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1.
Mem Inst Oswaldo Cruz ; 114: e190149, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31576902

RESUMO

Human polycystic echinococcosis is a parasitic infection caused by the larval stage of Echinococcus vogeli, which occurs in rural areas of Central and South America. Until now, little information on the genetic variability of E. vogeli is available. Here, 32 samples from human-excised E. vogeli cysts had a 396-bp sequence of the mitochondrial cytochrome oxidase I (COI) gene sequenced and compared to another 17 COI sequences representing nine Echinococcus species. A Bayesian COI tree revealed that all E. vogeli sequences formed a monophyletic and well-supported clade with an E. vogeli reference sequence. The occurrence of geographically restricted E. vogeli COI haplotypes suggests retention of ancestral polymorphisms with little migration in Acre, Brazil.


Assuntos
Echinococcus/genética , Variação Genética/genética , Animais , Teorema de Bayes , Brasil , Equinococose/parasitologia , Echinococcus/isolamento & purificação , Haplótipos , Humanos
2.
Mem Inst Oswaldo Cruz ; 114: e190184, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31576903

RESUMO

American visceral leishmaniasis (AVL) has two main scenarios of transmission as follows: scattered cases in rural areas and urban outbreaks. Urban AVL is in active dispersion from the northeastern border of Argentina-Paraguay-Brazil to the South. The presence of Lutzomyia longipalpis was initially reported in urban environments in the northwestern border of the country. The presence of Lu. longipalpis, environmental variables associated with its distribution, and its genetic diversity were assessed in Salvador Mazza, Argentina, on the border with Bolivia. The genetic analysis showed high haplotype diversity, low nucleotide diversity, and low nucleotide polymorphism index. We discuss the hypothesis of an expanding urban population with introgressive hybridisation of older haplogroups found in their path in natural forest or rural environments, acquiring a new adaptability to urban environments, and the possibility of changes in vector capacity.


Assuntos
Distribuição Animal , Variação Genética/genética , Insetos Vetores/genética , Psychodidae/genética , Animais , Argentina , Bolívia , Brasil , DNA Mitocondrial/genética , Genes de Insetos/genética , Haplótipos , Insetos Vetores/classificação , Leishmaniose Cutânea/transmissão , Masculino , Filogeografia , Psychodidae/classificação
3.
Isr Med Assoc J ; 21(7): 487-490, 2019 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31507126

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Recurrent pericarditis is a state of repetitive inflammation of the pericardium with intervals of remission. The etiology of recurrent pericarditis is still largely unknown, yet most causes are presumed to be immune mediated. Genetic factors, including human leukocyte antigen (HLA) haplotypes, can be involved in dysregulation of the immune system and as a predisposition to several autoimmune conditions, including recurrent pericarditis. Several diseases are frequently associated with such manifestations. They include systemic lupus erythematosus, familial Mediterranean fever, and tumor necrosis factor receptor-associated periodic syndrome. However, idiopathic recurrent pericarditis remains the most frequently observed clinical condition and the conundrum of this disease still needs to be solved.


Assuntos
Doenças Autoimunes/genética , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Pericardite/fisiopatologia , Febre Familiar do Mediterrâneo/genética , Febre Familiar do Mediterrâneo/imunologia , Antígenos HLA/genética , Haplótipos , Humanos , Lúpus Eritematoso Sistêmico/genética , Lúpus Eritematoso Sistêmico/imunologia , Pericardite/genética , Pericardite/imunologia , Recidiva
4.
Fa Yi Xue Za Zhi ; 35(4): 448-454, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês, Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31532156

RESUMO

Abstract: Objective To analyze the genetic phenotypes of Y-chromosome STR and SNP in Han male population of Wujiang area, Suzhou City and explore the genetic structure of population of Wujiang area for further examination of regional-specific Y-SNP genetic markers ancestor haplogroups. Methods Blood samples of 472 Wujiang area Han males were randomly collected and genotyped by YfilerTM Plus PCR Amplification Kit. The allele frequencies and haplotype frequencies of each locus were obtained using the direct calculation method. Y-SNP haplogroups of each sample were estimated using Y-Predictor software and verified through experiments by amplification refractory mutation system-polymerase chain reaction (ARMS-PCR). Results A total of 453 haplotypes were found in the 27 Y-STR genetic markers in 472 Han males of Wujiang area. The haplotype diversity (HD) was 0.997 696 93, among which, the highest gene diversity (GD) value was DYF387S1a/b (GD=0.953 1) and the lowest was DYS438 (GD=0.321 8). Based on genotyping data of 27 Y-STRs and 472 samples, 132 haplogroups from C, D, N, O and Q, etc downstream Y-SNP haplogroups were estimated and then verified through experiments. Conclusion This study is based on Y-chromosome STR haplotypes, and predicts Y-SNP haplogroups by Y-Predictor software, then uses ARMS-PCR to verify. Y-SNP genetic markers were introduced to achieve precise analysis of the genetic structure of male families in population of three towns in Wujiang area.


Assuntos
Cromossomos Humanos Y/genética , Genética Populacional , China , Cidades , Frequência do Gene , Haplótipos , Humanos , Masculino , Repetições de Microssatélites , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único
5.
Tumour Biol ; 41(9): 1010428319872092, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31486713

RESUMO

Angiogenesis, induced by the vascular endothelial growth factor A through its ligation to the vascular endothelial growth receptor 2, has been described as a crucial point in high-grade glioma development. The aim of this study was to evaluate the influence of VEGFA-2578C/A, -2489C/T, -1154G/A, -634G/C, and -460C/T, and KDR-604T/C, -271G/A, +1192G/A, and +1719A/T single-nucleotide polymorphisms on risk and clinicopathological aspects of high-grade glioma. This case-control study enrolled 205 high-grade glioma patients and 205 controls. Individuals with VEGFA-2578 CC or CA, VEGFA-1154 GG, VEGFA-634 GC or CC, and VEGFA-460 CT or TT genotypes were under 2.56, 1.53, 1.54, and 1.84 increased risks of high-grade glioma, compared to others, respectively. And 1.61, 2.66, 2.52, 2.53, and 2.02 increased risks of high-grade glioma were seen in individuals with VEGFA-2578 CC plus VEGFA-1154 GG, VEGFA-2578 CC or CA plus VEGFA-634 GC or CC, VEGFA-2578 CC or CA plus VEGFA-460 CT or TT, VEGFA-1154 GG or GA plus VEGFA-634 GC or CC, and VEGFA 634 GC or CC plus VEGFA-460 CT or TT combined genotypes, respectively, when compared to others. The "CAGT" haplotype of KDR single-nucleotide polymorphisms was more common in patients with grade IV than in those with grade III tumors, and individuals carrying this haplotype were at 1.76 increased risk of developing grade IV tumors than others. We present, for the first time, preliminary evidence that VEGFA-2578C/A and VEGFA-1154G/A single-nucleotide polymorphisms increases high-grade glioma risk, and "CAGT" haplotype of the KDR gene alters high-grade glioma aggressiveness and risk of grade IV tumors in Brazil.


Assuntos
Glioma/genética , Haplótipos , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Fator A de Crescimento do Endotélio Vascular/genética , Receptor 2 de Fatores de Crescimento do Endotélio Vascular/genética , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Feminino , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Genótipo , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Gradação de Tumores , Fatores de Risco , Adulto Jovem
6.
Plant Dis ; 103(10): 2587-2591, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31432751

RESUMO

'Candidatus Liberibacter solanacearum' (Lso) is an uncultured, phloem-associated bacterium causing a severe tuber disease in potato called zebra chip (ZC). Seven haplotypes of Lso have been described in different hosts, with haplotypes A and B found associated with infections in potato and tomato. In the field, Lso is transmitted by the potato psyllid (Bactericera cockerelli), and between 2011 and 2015, a significant change in Lso haplotype prevalence was previously reported in Idaho: from exclusively A haplotype found in tested psyllids in 2012 to mainly B haplotype found in collected psyllids in 2015. However, prevalence of Lso haplotypes in Idaho was not analyzed in potato tubers exhibiting symptoms of ZC. To fill in this knowledge gap, prevalence of Lso haplotypes was investigated in potato tubers harvested in southern Idaho between 2012 and 2018, and it was found to change from exclusively A haplotype in the 2012 season to an almost equal A and B haplotype distribution during the 2016 season. During the same period, haplotype distribution of Lso in psyllid vectors collected using yellow sticky traps also changed, but in psyllids, the shift from A haplotype of Lso to B haplotype was complete, with no A haplotype detected in 2016 to 2018. The changes in the haplotype prevalence of the Lso circulating in potato fields in southern Idaho may be, among other factors, responsible for a decrease in the ZC incidence in Idaho potato fields between an outbreak of the disease in 2012 and a very low level of ZC afterward.


Assuntos
Hemípteros , Rhizobiaceae , Solanum tuberosum , Animais , Haplótipos , Hemípteros/microbiologia , Idaho , Rhizobiaceae/fisiologia , Solanum tuberosum/microbiologia
7.
Tumour Biol ; 41(8): 1010428319869096, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31405342

RESUMO

Variable association of transforming growth factor beta 1 (TGFß1) in breast cancer (BC) pathogenesis was documented, and the contribution of specific TGFB1 polymorphisms to the progression of BC and associated features remains poorly understood. We investigated the contribution of TGFB1 rs1800469, rs1800470, rs1800471, and rs1800472 variants and 4-locus TGFB1 haplotypes on BC susceptibility, and pathological presentation of BC subtypes. Study subjects comprised 430 female BC cases, and 498 cancer-free control women. BC-associated pathological parameters were also evaluated for correlation with TGFB1 variants. Results obtained showed that the minor allele frequency (MAF) of rs1800471 (+74G>C) was higher seen in BC cases than in control subjects, and was associated with increased risk of BC. Significant differences in rs1800471 and rs1800469 (-509C>T) genotype distribution were noted between BC cases and controls, which persisted after controlling for key covariates. TGFB1 rs1800472 was positively, while rs1800470 was negatively associated with triple negativity, while rs1800470 positively correlated with menarche, but negatively with tumor size and molecular type, and rs1800469 correlated positively with menstrual irregularity, distant metastasis, nodal status, and hormonotherapy. Heterogeneity in LD pattern was noted between the tested TGFB1 variants. Four-locus (rs1800472-rs1800471-rs1800470-rs1800469) Haploview analysis identified haplotype TGCT to be negatively associated, and haplotypes CGTT and CCCC to be positively associated with BC. This association of CGTT and CCCC, but not TGCT, with BC remained significant after controlling for key covariates. In conclusion, TGFB1 alleles and specific genotypes, and 4-locus TGFB1 haplotypes influence BC susceptibility, suggesting dual association imparted by specific SNP, consistent with dual role for TGFB1 in BC pathogenesis.


Assuntos
Neoplasias da Mama/genética , Predisposição Genética para Doença/genética , Haplótipos/genética , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único/genética , Fator de Crescimento Transformador beta1/genética , Alelos , Feminino , Frequência do Gene/genética , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Tunísia
8.
Zhongguo Dang Dai Er Ke Za Zhi ; 21(8): 789-795, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31416504

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To study the association of interleukin-10 (IL-10) -1082A/G, -819C/T, and -592C/A polymorphisms with IL-10 level and the severity of enterovirus 71 (EV71) infection in children. METHODS: A total of 137 children with hand-foot-mouth disease due to EV71 infection were enrolled as EV71 infection group, which was further divided into mild group with 91 children and severe group with 46 children, and 122 healthy children who underwent physical examination were enrolled as healthy control group. Related clinical data were collected. ELISA was used to measure the serum level of IL-10, and polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism was used to analyze IL-10 -1082A/G, -819C/T and -592C/A polymorphisms. RESULTS: Compared with the healthy control group, the children with EV71 infection had significantly higher frequency of -1082 AA genotype and A allele (P<0.05). Among the children with EV71 infection, the severe group had significantly higher frequency of -1082 AA genotype and A allele than the mild group (P<0.05), while there was no significant difference in the distribution of IL-10 -819C/T and IL-10 -592C/A polymorphisms between the two groups (P>0.05). The severe group had a significantly higher serum level of IL-10 than the mild group and the healthy control group. IL-10 -1082 AA genotype, -819 TT genotype, and -592 AA genotype were associated with the low expression of IL-10 (P<0.05). As for haplotype, the EV71 infection group had a significantly lower frequency of GCC haplotype than the healthy control group (P<0.05). In the severe group, the children with ATA haplotype had a significantly lower IL-10 level than those with other haplotypes, and the children with GCC haplotype had a significantly higher IL-10 level than those with other haplotypes (P<0.05). There was no significant difference in IL-10 level between children with different haplotypes in the mild group and the healthy control group (P>0.05). CONCLUSIONS: IL-10 gene polymorphisms are associated with IL-10 expression and the severity of EV71 infection in children.


Assuntos
Enterovirus Humano A , Infecções por Enterovirus , Interleucina-10/genética , Criança , Frequência do Gene , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Genótipo , Haplótipos , Humanos , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único
9.
Vet Parasitol ; 273: 45-51, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31442892

RESUMO

Fasciola gigantica and hybrid Fasciola are distributed throughout Asia. Herein, we investigated the species of the Fasciola fluke distributed in three hotspots of fascioliasis in Cambodia. A total of 92 flukes collected from 21 slaughtered cattle from Kandal (44), Battambang (41), and Kratie (7) Provinces were identified as F. gigantica using multiplex PCR for a nuclear phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase (PEPCK) gene. The overall prevalence of F. gigantica infestation was 7.14% (21/294). Phylogenetic as well as population genetics analyses were performed using the mitochondrial NADH dehydrogenase subunit 1 (ND1). The 19 ND1 haplotypes were identified from Cambodian F. gigantica (haplotype diversity, 0.83). All of the haplotypes were classified into F. gigantica haplogroup C, which includes ND1 haplotypes detected from Thailand, Vietnam, Indonesia, Myanmar, and China. Among haplogroup C, novel and unique haplotypes of Cambodia were found in the Battambang and Kandal Provinces, and the nucleotide diversity of the Cambodian population (0.00532) was the highest. Pairwise fixation indices among the F. gigantica populations from these countries indicated that the Cambodian and Thailand populations were related to each other. The highest genetic diversity in the Cambodian population suggests that F. gigantica in Cambodia may be the ancestor of the populations in Southeast Asian countries. Most likely, livestock movement, including Zebu cattle, played an important role in the transmission of F. gigantica. In this study, the hybrid Fasciola flukes that are commonly found in neighboring countries, were not found in Cambodia. Further comprehensive investigations of Fasciola prevalence should be conducted by analyzing a wider range of hosts throughout Cambodia to reach a more solid conclusion about the absence of hybrid flukes.


Assuntos
Distribuição Animal , Doenças dos Bovinos/parasitologia , Fasciola/classificação , Fasciola/genética , Fasciolíase/veterinária , Variação Genética , Animais , Ásia Sudeste/epidemiologia , Camboja , Bovinos , Doenças dos Bovinos/epidemiologia , Fasciolíase/epidemiologia , Fasciolíase/parasitologia , Haplótipos , NADH Desidrogenase/genética , Fosfotransferases/genética , Prevalência
10.
Egypt J Immunol ; 26(1): 113-120, 2019 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31333001

RESUMO

Type 1 diabetes (T1D) is an autoimmune disease associated with multiple genetics and environmental factors. The aim of the study is to determine the frequency of HLA-B*08 and HLA-B*39 and its linkage disequilibrium with common risk haplotypes DR3-DQA1*05-DQB1*02, and DR4-DQA1-03-DQB1*0302 among T1D Egyptian infants. And assess different environmental factors as early exposure to cow's milk, exclusive breast feeding, mode of delivery and low birth weight. Sixty eight diabetic infants and 120 healthy controls were studied. HLA-DQB1, and DQA1 alleles were identified using homogeneous PCR and oligonucleotide hybridization assays. HLA-B*08 and HLA-B*39 genes were identified using multiplex PCR. The results showed that early exposure to cow's milk before 6 months carry a significant risk for T1D (16% in patients versus 6.6%in control group, P value=0.03). HLA-B*08 frequency was significantly higher among T1D infants than in control group (14.5% in diabetic infants versus 5%in control group, P value=0.024). DR3-DQA1*05-DQB1*02, and DR4-DQA1-03-DQB1*0302 were significantly higher in diabetic infants than controls (P value < 0.001 and 0.004 respectively). HLA-B*08 gene was found in (15.5%) of DR3-DQA1*05-DQB1*02 positive cases while in control group it was found in (13.5%) (P value=0.8). In conclusion, HLA-B*08 gene carry a risk for T1D in Egyptian infants, while DR3-DQA1*05-DQB1*02 haplotype lacks linkage disequilibrium with HLA-B*08 among T1D infants. Further studies are needed to determine which HLA-B gene is strongly linked to DR3-DQA1*05-DQB1*02 haplotype in T1D infants other than HLA-B*08 and HLA-B*18.


Assuntos
Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 1/genética , Antígenos HLA-B/genética , Cadeias alfa de HLA-DQ/genética , Cadeias beta de HLA-DQ/genética , Antígeno HLA-DR3/genética , Desequilíbrio de Ligação , Leite , Alelos , Animais , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Bovinos , Egito , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Haplótipos , Humanos , Lactente , Fatores de Risco
11.
J S Afr Vet Assoc ; 90(0): e1-e6, 2019 Jun 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31291728

RESUMO

Genetic diversity within partial 18S rRNA sequences from Hepatozoon protozoan parasites from domestic cats in South Africa was assessed and compared against published data to assess global biogeographic patterns. Multiple distinct haplotypes of Hepatozoon felis were identified, as well as an unrelated Hepatozoon lineage. Hepatozoon felis genetic diversity globally is very high, indicating a likely complex of species. The recently described Hepatozoon apri from wild boars is closely related to some lineages of H. felis. Sarcocystis and Babesia parasites were also detected. Since Hepatozoon felis is apparently a species complex, potential differences between genetically distinct forms need to be assessed. The finding of an unrelated Hepatozoon indicates that felids can be infected by more species of Hepatozoonthan currently known, and that trophic interactions may increase the number of Hepatozoon species found in carnivores. Genetic screening again is demonstrated to identify previously unrecognised parasites from vertebrate hosts.


Assuntos
Apicomplexa/genética , Gatos/parasitologia , Animais , Animais Domésticos/parasitologia , Teorema de Bayes , Bases de Dados de Ácidos Nucleicos , Variação Genética , Haplótipos , RNA Ribossômico 18S/genética , Análise de Sequência de DNA/veterinária , África do Sul
12.
BMC Plant Biol ; 19(1): 318, 2019 Jul 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31311506

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Single Nucleotide Polymorphism (SNP) array and re-sequencing technologies have different properties (e.g. calling rate, minor allele frequency profile) and drawbacks (e.g. ascertainment bias). This lead us to study their complementarity and the consequences of using them separately or combined in diversity analyses and Genome-Wide Association Studies (GWAS). We performed GWAS on three traits (grain yield, plant height and male flowering time) measured in 22 environments on a panel of 247 F1 hybrids obtained by crossing 247 diverse dent maize inbred lines with a same flint line. The 247 lines were genotyped using three genotyping technologies (Genotyping-By-Sequencing, Illumina Infinium 50 K and Affymetrix Axiom 600 K arrays). RESULTS: The effects of ascertainment bias of the 50 K and 600 K arrays were negligible for deciphering global genetic trends of diversity and for estimating relatedness in this panel. We developed an original approach based on linkage disequilibrium (LD) extent in order to determine whether SNPs significantly associated with a trait and that are physically linked should be considered as a single Quantitative Trait Locus (QTL) or several independent QTLs. Using this approach, we showed that the combination of the three technologies, which have different SNP distributions and densities, allowed us to detect more QTLs (gain in power) and potentially refine the localization of the causal polymorphisms (gain in resolution). CONCLUSIONS: Conceptually different technologies are complementary for detecting QTLs by tagging different haplotypes in association studies. Considering LD, marker density and the combination of different technologies (SNP-arrays and re-sequencing), the genotypic data available were most likely enough to well represent polymorphisms in the centromeric regions, whereas using more markers would be beneficial for telomeric regions.


Assuntos
Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla/métodos , Técnicas de Genotipagem , Haplótipos , Análise de Sequência com Séries de Oligonucleotídeos , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Locos de Características Quantitativas , Zea mays/genética , Alelos , Biodiversidade , Cromossomos de Plantas , Marcadores Genéticos , Genoma de Planta , Desequilíbrio de Ligação , Zea mays/crescimento & desenvolvimento
13.
BMC Plant Biol ; 19(1): 296, 2019 Jul 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31286893

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Premature senescence of flag leaf severely affects wheat yield and quality. Chlorophyll (Chl) degradation is the most obvious symptom during leaf senescence and catalyzed by a series of enzymes. Pheophytin pheophorbide hydrolase (Pheophytinase, PPH) gene encodes a Chl degradation hydrolase. RESULTS: In this study, the coding, genomic and promoter sequences of wheat TaPPH-A gene were cloned. The corresponding lengths were 1467 bp, 4479 bp and 3666 bp, respectively. Sequence structure analysis showed that TaPPH-A contained five exons and four introns. After the multiple sequences alignment of TaPPH-A genome from 36 accessions in a wheat diversity panel, four SNPs and one 2-bp InDel were observed, which formed two haplotypes, TaPPH-7A-1 and TaPPH-7A-2. Based on the SNP at 1299 bp (A/G), a molecular marker TaPPH-7A-dCAPS was developed to distinguish allelic variation (A/G). Using the molecular markers, 13 SSR, and 116 SNP markers, a linkage map of chromosome 7A were integrated. TaPPH-A was mapped on the chromosome region flanked by Xwmc9 (0.94 cM) and AX-95634545 (1.04 cM) on 7A in a DH population. Association analysis between TaPPH-7A allelic variation and agronomic traits found that TaPPH-7A was associated with TGW in 11 of 12 environments and Chl content at grain-filling stage under drought stress using Population 1 consisted of 323 accessions. The accessions possessed TaPPH-7A-1 (A) had higher TGW and Chl content than those possessed TaPPH-7A-2 (G), thus TaPPH-7A-1 (A) was a favorable allelic variation. By analyzing the frequency of favorable allelic variation TaPPH-7A-1 (A) in Population 2 with 157 landraces and Population 3 with 348 modern cultivars, we found it increased from pre-1950 (0) to 1960s (54.5%), then maintained a relatively stable level about 56% from 1960s to 1990s. CONCLUSION: These results suggested the favorable allelic variation TaPPH-7A-1 (A) should be valuable in enhancing grain yield by improving the source (chlorophyll content) and sink (the developing grain) simultaneously. Furthermore, the newly developed molecular marker TaPPH-7A-dCAPS could be integrated into a breeding kit of screening high TGW wheat for marker-assisted selection.


Assuntos
Haplótipos/genética , Proteínas de Plantas/genética , Triticum/genética , Marcadores Genéticos/genética , Melhoramento Vegetal , Proteínas de Plantas/metabolismo , Triticum/metabolismo
14.
Gene ; 712: 143954, 2019 Sep 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31288058

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Breast cancer (BC) is the highest cause of mortality among female cancer patients. In some cases, BC is due to Poly [ADP-ribose] polymerase 1 (PARP1) gene dysregulation, which has been involved in various important cellular processes. Among Iranian women, the association between PARP1 polymorphisms and BC was never studied before so in this case-control study, the genetic association of three SNPs (rs1136410, rs907187 and rs4653734) was analyzed with susceptibility to BC. METHODS: The study subjects were 386 Iranian females divided into 186 patients and 200 healthy controls. The genotypes of PARP1 variants were detected using ARMS and a combined ARMS-RFLP PCR method. RESULTS: The results showed that Carriers of CG and GG genotypes of the variant rs4653734 were at higher risk of BC compared with wild-type carriers (CC) and this variant was statistically significant under a recessive model of inheritance. Moreover, rs907187 was related to increased BC risk in the CC and GG genotypes under dominant and recessive models of inheritance. The G allele frequency of rs4653734 and rs907187 was higher in breast cancer patients than in normal subjects. No association was detected between rs1136410 and susceptibility to BC among studied groups. Furthermore, A-G-C haplotype was linked to an increased BC risk, whereas A-C-C and A-C-G haplotypes were related to a decreased risk of BC. In Silico predictions suggested that rs907187 affects E2F and E2F-4 transcription factors binding site. CONCLUSIONS: The current study suggests that rs907187 and rs4653734 have remarkable associations with BC risk among Iranian women.


Assuntos
Neoplasias da Mama/genética , Desequilíbrio de Ligação , Poli(ADP-Ribose) Polimerase-1/genética , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Adulto , Idoso , Alelos , Neoplasias da Mama/metabolismo , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Biologia Computacional , Ilhas de CpG , Feminino , Regulação Neoplásica da Expressão Gênica , Frequência do Gene , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Genótipo , Haplótipos , Humanos , Irã (Geográfico)/epidemiologia , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Metástase Neoplásica , Polimorfismo de Fragmento de Restrição , Fatores de Risco , Fatores de Transcrição/metabolismo
15.
Fa Yi Xue Za Zhi ; 35(3): 308-313, 2019 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês, Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31282626

RESUMO

Abstract: Objective To explore the genetic polymorphism of Y chromosome D-M174 haplogroup and sub-haplogroups in East Asia. Methods The samples of 1 426 unrelated male individuals from East Asia were collected, and then 7 Y chromosome haplogroup D-M174 and the Y-SNP of its sub-haplogroups were detected with mini-sequencing. The 22 Y-STR genotypes were detected with DNA Typer™ Y26 kit. The haplogroup was analyzed using direct counting method, heatmap, phylogenetic cluster and network graph cluster, and then distribution of genetic polymorphism and the clustering relation between populations and samples of Y chromosome D haplogroup were discussed. Results Haplogroup D-M174 were distributed mostly among Tibetans (40.96%)and Japanese (35.71%), while less or none were distributed among the surrounding areas of Tibet and other areas. Conclusion The geographical distribution of Y chromosome D-M174 haplogroup in East Asian populations has significant characteristics.


Assuntos
Cromossomos Humanos Y , Genética Populacional , Extremo Oriente , Haplótipos , Humanos , Masculino , Filogenia , Polimorfismo Genético
16.
Fa Yi Xue Za Zhi ; 35(3): 314-318, 2019 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês, Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31282627

RESUMO

Abstract: Objective To explore the distribution of genetic structure of Y-SNP and Y-STR genetic markers in different ethnic groups and its application in forensic science. Methods SNaPshot minisequencing was used to detect the polymorphisms of 12 Y-SNP loci in 439 males from 6 ethnic groups, including Guangxi Han, Guangxi Jing, Guangxi Miao, Guangxi Yao, Guangxi Zhuang and Guangxi Dong. DNATyperTM Y26 kit was used to multiplex-amplify 26 Y-STR loci. The PCR products were analyzed by 3130xl genetic analyzer. The network analysis of Y-STR haplotype under the same Y-SNP haplogroup was analyzed by Network 5.0 software. Results Six haplogroups defined by 12 Y-SNP loci were detected in 6 ethnic groups, and 362 haplotypes were detected in 26 Y-STR loci. The haplotype diversity was 0.996 6. In the C haplogroup, the samples from Guangxi Yao, Guangxi Zhuang and Guangxi Dong were clustered on different branches; in the O1 haplogroup, those from Guangxi Zhuang, Guangxi Miao and Guangxi Jing were relatively independent and clustered separately; in the O2 haplogroup, some samples from Guangxi Miao and Guangxi Yao were gathered in a cluster. Conclusion Based on the Y-STR network analysis of samples with identical haplogroup of Y-SNP, some ethnic groups can be preliminarily distinguished, which could be used to infer male suspects' ethnic group through detecting their genetic markers left in the crime scene.


Assuntos
Cromossomos Humanos Y , Grupos Étnicos , China , Genética Populacional , Haplótipos , Humanos , Masculino , Repetições de Microssatélites
17.
BMC Vet Res ; 15(1): 241, 2019 Jul 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31296208

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: A major challenge in modern medicine and animal husbandry is the issue of antimicrobial resistance. One approach to solving this potential medical hazard is the selection of farm animals with less susceptibility to infectious diseases. Recent advances in functional genome analysis and quantitative genetics have opened the horizon to apply genetic marker information for efficiently identifying animals with preferential predisposition regarding health traits. The current study characterizes functional traits with a focus on udder health in dairy heifers. The animals were selected for having inherited alternative paternal haplotypes for a genomic region on Bos taurus chromosome (BTA) 18 genetically associated with divergent susceptibility to longevity and animal health, particularly mastitis. RESULTS: In the first weeks of lactation, the q heifers which had inherited the unfavorable (q) paternal haplotype displayed a significantly higher number of udder quarters with very low somatic cell count (< 10,000 cells / ml) compared to their paternal half-sib sisters with the favorable (Q) paternal haplotype. This might result in impaired mammary gland sentinel function towards invading pathogens. Furthermore, across the course of the first lactation, there was indication that q half-sib heifers showed higher somatic cell counts, a surrogate trait for udder health, in whole milkings compared to their paternal half-sib sisters with the favorable (Q) paternal haplotype. Moreover, heifers with the haplotype Q had a higher feed intake and higher milk yield compared to those with the q haplotype. Results of this study indicate that differences in milk production and calculated energy balance per se are not the main drivers of the genetically determined differences between the BTA18 Q and q groups of heifers. CONCLUSIONS: The paternally inherited haplotype from a targeted BTA18 genomic region affect somatic cell count in udder quarters during the early postpartum period and might also contribute to further aspects of animal's health and performance traits due to indirect effects on feed intake and metabolism.


Assuntos
Glândulas Mamárias Animais/fisiologia , Herança Paterna , Animais , Bovinos , Mapeamento Cromossômico , Ingestão de Alimentos/genética , Metabolismo Energético/genética , Feminino , Haplótipos/genética , Lactação/genética , Masculino , Glândulas Mamárias Animais/microbiologia , Mastite Bovina/genética , Período Pós-Parto
18.
BMC Evol Biol ; 19(1): 145, 2019 07 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31311504

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: China is an important biogeographical zone in which the genetic legacies of the Tertiary and Quaternary periods are abundant, and the contemporary geography environment plays an important role in species distribution. Therefore, many biogeographical studies have focused on the organisms of the region, especially zooplankton, which is essential in the formation of biogeographical principles. Moreover, the generality of endemism also reinforces the need for detailed regional studies of zooplankton. Bosmina, a group of cosmopolitan zooplankton, is difficult to identify by morphology, and no genetic data are available to date to assess this species complex in China. In this study, 48 waterbodies were sampled covering a large geographical and ecological range in China, the goal of this research is to explore the species distribution of Bosmina across China and to reveal the genetic information of this species complex, based on two genetic markers (a mtDNA 16S and a nuclear ITS). The diversity of taxa in the Bosmina across China was investigated using molecular tools for the first time. RESULTS: Two main species were detected in 35 waterbodies: an endemic east Asia B. fatalis, and the B. longirostris that has a Holarctic distribution. B. fatalis had lower genetic polymorphism and population differentiation than B. longirostris. B. fatalis was preponderant in central and eastern China, whereas B. longirostris was dominated in western China. The third lineage (B. hagmanni) was only detected in a reservoir (CJR) of eastern China (Guangdong province). Bosmina had limited distribution on the Tibetan plateau. CONCLUSIONS: This study revealed that the biogeography of Bosmina appear to be affected by historical events (Pleistocene glaciations) and contemporary environment (such as altitude, eutrophication and isolated habitat).


Assuntos
Cladóceros/genética , DNA Intergênico/genética , DNA Mitocondrial/genética , Variação Genética , Animais , Núcleo Celular/genética , China , Ecossistema , Marcadores Genéticos , Geografia , Haplótipos/genética , Funções Verossimilhança , Mitocôndrias/genética , Filogenia , Polimorfismo Genético , Zooplâncton/genética
19.
BMC Evol Biol ; 19(1): 140, 2019 07 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31296164

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: While our understanding of the genetic basis of convergent evolution has improved there are still many uncertainties. Here we investigate the repeated evolution of dark colouration (melanism) in eastern fox squirrels (Sciurus niger; hereafter "fox squirrels") and eastern gray squirrels (S. carolinensis; hereafter "gray squirrels"). RESULTS: We show that convergent evolution of melanism has arisen by independent genetic mechanisms in two populations of the fox squirrel. In a western population, melanism is associated with a 24 bp deletion in the melanocortin-1-receptor gene (MC1RΔ24 allele), whereas in a south-eastern population, melanism is associated with a point substitution in the agouti signalling protein gene causing a Gly121Cys mutation. The MC1R∆24 allele is also associated with melanism in gray squirrels, and, remarkably, all the MC1R∆24 haplotypes are identical in the two species. Evolutionary analyses show that the MC1R∆24 haplotype is more closely related to other MC1R haplotypes in the fox squirrel than in the gray squirrel. Modelling supports the possibility of gene flow between the two species. CONCLUSIONS: The presence of the MC1R∆24 allele and melanism in gray squirrels is likely due to introgression from fox squirrels, although we cannot completely rule out alternative hypotheses including introgression from gray squirrels to fox squirrels, or an ancestral polymorphism. Convergent melanism in these two species of tree squirrels has evolved by at least two and probably three different evolutionary routes.


Assuntos
Evolução Molecular , Melanose/genética , Sciuridae/genética , Animais , Frequência do Gene , Haplótipos , Mutação
20.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 98(29): e16266, 2019 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31335675

RESUMO

It has been proposed that cytotoxic T-lymphocyte antigen 4 (CTLA-4) may attenuate the T-cell activation threshold, thereby decreasing the antitumor response and conferring susceptibility to hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC).In the present study, we selected CTLA-4 tagging single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) and explored the relationship between these polymorphisms and susceptibility to HCC. A hospital-based case-control study, comprising 584 cases with HCC and 923 controls, was performed in an eastern Chinese Han population. CTLA-4 SNPs were genotyped using a custom-by-design 48-Plex SNPscan Kit.We found that the CTLA-4 rs3087243 G>A polymorphism might be associated with increased risk of HCC (GA vs GG: adjusted odds ratio [OR], 1.38; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.04-1.85; P = .028 and AA/GA vs GG: adjusted OR, 1.43; 95% CI, 1.08-1.89; P = .012). After using Bonferroni correction, this association remained (P = .012 for the AA/GA vs GG genetic model). In addition, the power value was 0.904 in the AA/GA versus GG genetic model. Haplotype analysis showed that CTLA4 Crs16840252Ars231775Ars3087243Trs733618, Crs16840252Grs231775Ars3087243Trs733618, and other haplotypes might increase the risk of HCC risk (P = .018, <.001, and .017, respectively). However, we found that CTLA4 Trs16840252A rs231775Grs3087243Trs733618 decreased the risk of HCC (P = .020).Our results suggest that the CTLA-4 rs3087243 G>A polymorphism increases susceptibility to HCC in an eastern Chinese Han population. CTLA-4 haplotypes may influence the development of HCC. In the future, a population-based fine-mapping study with functional assessment should be performed to further determine these potential correlations.


Assuntos
Antígeno CTLA-4/genética , Carcinoma Hepatocelular , Neoplasias Hepáticas , Adulto , Idoso , Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Asiático/genética , Carcinoma Hepatocelular/genética , Carcinoma Hepatocelular/patologia , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Feminino , Frequência do Gene , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Haplótipos , Humanos , Neoplasias Hepáticas/genética , Neoplasias Hepáticas/patologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único
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