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1.
Hawaii J Health Soc Welf ; 79(5): 136-142, 2020 05 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32432217

RESUMO

Nationwide shortages of tests that detect severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) and diagnose coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) have led the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) to significantly relax regulations regarding COVID-19 diagnostic testing. To date the FDA has given emergency use authorization (EUA) to 48 COVID-19 in vitro diagnostic tests and 21 high complexity molecular-based laboratory developed tests, as well as implemented policies that give broad authority to clinical laboratories and commercial manufacturers in the development, distribution, and use of COVID-19 diagnostic tests. Currently, there are 2 types of diagnostic tests available for the detection of SARS-CoV-2: (1) molecular and (2) serological tests. Molecular detection of nucleic acid (RNA or DNA) sequences relating to the suspected pathogen is indicative of an active infection with the suspected pathogen. Serological tests detect antibodies against the suspected pathogen, which are produced by an individual's immune system. A positive serological test result indicates recent exposure to the suspected pathogen but cannot be used to determine if the individual is actively infected with the pathogen or immune to reinfection. In this article, the SARS-CoV-2 diagnostic tests currently approved by the FDA under EUA are reviewed, and other diagnostic tests that researchers are developing to detect SARS-CoV-2 infection are discussed.


Assuntos
Betacoronavirus/isolamento & purificação , Infecções por Coronavirus/diagnóstico , Pneumonia Viral/diagnóstico , Betacoronavirus/genética , Técnicas de Laboratório Clínico , Genoma Viral , Hawaii , Humanos , Pandemias
3.
Arch Virol ; 165(5): 1245-1248, 2020 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32227308

RESUMO

The complete genomic sequence of a putative novel member of the family Secoviridae was determined by high-throughput sequencing of a pineapple accession obtained from the National Plant Germplasm Repository in Hilo, Hawaii. The predicted genome of the putative virus was composed of two RNA molecules of 6,128 and 4,161 nucleotides in length, excluding the poly-A tails. Each genome segment contained one large open reading frame (ORF) that shares homology and phylogenetic identity with members of the family Secoviridae. The presence of this new virus in pineapple was confirmed using RT-PCR and Sanger sequencing from six samples collected in Oahu, Hawaii. The name "pineapple secovirus A" (PSVA) is proposed for this putative new sadwavirus.


Assuntos
Ananas/virologia , Genoma Viral , Secoviridae/classificação , Secoviridae/isolamento & purificação , Análise de Sequência de DNA , Biologia Computacional , Ordem dos Genes , Hawaii , Sequenciamento de Nucleotídeos em Larga Escala , Fases de Leitura Aberta , Filogenia , RNA Viral/genética , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase Via Transcriptase Reversa , Secoviridae/genética
4.
Nat Ecol Evol ; 4(2): 270-278, 2020 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32015429

RESUMO

The diversifications of Darwin's finches and Hawaiian honeycreepers are two text-book examples of adaptive radiation in birds. Why these two bird groups radiated while the remaining endemic birds in these two archipelagos exhibit relatively low diversity and disparity remains unexplained. Ecological factors have failed to provide a convincing answer to this phenomenon, and some intrinsic causes connected to craniofacial evolution have been hypothesized. The tight coevolution of the beak and the remainder of the skull in diurnal raptors and parrots suggests that integration may be the prevalent condition in landbirds (Inopinaves). This is in contrast with the archetypal relationship between beak shape and ecology in Darwin's finches and Hawaiian honeycreepers, which suggests that the beak can adapt as a distinct module in these birds. Modularity has therefore been proposed to underpin the adaptive radiation of these groups, allowing the beak to evolve more rapidly and freely in response to ecological opportunity. Here, using geometric morphometrics and phylogenetic comparative methods in a broad sample of landbird skulls, we show that craniofacial evolution in Darwin's finches and Hawaiian honeycreepers seems to be characterized by a tighter coevolution of the beak and the rest of the skull (cranial integration) than in most landbird lineages, with rapid and extreme morphological evolution of both skull regions along constrained directions of phenotypic space. These patterns are unique among landbirds, including other sympatric island radiations, and therefore counter previous hypotheses by showing that tighter cranial integration, not only modularity, can facilitate evolution along adaptive directions.


Assuntos
Tentilhões , Passeriformes , Animais , Bico , Hawaii , Filogenia
5.
BMC Public Health ; 20(1): 141, 2020 Jan 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32005201

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The Healthy Hawai'i Initiative was created in 2000 with tobacco settlement funds as a theory-based statewide effort to promote health-supporting environments through systems and policy change. Still active today, it is imbedded explicitly in a multi-sectoral, social ecological approach, effectively striving to build a culture of health before this was the name for such an ambitious effort. METHODS: From interviews with key informants, we analyze two decades of the Healthy Hawai'i Initiative (HHI) in the context of the Robert Wood Johnson Foundation (RWJF) Culture of Health Action Framework (CHAF). We list HHI accomplishments and examine how the Initiative achieved notable policy and environmental changes supportive of population health. RESULTS: The Healthy Hawai'i Initiative started with an elaborate concept-mapping process that resulted in a common vision about making "the healthy choice the easiest choice." Early on, the Initiative recognized that making health a shared value beyond the initial stakeholders required coalition and capacity building across a broad range of governmental and nonprofit actors. HHI coalitions were designed to promote grassroots mobilization and to link community leaders across sectors, and at their height, included over 500 members across all main islands of the state. Coalitions were particularly important for mobilizing rural communities. Additionally, the Initiative emphasized accessibility to public health data, published research, and evaluation reports, which strengthened the engagement to meet the shared vision and goals between diverse sector partners and HHI. Over the past two decades, HHI has capitalized on relationship building, data sharing, and storytelling to encourage a shared value of health among lawmakers, efforts which are believed to have led to the development of health policy champions. All of these factors combined, which centered on developing health as a shared value, have been fundamental to the success of the other three action areas of the CHAF over time. CONCLUSIONS: This evidence can provide critical insights for other communities at earlier stages of implementing broad, diverse, multifaceted system change and fills a key evidence gap around building a culture of health from a mature program in a notably multicultural state.


Assuntos
Diversidade Cultural , Política de Saúde , Saúde Pública , Fortalecimento Institucional , Hawaii , Humanos , População Rural
6.
Public Health Rep ; 135(2): 230-237, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32040922

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: From September 2015 through March 2016, Hawaii had the largest outbreak of locally transmitted dengue since 1944. We report on the Hawaii Department of Health's (HDOH's) investigation, findings, and response to the outbreak. METHODS: We defined cases of dengue using a modified version of the Council of State and Territorial Epidemiologists' case definition for dengue virus infections. We conducted epidemiologic investigations, including interviews with case-persons, review of medical records, laboratory testing, genetic sequencing of specimens, and geographic information system (GIS) data analysis. Outbreak response included community outreach and vector-control activities. RESULTS: We identified 264 confirmed cases of dengue; illness onset dates ranged from September 11, 2015, to March 17, 2016, all with reported travel to or residence on the Island of Hawaii. Of 264 persons with confirmed dengue, 238 (90.2%) were Hawaii residents. Thirty-seven (14.0%) persons required hospitalization; no cases of severe dengue or death were reported. GIS hot-spot analysis identified a cluster of cases on the western side of the island. Established risk factors for dengue exposure included holes in window or door screens, presence of standing water, and not using insect repellent or wearing protective clothing. CONCLUSIONS: To prevent or mitigate the spread of future arboviral introductions and outbreaks, the public health response should focus on behavioral and cultural attitudes, emphasizing personal mosquito protection and mosquito control at the community level. Outbreak responses can also be enhanced through the use of advanced GIS techniques, such as hot-spot analysis, to provide situational awareness and guide response efforts.


Assuntos
Vírus da Dengue/isolamento & purificação , Dengue/epidemiologia , Surtos de Doenças/estatística & dados numéricos , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Dengue/transmissão , Vírus da Dengue/genética , Feminino , Sistemas de Informação Geográfica , Hawaii/epidemiologia , Hospitalização/estatística & dados numéricos , Humanos , Imunoglobulina M/imunologia , Lactente , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Controle de Mosquitos/métodos , Mosquitos Vetores , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase Via Transcriptase Reversa , Viagem
7.
PLoS One ; 15(2): e0228573, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32032387

RESUMO

Plant communities on tropical high islands, such as the Hawaiian Islands, are predicted to experience rapid climate change, resulting in novel climates. If increased temperature and/or drought exceed plant species' current tolerances, species that are unable to adapt or shift ranges risk extinction. By definition, habitat generalists have a wide niche breadth and thrive in a variety of habitats, whereas habitat specialists have a narrow niche breadth, and typically thrive under more specific climatic characteristics (e.g., cold). The objectives of this study were to: (1) classify plant species in the Hawaiian Islands along a habitat generalist-specialist continuum; (2) independently test the validity of species rankings, using environmental and biogeographic ranges; and (3) identify species' life-history traits that predict species location along the continuum. We quantified specialization for 170 plant species using species co-occurrence data from over one thousand plots to rank species' realized habitat niche breadth using the Jaccard index. The distribution of species along this continuum differed by species biogeographic origin, with endemic plant species ranked on the specialist end and non-native plant species ranked on the generalist end. Habitat specialization rankings also differed for four of nine tested variables (while controlling for biogeographic origin): number of habitat moisture types, minimum elevation, number of Hawaiian Islands, and life form. Life form was the only trait tested that differed across the continuum, with woody species ranked as stronger generalists than herbaceous species; this pattern was particularly evident for non-native species. This indirect method of estimating species' potential climatic flexibility uses increasingly available large plant community data sets with output rankings which represent species' realized habitat niches. Identifying species and plant communities that are on the habitat specialist end of the continuum allows for their prioritization in conservation planning, as globally the loss of specialists is an indication of degradation.


Assuntos
Mudança Climática , Espécies em Perigo de Extinção , Poaceae/fisiologia , Árvores/fisiologia , Biodiversidade , Hawaii
8.
Plant Dis ; 104(2): 423-429, 2020 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31804901

RESUMO

Bacterial spot of tomato is a foliar disease caused by four Xanthomonas species. Identifying genetic resistance in wild tomatoes and subsequent breeding of varieties has been a strategy to reduce the loss from this disease because control using pesticides has been ineffective. Three independent sources of resistance have been identified with quantitative trait loci (QTL) mapping to the centromeric region on chromosome 11. These sources are derived from Hawaii 7998 (QTL-11A), PI 114490 (QTL-11B), and LA2533 (QTL-11C). To determine which QTL introgression from chromosome 11 provides the greatest resistance to multiple species, we developed near-isogenic lines (NILs) using marker-assisted backcrossing. In parallel, we developed an NIL that contains Rx-4/Xv3, which provides major gene resistance to Xanthomonas perforans. Additionally, we combined Rx-4/Xv3 resistance with QTL-11A. These sources of resistance were independently introduced into the susceptible parent, OH88119. During a 3-year period from 2016 to 2018, we evaluated backcross-derived families and NILs from each source in independent field trials inoculated with X. perforans, X. euvesicatoria, or X. gardneri. Our results suggest that both QTL-11C and QTL-11A combined with Rx-4/Xv3 provide effective genetic resistance against multiple Xanthomonas species. In addition, we provide evidence for additive to dominant genetic action for the QTL introgressions.


Assuntos
Lycopersicon esculentum , Xanthomonas , Hawaii , Doenças das Plantas , Locos de Características Quantitativas
9.
Nurse Educ ; 45(1): E1-E5, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30865152

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Presenteeism, the act of going to work while sick, is associated with increases in medication errors, patient falls, diminished quality of care, and higher costs. To date, presenteeism has not been described among nursing students. PURPOSE: This study described presenteeism in nursing students from 3 different international nursing programs. METHOD: A self-administered survey with open-ended responses was used. RESULTS: While nearly all student respondents believed going to class and clinical experiences put their classmates and patients at risk, the overall presenteeism rate was 85.5% for class and 69.5% for clinical experiences. Although there were significant differences between universities for reasons for presenteeism, a lack of opportunity for making up missed lecture or clinical time predominated. CONCLUSION: Nursing students in 3 culturally different cities reported going to class and clinical experiences while sick despite recognizing the safety risk.


Assuntos
Intercâmbio Educacional Internacional , Presenteísmo/estatística & dados numéricos , Estudantes de Enfermagem/psicologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Feminino , Hawaii , Humanos , Masculino , Pesquisa em Educação de Enfermagem , Segurança do Paciente , Medição de Risco , Seul , Estudantes de Enfermagem/estatística & dados numéricos , Inquéritos e Questionários , Tóquio , Universidades , Adulto Jovem
11.
12.
Sci Total Environ ; 688: 1422-1432, 2019 Oct 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31726570

RESUMO

Tropical forests provide a suite of benefits including biodiversity, cultural value, and a range of ecosystem services. Globally, there is increasing interest in incentivizing native forest protection as a multi-benefit natural infrastructure strategy to secure clean and ample water supplies. In addition to conversion to agriculture and other non-forest land uses, non-native species invasion represents a major threat to these systems, particularly on islands. Whereas several recent efforts have quantified the benefits of reforestation or avoided agricultural expansion in tropical forest areas, the hydrologic and associated economic benefits of avoided invasion have received less attention. To address this gap, we quantified the benefits of protecting native forest from conversion to non-native forest in East Maui, Hawai'i in terms of groundwater recharge, a highly valued hydrologic ecosystem service that water utilities increasingly seek to co-finance. Compared with two counterfactual invasion scenarios, the groundwater recharge benefits of planned conservation activities reached 40.9 to 146.3 million cubic meters over 100 years depending on invasion rate assumptions. This translated to 2.70 to 137.6 million dollars of cost savings to the water utility in present value terms (achieved through reducing reliance on more expensive water alternatives) under a range of discount rates and water scarcity assumptions. Our results suggest that investing in native forest conservation provides an important hydrologic ecosystem service benefit that complements the range of benefits provided by these ecosystems. These findings demonstrate that co-financing native forest conservation represents an important supply side option in water resources planning.


Assuntos
Conservação dos Recursos Naturais/métodos , Florestas , Hawaii , Abastecimento de Água
13.
Zootaxa ; 4646(1): zootaxa.4646.1.5, 2019 Jul 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31717028

RESUMO

The alpheid shrimp Nennalpheus Banner Banner, 1981, hitherto known only from a few records in the tropical western Pacific, is recorded for the first time from the tropical eastern Atlantic, as well as from the Indian Ocean. Nennalpheus gabonensis sp. nov. is described based on a single but complete male specimen collected in mediocre visibility conditions at 11 m depth on a rocky reef north of Libreville, Gabon. The new species presents a substantial number of morphological differences from the two other species of Nennalpheus, especially in the armature of the cheliped fingers. The previously known distribution range of Nennalpheus sibogae (De Man, 1910), the type species of the genus, is extended significantly to include the Central Pacific (Hawaiian Archipelago) and the Indian Ocean (Glorioso Islands in the Scattered Islands group, and Mayotte Island in the Comoro Archipelago). In addition, new illustrations of N. sibogae are provided, including the previously not figured mouthparts and high-quality, contrasting background colour photographs. Field observations indicate that Nennalpheus is able to produce a weak snapping sound by rapidly closing one or both chelipeds, a previously suspected, but never observed behaviour.


Assuntos
Distribuição Animal , Estruturas Animais , Animais , Comores , Gabão , Hawaii , Oceano Índico , Ilhas , Masculino
14.
Zootaxa ; 4688(3): zootaxa.4688.3.1, 2019 Oct 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31719435

RESUMO

The small galatheid squat lobster genus Phylladiorhynchus currently contains five species, three of which supposedly have wide Indo-Pacific distributions. To date, two putatively widespread species, P. pusillus and P. integrirostris have been recorded from New Zealand and Australian waters. Here, we review the New Zealand and eastern Australian species of Phylladiorhynchus based on extensive collections from the region using morphological and molecular data. The type species, P. pusillus (Henderson, 1885) (type locality: Twofold Bay, Australia) is redescribed and shown to occur on both sides of the Tasman Sea. Phylladiorhynchus integrirostris, for which the original Hawaiian type material has been lost, is redescribed based on a neotype and shown not to occur in New Zealand or Australian waters, previous records being referable to other species. Six new species of Phylladiorhynchus are described. Seven species of Phylladiorhynchus are now known from New Zealand and eastern Australia. A key to all species of the genus is provided. Results of the present study show that the regional diversity of Phylladiorhynchus is significantly higher than previously reported and demonstrates the utility of a number of subtle morphological characters as diagnostic of species.


Assuntos
Anomuros , Animais , Austrália , Hawaii , Nova Zelândia
15.
Zootaxa ; 4590(4): zootaxa.4590.4.1, 2019 Apr 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31716079

RESUMO

On the Hawaiian Islands 22 sciarid species were detected, belonging to the following ten genera: Austrosciara Schmitz Mjöberg, Bradysia Winnertz, Corynoptera Winnertz, Cratyna Winnertz, Epidapus Haliday, Hyperlasion Schmitz, Lycoriella Frey, Phytosciara Frey, Pseudolycoriella Menzel Mohrig and Scatopsciara Edwards. The revision resulted in new combinations for the following five species: Austrosciara hawaiiensis (Hardy) comb. n., Corynoptera prominens (Hardy) comb. n., Cratyna adrostylata (Hardy) comb. n., Cr. longicosta (Hardy) comb. n., and Scatopsciara hoyti (Hardy) comb. n. Eight species were declared as new synonyms: Bradysia bishopi Steffan, 1973 = B. centidens Vilkamaa, Hippa Mohrig, 2012 syn. n.; B. crassicornis (Skuse, 1890) = B. molokaiensis (Grimshaw, 1901) syn. n. and = B. aspercera Mohrig, 2016 syn. n.; B. radicum (Brunetti, 1912) = B. spatitergum (Hardy, 1956) syn. n.; Corynoptera prominens (Hardy, 1956) = C. gladiota Mohrig, 2004 syn. n.; Cosmosciara hartii (Johannsen, 1912) = Plastosciara (Plastosciara) latipons Hardy, 1956 syn. n.; Hyperlasion wasmanni (Schmitz, 1918) = Scythropochroa magnisensoria Hardy, 1956 syn. n.; and Scatopsciara hoyti (Hardy, 1956) = Sc. spiculata Vilkamaa, Hippa Mohrig, 2012 syn. n. These four species are new reports for Hawai'i, three of them are new to science: Epidapus pallidus (Séguy), Pseudolycoriella nigrofemoralis Mohrig, Kauschke Broadley sp. n., Scatopsciara hardyi Mohrig, Kauschke Broadley sp. n. and Sc. steffani Mohrig, Kauschke Broadley sp. n. A lectotype was designated for Bradysia radicum (Brunetti) in order to fix the name. All new and revised species are figured.        The species Bradysia bishopi Steffan, 1973, B. ocellaris (Comstock, 1882), B. radicum (Brunetti, 1912), Cosmosciara hartii (Johannsen, 1912), Pseudolycoriella planiforceps (Steffan, 1971) and Scatopsciara steffani Mohrig, Kauschke Broadley sp. n. are reported from the Galápagos Islands.


Assuntos
Ceratopogonidae , Dípteros , Animais , Equador , Fungos , Hawaii , Ilhas
16.
Zootaxa ; 4619(3): zootaxa.4619.3.10, 2019 Jun 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31716296

RESUMO

A new species of the genus Lestrolepis is described based on 6 specimens collected from the Red Sea. The species differs from the congeners in having 31‒34 anal-fin rays, 63‒65 total lateral-line scales, 28‒30 prehaemal vertebrae and 79‒81 total vertebrae. Lestidium pofi Harry, previously recognized as a junior synonym of "Lestrolepis" luetkeni (Ege), is recognized as a valid species of Lestrolepis. A redescription of pofi is provided, based on specimens collected from off Hawaii, Japan, Madagascar and Australia.


Assuntos
Peixes , Distribuição Animal , Animais , Austrália , Hawaii , Oceano Índico , Japão , Madagáscar
17.
Environ Sci Technol ; 53(21): 12218-12226, 2019 Nov 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31595747

RESUMO

Polymeric differences of plastic debris were assessed across four compartments of the Main Hawaiian Islands (sea surface, windward beaches, leeward beaches, and seafloor) to better describe sources and fate. Plastic debris pieces (n = 4671) were collected from 11 beaches, three sea surface tows, and three seafloor dives. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy identified the polymers of 3551 pieces. Significant differences (p < 0.05) in concentration, types, polymer composition, and weathering were found among four compartments. Windward beaches had 1-2 orders of magnitude more plastic pollution (g/m2) than leeward beaches, despite smaller human populations on windward sides. Sea surface and windward beaches were dominated by severely weathered, less dense floating polymers (polyethylene and polypropylene comprised 92.7 and 93.5% on average, respectively, of the total debris mass), while leeward beaches and the seafloor debris consisted of less weathered and more dense sinking polymers (e.g., 41.0 and 44.7% of total mass consisted of the sum of polystyrene, nylon, cellulose acetate, polyethylene terephthalate, and additive-masked debris). These results are some of the first to provide evidence of polymeric stratification in the marine environment and emphasize that the majority of marine debris in Hawaii is floating in from distant sources rather than from Hawaii's residents or tourists.


Assuntos
Monitoramento Ambiental , Polímeros , Praias , Hawaii , Humanos , Ilhas , Plásticos , Resíduos
18.
Syst Parasitol ; 96(9): 777-788, 2019 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31654292

RESUMO

A new species of parasitic copepod, Echthrogaleus spinulus n. sp. (Pandaridae), is described from the torpedo ray Tetronarce tokionis (Tanaka) (Torpedinidae) captured in pelagic Hawaiian waters. The new species has pediger 4 bearing large dorsal plates with denticles on posterior margin, genital complex with posterolateral lobes widely curved medially and overlapping, leg 4 exopod incompletely 3-segmented, and the largest body size (maximum length 16 mm from anterior rim of frontal plates to tip of caudal rami, excluding setae). This morphology does not match any of the seven valid species of Echthrogaleus Steenstrup & Lütken, 1861. Analysis of 28S rDNA sequences separated the new material from the Central Pacific from samples of E. coleoptratus in the Atlantic and Eastern Pacific Oceans. However, due to the lack of DNA sequences in the databases, the new 28S rDNA sequence cannot used to confirm the species identity. The unique morphological characteristics of the Central Pacific female copepods combined with 28S rDNA sequencing was used as a basis to validate the new species.


Assuntos
Copépodes/classificação , Torpedo/parasitologia , Animais , Copépodes/anatomia & histologia , Copépodes/genética , Feminino , Hawaii , Oceano Pacífico , RNA Ribossômico 28S/efeitos dos fármacos , RNA Ribossômico 28S/genética , Especificidade da Espécie
20.
Science ; 365(6457): 1040-1044, 2019 09 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31488692

RESUMO

From June to August 2018, the eruption of Kilauea volcano on the island of Hawai'i injected millions of cubic meters of molten lava into the nutrient-poor waters of the North Pacific Subtropical Gyre. The lava-impacted seawater was characterized by high concentrations of metals and nutrients that stimulated phytoplankton growth, resulting in an extensive plume of chlorophyll a that was detectable by satellite. Chemical and molecular evidence revealed that this biological response hinged on unexpectedly high concentrations of nitrate, despite the negligible quantities of nitrogen in basaltic lava. We hypothesize that the high nitrate was caused by buoyant plumes of nutrient-rich deep waters created by the substantial input of lava into the ocean. This large-scale ocean fertilization was therefore a unique perturbation event that revealed how marine ecosystems respond to exogenous inputs of nutrients.


Assuntos
Fitoplâncton/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Água do Mar/química , Erupções Vulcânicas , Clorofila A/análise , Clorofila A/metabolismo , Eutrofização , Hawaii , Metais/análise , Nitratos/análise , Nitrogênio/análise , Oceano Pacífico , Fitoplâncton/metabolismo , Água do Mar/análise
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