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1.
Monogr Oral Sci ; 29: 195-200, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33427224

RESUMO

Halitosis is a widespread condition presenting several social and psychological implications, leading to a reduction in the quality of life of an individual. Halitosis, per definition, defines an unpleasant smell of the exhaled air, independent of its etiology. It can have a long-term prevalence or be transient, making it difficult to establish this symptom's epidemiology. Oral malodor can be attributed to a high local concentration of intraoral microbial populations, particularly those of the tongue's biofilm, as well as the biofilms associated with teeth and periodontal tissue. Frequently, the treatment options rely on improving oral health via tongue cleaning, detecting periodontal diseases, insufficient dental restorations, alternating diets, and/or alleviating local factors. Different methods targeting specific bacteria species have been designed to improve this condition. The aim here is to underline the correlation between oral biofilms and halitosis, describing prime bacteria species influencing oral malodor and addressing new concepts to ameliorate this condition.


Assuntos
Halitose , Doenças Periodontais , Halitose/diagnóstico , Halitose/etiologia , Humanos , Saúde Bucal , Qualidade de Vida , Língua
2.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33077409

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: We sought new markers to predict oral malodor. STUDY DESIGN: Seventy-five adults complaining of oral malodor were classified into 3 groups clinically: no oral malodor, physiologic oral malodor, and periodontitis-derived oral malodor. In addition to conventional clinical parameters, 7 salivary components, occlusal force, and lip-closing force were compared among the groups. RESULTS: Concerning the salivary components, cariogenic bacteria, occult blood, leukocytes, and ammonia differed significantly among the groups. Multiple logistic regression analyses indicated that tongue-coating scores and ammonia levels were significantly associated with genuine oral malodor, including physiologic oral malodor and periodontitis-derived oral malodor, and the tongue-coating score, plaque index, and occult blood level were significantly associated with periodontitis-derived oral malodor. Occlusal force and lip-closing force did not differ among the groups. However, there was a statistically significant interaction between occlusal force and lip-closing force in oral malodor in women (P = .019). CONCLUSIONS: Novel salivary markers, ammonia levels, and occult blood levels may predict genuine oral malodor and periodontitis-derived oral malodor, respectively. An interaction effect between occlusal force and lip-closing force on oral malodor was identified in women.


Assuntos
Halitose , Periodontite , Adulto , Biomarcadores , Índice de Placa Dentária , Feminino , Halitose/diagnóstico , Humanos , Periodontite/diagnóstico , Língua
3.
Clinics (Sao Paulo) ; 75: e1764, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32935823

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: This study aimed to determine the accuracy of the Breath-Alert™ portable breath meter (BA) for the detection of halitosis in children and adolescents, considering the organoleptic test (OT) as the gold standard in this assessment. METHODS: A cross-sectional study was conducted on 150 children (aged 6-12 years). OT was performed by three independent examiners on a single occasion, obtaining three scores of 0-5 points on the Rosenberg's organoleptic scale. The median of the three evaluations for each child was used for analysis. BA was used according to the manufacturer's instructions, with breath odor scored from 0-5 points. Scores ≥2 on both tests were considered indicative of halitosis. RESULTS: A total of 26 (17.3%) and 23 (15.3%) children were detected with halitosis on the OT and BA tests, respectively. The sensitivity and specificity of the BA scores for the detection of halitosis were 80.76% and 98.38%, respectively. The positive and negative predictive values for BA were 91.3% and 96.06%, respectively. CONCLUSION: In the present study involving children, who require fast, practical examinations, BA proved to be an auxiliary tool to OT for the detection of halitosis in the practice of pediatric dentistry, demonstrating high sensitivity and specificity.


Assuntos
Testes Respiratórios/métodos , Halitose/diagnóstico , Adolescente , Testes Respiratórios/instrumentação , Criança , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Halitose/metabolismo , Humanos , Masculino , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Sensibilidade e Especificidade , Compostos de Enxofre/análise
4.
Rev. cuba. estomatol ; 57(2): e2954, abr.-jun. 2020.
Artigo em Português | LILACS, CUMED | ID: biblio-1126510

RESUMO

RESUMO Introdução: A halitose é um sinal da presença de mau cheiro ofensivo ao olfato humano, geralmente é provocada pela falta de higiene ou estilo de vida e afeta milhares de pessoas em todo o mundo. Objetivo: Realizar uma revisão de literatura a respeito da etiologia, diagnóstico e tratamento da halitose buscando proporcionar um maior embasamento cientifico com informações atualizadas para os profissionais da área. Métodos: O estudo caracterizou-se por uma busca de artigos na base de dados eletrônicos PubMed, Lilacs, Google Acadêmico e Scielo publicados entre 2014 e 2019, em inglês, português e espanhol. Foram consultados 52 trabalhos, destes, 28 foram selecionados após uma criteriosa filtragem. Análise e integração das informações: Diversas etiologias advindas da cavidade bucal podem provocar a halitose. Existem vários exames complementares para auxílio diagnóstico da halitose, tais como testes sialométricos, organoléptico e a análise de presença de saburra para o diagnóstico. Há diversos protocolos instituídos para o tratamento da halitose, desde procedimentos preventivos a curativos. Conclusão: No que concerne a etiologia, a halitose pode ocorrer por fatores fisiológicos ou patológicos; 90 porcento dos casos tem como origem a cavidade oral, podendo estar associada ao biofilme dentário, cárie, língua saburrosa, próteses mal adaptadas e cicatrização tecidual. O diagnóstico deve ser realizado por meio de um exame clínico criterioso. A utilização de questionários para colher informações como frequência, duração, quantidade de vezes que aparece no mesmo dia, hábitos e medicamentos utilizados ajudarão na elucidação do caso. O sucesso do tratamento depende do diagnóstico e da implementação de uma terapia relacionada com a causa-efeito e de uma abordagem multidisciplinar racional que se torna essencial para a obtenção de bons resultados, com objetivo de melhorar a saúde oral, bem como, seus efeitos individuais e sociais(AU)


RESUMEN Introducción: Halitosis o mal olor es ofensivo al olfato humano, generalmente es provocada por la falta de higiene o estilo de vida y afecta a miles de personas en todo el mundo. Objetivo: Llevar a cabo una revisión de la literatura sobre la etiología, el diagnóstico y el tratamiento de la halitosis buscando proporcionar una mayor base científica con información actualizada para los profesionales en el campo. Métodos: El estudio se caracterizó por una búsqueda de artículos en la base de datos electrónica PubMed, Lilacs, Google Scholar y SciELO publicados entre 2014 y 2019, en inglés, portugués y español. Se consultaron 52 documentos, de los cuales 28 fueron seleccionados después de un filtrado cuidadoso. Análisis e integración de las informaciones: Diversas etiologías provenientes de la cavidad bucal pueden provocar la halitosis. Existen varios exámenes complementarios para ayudar a diagnosticar la halitosis, tales como pruebas sialométricas, organolépticas y el análisis de presencia de saburra para el diagnóstico. Hay varios protocolos instituidos para el tratamiento de la halitosis, desde procedimientos preventivos a curativos. Conclusiones: En cuanto a la etiología de la halitosis puede ocurrir debido a factores fisiológicos o patológicos. Aunque el 90 por ciento de los casos se originan en la cavidad bucal y pueden estar asociados con biopelículas dentales, caries, toques de lengua, prótesis mal adaptadas y cicatrización de tejidos. El diagnóstico debe hacerse mediante un examen clínico cuidadoso. El uso de cuestionarios para recopilar información como la frecuencia, la duración, la cantidad de veces que aparece el mismo día, los hábitos y los medicamentos utilizados ayudarán a dilucidar el caso. El tratamiento exitoso depende del diagnóstico y la implementación de la terapia de causa y efecto y de un enfoque multidisciplinario racional que es esencial para obtener resultados exitosos para mejorar la salud bucal y sus efectos individuales y social(AU)


ABSTRACT Introduction: Oral halitosis or malodor is offensive to the human sense of smell. It is often the result of poor hygiene or lifestyle and affects thousands of people worldwide. Objective: Conduct a literature review about the etiology, diagnosis and treatment of halitosis with the purpose of contributing a broader scientific basis of updated information for professionals in the field. Methods: The study was characterized by a search for papers published in the electronic databases PubMed, Lilacs, Google Scholar and Scielo between 2014 and 2019 in English, Portuguese or Spanish. A total 52 papers were consulted, of which 28 were selected after careful filtering. Data analysis and integration: Halitosis may be due to a variety of oral cavity etiologies. Several complementary tests are available which help diagnose halitosis, e.g. sialometric tests, organoleptic tests and analysis of the presence of saburra for the diagnosis. Several protocols have been implemented for the treatment of halitosis. These range from preventive to healing procedures. Conclusions: The etiology of halitosis may be due to physiological or pathological factors. Although 90 percent of the cases originate in the oral cavity and may be associated with dental biofilm, caries, tongue saburra, ill-fitted prostheses or tissue scarring, diagnosis should be based on careful clinical examination. Using questionnaires to gather information such as frequency, duration, number of times it appears on the same day, habits and medications will help elucidate the case. Successful treatment depends on the diagnosis and implementation of a cause-and-effect therapy and a rational multidisciplinary approach which is essential to obtain positive outcomes and improve oral health as well as its individual and social effects(AU)


Assuntos
Humanos , Higiene Bucal/métodos , Saúde Bucal , Halitose/diagnóstico , Halitose/etiologia , Literatura de Revisão como Assunto , Bases de Dados Bibliográficas , Halitose/terapia
5.
J Breath Res ; 14(3): 036008, 2020 07 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32340013

RESUMO

AIM: To evaluate the oral health status, oral health related habits and halitosis of children with and without type 1 diabetes. MATERIALS AND METHODS: In this study the oral health status of children with and without type 1 diabetes were evaluated by using different indices (dmft/DMFT, International Caries Detection and Assessment System(ICDAS) II, pufa, gingival and periodontal indices). Halitosis was determined by organoleptic assessment and sulfur monitoring. RESULTS: One hundred children with the age range between 6-13 years, 50 type 1 diabetics (24 boys,26 girls) with mean age (±sd) of 10.3 ± 2.1 years and 50 healthy (30 boys, 20 girls) with mean age (±sd) of 9.9 ± 1.5 years, participated in the study. The median values of dmft and dmfs was lower in children with type 1 diabetes, while for DMFT and DMFS indices were similar with the healthy group. Cavitated caries lesions were observed in 60.0% of children with diabetes and in 58.0% of healthy children. According to the ICDAS II index, 42.0% of children with diabetes and 56.0% of healthy children had severe decay. The mean plaque index was statistically significantly less in diabetic children (p = 0.04). In 12.0% of children with type 1 diabetes and in 18.0% of healthy children, volatile sulfur compounds (VSC) were determined to be ≥150 ppb and the most diagnosed score was 1 in both groups. In diabetic children with the cut off value of 7.5% HbA1c, there was no statistically significant difference in oral health indices results and VSC scores. CONCLUSION: Findings of the present study are insufficient to support a significant effect of diabetes on increasing the risk of oral and periodontal diseases. Nonetheless, it is important to emphasize the importance of oral and dental health, regular oral care and dental visits both to the patients with type 1 diabetes and their parents.


Assuntos
Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 1/complicações , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 1/diagnóstico , Halitose/complicações , Halitose/diagnóstico , Saúde Bucal , Adolescente , Testes Respiratórios , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Criança , Índice de Placa Dentária , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Índice Periodontal , Sensação , Compostos de Enxofre/análise , Compostos Orgânicos Voláteis/análise
6.
Acta Odontol Scand ; 78(7): 541-546, 2020 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32315210

RESUMO

There are many studies on the relationship between the tongue coating and halitosis, but few have evaluated the bacterial community present in the tongue coating. This study identified bacteria in the tongue coating in individuals with and without halitosis using 16S rRNA analysis. Forty subjects (mean age, 46.1 ± 15.8 years) who visited the halitosis clinic at the University Dental Hospital between 2016 and 2017 were divided into halitosis (n = 32) and non-halitosis (n = 8) groups according to results from an organoleptic test (OT). Additional measurements via gas chromatography (GC) and the Breathtron® instrument confirmed the groupings as the H2S, CH3SH, (CH3)2S, and total volatile sulphur compounds (VSC) levels were significantly higher in the halitosis group than in the non-halitosis group. Bacterial diversity was higher in the halitosis group; the median (quartile) values of the Shannon index were 4.46 (4.21, 4.67) in the halitosis group and 3.80 (3.45, 4.30) in the non-halitosis group. Additionally, the median (quartile) values of the Chao-1 index were 84.0 (77.2, 95.0) in the halitosis group and 71.3 (65.0, 81.5) in the non-halitosis group. These differences in bacterial composition and diversity may further the understanding of causes and treatments for halitosis.


Assuntos
Halitose , Microbiota , Adulto , Bactérias , Halitose/diagnóstico , Halitose/microbiologia , Humanos , Microbiota/genética , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , RNA Ribossômico 16S/genética , Compostos de Enxofre , Língua
7.
Aust Dent J ; 65(1): 4-11, 2020 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31610030

RESUMO

Halitosis, an offensive breath odour, has multiple sources and negative impacts on people's social interactions and quality of life. It is important for health care professionals, including general physicians and dental professionals, to understand its aetiology and risk factors in order to diagnose and treat patients appropriately. In this study, we have reviewed the current literature on halitosis regarding its prevalence, classification, risk factors, sources, measurement and treatment.


Assuntos
Halitose/diagnóstico , Halitose/epidemiologia , Halitose/etiologia , Humanos , Prevalência , Qualidade de Vida , Fatores de Risco
8.
J Clin Periodontol ; 47(2): 233-246, 2020 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31782537

RESUMO

AIMS: To evaluate the prevalence of self-reported halitosis and its predictors, and to determine the accuracy estimates of self-reported measures with clinical evaluation of halitosis. MATERIALS AND METHODS: This cross-sectional study comprised 5,420 individuals (teaching staff, administrative personnel and ongoing students from Federal University of Minas Gerais), who answered a structured questionnaire containing sociodemographic, medical and dental data, and self-reported halitosis measures. A subsample (n = 159) underwent halitosis assessment through the organoleptic method. Predictors for self-reported halitosis were determined through univariate and multivariate analyses. Accuracy estimates of self-reported measures were evaluated in this subsample. RESULTS: Prevalence of self-reported halitosis varied from approximately 4%-35%, depending on the self-reported measure. Self-reported halitosis was mainly associated with socio-economic variables (age, gender, educational level), parameters of oral health (gingival bleeding, gingival infections, tongue coating, general oral health evaluation) and impacts on daily activities (family/social environment and intimate relations). Specificity values for self-reported halitosis measures were determined to be high for clinical (organoleptic score ≥2) and strong (organoleptic score ≥4) halitosis. Combinations of self-reported measures retrieved useful accuracy estimates for strong halitosis. CONCLUSION: Prevalence rates of self-reported halitosis may be considered moderate. Accuracy diagnostic estimates were determined to be useful, with good prediction for non-diseased individuals.


Assuntos
Halitose/diagnóstico , Halitose/epidemiologia , Brasil/epidemiologia , Estudos Transversais , Humanos , Prevalência , Autorrelato , Língua
9.
Eur J Anaesthesiol ; 36(12): 918-923, 2019 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31644511

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Perception of halitosis in patients during intubation is a common and additional stressor for anaesthesiologists and may lead to potential health risks. OBJECTIVES: We hypothesised that intubation with videolaryngoscopy could help reduce the anaesthesiologists' perception of patients' oral malodor during intubation. DESIGN: A single-blinded, randomised controlled trial. SETTING: Single centre general hospital, Guangdong Province, China. PARTICIPANTS: A total of 440 patients who underwent intubation under general anaesthesia for elective surgery, aged 18 to 60 years old, American Society of Anaesthesiologists class I to III, without upper airway abnormality or airway infection were enrolled. INTERVENTION: Patients were randomly assigned to receive either UE videolaryngoscopy (UE) or Macintosh's direct laryngoscopy (Macintosh) group. All intubations were performed by one of six very experienced anaesthesiologists. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: The patient's oral odour score was measured prior to induction of anaesthesia. The anaesthesiologists' perception of the patient's oral malodor during intubation was recorded. The shortest distance from patient's mouth to the anaesthesiologist's nose (MN distance), the exertion rating and discomfort were also measured. RESULTS: The oral malodor score did not differ in the UE and Macintosh groups prior to the induction of anaesthesia. However, the incidence of the anaesthesiologists' perception of halitosis during intubation was significantly lower in the UE group compared with the Macintosh group (P < 0.001). Similarly, the MN distance was significantly greater in the UE group compared with the Macintosh group (P < 0.001). The first-attempt success rate was higher in the UE group compared to the Macintosh group (P < 0.001). However, the exertion scores were considerably higher in the Macintosh group. After intubation, anaesthesiologists experienced more waist and shoulder discomfort with the Macintosh than the UE technique of intubation. CONCLUSION: Compared with direct laryngoscopy, videolaryngoscopy might reduce the anaesthesiologists' perception of the patients' oral malodor, help improve first-attempt success rate, as well as alleviate the anaesthesiologists' waist and shoulder discomfort. TRIAL REGISTRATION: Clinicaltrials.gov (ChiCTR-IOR-15007038).


Assuntos
Anestesiologistas/psicologia , Procedimentos Cirúrgicos Eletivos/efeitos adversos , Halitose/psicologia , Intubação Intratraqueal/métodos , Laringoscopia/métodos , Adolescente , Adulto , Esgotamento Profissional/etiologia , Esgotamento Profissional/prevenção & controle , Esgotamento Profissional/psicologia , Feminino , Halitose/complicações , Halitose/diagnóstico , Humanos , Intubação Intratraqueal/efeitos adversos , Intubação Intratraqueal/instrumentação , Laringoscopia/efeitos adversos , Laringoscopia/instrumentação , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estresse Ocupacional/etiologia , Estresse Ocupacional/prevenção & controle , Estresse Ocupacional/psicologia , Percepção , Estudos Prospectivos , Compostos Orgânicos Voláteis/análise , Adulto Jovem
10.
West Afr J Med ; 36(3): 205-210, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31622481

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Halitosis is a common cause of dental consulta-tion. Patients presenting with primary complaint of halitosis consist of dissatisfied people with genuine and pseudo-halitosis. OBJECTIVES: To assess the demographic and clinico-pathologic features of patients presenting with primary complaint of halitosis as well as evaluate the treatment outcome. METHODS: Consenting patients presenting with primary complaint of halitosis from 1st of March to 31st August, 2015 were recruited. All had intraoral examination, were screened for psychiatric morbidity and halitosis using the organoleptic method. Data concerning the complaint of halitosis was retrieved from all through an interviewer-administered structured questionnaire. All the patients were educated on the aetiology of halitosis, those with oral disease were treated and all had scaling and polishing, oral hygiene instruction/motivation in addition to hydrogen peroxide mouth rinse for two weeks. Patients' opinions were sought concerning the presence/intensity of halitosis at two weeks and six months post treatment. RESULTS: Thirty-one patients with a mean age of 38.48 years and male:female ratio of 1.3 were recruited. Intraoral pathology was observed in 48.4% of patients. None of the patients smoked cigarette or pipe. Twenty patients (64.5%) had been informed of the foulness of their breath by at least one person in the past; the information generated negative feelings in 19 of them. Six patients had psychiatric morbidity which was significantly associated with female gender and presence of body odour. At two weeks post treatment, 54.8% of patients were free of halitosis, while at six months only 25.8% were free. CONCLUSION: The patients who complained of halitosis were non-smokers with a mean age of 38.48±14.0 years. Intraoral pathologies were found in fifteen (15) patients, while six (6) had psychiatry morbidity. About half of the patients and about a quarter were free of halitosis following scaling and polishing and two weeks' hydrogen peroxide mouth rinse at 2 weeks and 6 months' reviews, respectively.


Assuntos
Halitose/epidemiologia , Doenças da Boca/epidemiologia , Adulto , Feminino , Halitose/diagnóstico , Halitose/etiologia , Halitose/terapia , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Nigéria/epidemiologia , Higiene Bucal , Centros de Atenção Terciária , Resultado do Tratamento , Adulto Jovem
11.
Molecules ; 24(16)2019 Aug 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31426356

RESUMO

Halitosis and submandibular abscesses are examples of mouth-related diseases with the possible bacterial origin. Salivary volatile organic compounds (VOCs) are potential biomarkers of them, once they can be addressed as metabolites of bacterial activity. Healthy patients (n = 15), subjects with submandibular abscesses located in fascial deep space (n = 10), and subjects with halitosis (n = 5) were enrolled in the study. Saliva samples were subjected to headspace solid-phase microextraction (HS-SPME) and gas chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry (GC/MS) analysis. A total number of 164 VOCs was detected by the developed methodology, 23 specific for halitosis and 41 for abscess. Halitosis' profiles were characterized by a larger number of sulfur compounds, while for abscess they had a higher variety of alcohols, aldehydes, and hydrocarbons-biomarkers of inflammatory processes. Principal components analysis allowed visualization of clusters formed according to the evaluated conditions. Kruskal-Wallis test indicated that 39 VOCs presented differentiated responses between the studied groups, with statistical relevance (p < 0.05). Random forest was applied, and a prediction model based on eight VOCs (2-butanone, methyl thioacetate, 2-methylbutanoic acid, S-methyl pentanethioate, dimethyl tetrasulfide, indolizine, pentadecane, and octadecanal) provided 100% of sensitivity, 82% of specificity, and 91% of balanced accuracy, indicating the specific presence of submandibular abscess.


Assuntos
Abscesso/diagnóstico , Álcoois/isolamento & purificação , Aldeídos/isolamento & purificação , Halitose/diagnóstico , Hidrocarbonetos/isolamento & purificação , Compostos de Enxofre/isolamento & purificação , Abscesso/metabolismo , Abscesso/patologia , Adulto , Idoso , Álcoois/classificação , Aldeídos/classificação , Biomarcadores/análise , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Giro Denteado/metabolismo , Giro Denteado/patologia , Diagnóstico Diferencial , Feminino , Cromatografia Gasosa-Espectrometria de Massas , Halitose/metabolismo , Halitose/patologia , Humanos , Hidrocarbonetos/classificação , Masculino , Mandíbula/metabolismo , Mandíbula/patologia , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Análise de Componente Principal , Saliva/química , Sensibilidade e Especificidade , Microextração em Fase Sólida/métodos , Compostos de Enxofre/classificação , Compostos Orgânicos Voláteis
12.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 98(1): e13939, 2019 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30608426

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Halitosis is the term used to describe any unpleasant odor relative to expired air regardless of its source. The prevalence of halitosis in the population is approximately 30%, of which 80 to 90% of the cases originate in the oral cavity resulting from proteolytic degradation by gram negative anaerobic bacteria. Antimicrobial photodynamic therapy (aPDT) has been widely used with very satisfactory results in the health sciences. It involves the use of a non-toxic dye, called photosensitizer (FS), and a light source of a specific wavelength in the presence of the environmental oxygen. This interaction is capable of creating toxic species that generate cell death. The objective of this controlled clinical study is to verify the effect of aPDT in the treatment of halitosis by evaluating the formation of volatile sulphur compounds with gas chromatography and microbiological analysis before and after treatment. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Young adults in the age group between 18 and 25 years with diagnosis of halitosis will be included in this research. The selected subjects will be divided into 3 groups: G1: aPDT; G2: scraper, and G3: aPDT and scraper. All subjects will be submitted to microbiological analysis and evaluation with Oral ChromaTM before, immediately after treatment, 7, 14, and 30 days after treatment. For the evaluation of the association of the categorical variables the Chi-square test and Fisher's Exact Test will be used. To compare the means the student t test and analysis of variance (ANOVA) will be used and to analyse the correlation between the continuous variables the correlation test by Pearson will be applied. In the analyses of the experimental differences in each group the Wilcoxon test will be used. For all analyses a level of significance of 95% (P < .05) will be considered. DISCUSSION: Halitosis treatment is a topic that still needs attention. The results of this trial could support decision-making by clinicians regarding aPDT using aPDT for treating halitosis.


Assuntos
Anti-Infecciosos/farmacologia , Halitose/microbiologia , Halitose/terapia , Fotoquimioterapia/métodos , Adolescente , Adulto , Cromatografia Gasosa/métodos , Estudos Clínicos como Assunto , Terapia Combinada/métodos , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Halitose/diagnóstico , Halitose/epidemiologia , Humanos , Masculino , Fármacos Fotossensibilizantes/uso terapêutico , Prevalência , Compostos de Enxofre/metabolismo , Resultado do Tratamento , Adulto Jovem
13.
Pan Afr Med J ; 30: 201, 2018.
Artigo em Francês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30574220

RESUMO

Introduction: Halitosis is a morbid condition characterized by bad breath. Sometimes it has pathological and social implications. In the context of daily clinical practice, halitosis poses many diagnostic and therapeutic problems. This study aims to investigate the clinical and therapeutic features of this disorder. Methods: We conducted a cross-sectional study over a one year period. Patients over the age of 15 years presenting with halitosis at the University Hospital Yalgado Ouedraogo were enrolled in the study. Patients with bad breath but presenting with some other problema were excluded. Patient's breath was assessed by a practitioner on the basis of Rosenberg organoleptic test. Results: A total of 35 patients were included, with a sex ratio of 1.2. The average age of patients was 31.9 years. In 57.1% of cases, complaints were made by patients themselves. The mean duration of halitosis was 4.3 years. Nineteen patients had Mel Rosenberg score ≥ 2. Dental caries (07 cases), sinusitis (07 cases), Helicobacter pylori infection (09 cases) and gastrointestinal ulcer (10 cases) were associated with halitosis. Treatment was based on etiology in 82.9% of cases with satisfactory improvement after two weeks in 71.8% of cases. Conclusion: Halitosis is a little studied disorder which poses problem in positive diagnosis as well as etiologic problems in our context. The dentist plays a crucial role in identifying the possible cause of halitosis. However, multidisciplinary approach would enable a more effective response.


Assuntos
Cárie Dentária/complicações , Halitose/diagnóstico , Infecções por Helicobacter/complicações , Úlcera Péptica/complicações , Sinusite/complicações , Adolescente , Adulto , Burkina Faso , Estudos Transversais , Cárie Dentária/epidemiologia , Odontólogos/organização & administração , Feminino , Halitose/etiologia , Halitose/terapia , Infecções por Helicobacter/epidemiologia , Humanos , Comunicação Interdisciplinar , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Úlcera Péptica/epidemiologia , Papel Profissional , Sinusite/epidemiologia , Adulto Jovem
14.
Int J Pharm Compd ; 22(6): 512-515, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30384352

RESUMO

Halitosis can be described as unpleasant odors emanating from the oral cavity. It is usually associated with decomposition action of bacteria present mainly on the back of the tongue and periodontal pockets, and able to produce volatile sulfur compounds. We conducted a study at the Faculty of Dentistry, Federal University of Juiz de Fora and evaluated the therapeutic effect of two natural extracts, Camellia sinensis (green tea) and resveratrol in the form of oral polymer films, to control halitosis. Fifty volunteers (students of health courses) participated in the research after orientation and signing the informed consent form. The anamnesis was made by researchers. The physical examination was made to verify the inclusion criteria. Each participant received 45 polymeric films to be consumed in 15 days (3 films per day). Measurements of the volatile sulfur compound levels were performed using a halimeter in two stages: 1) before use and 2) 15 days after the first administration. Results showed a statistically significant reduction in volatile sulfur compound levels in 71.79% of the volunteers. We concluded that the compounded orodispersible films containing green tea and resveratrol demonstrated excellent results in reducing halitosis.


Assuntos
Camellia sinensis , Portadores de Fármacos , Halitose/tratamento farmacológico , Extratos Vegetais/administração & dosagem , Polímeros/química , Resveratrol/administração & dosagem , Administração Oral , Adulto , Brasil , Camellia sinensis/química , Formas de Dosagem , Esquema de Medicação , Composição de Medicamentos , Liberação Controlada de Fármacos , Feminino , Halitose/diagnóstico , Humanos , Masculino , Extratos Vegetais/química , Extratos Vegetais/isolamento & purificação , Resveratrol/química , Solubilidade , Fatores de Tempo , Resultado do Tratamento , Adulto Jovem
15.
Trials ; 19(1): 590, 2018 Oct 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30373650

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Halitosis is an unpleasant breath odour that can interfere with the professional life, social life and quality of life of people who suffer from it. A modality of treatment that has been increasing in dentistry is antimicrobial photodynamic therapy (aPDT). Bixa orellana, popularly known as "urucum" is a plant native to Brazil. The seeds are used to produce a dye that is largely used in the food, textile, paint and cosmetic industries. The aim of this study is to verify whether aPDT with Bixa orellana extract and blue light-emitting diodes (LEDs) is effective in reducing halitosis. This method will also be compared with tongue scraping, the most commonly used conventional method for tongue coating removal, and the association of both methods will be evaluated. METHODS/DESIGN: A randomized clinical trial will be conducted at the dental clinic of the Universidade Nove de Julho. Thirty-nine patients will be divided by block randomization into three groups (n = 13) according to the treatment to be performed. In Group 1, tongue scraping will be performed by the same operator in all patients for analysis of the immediate results. Patients will also be instructed on how to use the scraper at home. Group 2 will be treated with aPDT with Bixa orellana extract and the LED light curing device: Valo Cordless Ultradent®. Six points in the tongue dorsum with a distance of 1 cm between them will be irradiated. The apparatus will be pre-calibrated at wavelength 395-480 nm for 20 s and 9.6 J per point. In Group 3, patients will be submitted to the tongue scraping procedure, as well as to the previously explained aPDT. Oral air collection with the Oral Chroma™ and microbiological collections of the tongue coating shall be done before, immediately after and 7 days after treatment for comparison. DISCUSSION: Halitosis treatment is a topic that still needs attention. The results of this trial could support decision-making by clinicians regarding aPDT using blue LEDs for treating halitosis on a daily basis, as most dentists already have this light source in their offices. TRIAL REGISTRATION: ClinicalTrials.gov, NCT03346460 . Registered on 17 November 2017.


Assuntos
Bixaceae , Luzes de Cura Dentária , Halitose/tratamento farmacológico , Fotoquimioterapia/métodos , Fármacos Fotossensibilizantes/uso terapêutico , Extratos Vegetais/uso terapêutico , Língua/efeitos dos fármacos , Adolescente , Adulto , Bixaceae/química , Brasil , Luzes de Cura Dentária/efeitos adversos , Feminino , Halitose/diagnóstico , Halitose/microbiologia , Humanos , Masculino , Fotoquimioterapia/efeitos adversos , Fármacos Fotossensibilizantes/efeitos adversos , Fármacos Fotossensibilizantes/isolamento & purificação , Extratos Vegetais/efeitos adversos , Extratos Vegetais/isolamento & purificação , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto , Fatores de Tempo , Língua/microbiologia , Resultado do Tratamento , Adulto Jovem
16.
BMC Oral Health ; 18(1): 128, 2018 07 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30064419

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Oral malodour is mainly caused by volatile sulphur compounds produced by bacteria and bacterial interactions. It is difficult to predict the presence or absence of oral malodour based on the abundances of specific species and their combinations. This paper presents an effective way of deep learning approach to predicting the oral malodour from salivary microbiota. METHODS: The 16S rRNA genes from saliva samples of 90 subjects (45 had no or weak oral malodour, and 45 had marked oral malodour) were amplified, and gene sequence analysis was carried out. Deep learning classified oral malodour and healthy breath based on the resultant abundances of operational taxonomic units (OTUs) RESULTS: A discrimination classifier model was constructed by profiling OTUs and calculating their relative abundance in saliva samples from 90 subjects. Our deep learning model achieved a predictive accuracy of 97%, compared to the 79% obtained with a support vector machine. CONCLUSION: This approach is expected to be useful in screening the saliva for prediction of oral malodour before visits to specialist clinics.


Assuntos
Aprendizado Profundo , Halitose/diagnóstico , Microbiota , Saliva/microbiologia , Feminino , Halitose/etiologia , Halitose/microbiologia , Sequenciamento de Nucleotídeos em Larga Escala , Humanos , Masculino , Microbiota/genética , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , RNA Ribossômico 16S/genética
17.
Anal Chem ; 90(15): 8769-8775, 2018 08 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29790330

RESUMO

Lead(II) acetate [Pb(Ac)2] reacts with hydrogen sulfide to form colored brownish precipitates of lead sulfide. Thus far, in order to detect leakage of H2S gas in industrial sectors, Pb(Ac)2 has been used as an indicator in the form of test papers with a detection limit only as low as 5 ppm. Diagnosis of halitosis by exhaled breath needs sensors able to detect down to 1 ppm of H2S gas. In this work, high surface area and porous Pb(Ac)2 anchored nanofibers (NFs) that overcome limitations of the conventional Pb(Ac)2-based H2S sensor are successfully achieved. First, lead(II) acetate, which melts at 75 °C, and polyacrylonitrile (PAN) polymer are mixed and stirred in dimethylformamide (DMF) solvent at 85 °C, enabling uniform dispersion of fine liquid droplets in the electrospinning solution. During the subsequent electrospinning, Pb(Ac)2 anchored NFs are obtained, providing an ideal nanostructure with high thermal stability against particle aggregation, numerous reactions sites, and enhanced diffusion of H2S into the three-dimensional (3D)-networked NF web. This newly obtained sensing material can detect down to 400 ppb of H2S at a relative humidity of 90%, exhibiting high potential feasibility as a high-performance colorimetric sensor platform for diagnosis of halitosis.


Assuntos
Colorimetria/métodos , Sulfeto de Hidrogênio/análise , Nanofibras/química , Compostos Organometálicos/química , Resinas Acrílicas/química , Testes Respiratórios/métodos , Halitose/diagnóstico , Humanos , Limite de Detecção , Nanofibras/ultraestrutura , Porosidade
18.
Pediatr Int ; 60(6): 588-592, 2018 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29573072

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Little data are available regarding halitosis in Japanese children. The aim of the current study was to investigate the prevalence and risk factors associated with halitosis in Japanese elementary and junior high school children. METHODS: The subjects consisted of 520 elementary (1st-6th grade: boys, n = 284; girls, n = 236) and 248 junior high (7th-9th grade: boys, n = 136; girls, n = 112) school children aged 6-15 years in Saitama Prefecture, Japan. A self-administered questionnaire survey; halitosis measurement using an organoleptic assessment method; and clinical oral examination were conducted. RESULTS: Overall, 44.9% of subjects had halitosis. The proportion of boys with halitosis was 43.6% and that of girls was 46.6%. On logistic regression analysis, grade and tongue coating were significant predictors of halitosis. The 7th-9th graders were significantly more likely to have halitosis than 1st-3rd graders (OR, 1.83; P = 0.007). Subjects with area of tongue coating score 2 or 3 were 5.51-fold more likely to present with halitosis (P < 0.001) than those with area of tongue coating score 0 or 1. Similarly, subjects with thickness of tongue coating score 2 or 3 were 3.28-fold more likely to have halitosis than those with thickness of tongue coating score 0 or 1 (P < 0.001). CONCLUSIONS: Halitosis in the school children is not a rare condition; instead, its occurrence is relatively high. Therefore, inclusion of a halitosis prevention and management component in school oral health programs would lead to the promotion of overall oral health.


Assuntos
Halitose/epidemiologia , Adolescente , Criança , Feminino , Halitose/diagnóstico , Halitose/etiologia , Inquéritos Epidemiológicos , Humanos , Japão/epidemiologia , Modelos Logísticos , Masculino , Prevalência , Fatores de Risco
19.
Kathmandu Univ Med J (KUMJ) ; 16(61): 89-93, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30631025

RESUMO

Background Halitosis is a frequently reported oral health problem worldwide with a prevalence rate of 10-30% in the general population. It is defined as the disagreeable or foul smelling breath originating consistently from a person's oral cavity. It not only effects the normal daily life activities of the patient but also bring humiliation, reduced self- esteem, ultimately resulting into decreased quality of life. Objective To determine the self-perception of halitosis among undergraduate students of different medical branches of Kathmandu University School of Medical Sciences (KUSMS); Kavre, Nepal. Method A descriptive cross-sectional epidemiological survey was conducted among undergraduate students of Physiotherapy, B.Sc Nursing, Bachelor of Nursing Sciences (BNS), MBBS and BDS program of Kathmandu University School of Medical Sciences, Dhulikhel. A self-administered questionnaire was developed and were distributed among 500 undergraduate students. Result Out of total 500 distributed questionnaires, 406 were completely filled and returned giving an overall response of 81.2%, in which 70 (89.7%) male and 280 (85.4%) female students from different medical branches were aware of the term halitosis. Among them 29 (7.14%) of students think that they suffer from halitosis. Similarly 178 (43.84%) students had severe impact of halitosis on their social life while 153 (37.68%) and 62 (15.27%) students had moderate and mild impact respectively. Conclusion Due to the multifactorial complexity of halitosis, further longitudinal studies including objective assessment of malodor are required to determine its prevalence and to further investigate the association of this problem with other etiological factors in the context of Nepal. Also, curriculum of different fields should be modified to include this simple but very necessary topic.


Assuntos
Halitose/diagnóstico , Autoimagem , Inquéritos e Questionários/estatística & dados numéricos , Conscientização , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Halitose/psicologia , Humanos , Relações Interpessoais , Masculino , Nepal/epidemiologia , Faculdades de Medicina , Estudantes , Universidades
20.
Oral Dis ; 24(5): 685-695, 2018 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28622437

RESUMO

To develop a new generation of diagnostics for halitosis, replacing the subjective organoleptic assessment, a series of exhaled breath analyzers has been developed and assessed. All three devices rely on the assessment of exhaled volatile sulfuric compounds (VSCs), which are mainly generated in and emitted from the oral cavity, contributing to the malodor. Portable, on-site and easy to use, these devices have potential for non-invasive diagnosis of halitosis. However, global assessment of exhaled VSCs alone has two main drawbacks: (i) the absence of VSCs does not rule out halitosis; (ii) non-sulfuric volatile compounds that could be biomarkers of systemic diseases, found in up to 15% of halitosis cases, are neglected. In this article, we review and discuss progress to date in the field of oral/exhaled volatile compounds as potential non-invasive diagnostics for halitosis. We will briefly describe the generation of these compounds both from local (oral) and distal (extra-oral) sources. In addition, we debate the different analytical approaches in use and discuss the potential value of bio-inspired artificially intelligent olfaction in diagnosing and classifying oral and systemic diseases by analyzing exhaled breath.


Assuntos
Testes Respiratórios , Halitose/diagnóstico , Compostos de Enxofre/análise , Compostos Orgânicos Voláteis/análise , Inteligência Artificial , Biomarcadores/análise , Testes Respiratórios/instrumentação , Gastroenteropatias/diagnóstico , Humanos , Nefropatias/diagnóstico , Doenças Respiratórias/diagnóstico
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