Florida counties. Data were collected using a vignette and audio-recorded semi-structured interviews with open-ended questions. Recordings were then transcribed and analyzed to identify thematic concepts and patterns. Themes of spiritualizing and shifting cultural norms with the subtheme of dietary restrictions were found. In conclusion, to promote health outcomes nurses must incorporate these salient factors in the care of Haitian American women with T2DM.


Assuntos
Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/etnologia , Assistência à Saúde Culturalmente Competente/organização & administração , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/enfermagem , Feminino , Haiti/etnologia , Humanos , Pesquisa Qualitativa , Estados Unidos
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