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1.
J Parasitol ; 107(1): 132-137, 2021 01 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33647985

RESUMO

The Northern bobwhite quail (Colinus virginianus) is a popular game bird that has been experiencing a well-documented decline throughout Texas since the 1960s. While much of this decline has been attributed to habitat loss and fragmentation, recent studies have identified other factors that may also contribute to decreasing quail populations. Parasites, in particular, have become increasingly recognized as possible stressors of quail, and some species, particularly the eyeworm (Oxyspirura petrowi) and cecal worm (Aulonocephalus pennula) are highly prevalent in Texas quails. Eyeworm infection has also been documented in some passerines, suggesting helminth infection may be shared between bird species. However, the lack of comprehensive helminth surveys has rendered the extent of shared infection between quail and passerines in the ecoregion unclear. Thus, helminth surveys were conducted on bobwhite, scaled quail (Callipepla squamata), Northern mockingbirds (Mimus polyglottos), curve-billed thrashers (Toxistoma curvirostre), and Northern cardinals (Cardinalis cardinalis) to contribute data to existing parasitological gaps for birds in the Rolling Plains ecoregion of Texas. Birds were trapped across 3 counties in the Texas Rolling Plains from March to October 2019. Necropsies were conducted on 54 individuals (36 quail and 18 passerines), and extracted helminths were microscopically identified. Nematode, cestode, and acanthocephalan helminths representing at least 10 helminth species were found. Specifically, A. pennula and O. petrowi had the highest prevalence, and O. petrowi was documented in all of the study species. This research adds to the body of knowledge regarding parasitic infections in quail and passerines of the Rolling Plains ecoregion and highlights the potential consequences of shared infection of eyeworms among these bird species.


Assuntos
Doenças das Aves/parasitologia , Cromadoria/isolamento & purificação , Colinus/parasitologia , Helmintíase Animal/parasitologia , Passeriformes/parasitologia , Thelazioidea/isolamento & purificação , Animais , Doenças das Aves/epidemiologia , Cromadoria/classificação , Infecções Oculares Parasitárias/epidemiologia , Infecções Oculares Parasitárias/parasitologia , Infecções Oculares Parasitárias/veterinária , Helmintíase Animal/epidemiologia , Prevalência , Infecções por Spirurida/epidemiologia , Infecções por Spirurida/parasitologia , Infecções por Spirurida/veterinária , Texas/epidemiologia , Thelazioidea/classificação
2.
Zhongguo Xue Xi Chong Bing Fang Zhi Za Zhi ; 32(5): 506-510, 2020 Jul 29.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33185063

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To investigate the distribution of Oncomelania snails in Four-Lake Basin of Hubei Province, so as to provide scientific evidence for the development of snail control interventions. METHODS: The snail distribution was surveyed by means of the retrospective study and cross-sectional survey in the Four-Lake Basin in Spring of 2016. The data pertaining to the endemic situation of schistosomiasis were collected and analyzed in the Four-Lake Basin from 2008 to 2018, and the associations of snail habitat areas with the prevalence of Schistosoma japonicum in humans and bovines were examined. RESULTS: There were 16 003 snail habitats in the 9 schistosomiasis-endemic counties (districts) in the Four-Lake Basin in 2016, covering an area of 246 million m2. The mean density of living snails was 0.622 5 snails/0.1 m2, which was relatively high in weed-type settings (0.688 0 snails/0.1 m2) and ditches (0.706 4 snails/0.1 m2). Type I (current snail habitats, 53.03%) and Ⅱ- Ⅳ (historical snail habitats, 46.97%) settings were predominant snail habitats. A big change was seen in snail habitats in dry farmland, marshland and paddy farmland, and environmental modification resulted in satisfactory snail control effectiveness. In addition, the area of snail habitats positively correlated with the changes in the prevalence of S. japonicum infections in humans (r = 0.842, P < 0.01) and livestock (r = 0.695, P < 0.01). CONCLUSIONS: The integrate strategy with an emphasis on the control of the source of S. japonicum infections results in remarkable snail control effectiveness in the Four-Lake Basin; however, there is a risk of re-emerging snail habitats.


Assuntos
Distribuição Animal , Lagos , Esquistossomose , Caramujos , Animais , Bovinos , China/epidemiologia , Estudos Transversais , Ecossistema , Helmintíase Animal/epidemiologia , Helmintíase Animal/prevenção & controle , Humanos , Estudos Retrospectivos , Esquistossomose/epidemiologia , Esquistossomose/prevenção & controle , Caramujos/parasitologia , Caramujos/fisiologia , Inquéritos e Questionários
3.
Parasitol Res ; 119(11): 3675-3690, 2020 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33001253

RESUMO

In 2018, extensive field studies of diversity and prevalence of helminth infection in synanthropic rodents and non-rodent small mammals from public parks and citified areas in the Bangkok Metropolitan were conducted. Rattus rattus complex was the dominant small mammal in public parks. Of the 197 animals, 147 individuals were infected with one or more species of helminths, yielding an infection prevalence of 74.6%. Twenty-five species of helminths were recovered during necropsy. Pterygodermatites tani was the most prevalent (36.2%); other encountered species included Raillietina celebensis, Hydatigera taeniaformis (metacestode in liver tissue), Gongylonema neoplasticum and Hymenolepis diminuta. Different helminth assemblages infected three different host taxa, i.e. synanthropic Rattus spp., Tupaia belangeri (Northern treeshrew) and Suncus murinus (Asian house shrew). Nine species of possible zoonotic helminths were identified. The focus on synanthropic rats influenced the findings of helminth diversity by either host intrinsic or extrinsic factors. A significant positive correlation was found between host body mass and helminth species richness. Greater helminth species richness was found in rats from public parks compared with animals from citified areas (e.g. inside buildings or offices). Also, helminth species richness was negatively correlated with the proportion of post-flooding/rain-fed land. These results provide essential information for assessing the incidence of potential zoonotic health threats in Bangkok and updating research in parasite ecology.


Assuntos
Biota , Helmintíase Animal/parasitologia , Helmintos/classificação , Doenças dos Roedores/parasitologia , Roedores/parasitologia , Animais , Cidades , Inundações , Helmintíase Animal/epidemiologia , Helmintos/isolamento & purificação , Humanos , Parques Recreativos , Prevalência , Ratos , Doenças dos Roedores/epidemiologia , Musaranhos/parasitologia , Tailândia/epidemiologia
4.
Ann Parasitol ; 66(3): 339-346, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33128517

RESUMO

In Peru, only 12.7% (n=207) of fish species have had some record as parasitic metazoan hosts. The objective of this investigation was to determine the community of helminth parasites in black cusk-eel Genypterus maculatus (Tschudi, 1846) of north Peru. Fifty specimens of G. maculatus from Puerto Pimentel, province of Chiclayo, department of Lambayeque, Peru were evaluated. For the analysis of the parasitic community, the parasitological ecological indexes of prevalence (P), mean abundance (MA), mean intensity (MI) of infection, the dispersion indices, the correlation between total length (TL) and sex of fish vs parasitological ecological indexes, were calculated. The component community of the parasitic helminths in the evaluated fish was dominated by the presence of endoparasitic flatworms and absence of ectoparasites. The parasitic fauna of G. maculatus included eight endoparasitic species, four trematodes, two cestodes, one acanthocephalan and one nematode species. The species with the highest prevalence and abundance were Helicometra fasciata (Rudolphi, 1819), Scolex pleuronectis Müller, 1788 and Corynosoma australe Johnston, 1937. The prevalence of infection of C. australe was found positively related to the total length of G. maculatus. The sex of G. maculatus was not found associated with the P, MA and MI of any of the helminth parasites. This is the first study of ecological aspect in the parasitic fauna of G. maculatus made in Peru.


Assuntos
Helmintíase Animal , Helmintos , Parasitos , Trematódeos , Animais , Peixes , Helmintíase Animal/epidemiologia , Peru/epidemiologia
5.
Acta Vet Scand ; 62(1): 41, 2020 Aug 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32746868

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Similar to the situation in other European countries, Danish wild boars may harbour a wide range of pathogens infectious to humans and domestic pigs. Although wild boars must be kept behind fences in Denmark, hunting and consumption of the meat may cause zoonotic transmission. Moreover, most infections of wild boars are transmissible to domestic pigs, which may have important economic consequences. The aim of this study was to investigate whether Danish wild boars were infected with bacteria and parasites transmissible to humans or domestic pigs: Brucella suis, methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA), Salmonella spp., Trichinella spp., lungworms and gastrointestinal parasites, especially Ascaris suum. This is the first study to investigate the prevalence of these important pathogens in Danish wild boars. RESULTS: Wild boars from eight enclosures were analysed over a 5-year period. All tested wild boars were negative for B. suis (n = 240), MRSA (n = 244), Salmonella spp. (n = 115) and Trichinella spp. (n = 232), while eight parasite genera were identified in the faeces (n = 254): Ascaris suum, Capillaria sp., Cystoisospora suis, Eimeria spp., Metastrongylus sp. (lungworm), Strongyloides ransomi, Trichuris suis and strongylid eggs, i.e. strongyles not identified to the genera. Eimeria spp. and Metastrongylus sp. had the highest prevalence (92.3 and 79.5%, respectively) and were identified in wild boars from all eight enclosures, while the remaining parasite genera were present more sporadically. CONCLUSIONS: Wild boars from Denmark constitute a low risk of transmitting B. suis, MRSA, Salmonella spp. and Trichinella spp. to humans or domestic pigs, while economically important parasites transmissible to domestic pigs are highly prevalent in the wild boar population.


Assuntos
Infecções Bacterianas/veterinária , Coccidiose/veterinária , Monitoramento Epidemiológico/veterinária , Helmintíase Animal/epidemiologia , Doenças dos Suínos/epidemiologia , Animais , Animais Selvagens , Infecções Bacterianas/epidemiologia , Infecções Bacterianas/microbiologia , Coccidiose/epidemiologia , Coccidiose/parasitologia , Dinamarca/epidemiologia , Feminino , Helmintíase Animal/parasitologia , Masculino , Prevalência , Sus scrofa , Suínos , Doenças dos Suínos/microbiologia , Doenças dos Suínos/parasitologia
6.
Ann Parasitol ; 66(2): 237-241, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32592546

RESUMO

The garfish Belone belone (Linnaeus, 1760) is a marine fish which can be found in the shallow waters of the Baltic Sea in the spring and summer spawning period. In 2010 and in 2016, 73 specimens of garfish collected in the Gulf of Gdansk (southern Baltic Sea) were examined for the presence of helminths. The fish were found to support the nematode Anisakis simplex (Rudolphi, 1809) L3, Hysterothylacium aduncum (Rudolphi, 1802) L4, ad., Contracaecum sp. L3 as well as the acanthocephalan Echinorhynchus gadi Zoega in Müller, 1776. For all garfish caught in 2010 and 2016, the overall prevalence of infection by all parasites was 38.4%, with a mean intensity of 2.9 (range 1-5). The dominant parasites were H. aduncum (20.5%, 1.8) and E. gadi (17.8%, 2.1). This study constitutes the first record of Contracaecum larvae in garfish in the Polish exclusive economic zone of the Baltic Sea.


Assuntos
Doenças dos Peixes , Helmintíase Animal , Helmintos , Animais , Doenças dos Peixes/epidemiologia , Doenças dos Peixes/parasitologia , Peixes/parasitologia , Helmintíase Animal/epidemiologia , Helmintíase Animal/parasitologia , Helmintos/fisiologia , Oceanos e Mares , Polônia/epidemiologia
7.
Folia Parasitol (Praha) ; 672020 May 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32410732

RESUMO

Current data on reproductive biology and population dynamics of the acanthocephalans are scarce mainly in regions from the tropical Pacific. An analysis was done to identify possible factors that influence variation in infection levels of the acanthocephalan Pseudoleptorhynchoides lamothei Salgado-Maldonado, 1976 in its final host, the blue sea catfish Ariopsis guatemalensis (Günther, 1864), and describe its main reproductive traits. A total of 1,094 A. guatemalensis were collected from Tres Palos Lagoon from August 2014 to December 2015. Prevalence of P. lamothei varied from 1.47% to 38.33%, and mean abundance from 0.03 to 4.44 helminths per examined host. In female P. lamothei relative fecundity increased with total length. Temporal variations in P. lamothei infection levels were attributed mainly to changes in host feeding and reproductive behaviour in response to local environmental factors as climatic season, and variations in water temperature.


Assuntos
Acantocéfalos/fisiologia , Peixes-Gato , Doenças dos Peixes/epidemiologia , Helmintíase Animal/epidemiologia , Reprodução , Animais , Feminino , Doenças dos Peixes/parasitologia , Helmintíase Animal/parasitologia , Masculino , México , Estações do Ano
8.
J Parasitol ; 106(3): 334-340, 2020 06 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32369595

RESUMO

We investigated the mean abundance of helminths and analyzed helminth composition and structure at the infracommunity and component community levels for 3 anuran species (Pleurodema diplolister, Rhinella jimi, and Rhinella granulosa) from the Caatingas, a semiarid Brazilian region characterized by accentuated seasonality and unpredictability of rains. Data were collected during the reproductive period and during drought, when P. diplolister estivated buried underground but R. jimi and R. granulosa remained foraging actively. We expected higher parasitological parameters during the reproductive period when compared to drought for these 3 anurans. We also expected higher parasite infection in the Rhinella species and higher similarity between their helminth parasite communities when compared to the estivating species, P. diplolister. Contrary to our hypothesis, the season was not related to parasite community structure. As predicted, the Rhinella toads shared more similar species composition of parasite communities. These similarities in the composition of the parasite community between Rhinella species could be due to similar temporal/spatial patterns of activity and phylogenetic proximity. Pleurodema diplolister hosted a more restricted helminth fauna, a result that might be associated with estivation restricting the temporal window available to acquire parasites. This study also presents new helminth fauna records for R. jimi and P. diplolister, and the first helminth fauna record of R. granulosa from the Caatingas in semiarid Brazil.


Assuntos
Anuros/parasitologia , Helmintíase Animal/parasitologia , Animais , Anuros/fisiologia , Brasil/epidemiologia , Secas , Helmintíase Animal/epidemiologia , Masculino , Chuva , Reprodução , Estações do Ano
9.
Rev Bras Parasitol Vet ; 29(1): e012819, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32294719

RESUMO

Endoparasitic infections are associated with morbidity in cats. This study aimed to investigate the occurrence of endoparasites among cats of different life stages in the city of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. The samples were analyzed individually by macroscopic exploration for proglottids and centrifugal-flotation. Stool samples were obtained from household cats (n = 57) and shelter cats (n = 336). Endoparasites were detected in 50.64% of the samples. Among household and shelter cats, 21.05% and 55.66% were infected with endoparasites, respectively. In household cats, the most prevalent endoparasites were Ancylostoma spp. (in 25.0%) and Strongyloides spp. (in 25.0%), followed by Toxocara spp. (in 16.67%), Dipylidium caninum (in 16.67%), Cystoisospora spp. (in 8.33%), and Uncinaria spp. + Ancylostoma spp. (in 8.33%). In shelter cats, the most prevalent endoparasite was Ancylostoma spp. (in 29.41%), followed by Cystoisospora spp. (in 26.20%) and Toxocara spp. (in 16.58%), as well as Cystoisospora spp. + Toxocara spp. (in 8.02%); Ancylostoma spp. + Toxocara spp. (in 11.76%); Cystoisospora spp. + Ancylostoma spp. (in 3.74%); Cystoisospora spp. + Toxocara spp. + Ancylostoma spp. (in 3.21%); and Dipylidium caninum + Ancylostoma spp. (in 0.53%). Endoparasitic infections in cats underscore the need for preventive veterinary care and routine coproparasitologic tests.


Assuntos
Doenças do Gato/epidemiologia , Helmintíase Animal/epidemiologia , Infecções Protozoárias em Animais/epidemiologia , Animais , Brasil/epidemiologia , Doenças do Gato/diagnóstico , Doenças do Gato/parasitologia , Gatos , Fezes/parasitologia , Helmintíase Animal/diagnóstico , Helmintíase Animal/parasitologia , Prevalência , Infecções Protozoárias em Animais/diagnóstico , Infecções Protozoárias em Animais/parasitologia
10.
J Parasitol ; 106(3): 341-345, 2020 06 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32227228

RESUMO

Rodents are reservoirs and hosts of several pathogens around the world, including zoonotic parasite species. This study aimed to determine the occurrence of zoonotic gastrointestinal helminths in rodents captured inside households in a rural community from southern Guatemala. Sixty-nine rodents were captured in 33% (49/148) of the surveyed households, including Rattus rattus, Rattus norvegicus, Mus musculus, and Sigmodon hispidus. Thirty-six percent (25/69) of these rodents (3 Rattus and 22 Mus musculus), from 45% (22/49) of the households, were parasitized with at least 1 gastrointestinal helminth species. Helminths from 6 species were identified: Hymenolepis diminuta, Moniliformis moniliformis, Heterakis spumosa, Nippostrongylus sp., Strongyloides sp., and Syphacia sp. Two zoonotic species were found in Rattus, H. diminuta in R. rattus (1/6), and M. moniliformis in R. norvegicus (1/1). Coinfection with other non-zoonotic helminth parasites, such as He. spumosa and Strongyloides sp., also was observed in the Rattus genus. Mus musculus had only non-zoonotic helminths: He. spumosa, Nippostrongylus sp., and Syphacia sp. being the most common, and He. spumosa (96%) followed by Nippostrongylus sp. (48%), with a higher presence in males than females, with a similar proportion in adult and young individuals. This is the first report of zoonotic and non-zoonotic helminths parasites in rodents from Guatemala.


Assuntos
Helmintíase Animal/parasitologia , Camundongos/parasitologia , Ratos/parasitologia , Doenças dos Roedores/parasitologia , Zoonoses/parasitologia , Animais , Reservatórios de Doenças/parasitologia , Características da Família , Feminino , Guatemala/epidemiologia , Helmintíase Animal/epidemiologia , Humanos , Masculino , Doenças dos Roedores/epidemiologia , População Rural
11.
Parasit Vectors ; 13(1): 145, 2020 Mar 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32188499

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The dynamics of helminth infection in African elephant populations are poorly known. We examined the effects of age, sex, social structure and the normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) as primary drivers of infection patterns within and between elephant populations. METHODS: Coprological methods were used to identify helminths and determine infection patterns in distinct elephant populations in Maasai Mara National Reserve, Tsavo East National Park, Amboseli National Park and Laikipia-Samburu Ecosystem. Gaussian finite mixture cluster analyses of egg dimensions were used to classify helminth eggs according to genera. Generalized linear models (GLM) and Chi-square analyses were used to test for variation in helminth infection patterns and to identify drivers in elephant populations. RESULTS: Helminth prevalence varied significantly between the studied populations. Nematode prevalence (96.3%) was over twice as high as that of trematodes (39.1%) in elephants. Trematode prevalence but not nematode prevalence varied between populations. Although we found no associations between helminth infection and elephant social groups (male vs family groups), the median helminth egg output (eggs per gram, epg) did vary between social groups: family groups had significantly higher median epg than solitary males or males in bachelor groups. Young males in mixed sex family groups had lower epg than females when controlling for population and age; these differences, however, were not statistically significant. The average NDVI over a three-month period varied between study locations. Cluster analyses based on egg measurements revealed the presence of Protofasciola sp., Brumptia sp., Murshidia sp., Quilonia sp. and Mammomonogamus sp. GLM analyses showed that the mean epg was positively influenced by a three-month cumulative mean NDVI and by social group; female social groups had higher epg than male groups. GLM analyses also revealed that epg varied between elephant populations: Samburu-Laikipia elephants had a higher and Tsavo elephants a lower epg than Amboseli elephants. CONCLUSIONS: Elephants had infection patterns characterized by within- and between-population variation in prevalence and worm burden. Sociality and NDVI were the major drivers of epg but not of helminth prevalence. Gastrointestinal parasites can have a negative impact on the health of wild elephants, especially during resource scarcity. Thus, our results will be important when deciding intervention strategies.


Assuntos
Elefantes/parasitologia , Fezes/parasitologia , Helmintíase Animal/epidemiologia , Helmintos/isolamento & purificação , Enteropatias Parasitárias/veterinária , Animais , Ecossistema , Feminino , Helmintos/classificação , Enteropatias Parasitárias/epidemiologia , Quênia/epidemiologia , Masculino , Contagem de Ovos de Parasitas , Plantas , Prevalência
12.
Ann Parasitol ; 66(1): 39­47, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32198994

RESUMO

The present study describes the helminth community collected from juveniles of Dermatonotus muelleri (Anura: Microhylidae) from the Chaco Seco Ecoregion. Helminths were found in 80.0% of specimens examined (n = 16). The helminth community of this microhylid presented very low species richness; a total of 1,339 specimens belonging four helminth species were found; three adult nematodes, Aplectana hylambatis, Cosmocerca podicipinus and Parapharyngodon sp., and an adult cestode, Ophiotaenia sp. Parasites were found in the large and small intestines. Maximum helminth richness was 2 species per infected frog. The nematode A. hylambatis presented the highest prevalence and was the most abundant (d = 0.97) indicating that it is the dominant species in the community (I = 63.0). Host snout-vent length did not influence the intensity of infection or the richness of helminth species at the community component level. Two species showed significant co-variation (A. hylambatis and Parapharyngodon sp.). The high prevalence of infection and number of parasites found for A. hylambatis could be related to the characteristics of their life cycles; the possession of the infective stage (L3) protected inside the egg membrane would have benefits against extreme drought in the area in which the study was conducted. The studies of helminths in the Chaco Seco Ecoregion, an area seriously threatened in terms of its biodiversity, are incipient. This is the second study that has been carried out to determine the structure of the parasite community in amphibians of this ecoregion.


Assuntos
Anuros , Biodiversidade , Helmintíase Animal , Helmintos , Nematoides , Animais , Anuros/parasitologia , Clima Desértico , Helmintíase Animal/epidemiologia , Helmintíase Animal/parasitologia , Helmintos/classificação , Nematoides/classificação , Prevalência , Estados Unidos
13.
Ann Parasitol ; 66(1): 101­106, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32199001

RESUMO

Gymnotiformes are currently recognized as electric fish, the vast majority of which emit low power electrical discharges. Clinostomum trematodes have been the subject of numerous investigations in several host species due to the ability of metacercariae of this genus to infect the muscles, fins and internal organs of fish. The present study aimed to record, for the first time, the occurrence of parasitism by Clinostomum marginatum in Gymnotiformes from the natural environments of two tributaries of the Amazon River in the Brazilian Amazon. Two specimens of Gymnotus coropinae, ten specimens of Brachyhypopomus brevirostris, two specimens of Gymnorhamphycthys petiti and one specimen of Microsternarchus bilineatus were captured. Infection with C. marginatum was identified in the form of 12 encysted metacercariae in the epidermis, with a prevalence of 0.1%, a mean infection intensity of 12/fish and an average abundance of 1.2. This is the first record of parasitism by the C. marginatum in South American Gymnotiformes of the B. brevirostris species.


Assuntos
Gimnotiformes , Helmintíase Animal , Trematódeos , Infecções por Trematódeos , Animais , Brasil/epidemiologia , Gimnotiformes/parasitologia , Helmintíase Animal/epidemiologia , Helmintíase Animal/parasitologia , Metacercárias/isolamento & purificação , Rios , Trematódeos/isolamento & purificação , Infecções por Trematódeos/epidemiologia , Infecções por Trematódeos/parasitologia
14.
Ann Parasitol ; 66(1): 115­118, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32199004

RESUMO

Three hundred and sixty fecal samples of stray dogs were collected between July and December 2018, from open grounds of Shendi city and two suburbs (Gulia and Musiab), River Nile State, Sudan, and were examined for helminthic infections. The results showed 43 (11.9%) of the samples were positive for at least one species of helminth. A total of four helminth species were identified, including two nematodes (Ancylostoma caninum and Trichuris vulpis) and two cestodes (Dipylidium caninum and Taenia spp.). Taenia spp. was found to be the most common helminth infection in stray dogs (6.7%) followed by D. caninum (3.1%), while the least was the nematode, A. caninum (0.8%). The prevalence of infection among stray dogs in the suburbs was found to be higher than those in the city; however, there was no statistical significance (P = 0.07). In conclusion, stray dogs in Shendi area were found to be harboring several important zoonotic helminthes such as A. caninum and Taenia spp.; this shows the necessity of stray dog population management in this area as they present a health risk to the community.


Assuntos
Doenças do Cão , Helmintíase Animal , Helmintos , Enteropatias Parasitárias , Animais , Doenças do Cão/epidemiologia , Doenças do Cão/parasitologia , Cães/parasitologia , Fezes/parasitologia , Helmintíase Animal/epidemiologia , Helmintíase Animal/parasitologia , Helmintos/isolamento & purificação , Enteropatias Parasitárias/epidemiologia , Enteropatias Parasitárias/veterinária , Prevalência , Sudão/epidemiologia
15.
Parasitol Int ; 76: 102075, 2020 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32061898

RESUMO

Fedorov's lumpsucker, Eumicrotremus fedorovi Mandrytsa, 1991, is native to the Kuril Islands area. Two sets of 69 and 30 adult specimens of E. fedorovi caught on the continental shelf and slope of Simushir Island in the Pacific Ocean were dissected and studied for macroparasites. The studied specimens were heavily infected with plerocercoids of Nybelinia surmenicola and Ascarophis pacifica. For the first time, 15 parasite taxa were recorded for E. fedorovi. None of the parasites found are solely specific to the E. fedorovi or to the representatives of the family Cyclopteridae. The infection of E. fedorovi could be dramatically different in different parts of the Simushir Island area in terms of parasite species composition and intensity of infection.


Assuntos
Doenças dos Peixes/epidemiologia , Peixes , Helmintíase Animal/epidemiologia , Helmintos/isolamento & purificação , Animais , Doenças dos Peixes/parasitologia , Helmintíase Animal/parasitologia , Oceano Pacífico , Sibéria/epidemiologia
16.
Integr Zool ; 15(4): 262-275, 2020 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31912636

RESUMO

Testosterone secretion may regulate the reproductive effort and the development of sexual traits, but it may also involve costs at the immunological and metabolic levels. However, the evidence for this trade-off in wild populations is scarce. Cortisol also plays an important role in mediating the reproductive and immune functions. In this study, we analyzed whether the endoparasite burden relates to hormonal levels (fecal testosterone and cortisol metabolites) and/or morphological sexual traits (size of the dark ventral patch, a trait that indicates reproductive effort in males) in male Iberian red deer. For this purpose, we sampled male red deer harvested during hunting actions in 2 types of populations in south western Spain that differed in structure, affecting the level of male-male competition for mates. We used coprological analyses to estimate the parasite burden mainly of gastrointestinal and bronchopulmonary nematodes and of protozoa, and assessed testosterone and cortisol metabolite levels from fecal pellets. We found a positive relationship of host parasitation with both testosterone levels and the size of the dark ventral patch, but these relationships depended on the intensity of male-male competition in the population, being only found under the high-competition scenario. These results are discussed under the hypothesis of the testosterone immunocompetence handicap, suggesting a cost at the immunological level, and, therefore, higher susceptibility to parasite infection in males that make a greater reproductive effort. However, this effect seems to be modulated by the social environment (male-male competition) that might lead to different optima in testosterone production and sexual trait development.


Assuntos
Cervos/imunologia , Helmintíase Animal/epidemiologia , Hidrocortisona/metabolismo , Pigmentação , Infecções Protozoárias em Animais/epidemiologia , Comportamento Sexual Animal , Testosterona/metabolismo , Animais , Cervos/parasitologia , Cervos/fisiologia , Fezes/química , Helmintíase Animal/parasitologia , Masculino , Infecções Protozoárias em Animais/parasitologia , Espanha/epidemiologia
17.
Int J Parasitol ; 50(2): 125-132, 2020 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31981673

RESUMO

Horses are infected by a wide range of parasite species that form complex communities. Parasite control imposes significant constraints on parasite communities whose monitoring remains, however, difficult to track through time. Postmortem examination is a reliable method to quantify parasite communities. Here, we compiled 1,673 necropsy reports accumulated over 29 years, in the reference necropsy centre from Normandy (France). The burden of non-strongylid species was quantified and the presence of strongylid species was noted. Details of horse deworming history and the cause of death were registered. Building on these data, we investigated the temporal trend in non-strongylid epidemiology and we determined the contribution of parasites to the deaths of horses throughout the study period. Data analyses revealed the seasonal variations of non-strongylid parasite abundance and reduced worm burden in race horses. Beyond these observations, we found a shift in the species responsible for fatal parasitic infection from the year 2000 onward, whereby fatal cyathostominosis and Parascaris spp. infection have replaced cases of death caused by Strongylus vulgaris and tapeworms. A concomitant break in the temporal trend of parasite species prevalence was also found within a 10 year window (1998-2007) that has seen the rise of Parascaris spp. and the decline of both Gasterophilus spp. and tapeworms. A few cases of parasite persistence following deworming were identified, which all occurred after 2000. Altogether, these findings provide insights into major shifts in non-strongylid parasite prevalence and abundance over the last 29 years. They also underscore the critical importance of Parascaris spp. in young equids.


Assuntos
Helmintíase Animal , Helmintos/parasitologia , Cavalos/parasitologia , Animais , Infecções por Ascaridida/epidemiologia , Infecções por Ascaridida/veterinária , Ascaridoidea/parasitologia , Autopsia , Fezes/parasitologia , França/epidemiologia , Helmintíase Animal/epidemiologia , Helmintíase Animal/parasitologia , Doenças dos Cavalos/epidemiologia , Doenças dos Cavalos/parasitologia , Contagem de Ovos de Parasitas/veterinária , Prevalência , Estações do Ano , Infecções Equinas por Strongyloidea/epidemiologia , Infecções Equinas por Strongyloidea/parasitologia , Strongylus/parasitologia
18.
Parasitology ; 147(1): 65-77, 2020 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31488226

RESUMO

The almost universally-occurring aggregated distributions of helminth burdens in host populations have major significance for parasite population ecology and evolutionary biology, but the mechanisms generating heterogeneity remain poorly understood. For the direct life cycle monogenean Discocotyle sagittata infecting rainbow trout, Oncorhynchus mykiss, variables potentially influencing aggregation can be analysed individually. This study was based at a fish farm where every host individual becomes infected by D. sagittata during each annual transmission period. Worm burdens were examined in one trout population maintained in isolation for 9 years, exposed to self-contained transmission. After this year-on-year recruitment, prevalence was 100% with intensities 10-2628, mean 576, worms per host. Parasite distribution, amongst hosts with the same age and environmental experience, was highly aggregated with variance to mean ratio 834 and negative binomial parameter, k, 0.64. The most heavily infected 20% of fish carried around 80% of the total adult parasite population. Aggregation develops within the first weeks post-infection; hosts typically carried intensities of successive age-specific cohorts that were consistent for that individual, such that heavily-infected individuals carried high numbers of all parasite age classes. Results suggest that host factors alone, operating post-infection, are sufficient to generate strongly overdispersed parasite distributions, rather than heterogeneity in exposure and initial invasion.


Assuntos
Doenças dos Peixes/parasitologia , Helmintíase Animal/parasitologia , Interações Hospedeiro-Parasita , Oncorhynchus mykiss/parasitologia , Animais , Doenças dos Peixes/epidemiologia , Doenças dos Peixes/patologia , Helmintíase Animal/epidemiologia
19.
Rev. bras. parasitol. vet ; 29(1): e012819, 2020. tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS | ID: biblio-1101626

RESUMO

Abstract Endoparasitic infections are associated with morbidity in cats. This study aimed to investigate the occurrence of endoparasites among cats of different life stages in the city of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. The samples were analyzed individually by macroscopic exploration for proglottids and centrifugal-flotation. Stool samples were obtained from household cats (n = 57) and shelter cats (n = 336). Endoparasites were detected in 50.64% of the samples. Among household and shelter cats, 21.05% and 55.66% were infected with endoparasites, respectively. In household cats, the most prevalent endoparasites were Ancylostoma spp. (in 25.0%) and Strongyloides spp. (in 25.0%), followed by Toxocara spp. (in 16.67%), Dipylidium caninum (in 16.67%), Cystoisospora spp. (in 8.33%), and Uncinaria spp. + Ancylostoma spp. (in 8.33%). In shelter cats, the most prevalent endoparasite was Ancylostoma spp. (in 29.41%), followed by Cystoisospora spp. (in 26.20%) and Toxocara spp. (in 16.58%), as well as Cystoisospora spp. + Toxocara spp. (in 8.02%); Ancylostoma spp. + Toxocara spp. (in 11.76%); Cystoisospora spp. + Ancylostoma spp. (in 3.74%); Cystoisospora spp. + Toxocara spp. + Ancylostoma spp. (in 3.21%); and Dipylidium caninum + Ancylostoma spp. (in 0.53%). Endoparasitic infections in cats underscore the need for preventive veterinary care and routine coproparasitologic tests.


Resumo Endoparasitoses estão associadas à morbidade em gatos. Este estudo objetivou investigar a ocorrência de endoparasitos em gatos de diversas faixas etárias, na cidade do Rio de Janeiro. As amostras passaram por exploração macroscópica à procura de proglotes de cestódeos e analisadas individualmente por centrífugo-flutuação. Assim, amostras fecais foram obtidas de gatos domiciliados (n = 57) e de abrigos (n = 336). Endoparasitos foram detectados em 50,64% das amostras fecais. Nos gatos domiciliados e de abrigos, 21,05% e 55,66% estavam infectados por endoparasitos, respectivamente. Ancylostoma spp. (25%) e Strongyloides spp. (25%) foram os helmintos mais prevalentes encontrados nas amostras de fezes dos gatos domiciliados, seguido por Toxocara spp. (16,67%), Dypilidium caninum (16,67%), Cystoisospora spp. (8,33%) e a associação de Uncinaria spp. e Ancylostoma spp. (8,33%). Entre os gatos dos abrigos, Ancylostoma spp. estavam presentes em 29,41% das amostras, seguidos por Cystoisospora spp. (26,20%), Toxocara spp. (16,58%) e as associações de parasitos Cystoisospora spp. + Toxocara spp. (8,02%), Ancylostoma spp. + Toxocara spp. (11,76%), Cystoisospora spp. + Ancylostoma spp (3,74%), Cystoisospora spp. + Toxocaraspp. + Ancylostoma spp. (3,21%) e Dipylidium caninum + Ancylostoma spp. (0,53%). Cystoisospora spp. foi o único protozoário encontrado. A presença de endoparasitos reforça a necessidade de cuidados veterinários preventivos e testes coproparasitológicos de rotina para evitar sua disseminação.


Assuntos
Animais , Gatos , Infecções Protozoárias em Animais/epidemiologia , Doenças do Gato/parasitologia , Helmintíase Animal/parasitologia , Infecções Protozoárias em Animais/diagnóstico , Infecções Protozoárias em Animais/parasitologia , Brasil/epidemiologia , Doenças do Gato/diagnóstico , Doenças do Gato/epidemiologia , Prevalência , Fezes/parasitologia , Helmintíase Animal/diagnóstico , Helmintíase Animal/epidemiologia
20.
Turkiye Parazitol Derg ; 43(4): 187-193, 2019 Dec 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31865654

RESUMO

Objective: The aim of the current study was to determine the presence and prevalence of Eimeria and helminth species in sheep raised in Erzurum province by using fecal examination. Methods: Faecal samples were collected from a total of 784 sheep raised in Aziziye, Yakutiye and Palandöken districts between February-March 2019. The samples were examined by Fulleborn's flotation, Benedect sedimentation, and Baermann-Wetzel methods. Results: Eimeria spp. and helminths were found in 49.36% (387/784) and 74.11% (581/784) of the samples, respectively. Identified Eimeria species were as follows: E. parva (59.68%), E. ovina (51.67%), E. faurei (47.80%), E. ahsata (39.27%), E. granulosa (36.62%), E. punctata (28.42%), E. pallida (26.09%), E. ovinoidalis (18.34%), E. crandallis (16.79%), E. intricata (15.76%), E. weybridgensis (11.36%) and E. marsica (6.20%). Helminth species identified at genus/species level were Dicrocoelium spp. (33.91%), Fasciola spp. (5.68%), Paramphistomum spp. (2.58%), Moniezia spp. (5.85%), Trichostrongylid type egg (49.05%), Marshallagia spp. (38.73%), Nematodirus spp. (20.98%), Trichuris spp. (14.46%), Protostrongylus spp. (18.42%), Dictyocaulus filaria (2.41%) and Muellerius capillaris (1.38%). Conclusion: Parasitic diseases cause important economic losses in livestock industry. In following years, it is aimed to plan prevention and control strategies for the parasites detected in this area in line with the data of this study and to share this data with the animal breeders.


Assuntos
Coccidiose/veterinária , Eimeria/isolamento & purificação , Fezes/parasitologia , Helmintíase Animal/parasitologia , Doenças dos Ovinos/parasitologia , Animais , Cestoides/isolamento & purificação , Coccidiose/epidemiologia , Coccidiose/parasitologia , Dicrocoelium/isolamento & purificação , Eimeria/classificação , Fasciola/isolamento & purificação , Helmintíase Animal/epidemiologia , Prevalência , Ovinos , Doenças dos Ovinos/epidemiologia , Estrongilídios/isolamento & purificação , Trematódeos/isolamento & purificação , Trichostrongyloidea/isolamento & purificação , Trichuris/isolamento & purificação , Turquia/epidemiologia
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