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3.
An Bras Dermatol ; 95(6): 743-747, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33010990

RESUMO

The objective of this study was to analyze the trend of epidemiological and operational indicators of leprosy in Brazil, from 2001 to 2017. This was a time series study involving nine indicators. The inflection point regression model was used. Decreasing trends were observed for the following: general detection (-4.8%), children under 15 (-3.7%), prevalence (-7.0%), and grade 2/million inhabitants (-3.5%). The proportion of individuals with grade 2 disability showed an upward trend (2.0%) from 2001 as well as contacts examined from 2003 (5.0%). The proportions of cure and of individuals with a degree of disability assessed at the time of the diagnosis and the cure showed a stationary behavior. Although advances are noted, there are still challenges to be overcome.


Assuntos
Pessoas com Deficiência , Hanseníase , Brasil/epidemiologia , Criança , Humanos , Hanseníase/diagnóstico , Hanseníase/epidemiologia , Prevalência
4.
PLoS Negl Trop Dis ; 14(8): e0008563, 2020 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32797081

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Early diagnosis remains the primary goal for leprosy management programs. This study aims to determine whether active surveillance of patients with leprosy and their contact individuals increased identification of latent leprosy cases in the low-endemic areas. METHODS: This cross-sectional survey was carried out between October 2014 and August 2016 in 21 counties throughout Shandong Province. The survey was conducted among patients with leprosy released from treatment (RFT) and their contacts from both household and neighbors. RESULTS: A total of 2,210 RFT patients and 9,742 contacts comprising 7877 household contacts (HHCs), including 5,844 genetic related family members (GRFMs) and 2033 non-genetic related family members and 1,865 contacts living in neighboring houses (neighbor contacts, NCs), were recruited. Among identified individuals, one relapsed and 13 were newly diagnosed, giving a detection rate of 0.12%, corresponding to 120 times the passive case detection rate. Detection rates were similar for HHCs and NCs (0.114% vs. 0.214%, P = 0.287). Analysis of the family history of leprosy patients revealed clustering of newly diagnosed cases and association with residential coordinates of previously-diagnosed multibacillary leprosy cases. CONCLUSION: Active case-finding programs are feasible and contributes to early case detection by tracking HHCs and NCs in low-endemic areas.


Assuntos
Características da Família , Hanseníase/diagnóstico , Hanseníase/epidemiologia , Hanseníase/terapia , Características de Residência , Conduta Expectante , Adolescente , Adulto , Criança , Pré-Escolar , China/epidemiologia , Análise por Conglomerados , Estudos Transversais , Família , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Hanseníase Multibacilar , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Adulto Jovem
5.
PLoS Negl Trop Dis ; 14(8): e0008521, 2020 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32750059

RESUMO

India has the highest burden of leprosy in the world. Following a recent WHO guideline, the Indian National Leprosy Programme is introducing post-exposure prophylaxis with single-dose rifampicin (SDR-PEP) in all high-endemic districts of the country. The aim of this study is to estimate the long-term cost-effectiveness of SDR-PEP in different leprosy disability burden situations. We used a stochastic individual-based model (SIMCOLEP) to simulate the leprosy new case detection rate trend and the impact of implementing contact screening and SDR-PEP from 2016 to 2040 (25 years) in the Union Territory of Dadra Nagar Haveli (DNH) in India. Effects of the intervention were expressed as disability adjusted life years (DALY) averted under three assumption of disability prevention: 1) all grade 1 disability (G1D) cases prevented; 2) G1D cases prevented in PB cases only; 3) no disability prevented. Costs were US$ 2.9 per contact. Costs and effects were discounted at 3%. The incremental cost per DALY averted by SDR-PEP was US$ 210, US$ 447, and US$ 5,673 in the 25th year under assumption 1, 2, and 3, respectively. If prevention of G1D was assumed, the probability of cost-effectiveness was 1.0 at the threshold of US$ 2,000, which is equivalent to the GDP per capita of India. The probability of cost-effectiveness was 0.6, if no disability prevention was assumed. The cost per new leprosy case averted was US$ 2,873. Contact listing, screening and the provision of SDR-PEP is a cost-effective strategy in leprosy control in both the short (5 years) and long term (25 years). The cost-effectiveness depends on the extent to which disability can be prevented. As the intervention becomes increasingly cost-effective in the long term, we recommend a long-term commitment for its implementation.


Assuntos
Programas Governamentais , Hanseníase/tratamento farmacológico , Hanseníase/prevenção & controle , Profilaxia Pós-Exposição/economia , Quimioprevenção/economia , Análise Custo-Benefício , Humanos , Índia , Hansenostáticos/economia , Hansenostáticos/uso terapêutico , Hanseníase/diagnóstico , Hanseníase/economia , Profilaxia Pós-Exposição/métodos , Anos de Vida Ajustados por Qualidade de Vida , Rifampina/economia , Rifampina/uso terapêutico
6.
Trop Doct ; 50(4): 311-317, 2020 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32576099

RESUMO

An observational pilot study was conducted to assess the nutritional status and morbidity profile of childhood contacts of leprosy in an endemic area (Chengalpattu) in India. A total of 70 such children were included in the study. Sociodemographic data were collected using a one-to-one interview method and the children were evaluated by dermatologists qualified in paediatric leprosy. The obtained data were computed. Three children were diagnosed to have leprosy through this study. Nutritional status assessment in these children demonstrated malnutrition, a common finding. Regular contact screening of children in endemic areas for early case detection, disability prevention and thereby prevention of community transmission is mandatory. Further research is needed concerning the role of malnutrition in children and its relation to morbidity in leprosy. The closeness and duration of contact of leprosy is also an important risk factor. Effective strategies to diagnose subclinical infection are needed.


Assuntos
Saúde da Criança , Hanseníase/epidemiologia , Hanseníase/transmissão , Saúde da População Rural , Adolescente , Criança , Diagnóstico Precoce , Feminino , Humanos , Índia/epidemiologia , Hanseníase/diagnóstico , Hanseníase/prevenção & controle , Masculino , Morbidade , Estado Nutricional , Projetos Piloto , Fatores de Risco
8.
BMC Public Health ; 20(1): 517, 2020 Apr 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32303204

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Neglected tropical diseases (NTDs) comprise 20 communicable diseases that are prevalent in rural poor and remote communities with less access to the health system. For effective and efficient control, the WHO recommends that affected countries implement integrated control interventions that take into account the different co-endemic NTDs in the same community. However, implementing these integrated interventions involving several diseases with different etiologies, requiring different control approaches and driven by different vertical programs, remains a challenge. We report here the results and lessons learned from a pilot test of this integrated approach based on integrated screening of skin diseases in three co-endemic health districts of Côte d'Ivoire, a West African country endemic for Buruli ulcer, leprosy and yaw. METHOD: This cross-sectional study took place from April 2016 to March 2017 in 3 districts of Côte d'Ivoire co-endemic for BU, leprosy and yaws. The study was carried out in 6 stages: identification of potentially co-endemic communities; stakeholder training; social mobilization; mobile medical consultations; case detection and management; and a review meeting. RESULTS: We included in the study all patients with skin signs and symptoms at the screening stage who voluntarily accepted screening. In total, 2310 persons screened had skin lesions at the screening stage. Among them, 07 cases were diagnosed with Buruli ulcer. There were 30 leprosy cases and 15 yaws detected. Other types of ulcerations and skin conditions have been identified and represent the majority of cases detected. We learned from this pilot experience that integration can be successfully implemented in co-endemic communities in Côte d'Ivoire. Health workers are motivated and available to implement integrated interventions instead of interventions focused on a single disease. However, it is essential to provide capacity building, a minimum of drugs and consumables for the care of the patients identified, as well as follow-up of identified patients, including those with other skin conditions. CONCLUSIONS: The results of this study show that the integration of activities can be successfully implemented in co-endemic communities under the condition of staff capacity building and minimal care of identified patients.


Assuntos
Úlcera de Buruli/epidemiologia , Hanseníase/epidemiologia , Programas de Rastreamento/métodos , Mycobacterium leprae , Mycobacterium ulcerans , Doenças Negligenciadas/epidemiologia , Treponema pallidum/imunologia , Bouba/epidemiologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Úlcera de Buruli/diagnóstico , Úlcera de Buruli/microbiologia , Criança , Costa do Marfim/epidemiologia , Estudos Transversais , Doenças Endêmicas , Feminino , Humanos , Hanseníase/diagnóstico , Hanseníase/microbiologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Doenças Negligenciadas/diagnóstico , Doenças Negligenciadas/microbiologia , Projetos Piloto , Prevalência , População Rural , Bouba/diagnóstico , Bouba/microbiologia , Adulto Jovem
9.
Am J Trop Med Hyg ; 103(1): 209-213, 2020 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32285768

RESUMO

Identification of Mycobacterium leprae DNA by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) is a reliable and an affordable method to confirm leprosy. DNA from 87 nerve samples (61 from paraffin blocks and 26 fresh samples) was extracted. Mycobacterium leprae DNA was amplified by PCR from 80/87 (92%) specimens. Patients were seen over a period of 11 years (2007-2019), and leprosy was diagnosed based on clinical and characteristic histopathology findings. The clinical diagnostic possibilities were as follows: leprous neuropathy in 73/80 (91.3%), mononeuritis multiplex of unknown etiology in four (5.0%), vasculitic neuropathy in two (2.5%), and distal symmetric sensory motor neuropathy in one (1.3%). The biopsied nerves were as follows: superficial radial = 34 (42.6%), dorsal cutaneous branch of ulnar = 19 (23.8%), sural = 18 (22.5%), and superficial peroneal = 9 (11.3%), and corresponding neurological deficits were recorded in 77 (96.3%) cases. The histopathological diagnoses in total group were as follows: (borderline tuberculoid (BT) = 52, tuberculoid (TT) = 8, borderline lepromatous (BL) = 8, borderline borderline (BB) = 3, nonspecific inflammation = 3, healed/fibrosed = 4, and axonopathy = 2). Acid fast bacilli (AFB) was demonstrated in 11 (13.7%) samples. For comparison, 31 clinically and histopathologically defined non-leprous disease control nerves (inherited neuropathy = 20, vasculitis = 8, and nutritional neuropathy = 3) subjected to PCR were negative for M. leprae DNA. In most instances, there are multiple thickened peripheral nerves in suspected cases of leprosy, but neurological deficits pertaining to the thickened nerve are not as widespread. The current findings emphasize the importance of selecting the most appropriate nerve for biopsy to obtain a positive PCR result. We infer that clinical, histopathological, and PCR tests complement each other to help achieve a definitive diagnosis of leprosy particularly in pure neuritic leprosy and in leprous neuropathy with negative skin smears/biopsy.


Assuntos
Hanseníase/diagnóstico , Mycobacterium leprae/genética , Nervos Periféricos/microbiologia , Doenças do Sistema Nervoso Periférico/microbiologia , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Criança , DNA Bacteriano/genética , Humanos , Hanseníase/complicações , Hanseníase/microbiologia , Hanseníase/patologia , Hanseníase Paucibacilar/complicações , Hanseníase Paucibacilar/diagnóstico , Hanseníase Paucibacilar/microbiologia , Hanseníase Paucibacilar/patologia , Hanseníase Tuberculoide/complicações , Hanseníase Tuberculoide/diagnóstico , Hanseníase Tuberculoide/microbiologia , Hanseníase Tuberculoide/patologia , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Doenças do Sistema Nervoso Periférico/diagnóstico , Doenças do Sistema Nervoso Periférico/etiologia , Doenças do Sistema Nervoso Periférico/patologia , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase/métodos , Adulto Jovem
10.
Hautarzt ; 71(6): 419-427, 2020 Jun.
Artigo em Alemão | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32333041

RESUMO

Due to the often late detection and the neurological disability as a consequence of the disease, leprosy plays an important role in the public health system of emerging countries with the highest prevalence such as India and Brazil. The National Leprosy Control Program of the Ministry of Health and the Health Institutions of the Federal States in Brazil has implemented a strategy to ensure successful treatment of people in rural areas both at the preventive and curative level. A successful screening program, timely treatment of patients according to the stage of disease, and the introduction of preventive measures have significantly reduced the prevalence of leprosy in Brazil over the last 20 years. Due to limited medical care and socioeconomic weakness in the Amazon region in Brazil, the early eradication of leprosy does not seem to be currently realistic.


Assuntos
Doenças Endêmicas/prevenção & controle , Promoção da Saúde/organização & administração , Hanseníase/diagnóstico , Programas de Rastreamento , Saúde Pública , Brasil , Humanos , Avaliação de Programas e Projetos de Saúde
11.
Klin Lab Diagn ; 65(5): 289-293, 2020.
Artigo em Russo | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32298544

RESUMO

The glycoconjugates with BSA (bovine serum albumin) were synthesized using a next saccharide: disaccharide derivative M.leprae PGL-1 (phenolic glycolipid-1); a complex of the disaccharide fragment and the branched hexasaccharide fragment LAM (lipoarabinomannan); diarabinofuranose fragment LAM. These glycoconjugates were used as antigenic components for leprosy rapid serotest construction in immunochromatographic format (leprosy LF serotest). The data obtained with sera of leprosy patients, patients who have been in contact with leprosy, and healthy donors indicate that the most promising antigenic component is a BSA conjugate with two synthetic epitopes - a disaccharide derivative of PGL-1 and a branched hexasaccharide fragment of LAM. The leprosy LF serotest with such glycoconjugate demonstrated the greatest diagnostic sensitivity for main forms of leprosy - paucibacillary (PB) and multibacillary (MB).


Assuntos
Antígenos de Bactérias/imunologia , Glicoconjugados/química , Glicolipídeos/imunologia , Hanseníase/diagnóstico , Anticorpos Antibacterianos , Ensaio de Imunoadsorção Enzimática , Humanos , Imunoensaio , Hanseníase/sangue , Lipopolissacarídeos/química , Mycobacterium leprae , Testes Sorológicos
12.
Orthop Clin North Am ; 51(2): 279-291, 2020 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32138865

RESUMO

Hansen disease remains a common problem worldwide with 750,000 new cases diagnosed each year. Nerve injury is a central feature of the pathogenesis because of the unique tendency of Mycobacterium leprae to invade Schwann cells and the peripheral nervous system, that can be permanent and develop into disabilities. The orthopedic surgeon has an important role in the management of neuropathy, performing surgical release of the tibial and common peroneal nerves in potentially constricting areas, thus providing a better environment for nerve function. In cases of permanent loss of nerve function with drop foot, specific tendon transfers can be used.


Assuntos
Doenças do Pé/cirurgia , Hanseníase/cirurgia , Doenças do Sistema Nervoso Periférico/cirurgia , Doenças do Pé/diagnóstico , Doenças do Pé/tratamento farmacológico , Doenças do Pé/microbiologia , Humanos , Hanseníase/diagnóstico , Hanseníase/tratamento farmacológico , Hanseníase/microbiologia , Transferência de Nervo , Doenças do Sistema Nervoso Periférico/diagnóstico , Doenças do Sistema Nervoso Periférico/tratamento farmacológico , Doenças do Sistema Nervoso Periférico/etiologia
13.
Recurso na Internet em Português | LIS - Localizador de Informação em Saúde | ID: lis-46978

RESUMO

Você sabe o que é hanseníase? Muitas pessoas não sabem. Por isso, o mês de janeiro ganhou o título de ‘Janeiro Roxo’


Assuntos
Hanseníase , Hanseníase/diagnóstico
14.
PLoS Negl Trop Dis ; 14(2): e0007891, 2020 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32078623

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: A few new leprosy cases still can be seen in Shandong province after elimination. In post-elimination era, government commitments dwindled and active case-finding activities were seldom done. Most of the cases were detected by passive modes and advanced cases with longer delay and visible disability were common. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Comprehensive measures including health promotion, personnel training, reward-offering, symptom surveillance and a powerful referral center were implemented in the past decade. The diagnosis of leprosy was mainly based on three cardinal clinical signs. Two-group classification system developed by the WHO was used and cases were classified into multibacillary (MB) type or paucibacillary (PB) type. Cases detected during period 2007-2017 were analyzed and associated factors of grade 2 disability (G2D) were explored. RESULTS: 231 new leprosy cases detected during 2007-2017 were analyzed. The mean age at diagnosis is 51.7±16.0 years and the number of males, peasants, illiterates, MB cases, G2D cases and immigrants were 130(56.3%), 221(95.7%), 73(31.6%), 184(79.7%), 92(39.8%) and 40(17.3%) respectively. 181(78.4%) cases were reported by skin clinics and 152 (65.8%) cases came from formerly high endemic counties/districts. The annual number of new cases showed a decreasing trend, from 42 cases in 2008 to 13 cases in 2017. 92 (39.8%) cases presented with G2D at diagnosis. The annual proportion of new cases with G2D declined from 50% in 2008 to 23% in 2017. PB type (OR = 2.76, 95% CI, 1.43-5.32), >12 months of patient delay (OR = 2.40, 95% CI, 1.38-4.19), >24 months of total delay (OR = 4.35, 95% CI, 2.33-8.11), detected by non skin-clinic (OR = 3.21, 95% CI, 1.68-6.14), known infectious source (OR = 1.77, 95% CI, 1.01-3.12) were associated with G2D. CONCLUSION: A few scattered cases still can be seen in post-elimination era and some kind of leprosy control program is still necessary. Government commitments including adequate financial security and strong policy support are vital. Comprehensive case-finding measures including health promotion, personnel training, reward-offering, with an emphasis on former high or middle endemic areas, are necessary to improve early presentation of suspected cases and to increase suspicion and encourage participation of all relevant medical staff. Symptom surveillance based on a powerful transfer center may play an important role in the early detection of new cases in post-elimination era.


Assuntos
Hanseníase/diagnóstico , Hanseníase/epidemiologia , Adulto , Idoso , China/epidemiologia , Diagnóstico Precoce , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade
15.
Indian J Dermatol Venereol Leprol ; 86(3): 262-271, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31997794

RESUMO

Background: Trophic ulcers secondary to leprosy pose a great stigma to patients and remain a challenge to the treating dermatologists. Platelet-rich plasma (PRP) introduces growth factors directly into the wound and aids in rapid healing. The role of PRP in the treatment of trophic ulcers in leprosy patients has not yet been established by randomized controlled trials. Aims: To study the effectiveness and safety of autologous PRP therapy with total contact casting versus total contact casting alone in the treatment of trophic ulcers in leprosy. Methods: In an observer-blind, randomized (1:1) controlled study, 118 patients were enrolled. PRP was prepared by the manual double-spin method (1600 rpm for 10 min followed by 4000 rpm for 10 min). After wound bed preparation, activated PRP was injected intra- and perilesionally, and platelet-poor plasma gel was applied over the ulcer bed. Occlusive dressings and total contact casting were then applied in Group A, and only total contact casting was applied in Group B. The same procedure was repeated every 2 weeks for 8 weeks. Results: In all, 56 patients were analyzable in Group A and 52 in Group B. The surface area of the ulcer decreased significantly from first follow-up onward in both the groups (P < 0.001 in both the groups). Intergroup comparison showed that the reduction in the surface area of the ulcer was significantly more in Group A than in Group B from the first follow-up onward (P = 0.038) and the difference was maintained till the fifth follow-up (P < 0.001). At the end of the study, 91.10 ± 9.65% ulcer surface area reduction had occurred in Group A, whereas it was 79.77 ± 17.91% in Group B (P < 0.001). Trophic ulcers healed completely more often in paucibacillary leprosy patients (P < 0.001) and in those with a lower initial surface area of the ulcer (P < 0.001). Limitation: Short duration of treatment (8 weeks). Conclusion: PRP combined with total contact casting accelerates the healing of trophic ulcers of leprosy and is more effective than total contact casting alone. Complete remission is more likely to occur when the duration and surface area of ulcer are less and in the paucibacillary spectrum.


Assuntos
Hanseníase/diagnóstico , Hanseníase/terapia , Plasma Rico em Plaquetas , Úlcera Cutânea/diagnóstico , Úlcera Cutânea/terapia , Adulto , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Método Simples-Cego , Transplante Autólogo/métodos , Resultado do Tratamento , Cicatrização/fisiologia , Adulto Jovem
16.
J Appl Microbiol ; 128(6): 1814-1819, 2020 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31981442

RESUMO

AIMS: Diagnosis of leprosy, a chronic infection caused by Mycobacterium leprae, predominantly depends on clinical manifestations and histopathological analysis, hampering rapid and accurate diagnostics. Our aim was to increase accuracy of leprosy diagnosis by improving M. leprae's DNA detection based on polymerase chain reaction (PCR) technique using new specific primers for the RLEP repetitive sequence. METHODS AND RESULTS: The specific target region, RLEP, of M. leprae's genome was selected based on comparative genomics. After confirming the specificity of this region, using blastn analysis, primers were designed and tested for their in silico specificity. To evaluate the specificity and sensitivity of these primers in vitro, 184 blood samples from patients were used in qPCR. The new primer pair LYON1/LYON2 produced 91% positive samples, whereas the current primer pair LP1/LP2 produced 46%. Specificity and DNA detection limit test were carried out to compare the efficiency of the developed primer pair. The LYON1/LYON2 primer showed 100% specificity, whereas LP1/LP2 showed 64%. The DNA detection limit of LYON1/LYON2 was 10 copies of bacterial genomes per millilitre, whereas LP1/LP2 was 1000 copies of bacterial genomes per millilitre. CONCLUSIONS: In conclusion, the developed LYON1/LYON2 primer pair presented to be a specific and sensitive new molecular marker for the diagnosis of leprosy. SIGNIFICANCE AND IMPACT OF THE STUDY: The development of a specific primer pair for the detection of the M. leprae genome through qPCR technique contributes to a fast, sensitive and specific diagnosis, which is essential to prevent spreading and progression of this disease.


Assuntos
Hanseníase/diagnóstico , Técnicas de Diagnóstico Molecular/métodos , Mycobacterium leprae/isolamento & purificação , DNA Bacteriano/genética , Feminino , Genoma Bacteriano/genética , Humanos , Sequências Repetitivas Dispersas/genética , Hanseníase/sangue , Hanseníase/microbiologia , Mycobacterium leprae/genética , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase em Tempo Real , Sensibilidade e Especificidade
17.
Diagn Microbiol Infect Dis ; 96(4): 114984, 2020 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31954594

RESUMO

Simple measures that can facilitate early recognition of leprosy complications are still lacking. We therefore evaluated a lateral flow-based rapid diagnostic test and fast enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay measuring anti-LID-NDO antibody responses among leprosy cases in Cebu, Philippines. Responses were measured at diagnosis, then during and after the provision of standard multidrug therapy. Our data indicate that both platforms are highly sensitive tools for the primary diagnosis of, in particular, multibacillary leprosy. A gradual, quantifiable decline in both magnitude of response and percent positive responders was observed during and after treatment. As a group, patients that developed erythema nodosum leprosum (ENL) had a significantly higher response at diagnosis than patients that either developed reversal reactions or did not develop reactions. Although higher initial anti-NDO-LID responses were a risk factor for ENL, neither platform, however, could reliably predict the time of emergence of reactional episodes.


Assuntos
Anticorpos Antibacterianos/sangue , Hansenostáticos/uso terapêutico , Hanseníase/diagnóstico , Hanseníase/tratamento farmacológico , Mycobacterium leprae/efeitos dos fármacos , Adulto , Quimioterapia Combinada , Ensaio de Imunoadsorção Enzimática/normas , Eritema Nodoso/diagnóstico , Eritema Nodoso/tratamento farmacológico , Feminino , Humanos , Imunoensaio , Imunoglobulina M/sangue , Hanseníase/complicações , Hanseníase Virchowiana/diagnóstico , Hanseníase Virchowiana/tratamento farmacológico , Hanseníase Multibacilar/diagnóstico , Hanseníase Multibacilar/tratamento farmacológico , Estudos Longitudinais , Masculino , Filipinas , Testes Sorológicos
18.
PLoS One ; 14(12): e0223042, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31794554

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Many neglected tropical diseases (NTDs) are not fatal, but they are disabling, disfiguring and stigmatizing. More accurate data on these aspects would benefit planning, monitoring and evaluation of interventions, as well as provision of appropriate services for the often life-long consequences. In 2015, a cross-NTD toolkit was developed, consisting of a variety of existing questionnaires to measure morbidity, disability and health-related quality of life. The toolkit covers the domains of the International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health (ICF) framework. These tools have been developed in a source country, however, it was intended for the cross-NTD toolkit to be applicable across NTDs in many countries with different cultures and languages in order to generate universally comparative data. Therefore; the present study aimed to validate several tools of the toolkit among people affected by leprosy or leishmaniasis in the cultural settings of Cartagena and Cúcuta, Colombia. METHODOLOGY: This study aimed to validate the following tools among 55 participants between 18-85 years old, affected by leprosy and leishmaniasis: (I) Clinical Profile, (II) Self-Reporting Questionnaire (SRQ), (III) WHO Quality of Life assessment-abbreviated version (WHOQOL-BREF), and (IV) WHO Quality of Life assessment-Disability (WHOQOL-DIS). The tools were administered during face-to-face interviews and were followed by open questions about the respondents' thoughts on format of the tool and the understanding, relevance and acceptability of the items. The tools were validated using a qualitative method approach based on the framework for cultural equivalence, measured by the cultural, item, semantic and operational equivalences. RESULTS: The Clinical Profile was seen as acceptable and relevant, only the semantic equivalence was not as satisfying and needs a few adaptations. The SRQ was very well understood and shows to reach the equivalences for the population of Colombia without any additional changes. Several items of the WHOQOL-BREF and the WHOQOL-DIS were not well understood and changes are recommended due to semantic difficulties. Operational equivalence of both questionnaires was not as desired in relation to the used response scales. The participants shared that the tools are relevant and important for their particular situation. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: The SRQ is found to be a valid tool for Colombia and can be included in the cross-NTD toolkit. The Clinical Profile, WHOQOL-BREF & WHOQOL-DIS need changes and retesting among Colombian people affected by an NTD. The toolkit as a whole is seen as useful to show the effects leprosy and leishmaniasis have on the participants. This cultural validation will contribute to a universally applicable cross-NTD toolkit.


Assuntos
Doenças Negligenciadas/diagnóstico , Psicometria/métodos , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Colômbia , Comparação Transcultural , Feminino , Humanos , Leishmaniose/diagnóstico , Hanseníase/diagnóstico , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Morbidade , Doenças Negligenciadas/mortalidade , Satisfação Pessoal , Qualidade de Vida , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Projetos de Pesquisa , Autorrelato , Inquéritos e Questionários , Medicina Tropical
19.
BMC Infect Dis ; 19(1): 1016, 2019 Nov 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31783799

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Leprosy is a neglected disease that poses a significant challenge to public health in Uganda. The disease is endemic in Uganda, with 40% of the districts in the country affected in 2016, when 42 out of 112 districts notified the National Tuberculosis and Leprosy Program (NTLP) of at least one case of leprosy. We determined the spatial and temporal trends of leprosy in Uganda during 2012-2016 to inform control measures. METHODS: We analyzed quarterly leprosy case-finding data, reported from districts to the Uganda National Leprosy Surveillance system (managed by NTLP) during 2012-2016. We calculated new case detection by reporting district and administrative regions of treatment during this period. New case detection was defined as new leprosy cases diagnosed by the Uganda health services divided by regional population; population estimates were based on 2014 census data. We used logistic regression analysis in Epi-Info version 7.2.0 to determine temporal trends. Population estimates were based on 2014 census data. We used QGIS software to draw choropleth maps showing leprosy case detection rates, assumed to approximate the new case detection rates, per 100,000 population. RESULTS: During 2012-2016, there was 7% annual decrease in reported leprosy cases in Uganda each year (p = 0.0001), largely driven by declines in the eastern (14%/year, p = 0.0008) and central (11%/year, p = 0.03) regions. Declines in reported cases in the western (9%/year, p = 0.12) and northern (4%/year, p = 0.16) regions were not significant. The combined new case detection rates from 2012 to 2016 for the ten most-affected districts showed that 70% were from the northern region, 20% from the eastern, 10% from the western and 10% from the central regions. CONCLUSION: There was a decreasing trend in leprosy new case detection in Uganda during 2012-2016; however, the declining trends were not consistent in all regions. The Northern region consistently identified more leprosy cases compared to the other regions. We recommend evaluation of the leprosy surveillance system to ascertain the leprosy situation.


Assuntos
Hanseníase/diagnóstico , Bases de Dados Factuais , Humanos , Hanseníase/epidemiologia , Modelos Logísticos , Vigilância em Saúde Pública , Estudos Retrospectivos , Análise Espaço-Temporal , Uganda/epidemiologia
20.
Fontilles, Rev. leprol ; 32(3): 163-168, sept.-dic. 2019. ilus
Artigo em Espanhol | IBECS | ID: ibc-189963

RESUMO

El síndrome de inmunodeficiencia humana conocido por las siglas SIDA, y la lepra son enfermedades estigmatizadas por la sociedad lo que se debe, fundamentalmente al impacto social producido por dichas entidades. La lepra ha afligido a la humanidad desde tiempos inmemorables. Se trata de un paciente blanco, masculino, de 24 años de edad, con antecedentes de ser VIH positivo, que marcó SIDA, desde hace aproximadamente cinco años, que acude a consulta por presentar lesiones nodulares de diferentes tamaños, localizadas en miembros superiores y en cara principalmente en la frente, pabellones auriculares y cejas, las cuales no pican ni duelen, algunas se encuentran exulceradas y tienen una evolución de aproximadamente un año. Al examen dermatológico se constata cuadro cutáneo diseminado, caracterizado por la presencia de nódulos eritematosos, con trastornos de la sensibilidad, en número y tamaños variables a nivel en miembros superiores y en cara principalmente en la frente, pabellones auriculares y cejas, algunos de los cuales presentan exulceraciones centrales y en otras costras hemáticas. Se constata además infiltración del rostro a nivel de los salientes, atrofia de la región tenar e hipotenar, nervios cubitales engrosados, no dolorosos, de forma simétrica y bilateral. Esta forma clínica suele presentarse en forma de placas, máculas, pápulas, nódulos, variables en número, de distribución simétrica y bilateral que pueden o no acompañarse de áreas con anestesia. Pueden afectarse numerosos nervios y la baciloscopía suele ser positiva. La infección por VIH/SIDA afecta la inmunidad celular mediada por linfocitos T CD4+. Los pacientes portadores de VIH/SIDA, al cual se le diagnostica lepra, pueden presentar síndrome inflamatorio de reconstitución inmunitaria tras iniciar el tratamiento


The human immunodeficiency syndrome known by the acronym AIDS, and leprosy are diseases stigmatized by society, which is mainly due to the social impact produced by these entities. Leprosy has afflicted humanity since time immemorial. We report a case of a white male patient, 24 years old, with a history of being HIV positive, and diagnosed of AIDS approximately five years ago who attended the clinic for presenting nodular lesions of different sizes. They were located in upper limbs and in face mainly on the forehead, ear pavilions and eyebrows. They do not itch or hurt; some are ulcerated and have an evolution of approximately one year. The dermatological examination shows disseminated cutaneous symptoms, characterized by the presence of erythematous nodules, with variable sensitivity disorders of the upper limbs and in the face mainly on the forehead, ear pavilions and eyebrows, some of which have central ulcerations and blood scabs. He also presented infiltration on the face, atrophy of the tenar and hypothenar region, thickened symmetrically and bilaterally but not painful ulnar nerves. This clinical type usually occurs in the form of plaques, macules, papules, nodules, variable in number with symmetrical and bilateral distribution that may or may not be accompanied by areas with anesthesia. Several nerves can be affected and the skin smear is usually positive. HIV/AIDS infection affects cell immunity mediated by CD4 + T cells. Patients with HIV/AIDS, who are diagnosed with leprosy, may present immune reconstitution inflammatory syndrome after starting treatment


Assuntos
Humanos , Masculino , Adulto Jovem , Infecções Oportunistas Relacionadas com a AIDS/diagnóstico , Hanseníase/diagnóstico
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