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1.
Braz. j. biol ; 84: e243238, 2024. tab
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1360207

RESUMO

The use of alternative nutritional sources is an important topic for animal production such as poultry. This study examined the effect of replacing soybean meal with sunflower leaf meal in the diet of laying shaver brown pullets. A total of 30 laying birds were assigned to three treatments of 0% (as control group), 10% and 15% MSFLM inclusion. Four eggs per replicate were randomly taken for three consecutive days at two weeks interval for five times, and 18 weeks individuals were selected after 40 days of experimental time. External parameters of the eggs (egg weight, egg length, egg breadth and egg shape index, shell thickness), and body parameters (Final body weight, weight gain), feed intake and hen day production were measured. For egg length, egg breadth and shell thickness showed significant difference (p< 0.05) in from the control birds. Final body weight, weight gain, feed intake and hen day production showed comparable results with values from eggs of birds on control diet. The study revealed the ability of birds to easily utilize the nutrients in the protein sources. MSFLM utilization up to 15% in pullets' diet revealed no detrimental effect on the performance of the laying birds and the external qualities of eggs produced.


O uso de fontes nutricionais alternativas é um tópico importante para a produção animal, como a avicultura. Este estudo examinou o efeito da substituição do farelo de soja por farelo de folha de girassol na dieta de frangas marrons barbeadoras poedeiras. Um total de 30 aves poedeiras foram designadas a três tratamentos de 0% (como grupo controle), 10% e 15% de inclusão MSFLM. Quatro ovos por repetição foram retirados aleatoriamente por três dias consecutivos em intervalos de duas semanas por cinco vezes, e indivíduos de 18 semanas foram selecionados após 40 dias do tempo experimental. Parâmetros externos dos ovos (peso do ovo, comprimento do ovo, largura do ovo e índice de forma do ovo, espessura da casca) e parâmetros corporais (peso corporal final, ganho de peso), consumo de ração e produção diária da galinha foram medidos. Para comprimento do ovo, largura do ovo e espessura da casca apresentaram diferença significativa (p <0,05) nas aves controle. Peso corporal final, ganho de peso, consumo de ração e produção de dia de galinha mostraram resultados comparáveis ​​com valores de ovos de aves em dieta controle. O estudo revelou a capacidade das aves de utilizar facilmente os nutrientes das fontes de proteína. A utilização de MSFLM até 15% na dieta das frangas não revelou nenhum efeito prejudicial no desempenho das aves poedeiras e nas qualidades externas dos ovos produzidos.


Assuntos
Animais , Aves Domésticas/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Galinhas/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Dieta , Helianthus
2.
Braz. j. biol ; 84: e253555, 2024. tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1355900

RESUMO

Abstract The aim of the present study is to assess the effects of selenium nanoparticles on the growth, hematology and nutrients digestibility of Labeorohita fingerlings. Fingerlings were fed with seven isocaloric sunflower meal-based diet supplemented with different concentrations of nanoparticles naming T1 to T7 (0, 0.5, 1, 1.5, 2, 2.5, and 3 mg/kg), with 5% wet body weight while chromic oxide was used as an indigestible marker. After experimentation for 90 days T3 treated group (1mg/kg -1Se-nano level) showed the best result in hematological parameters (WBC's 7.97 ×103mm-3, RBC's 2.98 ×106 mm-3 and Platelet count 67), nutrient digestibility (crude protein: 74%, ether extract: 76%, gross energy: 70%) and growth performance (weight gain 13.24 g, weight gain% 198, feed conversion ratio 1.5, survival rate 100%) as compared to the other treatment groups. Specific growth rates were found significantly higher in T5 than in other groups. The present study indicated positive effect of 1 mg/kg Se-nanoparticles on growth advancement, hematological parameters, and nutrients digestibility of L. rohita fingerlings.


Resumo O objetivo do presente estudo é avaliar os efeitos das nanopartículas de selênio no crescimento, hematologia e digestibilidade dos nutrientes de alevinos de Labeo rohita. Os alevinos foram alimentados com sete dietas isocalóricas à base de farinha de girassol suplementada com diferentes concentrações de nanopartículas, nomeando T1 a T7 (0, 0,5, 1, 1,5, 2, 2,5 e 3 mg / kg), com 5% do peso corporal úmido enquanto o óxido crômico foi usado como um marcador indigesto. Após a experimentação por 90 dias, o grupo tratado com T3 (nível 1mg / kg -1Se-nano) mostrou o melhor resultado em parâmetros hematológicos (WBC's 7,97 × 103mm-3, RBC's 2,98 × 106mm-3 e contagem de plaquetas 67), digestibilidade dos nutrientes (proteína bruta: 74%, extrato de éter: 76%, energia bruta: 70%) e desempenho de crescimento (ganho de peso 13,24 g, ganho de peso % 198, taxa de conversão alimentar 1,5, taxa de sobrevivência 100%) em comparação com os outros grupos de tratamento. As taxas de crescimento específicas foram encontradas significativamente mais altas em T5 do que em outros grupos. O presente estudo indicou efeito positivo de 1 mg / kg de nanopartículas de Se no avanço do crescimento, parâmetros hematológicos e digestibilidade de nutrientes de alevinos de L. rohita.


Assuntos
Animais , Nanopartículas , Helianthus , Nutrientes , Suplementos Nutricionais , Dieta , Ração Animal/análise , Fenômenos Fisiológicos da Nutrição Animal
3.
Food Chem ; 399: 133824, 2023 Jan 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36041335

RESUMO

Innovative pH-colorimetric sensor film was fabricated from agar and methylcellulose matrix (AM) with various concentrations of sunflower wax (SFW) (6%, 9%, 12%, and 15% w/w) combined with purple Chinese cabbage (CPC) anthocyanins for tracking chicken breast freshness. A bio-composition film AM/CPC with (hydrophobic) SFW exhibited significant color variations in acidic pH level of (2-6) and a slight shift in alkaline pH levels ranging from (7-12), as well as marked color change due to ammonia vapor. Microstructure analyses revealed that SFW was fixed effectively into the AM-CPC matrices. The incorporation of varying SFW concentrations enhanced the mechanical, thermal, antioxidant activity, reduced anthocyanin release and physical properties (mainly water vapor permeability), with the best performance at AM/CPC/9% SFW. Interestingly, SFW films demonstrated perfect defense opposing UV-vis and visible light. Finally, it was proved that the efficiency of the pH-colorimetric film as an indicator for evaluating the freshness of chicken breast.


Assuntos
Asteraceae , Brassica , Helianthus , Animais , Antocianinas/química , Biomarcadores , Galinhas , China , Embalagem de Alimentos , Concentração de Íons de Hidrogênio
4.
Biomed Res Int ; 2022: 1809879, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36193325

RESUMO

Jerusalem artichoke (Helianthus tuberosus L.) polysaccharide (JAP) is a chain polysaccharide composed of D-fructose connected by ß (1-2) glycosidic bonds, which is a kind of inulin. This study evaluated the anti-respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) activity of JAP in vivo and in vitro. To investigate its antiviral activity, an MTT assay, q-PCR, enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), and lung histological observation were performed. The results showed that JAP showed anti-RSV activity in vitro with a half maximal inhibitory concentration (IC50) of approximately 29.15 µg/mL. In vivo results suggested that JAP could effectively inhibit RSV proliferation in the lungs and improve lung tissue lesions in RSV-infected mice. Additionally, JAP could also reduce the expression of TLR3 and TLR4 in the lungs, increase serum anti-inflammatory factors IL-4 levels, and reduce pro-inflammatory factors TNF-α and TNF-ß levels, which may be related to its anti-RSV activity. This study provides a new approach to anti-RSV therapy and enriches the potential applications of JAP.


Assuntos
Helianthus , Vírus Sincicial Respiratório Humano , Animais , Antivirais/farmacologia , Frutose , Helianthus/química , Interleucina-4 , Inulina , Linfotoxina-alfa , Camundongos , Receptor 3 Toll-Like , Receptor 4 Toll-Like , Fator de Necrose Tumoral alfa
5.
Int J Mol Sci ; 23(17)2022 Sep 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36077567

RESUMO

Sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.) is an appropriate crop for current new patterns of green agriculture, so it is important to change sunflower receptacles from waste to useful resource. However, there is limited knowledge on the functions of compounds from the essential oils of sunflower receptacles. In this study, a new method was created for chemical space network analysis and classification of small samples, and applied to 104 compounds. Here, t-SNE (t-Distributed Stochastic Neighbor Embedding) dimensions were used to reduce coordinates as node locations and edge connections of chemical space networks, respectively, and molecules were grouped according to whether the edges were connected and the proximity of the node coordinates. Through detailed analysis of the structural characteristics and fingerprints of each classified group, our classification method attained good accuracy. Targets were then identified using reverse docking methods, and the active centers of the same types of compounds were determined by quantum chemical calculation. The results indicated that these compounds can be divided into nine groups, according to their mean within-group similarity (MWGS) values. The three families with the most members, i.e., the d-limonene group (18), α-pinene group (10), and γ-maaliene group (nine members) determined the protein targets, using PharmMapper. Structure fingerprint analysis was employed to predict the binding mode of the ligands of four families of the protein targets. Thence, quantum chemical calculations were applied to the active group of the representative compounds of the four families. This study provides further scientific information to support the use of sunflower receptacles.


Assuntos
Helianthus , Óleos Voláteis , Agricultura , Análise por Conglomerados , Helianthus/química
6.
Bioresour Technol ; 362: 127878, 2022 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36055542

RESUMO

Ergosterol is an important precursor in the pharmaceutical industry for the production of numerous drugs. In this study, Kluyveromyces marxianus that showed more potential for ergosterol production than some other yeasts was reported. The effects of transcription factors UPC2, MOT3, and ROX1 of K. marxianus on ergosterol synthesis were explored, and a Upc2-overexpressing strain produced 1.78 times more ergosterol (167.33 mg/L) than the wild-type strain (60.04 mg/L). A total of 239.98 mg/L ergosterol was produced when glucose was replaced with fructose to limit ethanol production. Enhanced aeration increased ergosterol titer from 63.09 mg/L to 128.46 mg/L at 42 °C. The ergosterol titer reached 304.37 mg/L in a shake flask at 37 °C, or 1124.38 and 948.32 mg/L at 37 °C and 42 °C, respectively, in a 5 L bioreactor, using Jerusalem artichoke tubers as the sole carbon source. This study establishes a platform for ergosterol biosynthesis using inexpensive materials.


Assuntos
Helianthus , Kluyveromyces , Ergosterol , Fermentação , Helianthus/genética , Kluyveromyces/genética , Temperatura
7.
Phytomedicine ; 106: 154443, 2022 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36108372

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Atopic dermatitis (AD) is multifactorial disease that is highly involved in the activity of T cells from the skin lesion. Seeds of Helianthus annuus extract have been traditionally used as anti-inflammatory reagent but few studies have been reported on leaf of H. annuus that are discarded uselessly as an immunomodulator. PURPOSE: Therefore, here, the regulatory effect of Helianthus annuus extract (HAE) on AD via suppression of T cell activity was investigated. METHODS: The efficacy of HAE was evaluated in T cells stimulated with CD3/CD28 antibody and PMA/A23187. And demonstration of the alleviating effect of HAE on AD in the ears of Balb/c female mice stimulated with mite extract and DNCB. RESULTS: Pre-treatment with HAE abrogates IL-2 production from activated T cells. It was also found that HAE suppresses the expression of surface molecules in activated T cells. Cell viability results demonstrated that HAE is not associated with cytotoxicity in resting and activated T cells. Besides, we exhibited that regulated phosphorylation of MAPK through TAK1-IKKα-NFκB by pre-treatment with HAE leads to the suppressive effect of HAE on T cell activation. Oral administration of HAE attenuates manifestations of AD including reduced thickness of dermis and epidermis, decreased IgE level in serum, and declined mRNA levels of atopic cytokines on ear tissues. The ameliorative effect of HAE on AD was found to be associated with suppressed activity of T cells from draining lymph nodes. CONCLUSION: Therefore, our results provide that HAE alleviates AD symptoms via modulation of T cell activity. In addition, these results suggest the immunomodulatory effect of HAE on T-cell mediated diseases.


Assuntos
Dermatite Atópica , Helianthus , Administração Oral , Animais , Anti-Inflamatórios/farmacologia , Anti-Inflamatórios/uso terapêutico , Antígenos CD28/uso terapêutico , Calcimicina , Citocinas/metabolismo , Dermatite Atópica/patologia , Dinitroclorobenzeno , Feminino , Quinase I-kappa B , Imunoglobulina E , Fatores Imunológicos/farmacologia , Fatores Imunológicos/uso terapêutico , Interleucina-2/farmacologia , Interleucina-2/uso terapêutico , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos BALB C , Extratos Vegetais/uso terapêutico , RNA Mensageiro , Pele , Linfócitos T
8.
Anim Sci J ; 93(1): e13768, 2022 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36127312

RESUMO

The ruminal degradation parameters of sunflower cake (SFC), a by-product left after the mechanical extraction of oil from sunflower seeds, were estimated in an in situ experiment using a cow. And also the effect of feeding SFC on nutrient digestibilities, digestible energy, nitrogen balance, and ruminal and blood properties were investigated in a feeding trial using four Shiba goats compared isonitrogenously with soybean meal (SBM). The in situ results demonstrated that the SFC had high soluble protein (>70%) with 97% total degradable protein. The feeding trial revealed that the SFC had 85% crude protein digestibility and 65% total digestible nutrients on a dry matter basis in which the low carbohydrate digestibilities offset the advantage of high digestible fat (9.9%). The nitrogen efficiency (retained N/intake N) was lower for SFC than SBM, probably because of an inferior biological value of amino acids in SFC. Among the ruminal and blood properties, only the total ruminal acid concentration and blood urea nitrogen (BUN) differed significantly between the diets: The SFC diet showed lower values than the SBM diet. These findings indicate that SFC can safely replace SBM.


Assuntos
Helianthus , Soja , Aminoácidos/metabolismo , Ração Animal/análise , Animais , Carboidratos , Bovinos , Digestão , Feminino , Fermentação , Helianthus/metabolismo , Nitrogênio/metabolismo , Nutrientes , Rúmen/metabolismo , Soja/química
9.
Food Res Int ; 160: 111755, 2022 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36076427

RESUMO

Production of fructooligosaccharides (FOS) is a trending topic due to their prebiotic effect becoming increasingly important for the modern human diet. The most suitable process for FOS production is the one using fungal inulinases. Introduction of new fungal inulinase producers and their implementation in production of inulinase enzymes is therefore gaining interest. This study provides a new approach to FOS synthesis by fungal enzyme complex without prior separation of any specific enzyme. Inulinase enzyme complexes could be used for the synthesis of FOS in two possible ways - hydrolysis of inulin (FOSh) and transfructosylation process of sucrose (FOSs), as demonstrated here. Depending on the fungal growth inducing substrate, a variety of inulinase enzyme complexes was obtained - one of which was most successful in production of FOSh and another one of FOSs. Substrates derived from crops: triticale, wheat bran, Jerusalem artichoke and Aspergillus welwitschiae isolate, previously proven as safe for use in food, were utilized for production of inulinase enzyme cocktails. The highest FOSs production was obtained by enzyme complex rich in ß-fructofuranosidase, while the highest FOSh production was obtained by enzyme complex rich in endoinulinase. Both FOSh and FOSs showed antioxidant potential according to ABTS and ORAC, which classifies them as a suitable additive in functional food. Simultaneous zymographic detection of inulinase enzymes, which could contribute to expansion of the knowledge on fungal enzymes, was developed and applied here. It demonstrated the presence of different inulinase isoforms depending on fungal growth substrate. These findings, which rely on the innate ability of fungi to co-produce all inulinases from a cocktail, could be useful as a new, easy approach to FOS production by fungal enzymes without their separation and purification, contributing to cheaper and faster production processes.


Assuntos
Helianthus , Aspergillus , Glicosídeo Hidrolases , Humanos , Oligossacarídeos
10.
PLoS One ; 17(9): e0275462, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36178944

RESUMO

Plants encounter and respond to numerous abiotic stresses during their lifetimes. These stresses are often related and could therefore elicit related responses. There are, however, relatively few detailed comparisons between multiple different stresses at the molecular level. Here, we investigated the phenotypic and transcriptomic response of cultivated sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.) seedlings to three water-related stresses (i.e., dry-down, an osmotic challenge, and salt stress), as well as a generalized low-nutrient stress. All four stresses negatively impacted seedling growth, with the nutrient stress having a more divergent response from control as compared to the water-related stresses. Phenotypic responses were consistent with expectations for growth in low-resource environments, including increased (i.e., less negative) carbon fractionation values and leaf C:N ratios, as well as increased belowground biomass allocation. The number of differentially expressed genes (DEGs) under stress was greater in leaf tissue, but roots exhibited a higher proportion of DEGs unique to individual stresses. Overall, the three water-related stresses had a more similar transcriptomic response to each other vs. nutrient stress, though this pattern was more pronounced in root vs. leaf tissue. In contrast to our DEG analyses, co-expression network analysis revealed that there was little indication of a shared response between the four stresses in despite the majority of DEGs being shared between multiple stresses. Importantly, osmotic stress, which is often used to simulate drought stress in experimental settings, had little transcriptomic resemblance to true water limitation (i.e., dry-down) in our study, calling into question its utility as a means for simulating drought.


Assuntos
Helianthus , Carbono , Helianthus/genética , Plântula/genética , Estresse Fisiológico/genética , Transcriptoma , Água
11.
Int J Mol Sci ; 23(17)2022 Aug 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36076914

RESUMO

Rust and downy mildew (DM) are two important sunflower diseases that lead to significant yield losses globally. The use of resistant hybrids to control rust and DM in sunflower has a long history. The rust resistance genes, R13a and R16, were previously mapped to a 3.4 Mb region at the lower end of sunflower chromosome 13, while the DM resistance gene, Pl33, was previously mapped to a 4.2 Mb region located at the upper end of chromosome 4. High-resolution fine mapping was conducted using whole genome sequencing of HA-R6 (R13a) and TX16R (R16 and Pl33) and large segregated populations. R13a and R16 were fine mapped to a 0.48 cM region in chromosome 13 corresponding to a 790 kb physical interval on the XRQr1.0 genome assembly. Four disease defense-related genes with nucleotide-binding leucine-rich repeat (NLR) motifs were found in this region from XRQr1.0 gene annotation as candidate genes for R13a and R16. Pl33 was fine mapped to a 0.04 cM region in chromosome 4 corresponding to a 63 kb physical interval. One NLR gene, HanXRQChr04g0095641, was predicted as the candidate gene for Pl33. The diagnostic SNP markers developed for each gene in the current study will facilitate marker-assisted selections of resistance genes in sunflower breeding programs.


Assuntos
Basidiomycota , Helianthus , Oomicetos , Peronospora , Basidiomycota/genética , Mapeamento Cromossômico , Resistência à Doença/genética , Genes de Plantas , Ligação Genética , Helianthus/genética , Família Multigênica , Oomicetos/genética , Melhoramento Vegetal , Doenças das Plantas/genética , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único
12.
Curr Microbiol ; 79(10): 299, 2022 Aug 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36002542

RESUMO

Biofertilizers based on plant growth-promoting actinobacteria are used as potential alternatives to chemical fertilizers for sustainable agricultural systems. However, successful application of PGPA to agricultural land is challenging. The present study was an attempt to develop and evaluate the effect of a low-cost biofertilizer named NCTS (nanoclay-treated-Streptomyces) based on Streptomyces sp. UTMC 3136 spores amalgamated in a hybrid material of nanoclay Na-montmorillonite K10-glycerol-water substrate. In addition, the effect of NCTS on sunflower growth was investigated. In vivo tests showed a statistically significant increase in the agronomic characteristics of sunflowers treated with NCTS. Characterization of NCTS by FTIR, Raman spectroscopy, and scanning electron microscopy testified to the structural alignment and good adhesion of NCTS components. The viability of NCTS was 100% after 72 h of storage at 4 °C. Overall, the present study attempted to validate the efficacy of the formulation of Streptomyces sp. UTMC 3136 in nanoclay for growth improvement of sunflower. It was the first study to show the administration of PGPA in combination with nanomaterials as a growth enhancing biofertilization agent for sunflower.


Assuntos
Helianthus , Streptomyces , Agricultura/métodos , Fertilizantes , Helianthus/microbiologia , Desenvolvimento Vegetal
13.
An Acad Bras Cienc ; 94(4): e20200138, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35946743

RESUMO

We examined the effects of including sunflower cake (SC) associated with an enzyme complex (EC) in the diet of meat quails on nutrient metabolism, performance, carcass characteristics, bone parameters and economic viability. In total, 432 meat quails (7 to 42 days old) were assigned to six treatments in a completely randomised design with 6 replicates with 12 birds each. A 2 × 3 factorial arrangement was adopted (two levels of SC: 10 and 20%; three diet formulation strategies: normal, reduction in the nutrient and energy matrix considering the enzymatic contribution and reduced diet with EC). No interaction effect was observed. The increased levels of SC from 10% to 20% promoted in decrease in the metabolisability coefficients of dry matter and gross energy and in the value of AMEn and increased relative weight of gizzard. The addition of EC in diets containing SC allows a better metabolization of nitrogen and energy, equalize to the normal diet. The best breast yield was obtained in the birds fed the reduced diet with EC, in relation to normal diet. The reduced diet and the reduced diet with EC provided the lowest cost of food and the best economic efficiency index. Up to 20% of the sunflower cake can be included in the diet of cut quail, with or without enzyme supplementation. However, the use of the enzyme complex composed of carbohydrases, proteases and phytase can favor the metabolization of nitrogen and energy from the diet containing sunflower cake.


Assuntos
Fenômenos Fisiológicos da Nutrição Animal , Helianthus , Codorniz , Ração Animal/análise , Animais , Dieta/veterinária , Suplementos Nutricionais/análise , Carne/análise , Nitrogênio/metabolismo , Sementes , Aumento de Peso
14.
Food Chem Toxicol ; 168: 113357, 2022 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35985366

RESUMO

The present study was designed to examine if dietary fat sources that have shown differences in lifespan and if some aging-related aspects can modulate the range of histopathologic changes in central nervous and endocrine systems that occur during the lifespan of Wistar rats. Moreover, it was attempted to gain insight into the relationship between longevity and the development of the different pathological changes, as well as possible interaction with diet. In order to achieve this, male Wistar rats were randomly assigned to three experimental groups fed semisynthetic and isoenergetic diets from weaning until death with different dietary fat sources, namely virgin olive, sunflower, or fish oil. An individual follow-up until death of each animal was performed. Incidence, severity, and burden of specific or group (i.e., neoplastic or non-neoplastic proliferative and non-proliferative) of lesions was calculated along with individual's disease and individual organ lesion burden. Most of the histopathological lesions found have been described in previous studies. Neoplasms, and in particular pituitary adenomas followed by brain tumors, were the most prevalent lesions found in the rats and the main cause of death involving both systems. Incidence of brain lesions was associated with age-at-death. Assayed dietary fats did not present differential effects on pathological changes occurring in endocrine and central nervous systems throughout rat lifespan.


Assuntos
Asteraceae , Gorduras Insaturadas na Dieta , Helianthus , Olea , Envelhecimento/fisiologia , Animais , Dieta , Gorduras na Dieta , Sistema Endócrino , Ácidos Graxos , Óleos de Peixe , Longevidade , Masculino , Azeite de Oliva , Óleos Vegetais , Ratos , Ratos Wistar , Óleo de Girassol
15.
Int J Mol Sci ; 23(14)2022 Jul 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35887074

RESUMO

Sclerotinia head rot (HR), caused by Sclerotinia sclerotiorum, is an economically important disease of sunflower with known detrimental effects on yield and quality in humid climates worldwide. The objective of this study was to gain insight into the genetic architecture of HR resistance from a sunflower line HR21 harboring HR resistance introgressed from the wild perennial Helianthus maximiliani. An F2 population derived from the cross of HA 234 (susceptible-line)/HR21 (resistant-line) was evaluated for HR resistance at two locations during 2019-2020. Highly significant genetic variations (p < 0.001) were observed for HR disease incidence (DI) and disease severity (DS) in both individual and combined analyses. Broad sense heritability (H2) estimates across environments for DI and DS were 0.51 and 0.62, respectively. A high-density genetic map of 1420.287 cM was constructed with 6315 SNP/InDel markers developed using genotype-by-sequencing technology. A total of 16 genomic regions on eight sunflower chromosomes, 1, 2, 10, 12, 13, 14, 16 and 17 were associated with HR resistance, each explaining between 3.97 to 16.67% of the phenotypic variance for HR resistance. Eleven of these QTL had resistance alleles from the HR21 parent. Molecular markers flanking the QTL will facilitate marker-assisted selection breeding for HR resistance in sunflower.


Assuntos
Ascomicetos , Helianthus , Ascomicetos/genética , Mapeamento Cromossômico , Resistência à Doença/genética , Helianthus/genética , Doenças das Plantas/genética , Locos de Características Quantitativas
16.
Appl Microbiol Biotechnol ; 106(17): 5525-5538, 2022 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35896838

RESUMO

The rhizosphere context of inulin-accumulating plants, such as Jerusalem artichoke (Helianthus tuberosus), is an ideal starting basis for the discovery of inulolytic enzymes with potential for bio fructose production. We isolated a Glutamicibacter mishrai NJAU-1 strain from this context, showing exo-inulinase activity, releasing fructose from fructans. The growth conditions (pH 9.0; 15 °C) were adjusted, and the production of inulinase by Glutamicibacter mishrai NJAU-1 increased by 90% (0.32 U/mL). Intriguingly, both levan and inulin, but not fructose and sucrose, induced the production of exo-inulinase activity. Two exo-inulinase genes (inu1 and inu2) were cloned and heterologously expressed in Pichia pastoris. While INU2 preferentially hydrolyzed longer inulins, the smallest fructan 1-kestose appeared as the preferred substrate for INU1, also efficiently degrading nystose and sucrose. Active site docking studies with GFn- and Fn-type small inulins (G is glucose, F is fructose, and n is the number of ß (2-1) bound fructose moieties) revealed subtle substrate differences between INU1 and INU2. A possible explanation about substrate specificity and INU's protein structure is then suggested. KEY POINTS: • A Glutamicibacter mishrai strain harbored exo-inulinase activity. • Fructans induced the inulolytic activity in G. mishrai while the inulolytic activity was optimized at pH 9.0 and 15 °C. • Two exo-inulinases with differential substrate specificity were characterized.


Assuntos
Helianthus , Frutanos , Frutose , Glicosídeo Hidrolases , Inulina , Sacarose
17.
Mol Genet Genomics ; 297(5): 1329-1342, 2022 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35786764

RESUMO

Microsatellites, also known as short tandem repeats (STRs), have long been considered non-functional, neutrally evolving regions of the genome. Recent findings suggest that they can function as drivers of rapid adaptive evolution. Previous work on the common sunflower identified 479 transcribed microsatellites where allele length significantly correlates with gene expression (eSTRs) in a stepwise manner. Here, a population genetic approach is used to test whether eSTR allele length variation is under selection. Genotypic variation among and within populations at 13 eSTRs was compared with that at 19 anonymous microsatellites in 672 individuals from 17 natural populations of sunflower from across a cline running from Saskatchewan to Oklahoma (distance of approximately 1600 km). Expected heterozygosity, allelic richness, and allelic diversity were significantly lower at eSTRs, a pattern consistent with higher relative rates of purifying selection. Further, an analysis of variation in microsatellite allele lengths (lnRV), and heterozygosities (lnRH), indicate recent selective sweeps at the eSTRs. Mean microsatellite allele lengths at four eSTRs within populations are significantly correlated with latitude consistent with the predictions of the tuning-knob model which predicts stepwise relationships between microsatellite allele length and phenotypes. This finding suggests that shorter or longer alleles at eSTRs may be favored in climatic extremes. Collectively, our results imply that eSTRs are likely under selection and that they may be playing a role in facilitating local adaptation across a well-defined cline in the common sunflower.


Assuntos
Helianthus , Alelos , Variação Genética , Genética Populacional , Genótipo , Repetições de Microssatélites , Seleção Genética
18.
Sci Total Environ ; 847: 157659, 2022 Nov 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35907532

RESUMO

Facing water and land scarcity, planting non-food biofuel crops on marginal land depending on natural rainfall has been considered as an attractive means of achieving sustainable biofuel development. However, the complex connection between rainfall and marginal land resources in spatial-temporal distribution affects the optimal planting layout of non-food biofuel crops as well as the assessment of biofuel potential, especially in arid areas. In this study, we constructed a water-land-biofuel nexus centered on non-food biofuel crops, optimized the layout of three non-food biofuel crops, sweet sorghum, Jerusalem artichoke and switchgrass, based on fuzzy mathematics method under the water-land-biofuel nexus perspective, determined yield-rainfall curve to calculate the development potential of non-food biofuel crops. The results showed that sweet sorghum and Jerusalem artichoke are more suitable for planting in Ningxia. Three potential scenarios are set up under different growth conditions and agricultural technologies. The theoretical biofuel production is [9.64× 107, 10.93× 107] GJ, which was verified by the result that the biofuel production per unit area is close to the lower limit of the test production range. It can also be speculated that there may exist irrigation supply and fertilization in the actual crops planting in other studies.


Assuntos
Helianthus , Sorghum , Agricultura , Biocombustíveis , Produtos Agrícolas , Grão Comestível , Água
19.
Plant J ; 111(5): 1425-1438, 2022 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35815412

RESUMO

Stomata and leaf veins play an essential role in transpiration and the movement of water throughout leaves. These traits are thus thought to play a key role in the adaptation of plants to drought and a better understanding of the genetic basis of their variation and coordination could inform efforts to improve drought tolerance. Here, we explore patterns of variation and covariation in leaf anatomical traits and analyze their genetic architecture via genome-wide association (GWA) analyses in cultivated sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.). Traits related to stomatal density and morphology as well as lower-order veins were manually measured from digital images while the density of minor veins was estimated using a novel deep learning approach. Leaf, stomatal, and vein traits exhibited numerous significant correlations that generally followed expectations based on functional relationships. Correlated suites of traits could further be separated along three major principal component (PC) axes that were heavily influenced by variation in traits related to gas exchange, leaf hydraulics, and leaf construction. While there was limited evidence of colocalization when individual traits were subjected to GWA analyses, major multivariate PC axes that were most strongly influenced by several traits related to gas exchange or leaf construction did exhibit significant genomic associations. These results provide insight into the genetic basis of leaf trait covariation and showcase potential targets for future efforts aimed at modifying leaf anatomical traits in sunflower.


Assuntos
Helianthus , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Genômica , Helianthus/genética , Fenótipo , Folhas de Planta/anatomia & histologia , Folhas de Planta/genética , Água
20.
Sci Rep ; 12(1): 12418, 2022 07 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35859156

RESUMO

Knowing some physical and mechanical characteristics and oil percentage of sunflower seeds could be useful for harvesting and processing equipment and activities such as transportation, storage, food production processes and establishing database of this seed. The main aim of this research was to study the effect of water stress during irrigation on seed's properties and quality. For this purpose, a field experiment was done under four deficit irrigation treatments [80%, 60%, 100-80 (100% irrigation requirement ETc to seed formation, and then reduced to 80% until harvesting) and 100-60% (100% ETc to seed formation, and then reduced to 60% until harvesting)] in comparable with full irrigation (100%). Geometrical, gravimetrical and mechanical characteristics as well as oil seed content and yield of sunflower seed were estimated. Result showed that there was no significant effect of low (100-80%) and medium (80%) irrigation deficit treatments on geometrical, gravimetrical and mechanical characteristics, while applying 60% of irrigation requirement (ETc) showed a significant effect on them. On the other hand, low and medium irrigation stress treatments improved the oil yield and seed oil content. The highest increase was 8.54% and 5.6% for oil yield and oil content respectively, considering T100-80 followed by applying 80% ETc, but with high water stress (60% ETc) oil yield and seed oil content significantly decreased.


Assuntos
Helianthus , Desidratação , Óleos Vegetais/farmacologia , Sementes , Óleo de Girassol
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