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1.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33800899

RESUMO

The Multiethnic Cohort Study (MEC) has demonstrated racial/ethnic differences in smoking-associated lung cancer risk. As part of the ongoing effort to characterize exposure to cigarette smoke constituents and better understand risk differences, we evaluated Cd exposure as it is a known lung carcinogen. We quantified urinary cadmium (Cd) by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry in a subset of 1956 current smokers from MEC. Ethnic-specific geometric means (GM) were compared adjusting for age at urine collection, sex, creatinine (natural log), education, and smoking (urinary total nicotine equivalents [TNE] and smoking duration). Self-reported questionnaire data, including occupation, were also considered. Latinos and Native Hawaiians had the highest GM urinary Cd (0.871 and 0.836 ng/mL, respectively) followed by Japanese Americans and African Americans (0.811 ng/mL and 0.807, respectively) and Whites (0.736 ng/mL). Patterns in race/ethnicity were consistent by sex such that females had the highest GM urinary Cd. When further adjusting for categorical occupational Cd exposure, racial/ethnic differences of Cd remained (p = 0.009). Findings suggest differences in urinary Cd among smokers across different racial/ethnic groups exist and highlight the importance in considering environmental sources of Cd exposure beyond smoking. These finding lay ground for future studies of individual characteristics that are associated with lower risk for cancer despite higher carcinogenic exposures.


Assuntos
Cádmio , Produtos do Tabaco , Estudos de Coortes , Grupos Étnicos , Feminino , Hawaii/epidemiologia , Humanos , Fumantes
2.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33801411

RESUMO

(1) Background: The purpose of this exploratory study was to describe variation in age of onset of functional limitations of Native Hawaiian and Pacific Islanders (NHPI) compared to other racial and ethnic groups. (2) Methods: Adults age 45 years and older who responded to the Functioning and Disability module within the 2014 National Health Interview Survey (NHIS) were included (n = 628 NHPI; 7122 non-Hispanic Whites; 1418 Blacks; 470 Asians; and 1216 Hispanic adults). The NHIS Functioning and Disability module included 13 items, which we organized into three domains of functional limitations using factor analysis: Mobility, Gross Motor Skills, and Fine Motor Skills. Responses were summed within each domain. (3) Results: After adjusting for age and sex, we found that racial/ethnic minority groups, with the exception of Asians, experience more functional limitations than Whites. Results further indicate that NHPI adults experienced an earlier surge in all three domains of functional limitations compared to other racial/ethnic groups. (4) Conclusions: These findings are novel and provide additional evidence to the existence of disparities in functional health outcomes across racial/ethnic groups. Future studies are needed to develop targeted and culturally tailored interventions for those most in need.


Assuntos
Pessoas com Deficiência , Grupos Étnicos , Grupo com Ancestrais Oceânicos , Adulto , Idade de Início , Hawaii , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Grupos Minoritários , Estados Unidos
3.
Zootaxa ; 4933(4): zootaxa.4933.4.4, 2021 Feb 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33756777

RESUMO

A new Tardigrada species, Claxtonia goni sp. nov. is described from specimens collected in the central area of the Haleakala National Park, the island of Maui, Hawaii, U.S.A. The new species and Clx. pardalis (Degma Schill, 2015) together with several examples of Clx. wendti (Richters, 1903) are the only known Claxtonia species with the plates having an intracuticular pattern resembling that on a leopard's fur. Claxtonia goni sp. nov. differs from Clx. pardalis in the absence of pores on leg plates, in smaller and uniform pores on dorso-lateral plates, in very unequally spaced teeth in the dentate collar, in lesser ratio of internal cephalic cirrus and lateral cirrus A lengths, and in relatively shorter claws in fourth pair of legs. The differences between the new species and the other congeners as well as Echiniscus species with the same cirri composition and similar cuticular sculpture are also defined. The diagnosis of the genus Claxtonia is amended and three Echiniscus species are transferred into the genus with the proposed new combinations: Claxtonia aliquantilla (Grigarick, Schuster Nelson, 1983) comb. nov., Clx. mosaica (Grigarick, Schuster Nelson, 1983) comb. nov. and Clx. nigripustula (Horning, Schuster Grigarick, 1978) comb. nov..


Assuntos
Tardígrados , Animais , Hawaii , Ilhas , Oceano Pacífico
4.
Zootaxa ; 4944(1): zootaxa.4944.1.1, 2021 Mar 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33757042

RESUMO

Philodoria Walsingham, 1907 is a threatened, Hawaiian endemic genus of leaf-mining gracillariid moths that feeds as larvae on many threatened and endangered Hawaiian endemic plants. These moths are poorly studied and species lack detailed descriptions of morphology, distribution data, and natural history information of adults and immatures. Based on extensive fieldwork from 2013 to 2016, and examination of museum specimens, we describe or redescribe 51 species, 13 which are new species and provide biological and distribution data for 41 species. The 13 new species and their host plants are: P. alakaiensis Kobayashi, Johns Kawahara, sp. n. (Asteraceae: Dubautia sp.), P. funkae Kobayashi, Johns Kawahara, sp. n. (Asteraceae: Wilkesia gymnoxiphium), P. haelaauensis Kobayashi, Johns Kawahara, sp. n. (Urticaceae: Pipturus albidus, P. rockii, Pipturus sp.), P. hesperomanniella Kobayashi, Johns Kawahara, sp. n. (Asteraceae: Hesperomannia arborescens and H. swezeyi), P. keaensis Kobayashi, Johns Kawahara, sp. n. (host unknown), P. keahii Kobayashi, Johns Kawahara, sp. n. (Asteraceae: Remya mauiensis), P. knudseniiella Kobayashi, Johns Kawahara, sp. n. (Asteraceae: Dubautia knudsenii subsp. nagate and D. latifolia), P. lama Kobayashi, Johns Kawahara, sp. n. (Ebanaceae: Diospyros sandwicensis and/or D. hillebrandii), P. limahuliensis Kobayashi, Johns Kawahara, sp. n. (Malvaceae: Hibiscus waimeae subsp. hannerae), P. napaliensis Kobayashi, Johns Kawahara, sp. n. (Ebanaceae: Diospyros sandwicensis and/or D. hillebrandii), P. obamaorum Kobayashi, Johns Kawahara, sp. n. (Urticaceae: Pipturus albidus, Pipturus sp.), P. opuhe Kobayashi, Johns Kawahara, sp. n. (Urticaceae: Urera kaalae and U. sandvicensis) and P. platyphylliella Kobayashi, Johns Kawahara, sp. n. (Asteraceae: Dubautia platyphylla). Types of 30 species were examined, lectotypes of 16 species are designated, and a key to all Philodoria species and all Hawaiian leaf-mining moths are provided. We also present a new Hawaiian name for Philodoria, which we call Hunelele 'elilau, meaning "tiny flier, leaf excavator", referring to their life history and behavior. Philodoria feeds on five herbraceous and woody host plant families, and 41 species persist in localized populations in Hawaii as of 2016. Twelve species (P. alakaiensis, P. funkae, P. haelaauensis, P. hespermanniella, P. kauaulaensis, P. keaensis, P. keahii, P. knudsniiella, P. limahuliensis, P. platyphylliella, P. sciallactis, P. wilkesiella) appear to be severely threatened, as these species are rare or feed exclusively on plants that are endangered or rare. We were unable to document 10 species (P. costalis, P. lipochaetaella, P. micropetala, P. nigrella, P. nigrelloides, P. opuhe, P. pipturiana, P. pipturicola, P. pittosporella, P. spilota) after many efforts to sample in or near their historical habitats. We believe these species may be extinct. Given their restricted distribution and the fact that many species feed on rare and endangered plants, there is a risk that many more Philodoria species may go extinct unless immediate conservation measures are taken.


Assuntos
Asteraceae , Lepidópteros , Mariposas , Animais , Ecossistema , Hawaii , Larva
5.
Zootaxa ; 4903(1): zootaxa.4903.1.3, 2021 Jan 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33757105

RESUMO

A new palaemonid shrimp genus, Opaepupu gen. nov., is established to accommodate a new species of bivalve-associated shrimp, Opaepupu huna sp. nov. from Hawaii. A single mated pair, the female holotype and the male allotype, were found inside the trapezid bivalve Trapezium oblongum (Linnaeus, 1758) at a depth of 14 m in Kâne'ohe Bay, Hawai'i. The new genus is characterised by the rostrum being proximally broad, distally pointed, mid-dorsally carinate, and non-dentate; the anterolateral margin of the carapace without supraorbital, hepatic or epigastric teeth, but with a strong sharp antennal tooth; the sixth pleonite posteriorly unarmed; the telson medially depressed, with the dorsal surface armed with two pairs of submarginal cuspidate setae and with the posterior margin armed with two pairs of spiniform setae; the distolateral angle of the first article of the antennular peduncle without a sharp tooth; the mandible without a palp; the maxillular palp furnished with one long stiff seta dorsal to a small tooth-like extension; the first maxilliped without a palp; the third maxilliped not being operculate; the second pereiopods moderately robust, relatively slender, subequal, subsymmetrical, with simple teeth on the cutting edges of the fingers; the ambulatory pereiopods being slender, each ending in an elongate biunguiculate dactylus; and the uropodal exopod with a faint diaeresis and greatly reduced distolateral spiniform seta. The phylogenetic position of Opaepupu gen. nov. remains unclear, although it does not appear to be closely related to other bivalve-associated palaemonid genera.


Assuntos
Bivalves , Decápodes , Palaemonidae , Distribuição Animal , Estruturas Animais , Animais , Feminino , Hawaii , Masculino , Filogenia
6.
Environ Pollut ; 277: 116848, 2021 May 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33714786

RESUMO

Breast cancer is the most commonly diagnosed female cancer and the second leading cause of death in women in the US, including Hawaii. Accumulating evidence suggests that aminomethylphosphonic acid (AMPA), the primary metabolite of the herbicide glyphosate-a probable human carcinogen, may itself be carcinogenic. However, the relationship between urinary AMPA excretion and breast cancer risk in women is unknown. In this pilot study, we investigated the association between pre-diagnostic urinary AMPA excretion and breast cancer risk in a case-control study of 250 predominantly postmenopausal women: 124 cases and 126 healthy controls (individually matched on age, race/ethnicity, urine type, date of urine collection, and fasting status) nested within the Hawaii biospecimen subcohort of the Multiethnic Cohort. AMPA was detected in 90% of cases and 84% of controls. The geometric mean of urinary AMPA excretion was nearly 38% higher among cases vs. controls (0.087 vs 0.063 ng AMPA/mg creatinine) after adjusting for race/ethnicity, age and BMI. A 4.5-fold higher risk of developing breast cancer in the highest vs. lowest quintile of AMPA excretion was observed (ORQ5 vs. Q1: 4.49; 95% CI: 1.46-13.77; ptrend = 0.029). To our knowledge, this is the first study to prospectively examine associations between urinary AMPA excretion and breast cancer risk. Our preliminary findings suggest that AMPA exposure may be associated with increased breast cancer risk; however, these results require confirmation in a larger population to increase study power and permit careful examinations of race/ethnicity differences.


Assuntos
Neoplasias da Mama , Herbicidas , Neoplasias da Mama/epidemiologia , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Estudos de Coortes , Feminino , Glicina/análogos & derivados , Hawaii/epidemiologia , Herbicidas/análise , Humanos , Organofosfonatos , Projetos Piloto
7.
Mar Pollut Bull ; 166: 112181, 2021 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33676108

RESUMO

Marine ecosystems across the world's largest ocean - the Pacific Ocean - are being increasingly affected by stressors such as pollution, overfishing, ocean acidification, coastal development and warming events coupled with rising sea levels and increasing frequency of extreme weather. These anthropogenic-driven stressors, which operate cumulatively at varying spatial and temporal scales, are leading to ongoing and pervasive degradation of many marine ecosystems in the Pacific Island region. The effects of global warming and ocean acidification threaten much of the region and impact on the socio-cultural, environmental, economic and human health components of many Pacific Island nations. Simultaneously, resilience to climate change is being reduced as systems are overburdened by other stressors, such as marine and land-based pollution and unsustainable fishing. Consequently, it is important to understand the vulnerability of this region to future environmental scenarios and determine to what extent management actions can help protect, and rebuild ecosystem resilience and maintain ecosystem service provision. This Special Issue of papers explores many of these pressures through case studies across the Pacific Island region, and the impacts of individual and cumulative pressures on the condition, resilience and survival of ecosystems and the communities that depend on them. The papers represent original work from across the tropical Pacific oceanscape, an area that includes 22 Pacific Island countries and territories plus Hawaii and the Philippines. The 39 papers within provide insights on anthropogenic pressures and habitat responses at local, national, and regional scales. The themes range from coastal water quality and human health, assessment of status and trends for marine habitats (e.g. seagrass and coral reefs), and the interaction of local pressures (pollution, overfishing) with increasing temperatures and climate variability. Studies within the Special Issue highlight how local actions, monitoring, tourism values, management, policy and incentives can encourage adaptation to anthropogenic impacts. Conclusions identify possible solutions to support sustainable and harmonious environment and social systems in the unique Pacific Island oceanscape.


Assuntos
Conservação dos Recursos Naturais , Ecossistema , Mudança Climática , Pesqueiros , Hawaii , Humanos , Concentração de Íons de Hidrogênio , Ilhas do Pacífico , Oceano Pacífico , Filipinas , Água do Mar
8.
Environ Pollut ; 279: 116875, 2021 Jun 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33770650

RESUMO

Perfluorinated alkyl substances (PFASs) are global, persistent, and toxic contaminants. We assessed PFAS concentrations in green (Chelonia mydas) and hawksbill (Eretmochelys imbricata) turtles from the North Pacific. Fifteen compounds were quantified via liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry from 62 green turtle and 6 hawksbill plasma samples from Hawai'i, Palmyra Atoll, and the Northern Marianas Islands. Plasma from 14 green turtles severely afflicted with fibropapillomatosis, and eggs from 12 Hawaiian hawksbill nests from 7 females were analyzed. Perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) predominated in green turtle plasma; perfluorononanoic acid (PFNA) predominated in hawksbill tissues. Concentrations were greater in hawksbill than green turtle plasma (p < 0.05), related to trophic differences. Green turtle plasma PFOS concentrations were related to human populations from highest to lowest: Hawai'i, Marianas, Palmyra. Influence on fibropapillomatosis was not evident. PFASs were maternally transferred to hawksbill eggs, with decreasing concentrations with distance from airports and with clutch order from one female. A risk assessment of PFOS showed concern for immunosuppression in Kailua green turtles and alarming concern for hawksbill developmental toxicity. Perfluoroundecanoic (PFUnA) and perfluorotridecanoic (PFTriA) acid levels were correlated with reduced emergence success (p < 0.05). Studies to further examine PFAS effects on sea turtle development would be beneficial.


Assuntos
Fluorcarbonetos , Tartarugas , Animais , Feminino , Hawaii
9.
BMC Ecol Evol ; 21(1): 48, 2021 03 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33752590

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: A striking aspect of evolution is that it often converges on similar trajectories. Evolutionary convergence can occur in deep time or over short time scales, and is associated with the imposition of similar selective pressures. Repeated convergent events provide a framework to infer the genetic basis of adaptive traits. The current study examines the genetic basis of secondary web loss within web-building spiders (Araneoidea). Specifically, we use a lineage of spiders in the genus Tetragnatha (Tetragnathidae) that has diverged into two clades associated with the relatively recent (5 mya) colonization of, and subsequent adaptive radiation within, the Hawaiian Islands. One clade has adopted a cursorial lifestyle, and the other has retained the ancestral behavior of capturing prey with sticky orb webs. We explore how these behavioral phenotypes are reflected in the morphology of the spinning apparatus and internal silk glands, and the expression of silk genes. Several sister families to the Tetragnathidae have undergone similar web loss, so we also ask whether convergent patterns of selection can be detected in these lineages. RESULTS: The cursorial clade has lost spigots associated with the sticky spiral of the orb web. This appears to have been accompanied by loss of silk glands themselves. We generated phylogenies of silk proteins (spidroins), which showed that the transcriptomes of cursorial Tetragnatha contain all major spidroins except for flagelliform. We also found an uncharacterized spidroin that has higher expression in cursorial species. We found evidence for convergent selection acting on this spidroin, as well as genes involved in protein metabolism, in the cursorial Tetragnatha and divergent cursorial lineages in the families Malkaridae and Mimetidae. CONCLUSIONS: Our results provide strong evidence that independent web loss events and the associated adoption of a cursorial lifestyle are based on similar genetic mechanisms. Many genes we identified as having evolved convergently are associated with protein synthesis, degradation, and processing, which are processes that play important roles in silk production. This study demonstrates, in the case of independent evolution of web loss, that similar selective pressures act on many of the same genes to produce the same phenotypes and behaviors.


Assuntos
Aranhas , Animais , Evolução Biológica , Hawaii , Filogenia , Seda/genética , Aranhas/genética
11.
Hawaii J Health Soc Welf ; 80(3): 52-61, 2021 03 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33718878

RESUMO

The COVID-19 pandemic has ravaged the world, caused over 1.8 million deaths in its first year, and severely affected the global economy. Hawai'i has not been spared from the transmission of SARS-CoV-2 in the local population, including high infection rates in racial and ethnic minorities. Early in the pandemic, we described in this journal various technologies used for the detection of SARS-CoV-2. Herein we characterize a 969-bp SARS-CoV-2 segment of the S gene downstream of the receptor-binding domain. At the John A. Burns School of Medicine Biocontainment Facility, RNA was extracted from an oropharyngeal swab and a nasal swab from 2 patients from Hawai'i who were infected with SARS-CoV-2 in August 2020. Following PCR, the 2 viral strains were sequenced using Sanger sequencing, and phylogenetic trees were generated using MEGAX. Phylogenetic tree results indicate that the virus has been introduced to Hawai'i from multiple sources. Further, we decoded 13 single nucleotide polymorphisms across 13 unique SARS-CoV-2 genomes within this region of the S gene, with 1 non-synonymous mutation (P681H) found in the 2 Hawai'i strains. The P681H mutation has unique and emerging characteristics with a significant exponential increase in worldwide frequency when compared to the plateauing of the now universal D614G mutation. The P681H mutation is also characteristic of the new SARS-CoV-2 variants from the United Kingdom and Nigeria. Additionally, several mutations resulting in cysteine residues were detected, potentially resulting in disruption of the disulfide bridges in and around the receptor-binding domain. Targeted sequence characterization is warranted to determine the origin of multiple introductions of SARS-CoV-2 circulating in Hawai'i.


Assuntos
/virologia , Genoma Viral/genética , Mutação/genética , /genética , Evolução Molecular , Hawaii/epidemiologia , Humanos , Filogenia , Análise de Sequência
12.
Sci Total Environ ; 775: 145796, 2021 Jun 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33618310

RESUMO

Global mercury pollution has markedly and consistently grown over the past 70 years (although with regional variations in trends) and is a source of major concern. Mercury contamination is particularly prevalent in biota of the mesopelagic layers of the open ocean, but these realms are little studied, and we lack a large scale picture of contamination in living organisms of this region. The Bulwer's petrel Bulweria bulwerii, a species of migratory seabird, is a highly specialised predator of mesopelagic fish and squid, and therefore can be used as a bioindicator for the mesopelagic domain. Mercury accumulated by the birds through diet is excreted into feathers during the moulting process in adults and feather growth in chicks, reflecting contamination in the non-breeding and breeding periods, respectively, and hence the influence of different, largely non-overlapping breeding and non-breeding ranges. We studied mercury in feathers and the trophic position in two colonies from the Atlantic Ocean (Portugal and Cape Verde) and two colonies from the Pacific Ocean (Japan and Hawaii). We found significantly lower levels of mercury in adult and chick samples from the Pacific Ocean compared with samples from the Atlantic Ocean. However, we did not detect differences in trophic position of chicks among colonies and oceans, suggesting that differences in mercury measured in feathers reflect levels of environmental contamination, rather than differences in the structure of the trophic chain in different oceans. We conclude that despite a reduction in mercury levels in the Atlantic in recent decades, mesopelagic organisms in this ocean remain more heavily contaminated than in the Pacific at tropical and subtropical latitudes. We suggest that Bulwer's petrel is a highly suitable species to monitor the global contamination of mercury in the mesopelagic domain.


Assuntos
Plumas , Mercúrio , Animais , Oceano Atlântico , Aves , Biomarcadores Ambientais , Monitoramento Ambiental , Plumas/química , Hawaii , Japão , Mercúrio/análise , Oceanos e Mares , Oceano Pacífico , Portugal
13.
Mar Pollut Bull ; 165: 112112, 2021 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33578188

RESUMO

Microalgal communities that colonize the hulls of at-risk vessels - those which have the highest port residency times, lowest speeds, and most stationary time in water - are expected to change as a function of environmental factors during ocean voyages, but are rarely studied. The microalgal communities on the hull of an atypically operated ship, the T.S. Golden Bear, were quantified during the course of a voyage from San Francisco Bay to the South Pacific and back. Here we clearly demonstrate that microalgal communities can be highly resilient, and can survive physiologically strenuous journeys through extreme variation in salinity and temperature. A 42% reduction in microalgal biomass and a 62% reduction in algal cellular abundance indicated a community-wide negative reaction to an increase in both salinity and temperature after the ship left San Francisco Bay, CA and cruised southward to Long Beach, although in vivo cellular fluorescence capacity increased. Further reductions in biomass (36%) and cellular abundance (26%) occurred once the ship encountered high-temperature, high-salinity waters in Hawaii. A 17% reduction of cellular fluorescence capacity was also observed in Hawaii. Despite previous environmental stressors, upon return to temperate waters off Vallejo, CA, biomass increased 230%, cellular abundance remained stable, and cellular fluorescence capacity increased from 0.45 ± 0.26 to 0.60 ± 0.07. The methods used in the current research provide efficient, cost-effective procedures for analyzing microalgal (and macrofouling) communities, which can in turn aid regulators in creating such necessary thresholds for enforcement.


Assuntos
Microalgas , Hawaii , Salinidade , São Francisco , Navios
14.
Molecules ; 26(3)2021 Jan 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33525713

RESUMO

The dichloromethane extract from leaves of Melicope barbigera (Rutaceae), endemic to the Hawaiian island of Kaua'i, yielded four new and three previously known acetophenones and 2H-chromenes, all found for the first time in M. barbigera. The structures of the new compounds obtained from the dichloromethane extract after purification by chromatographic methods were unambiguously elucidated by spectroscopic analyses including 1D/2D NMR spectroscopy and HRESIMS. The absolute configuration was determined by modified Mosher's method. Compounds 2, 4 and the mixture of 6 and 7 exhibited moderate cytotoxic activities against the human ovarian cancer cell line A2780 with IC50 values of 30.0 and 75.7 µM for 2 and 4, respectively, in a nuclear shrinkage cytotoxicity assay.


Assuntos
Acetofenonas/química , Benzopiranos/química , Folhas de Planta/química , Rutaceae/química , Acetofenonas/farmacologia , Benzopiranos/farmacologia , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Feminino , Hawaii , Humanos , Espectroscopia de Ressonância Magnética/métodos , Cloreto de Metileno/química , Neoplasias Ovarianas/tratamento farmacológico
15.
Environ Sci Technol ; 55(5): 2960-2967, 2021 03 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33570908

RESUMO

Hurricanes and associated stormwater runoff events are expected to greatly impact coastal marine water quality, yet little is known about their immediate effects on microbiological quality of near-shore water. This study sampled Hilo Bay immediately after the impact of Hurricane Lane to understand the spatial and temporal variations of the abundance and diversity of fecal indicator enterococci, common fecal pathogens, and antibiotic resistance genes (ARGs). Water samples from seven sampling sites over 7 days were collected and analyzed, which showed that the overall microbiological water quality parameters [enterococci geometric mean (GM): 6-22 cfu/100 mL] fell within water quality standards and that the temporal dynamics indicated continuing water quality recovery. However, considerable spatial variation was observed, with the most contaminated site exhibiting impaired water quality (GM = 144 cfu/100 mL). The Enterococcus population also showed distinct genotypic composition at the most contaminated site. Although marker genes for typical fecal pathogens (invA for Salmonella, hipO for Campylobacter, mip for Legionella pneumophila, and eaeA for enteropathogenic Escherichia coli) were not detected, various ARGs (ermB, qurS, tetM, blaTEM, and sul1) and integron-associated integrase intI1 were detected at high levels. Understanding the temporal and spatial variation of microbiological water quality at fine granularity is important for balancing economic and recreational uses of coastal water and the protection of public health post the impact of major hurricane events.


Assuntos
Tempestades Ciclônicas , Bactérias/genética , Baías , Fezes , Hawaii , Microbiologia da Água , Qualidade da Água
16.
Nat Commun ; 12(1): 797, 2021 02 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33542210

RESUMO

Inadvertent cues can be refined into signals through coevolution between signalers and receivers, yet the earliest steps in this process remain elusive. In Hawaiian populations of the Pacific field cricket, a new morph producing a novel and incredibly variable song (purring) has spread across islands. Here we characterize the current sexual and natural selection landscape acting on the novel signal by (1) determining fitness advantages of purring through attraction to mates and protection from a prominent deadly natural enemy, and (2) testing alternative hypotheses about the strength and form of selection acting on the novel signal. In field studies, female crickets respond positively to purrs, but eavesdropping parasitoid flies do not, suggesting purring may allow private communication among crickets. Contrary to the sensory bias and preference for novelty hypotheses, preference functions (selective pressure) are nearly flat, driven by extreme inter-individual variation in function shape. Our study offers a rare empirical test of the roles of natural and sexual selection in the earliest stages of signal evolution.


Assuntos
Gryllidae/fisiologia , Preferência de Acasalamento Animal/fisiologia , Seleção Genética/fisiologia , Vocalização Animal/fisiologia , Animais , Dípteros/fisiologia , Feminino , Aptidão Genética , Gryllidae/parasitologia , Hawaii , Masculino , Asas de Animais/fisiologia
17.
J Environ Manage ; 286: 111622, 2021 May 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33526349

RESUMO

Worldwide, water utilities and other water users increasingly seek to finance watershed protection and restoration in order to maintain or enhance water quality and quantity important for drinking water supply and other human use. Hydrologic studies which characterize the relative effectiveness of watershed management activities in terms of metrics important to water users are greatly needed to guide prioritization. To address this need, we worked with a local water utility in Hawai'i to develop a novel framework for prioritizing investments in native forest protection and restoration for groundwater recharge and applied it in the utility's priority aquifers and recharge areas. Specifically we combined land cover and water balance modeling to quantify the 50-year cumulative recharge benefits of: 1) protection of native forest from conversion to non-native forest, and 2) restoration of native forest in non-native grasslands. The highest priority areas (80th percentile of benefits) for native forest protection are projected to prevent the loss of over 48,600 m3 per hectare of recharge over 50 years. Incorporating land cover change modeling (versus assuming all areas are equally susceptible to invasion) shifts prioritization towards low to mid-elevation mesic forest areas at the highest risk of invasion by invasive canopy species as well as to high elevation, cloud forest areas at high risk of conversion to non-native grassland or bare ground. We also find that, in the highest priority areas with substantial fog interception, native forest restoration is projected to increase recharge by over 88,900 m3 per hectare over 50 years, but that decreases in recharge occur in areas with low fog interception. This study provides a framework for prioritizing investments in forest protection and restoration for groundwater recharge in a way that incorporates both the threat of conversion as well as changes in hydrologic fluxes. The framework and results can be utilized by current managers and updated as new ecohydrological data become available. The results also provide broad insights on the links between watershed management and groundwater recharge, particularly on islands and in other regions where species invasions threaten source watersheds and where groundwater is a primary water source.


Assuntos
Água Potável , Água Subterrânea , Florestas , Hawaii , Humanos , Ilhas
18.
Environ Monit Assess ; 193(3): 118, 2021 Feb 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33564962

RESUMO

Hilo Bay estuary, located on the northeastern side of Hawai'i Island, experiences variability in water quality parameters due to its numerous water inputs. This estuary experiences influxes of water from three sources: groundwater to the east, marine water from the north, and surface water from the Wailuku River to the west. High rainfall and river flow impacts Hilo Bay's water quality including salinity, turbidity, and chlorophyll a concentration. Here, maps of Hilo Bay water quality were examined to assess spatial patterns of these important parameters. Exploring the patterns of these water quality parameters by creating inverse distance weighted (IDW) interpolation surfaces of survey points and clusters based on hot spot analyses during low- and high-flow conditions showed statistically significant differences in spatial water quality in Hilo Bay. Water quality maps after a storm show (1) an overall decrease in salinity, (2) a river plume from the Wailuku River associated with a turbidity hot spot, and (3) a chlorophyll a hot spot offset from the river plume in the center of the bay. Using spatial analysis to analyze water quality throughout the entirety of Hilo Bay before and after storm events can lead to a better understanding of how this ecosystem is affected during these types of events, and furthermore, adopting this method of sampling and analysis allows for a greater representation of water quality all over the bay and can improve the monitoring of water quality in this important ecosystem.


Assuntos
Baías , Qualidade da Água , Clorofila A , Ecossistema , Monitoramento Ambiental , Hawaii , Rios , Análise Espacial
19.
Molecules ; 26(3)2021 Jan 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33513825

RESUMO

The roots of two cultivars of Paeonia, namely Paeonia officinalis "Rubra Plena" and Paeonia "Pink Hawaiian Coral", have been extracted with chloroform. The composition of the lipid fraction, analyzed by GC-MS technique, revealed the absence of paeonol and the presence of phenol, benzoic acid, fatty acid-and some sterol-derivatives. The chloroformic extracts have been tested on normal and several cancer cell lines but showed antiproliferative activity only on the ovarian carcinoma and the osteosarcoma. The biological activity of extracts was investigated mainly by confocal microscopy, flow cytometry and quantum phase imaging. The results indicated that the root extracts induced a hyperpolarization of mitochondria and an increase in reactive oxygen species levels, without inducing cell death. These effects are associated to an increased doubling time and a retarded confluence.


Assuntos
Lipídeos/química , Lipídeos/farmacologia , Paeonia/química , Extratos Vegetais/química , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Raízes de Plantas/química , Ácido Benzoico/química , Ácido Benzoico/farmacologia , Morte Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Proliferação de Células/efeitos dos fármacos , Ácidos Graxos/química , Ácidos Graxos/farmacologia , Feminino , Hawaii , Células HeLa , Humanos , Células MCF-7 , Mitocôndrias/efeitos dos fármacos , Osteossarcoma/tratamento farmacológico , Neoplasias Ovarianas/tratamento farmacológico , Fenóis/química , Fenóis/farmacologia , Espécies Reativas de Oxigênio/metabolismo , Esteróis/química , Esteróis/farmacologia
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