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3.
Rev Soc Bras Med Trop ; 53: e20200246, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33111909

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Leprosy is a chronic infectious disease caused by Mycobacterium leprae.This study aimed to analyze the epidemiological, temporal, and spatial dynamics ofleprosy in a municipality in northeastern Brazil. METHODS: This is an ecological study on new leprosy cases in the population of Arapiraca (Alagoas, Northeast Region, Brazil), from 2008 to 2017. Data extracted from a national database were analyzed forepidemiological indicators, factors associated with physical disabilities, and spatialanalysis in the neighborhoods of Arapiraca. RESULTS: A total of 292 new cases of leprosy were recorded, particularly occurring among the following groups: women, the age group of 46-59 years, brown-skinned individuals, people with less than eight years of schooling, and urban residents; the new cases were also predominantly the tuberculoid form and were of the paucibacillary classification of the disease. Almost 1/3 of the people had some degree of physical disability, which was mainly associated with the group 60 years of age and older, black ethnicity, and the multibacillary clinical form of leprosy. The joinpoint regression showed a stationary temporal behavior of indicators. There was a heterogeneous spatial distribution with active transmission areas, especially in the neighborhoods Primavera, Baixão, Ouro Preto, and downtown. CONCLUSIONS: The epidemiological indicators revealed complexity in the process of leprosy development. These spatial and temporal studies are relevant to help in the planning, monitoring, and guidance of interventions in the municipality. The spatial analysis showed heterogeneous distribution in the analyzed neighborhoods.


Assuntos
Hanseníase , Adolescente , Adulto , Brasil/epidemiologia , Pessoas com Deficiência , Feminino , Humanos , Hanseníase/epidemiologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Mycobacterium leprae , Análise Espacial , Adulto Jovem
4.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33027396

RESUMO

The study aimed to analyze the impact of health interventions carried out in the city of Palmas, Brazil, on the epidemiological and operational indicators of leprosy between 2007 and 2017. The intervention consisted of training healthcare personnel on the diagnosis and follow-up of patients and organizing the referral of patients to health units. Estimates of the impact were calculated by taking the differences between indicators reported in two equal periods of 1.5 years pre- and post-intervention, with a transition period of six months. During the study period, the database contained 1,875 notifications, with 66% of cases diagnosed in the post-intervention period. There was a predominance of males (52%); aged 50 years or more (34.9%); with mixed ethnicity (63.5%). The low level of education was noticeable, with more than half of the cases (51.7%) reporting illiteracy or ≤ 7 years of education. The intervention resulted in an increase in both, epidemiological and operational indicators, suggesting a positive impact of the intervention on leprosy detection and treatment. Our results also emphasize the need for further studies addressing the impact of pragmatic health interventions aiming at controlling and eliminating the disease.


Assuntos
Conhecimentos, Atitudes e Prática em Saúde , Hanseníase/epidemiologia , Brasil/epidemiologia , Pessoal de Saúde , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Encaminhamento e Consulta
5.
PLoS One ; 15(9): e0239186, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32941501

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The Stigma Scale of the Explanatory Model Interview Catalogue (EMIC-SS) is a useful option to investigate leprosy-related stigma, but its psychometric qualities are unknown in Brazil. This study investigated the factor structure, the convergent and known-groups validity, and the reliability of the EMIC-SS for Brazilians affected by leprosy. METHODOLOGY: The Brazilian Portuguese version of the EMIC-SS was validated in 180 persons affected by leprosy at a Reference Center in Rio de Janeiro. Confirmatory factorial analysis (CFA) and Cronbach alpha were used to assess the EMIC-SS internal consistency. The Construct validity was tested using Spearman Correlation, Kruskal-Wallis, and Mann-Whitney tests comparing with the Participation Scale, Rosenberg Self-esteem Scale, Beck Depression Inventory, and a Sociodemographic Questionnaire. Test-retest reliability was evaluated with intra-class correlation (ICC). MAIN FINDINGS: CFA confirmed the one- and two-dimensional models of the scale after retaining 12 of the 15 EMIC-SS items. The 12-item EMIC-SS was consistent (α = 0.78) and reproducible (ICC = 0.751, 95% Confidence Interval = 0.657-0.822, p < 0.0001). A significant correlation was observed between the EMIC-SS and the other scales confirming convergent validity. The EMIC-SS and its factors were able to differentiate several hypothesized groups (age, change of occupation, monthly family income, communicating others about the disease, and perception of difficulty to follow treatment) confirming the scale known-groups validity, both in its one and two-dimensional models. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Our study found support for the construct validity and reliability of the EMIC-SS as a measure of stigma experienced by people affected by leprosy in Brazil. However, future studies are necessary in other samples and populations with stigmatizing conditions to determine the optimal factor structure and to strengthen the indications of the validated scale.


Assuntos
Hanseníase/psicologia , Estigma Social , Inquéritos e Questionários/normas , Adolescente , Adulto , Brasil , Características Culturais , Feminino , Humanos , Hanseníase/epidemiologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Psicometria/métodos , Psicometria/normas , Fatores Socioeconômicos
6.
PLoS Negl Trop Dis ; 14(9): e0008611, 2020 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32936805

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The aim of this study is to explore whether transmission of M. leprae has ceased in Spain, based upon the patterns and trends of notified cases. METHODOLOGY: Data on new cases reported to the National Leprosy Registry between the years 2003-2018 were extracted. In absence of detailed travel history, cases were considered "autochthonous" or "imported" based on whether they were born within or outside of Spain. These data were analyzed by age, sex, clinical type, country of origin, and location of residence at time of notification. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Data were available on 61 autochthonous and 199 imported cases since 2003. There were clear declines in incidence in both groups, and more imported than autochthonous cases every year since 2006. Autochthonous cases were more frequently multibacillary and had older age at diagnosis compared to imported cases. All the autochthonous cases had been born before 1985 and were more than 25 years old at diagnosis. Male-to-female ratio increased with time for autochthonous cases (except for the last time period). The imported cases originated from 25 countries, half of them from Brasil and Paraguay. Autochthonous cases were mainly distributed in the traditionally endemic regions, especially Andalucía and the eastern Mediterranean coast. CONCLUSIONS: Autochthonous and imported cases have different epidemiologic patterns in Spain. There was a clear decline in incidence rates of autochthonous disease, and patterns consistent with those reported from other regions where transmission has ceased. Autochthonous transmission of M. leprae is likely to have now effectively stopped in Spain.


Assuntos
Hanseníase/epidemiologia , Hanseníase/transmissão , Adulto , Fatores Etários , Idoso , Feminino , Geografia , Humanos , Incidência , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Mycobacterium leprae/isolamento & purificação , Fatores Sexuais , Espanha/epidemiologia , Viagem
7.
Postgrad Med J ; 96(1140): 633-638, 2020 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32907877

RESUMO

After the dramatic coronavirus outbreak at the end of 2019 in Wuhan, Hubei province, China, on 11 March 2020, a pandemic was declared by the WHO. Most countries worldwide imposed a quarantine or lockdown to their citizens, in an attempt to prevent uncontrolled infection from spreading. Historically, quarantine is the 40-day period of forced isolation to prevent the spread of an infectious disease. In this educational paper, a historical overview from the sacred temples of ancient Greece-the cradle of medicine-to modern hospitals, along with the conceive of healthcare systems, is provided. A few foods for thought as to the conflict between ethics in medicine and shortage of personnel and financial resources in the coronavirus disease 2019 era are offered as well.


Assuntos
Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Ética Médica/história , Alocação de Recursos para a Atenção à Saúde/ética , Hospitais/história , Pandemias/história , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Quarentena/história , Betacoronavirus , Cólera/epidemiologia , Cólera/história , Mão de Obra em Saúde , Juramento Hipocrático , História do Século XV , História do Século XVI , História do Século XVII , História do Século XVIII , História do Século XIX , História do Século XX , História do Século XXI , História Antiga , História Medieval , Humanos , Hanseníase/epidemiologia , Hanseníase/história , Peste/epidemiologia , Peste/história , Alocação de Recursos , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia
8.
PLoS Negl Trop Dis ; 14(8): e0008329, 2020 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32760161

RESUMO

The drug thalidomide has resurged in the world market under restrictive conditions for marketing and use. In Brazil, there are still cases of pregnant women using thalidomide even after the implementation of laws that regulate the control of use (Law No. 10.651/2003 and Collegiate Board Resolution No. 11/2011). The objective of this study was to discuss the control of thalidomide use in Brazil, based on a scoping review of the scientific literature, documents, and data from the Ministry of Health. A total of 51 studies and documents related to the following subthemes were selected: (1) organization of access and use of thalidomide in the health system; (2) epidemiological and population characteristics of people affected by leprosy; and (3) occurrence of pregnancy and cases of embryopathy with the use of thalidomide. The results showed that Brazil has no unified information database about thalidomide patients. Furthermore, there is inconsistency in the accreditation of public health centers that dispense this medicine, in a country that has a high consumption of thalidomide in the Unified Health System. A large part of this amount of dispensed medicine is intended for the treatment of erythema nodosum leprosum, mainly in the North, Northeast, and Central-West regions of the country, which are endemic for leprosy. This disease is the only one among the clinical indications of the medicine approved in Brazil that does not have a Clinical Protocol and Therapeutic Guidelines. The control of thalidomide use in Brazil presents historical regulatory failures. These are currently linked to the organization and structure of primary healthcare in the country, as well as to the lack of leadership of the Ministry of Health and National Health Surveillance Agency when it comes to managing the process of control of this use.


Assuntos
Hanseníase/tratamento farmacológico , Talidomida/efeitos adversos , Talidomida/uso terapêutico , Anormalidades Induzidas por Medicamentos/epidemiologia , Brasil/epidemiologia , Eritema Nodoso/tratamento farmacológico , Feminino , Humanos , Hansenostáticos/efeitos adversos , Hansenostáticos/uso terapêutico , Hanseníase/epidemiologia , Hanseníase Virchowiana/tratamento farmacológico , Masculino , Gravidez
9.
PLoS One ; 15(8): e0237165, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32764785

RESUMO

This study's objective was to estimate the temporal trends of leprosy according to sex and age groups, as well as to estimate and predict the progression of the disease in a hyperendemic city located in the northeast of Brazil. This ecological time-series study was conducted in Imperatriz, Maranhão, Brazil. Leprosy cases diagnosed between 2006 and 2016 were included. Detection rates stratified by sex and age groups were estimated. The study of temporal trends was accomplished using the Seasonal-Trend Decomposition method and temporal modeling of detection rates using linear seasonal autoregressive integrated moving average model according to Box and Jenkins method. Trend forecasts were performed for the 2017-2020 period. A total of 3,212 cases of leprosy were identified, the average incidence among men aged between 30 and 59 years old was 201.55/100,000 inhabitants and among women in the same age group was 135.28/100,000 inhabitants. Detection rates in total and by sex presented a downward trend, though rates stratified according to sex and age presented a growing trend among men aged less than 15 years old and among women aged 60 years old or over. The final models selected in the time-series analysis show the forecasts of total detection rates and rates for men and women presented a downward trend for the 2017-2020 period. Even though the forecasts show a downward trend in Imperatriz, the city is unlikely to meet a significant decrease of the disease burden by 2020.


Assuntos
Doenças Endêmicas/estatística & dados numéricos , Previsões/métodos , Hanseníase/epidemiologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Fatores Etários , Brasil/epidemiologia , Cidades/estatística & dados numéricos , Feminino , Humanos , Incidência , Modelos Lineares , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Fatores Sexuais , Fatores de Tempo , Adulto Jovem
10.
PLoS Negl Trop Dis ; 14(8): e0008563, 2020 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32797081

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Early diagnosis remains the primary goal for leprosy management programs. This study aims to determine whether active surveillance of patients with leprosy and their contact individuals increased identification of latent leprosy cases in the low-endemic areas. METHODS: This cross-sectional survey was carried out between October 2014 and August 2016 in 21 counties throughout Shandong Province. The survey was conducted among patients with leprosy released from treatment (RFT) and their contacts from both household and neighbors. RESULTS: A total of 2,210 RFT patients and 9,742 contacts comprising 7877 household contacts (HHCs), including 5,844 genetic related family members (GRFMs) and 2033 non-genetic related family members and 1,865 contacts living in neighboring houses (neighbor contacts, NCs), were recruited. Among identified individuals, one relapsed and 13 were newly diagnosed, giving a detection rate of 0.12%, corresponding to 120 times the passive case detection rate. Detection rates were similar for HHCs and NCs (0.114% vs. 0.214%, P = 0.287). Analysis of the family history of leprosy patients revealed clustering of newly diagnosed cases and association with residential coordinates of previously-diagnosed multibacillary leprosy cases. CONCLUSION: Active case-finding programs are feasible and contributes to early case detection by tracking HHCs and NCs in low-endemic areas.


Assuntos
Características da Família , Hanseníase/diagnóstico , Hanseníase/epidemiologia , Hanseníase/terapia , Características de Residência , Conduta Expectante , Adolescente , Adulto , Criança , Pré-Escolar , China/epidemiologia , Análise por Conglomerados , Estudos Transversais , Família , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Hanseníase Multibacilar , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Adulto Jovem
13.
Int J Infect Dis ; 98: 6-13, 2020 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32553715

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Understanding the nature of Mycobacterium leprae transmission is vital to implement better control strategies for leprosy elimination. The present study expands the knowledge of county-level strain diversity, distribution, and transmission patterns of leprosy in endemic provinces of China. METHODS: We genetically characterized 290 clinical isolates of M. leprae from four endemic provinces using variable number tandem repeats (VNTR) and single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs). Attained genetic profiles and cluster consequences were contrasted with geographical and migration features of leprosy at county levels. RESULTS: Considering the allelic variability of 17 VNTR loci by the discriminatory index, (GTA)9, (AT)17, (AT)15, (TA)18, (TTC)21, and (TA)10 are reported to be more highly polymorphic than other loci. The VNTR profile generated the low-density clustering pattern in the counties of Sichuan and Yunnan, whereas clusters have been observed from the isolates from Huayuan (N = 6), Yongding (N = 3), Zixing (N = 3), Chenxi (N = 2) and Zhongfang (N = 2) counties of Hunan, and Zhijin (N = 3), Anlong (N = 2), Zhenning (N = 2), and Xixiu (N = 2) counties of Guizhou. In some clusters, people's social relations have been observed between villages. From the 290 clinical isolates, the most predominantly reported SNP was 3K (278, 95.8%), followed by SNP 1D (10, 3.4%), which are typically observed to be predominant in China. We also detected the novel SNP 3J (2, 0.8%), which has not yet been reported in China. CONCLUSION: The clustering pattern of M. leprae indicates the transmission of leprosy still persists at county levels, suggesting that there is a need to implement better approaches for tracing the close contacts of leprosy patients.


Assuntos
Hanseníase/microbiologia , Mycobacterium leprae/isolamento & purificação , Alelos , China/epidemiologia , Análise por Conglomerados , DNA Bacteriano/genética , Genótipo , Geografia , Humanos , Hanseníase/epidemiologia , Hanseníase/transmissão , Repetições Minissatélites , Epidemiologia Molecular , Mycobacterium leprae/classificação , Mycobacterium leprae/genética , Filogenia , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único
14.
Trop Doct ; 50(4): 311-317, 2020 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32576099

RESUMO

An observational pilot study was conducted to assess the nutritional status and morbidity profile of childhood contacts of leprosy in an endemic area (Chengalpattu) in India. A total of 70 such children were included in the study. Sociodemographic data were collected using a one-to-one interview method and the children were evaluated by dermatologists qualified in paediatric leprosy. The obtained data were computed. Three children were diagnosed to have leprosy through this study. Nutritional status assessment in these children demonstrated malnutrition, a common finding. Regular contact screening of children in endemic areas for early case detection, disability prevention and thereby prevention of community transmission is mandatory. Further research is needed concerning the role of malnutrition in children and its relation to morbidity in leprosy. The closeness and duration of contact of leprosy is also an important risk factor. Effective strategies to diagnose subclinical infection are needed.


Assuntos
Saúde da Criança , Hanseníase/epidemiologia , Hanseníase/transmissão , Saúde da População Rural , Adolescente , Criança , Diagnóstico Precoce , Feminino , Humanos , Índia/epidemiologia , Hanseníase/diagnóstico , Hanseníase/prevenção & controle , Masculino , Morbidade , Estado Nutricional , Projetos Piloto , Fatores de Risco
15.
An Bras Dermatol ; 95(4): 508-510, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32522447

RESUMO

This study analyzed the trend of leprosy indicators in Sergipe, between 2001 and 2015. It was a time series study that analyzed the trend for general detection coefficient, children under 15 years of age, and new cases with grade 2 disability. The joinpoint model was used. Two (2.6%) municipalities had an increasing trend in general detection coefficient, five (6.6%) had an increasing trend in detection rate in children under 15, and 19 (25.3%) had an increasing trend in detection coefficient of new leprosy cases with grade 2 disability. The findings suggest maintenance of the chain of transmission.


Assuntos
Hanseníase/epidemiologia , Brasil/epidemiologia , Criança , Cidades , Pessoas com Deficiência , Monitoramento Epidemiológico , Humanos , Análise de Regressão
16.
PLoS Negl Trop Dis ; 14(6): e0008393, 2020 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32598386

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Non-healing plantar ulcers are one of the significant causes of disability in leprosy patients. Plantar ulcers often take months or years to heal, affecting the patient's quality of life. Presence of comorbid conditions in these patients can delay wound healing. The study aimed to evaluate the role of associated comorbid conditions as risk factors in ulcer healing. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: A total of 66 leprosy patients with plantar ulcers registered at LEPRA Society-Blue Peter Public Health and Research Center (BPHRC), Hyderabad, India from June 2018 to June 2019 were studied. Comprehensive clinical assessment was done, including screening for comorbid conditions and treated as per the recommended guidelines. About two-thirds of the participants were aged 50 and above, of which more than half were illiterates, and 93.5% were living below the poverty line. Majority of ulcers were seen on the forefoot; with the head of meta-tarsal bone 27 (41.6%) as the commonest site, followed by calcaneum 23 (38.3%) and great toe 10 (16.6%). Mean ulcer depth was 0.61 (0.57) cm, the area was 5.24 (6.73) cm2 and ulcer volume was 4.72 (14.33) cm3. Ulcer dimensions were significantly associated with low body mass index, hypertension and smoking. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Identifying the risk factors delaying wound healing and detailed assessment of ulcers are of profound importance to predict the outcome of plantar ulcers in leprosy patients. The study findings indicate the need for better policies by the leprosy control program for the comprehensive management of plantar ulcers.


Assuntos
Comorbidade , Úlcera do Pé/complicações , Hanseníase/complicações , Adulto , Idoso , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , , Úlcera do Pé/epidemiologia , Humanos , Índia/epidemiologia , Hanseníase/epidemiologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Pobreza , Fatores de Risco , Cicatrização
17.
PLoS Negl Trop Dis ; 14(5): e0008291, 2020 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32421709

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Skin-related neglected tropical diseases (skin NTDs) occur against a background of a very high prevalence of common skin diseases in sub-Saharan Africa. In this study, we examined the knowledge, attitude and practices (KAP) and the impact of common skin diseases in children living in a leprosy and Buruli ulcer (BU) co-endemic district in a west African country of Côte d'Ivoire, in order to help inform disease control efforts for skin NTDs. METHODS AND PRINCIPLE FINDINGS: Fourteen focus group discussions (FGDs) with schoolchildren, 5 FGDs with parents of a child affected with skin disease(s), and 27 in-depth semi-structured interviews with key personnel were conducted. The Children's Dermatology Quality of Life Index (CDLQI) questionnaire was applied to 184 schoolchildren with skin diseases. We found that there was ignorance or neglect towards skin diseases in general, due to their high prevalence and also the perceived minimal impact on children's daily lives. While the median score for the CDLQI questionnaire was 5 (IQR 2-9) out of 30, a range of scores was observed. Symptoms such as pruritus and experiencing bullying by classmates contributed to reduction in their quality of life. Poor hygiene was considered as a major cause of skin diseases. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Despite their high impact on affected populations, we observed a high level of ignorance and neglect toward common skin diseases. There is a critical need to increase awareness of skin diseases, or skin health promotion, which supports changing of the health-seeking behaviour for skin conditions. This will aid in early detection and treatment of the skin NTDs, in addition to providing benefits for those affected by other skin diseases. Educational opportunities should be utilized to their utmost. One would be associated with water, sanitation, and hygiene (WASH) strategies, but careful messages need to be developed and delivered.


Assuntos
Úlcera de Buruli/epidemiologia , Doenças Endêmicas , Conhecimentos, Atitudes e Prática em Saúde , Hanseníase/epidemiologia , Doenças Negligenciadas/epidemiologia , População Rural , Adolescente , Úlcera de Buruli/prevenção & controle , Criança , Controle de Doenças Transmissíveis/métodos , Controle de Doenças Transmissíveis/organização & administração , Costa do Marfim/epidemiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Entrevistas como Assunto , Hanseníase/prevenção & controle , Masculino , Doenças Negligenciadas/prevenção & controle , Prevalência
18.
PLoS Pathog ; 16(5): e1008565, 2020 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32421744

RESUMO

Leprosy is a chronic infectious disease of the skin and peripheral nerves with a strong genetic predisposition. Recent genome-wide approaches have identified numerous common variants associated with leprosy, almost all in the Chinese population. We conducted the first family-based genome-wide association study of leprosy in 622 affected offspring from Vietnam, followed by replication in an independent sample of 1181 leprosy cases and 668 controls of the same ethnic origin. The most significant results were observed within the HLA region, in which six SNPs displayed genome-wide significant associations, all of which were replicated in the independent case/control sample. We investigated the signal in the HLA region in more detail, by conducting a multivariate analysis on the case/control sample of 319 GWAS-suggestive HLA hits for which evidence for replication was obtained. We identified three independently associated SNPs, two located in the HLA class I region (rs1265048: OR = 0.69 [0.58-0.80], combined p-value = 5.53x10-11; and rs114598080: OR = 1.47 [1.46-1.48], combined p-value = 8.77x10-13), and one located in the HLA class II region (rs3187964 (OR = 1.67 [1.55-1.80], combined p-value = 8.35x10-16). We also validated two previously identified risk factors for leprosy: the missense variant rs3764147 in the LACC1 gene (OR = 1.52 [1.41-1.63], combined p-value = 5.06x10-14), and the intergenic variant rs6871626 located close to the IL12B gene (OR = 0.73 [0.61-0.84], combined p-value = 6.44x10-8). These results shed new light on the genetic control of leprosy, by dissecting the influence of HLA SNPs, and validating the independent role of two additional variants in a large Vietnamese sample.


Assuntos
Antígenos de Histocompatibilidade Classe II/genética , Antígenos de Histocompatibilidade Classe I/genética , Hanseníase/genética , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Feminino , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Humanos , Subunidade p40 da Interleucina-12/genética , Peptídeos e Proteínas de Sinalização Intracelular/genética , Hanseníase/epidemiologia , Masculino
19.
Int J Infect Dis ; 96: 172-179, 2020 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32371193

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Human-to-human transmission of Mycobacterium leprae among household contacts of active leprosy cases is significant, and surveillance of household contacts is vital to interrupting the transmission chain for this disease. This study was conducted to identify similarities in M. leprae strains, based on genomic single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs), among cases and their household contacts and in multicase families in order to decipher possible associations, transmission links, various clinical conditions of index cases that enhance person-to-person transmission, and timelines for transmission patterns. METHODS: PCR for M. leprae DNA detection (amplification of the Rlep gene) and SNP subtyping of M. leprae strains was performed for 61 index cases and one of their household contacts. Additionally, we studied six families with multiple cases of leprosy, to understand timelines of infectivity and its relation to severity of the disease in the index cases. RESULTS: Index cases with lepromatous (LL) and borderline lepromatous (BL) leprosy, together with a positive bacteriological index (BI) for M. leprae, result in a higher percentage of their contacts subclinically infected with M. leprae, with odds ratios (OR) of 6.6 (95% confidence interval (CI) 1.6-27.6) for BL and LL, and 7.07 (CI 1.41-35.41) for BI-positive index cases. 75% of the case-contact pairs had a similar SNP subtype of M. leprae. The timeline of infection in multicase families revealed that contacts were infected during the BI-positive period of the index case. CONCLUSION: Using molecular methods, we determined that positivity for M. leprae DNA in contacts of index leprosy cases was attributed to clinical characteristics of leprosy in the index cases. LL and BL forms of leprosy, together with positive BI, contributed to dissemination of infection to household contacts. In conclusion, we found a relationship between SNP subtypes within index case-contact pairs. This method can help decipher the transmission patterns and identify individuals at risk of contracting leprosy.


Assuntos
Hanseníase/epidemiologia , Mycobacterium leprae/genética , Adolescente , Adulto , Características da Família , Feminino , Humanos , Hanseníase/microbiologia , Hanseníase/transmissão , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Epidemiologia Molecular , Mycobacterium leprae/classificação , Mycobacterium leprae/isolamento & purificação , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase/métodos , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Adulto Jovem
20.
Recurso na Internet em Português | LIS - Localizador de Informação em Saúde | ID: lis-47228

RESUMO

O “Boletim Epidemiológico de Hanseníase”, do Departamento de Doenças de Condições Crônicas e Infecções Sexualmente Transmissíveis, da Secretaria de Vigilância em Saúde, do Ministério da Saúde (DCCI/SVS/MS), apresenta informações acerca dos casos de hanseníase no Brasil, regiões, Unidades da Federação e capitais


Assuntos
Hanseníase , Epidemiologia , Hanseníase/epidemiologia
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