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1.
Ann Parasitol ; 65(3): 275-279, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31599555

RESUMO

Eighty nine rats, Arvicanthis niloticus, were collected from the horticultural fields of Shendi area in Sudan, between January and June 2018, and examined for the first time for helminth parasites. Thirty seven (41.6%) of the collected rats were infected, with an overall mean intensity of 4.4 helminths per a rat. A total of 6 helminth species were identified including three nematodes (Nippostrongylus brasiliensis, Monanema nilotica and Capillaria hepatica) and three cestodes (Hymenolepis diminuta, H. nana and Taenia taeniae formis). The most prevalent helminth was found to be the nematode, N. brasiliensis (21.3%), followed by the cestode, H. diminuta (10.1%), while the least was the nematode, C. hepatica (1.1%). Higher prevalence and intensity of infection were observed among older rats. Likewise, male rats were found to harbor a higher prevalence and intensity of infection. In conclusion, the rat, A. niloticus in Shendi area has found to be parasitized by various species of helminths, which some are of zoonotic importance, thus, any possible contact between this rat and humans or their pets may pose potential risk to public health.


Assuntos
Helmintíase Animal , Helmintos , Doenças dos Roedores , Animais , Helmintíase Animal/epidemiologia , Helmintíase Animal/parasitologia , Humanos , Masculino , Carga Parasitária , Ratos , Fatores de Risco , Doenças dos Roedores/parasitologia , Sudão/epidemiologia , Zoonoses/epidemiologia
2.
Prev Vet Med ; 172: 104788, 2019 Nov 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31627164

RESUMO

The contamination of public areas by dog faeces is a social behaviour and public health problem. In fact, the most frequently isolated intestinal helminths in dogs are distributed worldwide, and most of them have zoonotic potential (i.e., ascarids and ancylostomatids). The aims of this survey were to evaluate citizen awareness of health risks for animals and humans related to canine faecal pollution and to estimate the presence and prevalence of intestinal helminths in dog faeces collected in green public areas in three municipalities of Italy (Padua, Rome and Teramo). The awareness of citizens about the health risks related to faecal pollution was evaluated using questionnaires submitted to 313 dog owners and 159 non-dog owners in Padua (n = 341) and Rome (n = 131). Most dog owners (85.4%) declared they picked up their dog's faeces every time, and these data were confirmed by operators secretly observing dog owners. Moreover, 84.3% participants were aware of the existence of a municipal regulation concerning the correct management of animals in public areas with no significant differences between dog owners and non-dog owners, whereas Rome citizens were significantly more aware than Padua citizens. Nonetheless, only 10.9% (51/469) of responders knew the health risks related to canine faecal pollution, with no significant differences between dog and non-dog owners. A total of 677 dog stool samples were collected and copromicroscopically analysed. Forty-eight (7.1%) samples were positive for at least one parasite species, with significantly lower prevalence values in Padua (2.2%) than in Rome (11.9%) and Teramo (8.6%). The highest prevalence was detected for Trichuris vulpis (4.4%), followed by Toxocara canis (1.9%); T. vulpis presented significantly lower prevalence in Padua than in the other cities. Other helminths were found with values under 0.5% in the investigated cities. This survey shows that most citizens are unaware of the health risk related to abandoned canine faeces on public soils. Nevertheless, laboratory results suggest a limited risk for dog and human health, but the zoonotic risk due to the high vitality of infective helminths eggs in the soil should always be considered.


Assuntos
Doenças do Cão/epidemiologia , Fezes/parasitologia , Helmintíase Animal/epidemiologia , Helmintos/isolamento & purificação , Enteropatias Parasitárias/veterinária , Animais , Cidades , Doenças do Cão/parasitologia , Cães , Helmintíase Animal/parasitologia , Enteropatias Parasitárias/epidemiologia , Enteropatias Parasitárias/parasitologia , Itália/epidemiologia , Parques Recreativos , Percepção , Prevalência , Medição de Risco
3.
Vet Parasitol ; 274: 108926, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31563583

RESUMO

Interval treatment control programmes used widely in equine helminth control have favoured the development of anthelmintic resistance worldwide. Best practice guidelines have been designed to address resistance and include the requirement for improved pasture hygiene to break helminth transmission cycles, along with anthelmintic application informed by the results of diagnostic tests to reduce selection pressure for resistance. Using an online questionnaire, this study examined uptake of measures recommended in these guidelines by UK horse owners. The survey comprised 58 questions spanning grazing management, anthelmintic use and use of faecal egg count (FEC) testing to inform treatment decisions. Analysis was carried out using a combination of Chi-square and Mann-Whitney tests. In total, 705 owners responded and, following specific exclusion criteria, the responses of 652 individuals were analysed. The majority of the respondents owned <20 horses on private premises or livery yards in England. The main outputs of the survey were as follows. Overall, 60.9% of respondents used FEC tests to inform the requirement to administer anthelmintics, with macrocyclic lactones the most frequently-used anthelmintics. Of the respondents, 38% obtained advice on anthelmintic choice from their veterinarians; however, many respondents (43.8%) purchased anthelmintics via the internet. Encouragingly, 74.4% of respondents stated that they practiced good pasture hygiene by removing dung from pasture. Generally, there were differences between the responses of participants who based anthelmintic treatments on FEC testing (targeted treatments; TT) and those who practiced calendar-based anthelmintic treatments (interval treatments; IT). Briefly, the "key" findings from the Chi-square analysis included higher levels of satisfaction with the level of knowledge about equine parasites/parasitic diseases and higher levels of concern about anthelmintic resistance from TT-respondents compared to IT-participants. Confusion on the interpretation of quarantine recommendations was identified in this study group and there was poor uptake of testing for anthelmintic effectiveness. Overall, compared to previous reports, this study indicated improved engagement of UK horse owners with some helminth control practices recommended to reduce the spread of anthelmintic resistance. However, a proportion of respondents did not utilise these practices and there were still important gaps in the use of appropriate quarantine and efficacy testing. These identified gaps must be taken into consideration in knowledge dissemination activities in the future.


Assuntos
Helmintíase Animal/prevenção & controle , Doenças dos Cavalos/prevenção & controle , Animais , Coleta de Dados , Medicina Baseada em Evidências , Helmintíase Animal/epidemiologia , Doenças dos Cavalos/epidemiologia , Cavalos , Humanos , Propriedade , Inquéritos e Questionários , Reino Unido/epidemiologia
4.
Rev Bras Parasitol Vet ; 28(4): 613-624, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31483034

RESUMO

Black-necked swans are distributed across South America and face conservation problems in Chile according to data of the State institution SAG. The aim of this study was to identify helminths and to assess associated tissue damage via histopathology. A total of 19,291 parasites were isolated from 21 examined birds; 17 species were identified, including nematodes, flukes, and tapeworms. Of these, 12 were new host records, 13 were reported for the first time in Chile, and 5 were new records for the Neotropical region. Further, the flukes Schistosomatidae gen. sp. and Echinostoma echinatum are of zoonotic concern. Regarding histopathology, an inflammatory response was found along the birds' entire digestive tract. Nevertheless, it is difficult to declare that there is a clear association between such lesions and isolated parasites, as other noxa could be responsible as well. Although in some cases there was an evident association, such inflammatory responses and necrosis were minimal, as occurred with Capillaria, Retinometra, Catatropis, Echinostoma, and Schistosomatidae gen. sp. Nevertheless, Epomidiostomum vogelsangi caused granulomatous injuries, an important inflammatory response, and necrosis, but it always circumscribed to superficial layers of the gizzard. Conversely, Paramonostomum was not associated with an inflammatory response despite a high parasitic load.


Assuntos
Anseriformes/parasitologia , Trato Gastrointestinal/parasitologia , Helmintíase Animal/parasitologia , Helmintos/isolamento & purificação , Animais , Chile/epidemiologia , Feminino , Helmintíase Animal/epidemiologia , Helmintíase Animal/patologia , Helmintos/classificação , Masculino
5.
J Helminthol ; 94: e88, 2019 Sep 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31537202

RESUMO

Free-ranging grey wolves (Canis lupus), which are presently recolonizing Italy, can be parasitized by a diversity of helminths, but have rarely been subject to studies of their parasites. Therefore, this study aims to determine the prevalence of gastrointestinal helminths of road-killed grey wolves from the Piedmont region of Italy. Forty-two wolves were collected and examined for the presence of helminths. We recorded 12 helminth species: nine Nematoda and three Cestoda. The nematodes were: Ancylostoma caninum (7.1%), Capillaria sp. (2.4%), Molineus sp. (2.4%), Pterygodermatites affinis (11.9%), Physaloptera sibirica (9.5%), Toxocara canis (9.5%), Toxascaris leonina (2.4%) and Uncinaria stenocephala (26.2%); the cestodes were: Dipylidium caninum (4.8%), Mesocestoides sp. (4.8%) and Taenia multiceps (76.2%). Physaloptera sibirica had the highest mean intensity and T. multiceps had the highest prevalence. Based on age and sex, no differences in the intensity or prevalence of helminth species were found among the hosts. Molineus sp. was recorded for the first time in wolves from the Palearctic region; P. affinis and P. sibirica are respectively reported for the first time in wolves from Europe and Italy.


Assuntos
Trato Gastrointestinal/parasitologia , Helmintíase Animal/parasitologia , Helmintos/isolamento & purificação , Enteropatias Parasitárias/veterinária , Lobos/parasitologia , Animais , Europa (Continente)/epidemiologia , Feminino , Helmintíase Animal/epidemiologia , Helmintos/classificação , Enteropatias Parasitárias/epidemiologia , Itália/epidemiologia , Masculino , Prevalência
6.
Parasitol Res ; 118(10): 2863-2875, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31399870

RESUMO

A fundamental aim of parasite ecology is to understand the mechanisms behind spatial variation in diversity and structure of parasite assemblages. To understand the contribution of individual parasite species and their assemblages to spatial variation in parasite communities, we examined species contributions to beta diversity (SCBD) and local contributions to beta diversity (LCBD) of parasitic gastrointestinal helminths (nematodes and cestodes) in two closely related rodents, Rhabdomys dilectus and Rhabdomys pumilio, from 20 localities across South Africa. Although the two Rhabdomys spp. are morphologically similar, they differ substantially in body size, habitat preference, and sociality. We asked whether the variation in life history traits and infection parameters are associated with SCBD of helminths and whether variation in environmental factors, host population density, and species richness of host communities are associated with LCBD of component assemblages of helminths. We also considered spatial factors to test whether LCBD of helminth assemblages demonstrate geographic structure. We found that the contribution of helminth species parasitic in both hosts to beta diversity significantly increased with characteristic prevalence of these species, whereas mean abundance, type of life cycle, and location in the host's gut had no effect on SCBD. The LCBD of helminth assemblages showed a significant positive correlation with environmental factors in both host species. Our results suggest that predictors of variation in SCBD and LCBD may substantially differ between parasites with different infection parameters and/or parasite communities at different hierarchical scales.


Assuntos
Cestoides/isolamento & purificação , Infecções por Cestoides/epidemiologia , Trato Gastrointestinal/parasitologia , Murinae/parasitologia , Nematoides/isolamento & purificação , Infecções por Nematoides/epidemiologia , Animais , Cestoides/classificação , Infecções por Cestoides/parasitologia , Infecções por Cestoides/veterinária , Ecologia , Ecossistema , Helmintíase Animal/epidemiologia , Helmintíase Animal/parasitologia , Especificidade de Hospedeiro , Estágios do Ciclo de Vida , Nematoides/classificação , Infecções por Nematoides/parasitologia , Infecções por Nematoides/veterinária , Densidade Demográfica , Prevalência , África do Sul/epidemiologia
7.
Primates ; 60(6): 537-546, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31468227

RESUMO

This study examines gastrointestinal parasites in the endangered lion-tailed macaque, which is sympatric with the bonnet macaque that has relocated from nearby towns or agriculture landscapes dominated by humans and livestock. One hundred and ninety-four fresh fecal samples from lion-tailed macaques were collected from a group located at Chiksuli in the central Western Ghats. Of these, 48.5% had at least one endoparasite taxon. The prevalence of endoparasites varied from 0 to 75.0%, and observed endoparasite taxa varied between 0 and 10 across different months. The prevalence of endoparasites decreased with increasing rainfall and with increasing average maximum temperature across months. Of the 17 endoparasite taxa, 11 were nematodes, two were cestodes, and four were protozoans. The prevalence of Ascaris sp. and Entamoeba coli was higher than the other taxa. The overall load, helminth load, and protozoan load did not differ between months. The overall endoparasite load was greater in immature macaques in all seasons. Helminth load was higher in adult males, especially in the summer. Comparing our findings with those from sympatric relocated bonnet macaques of Chiksuli (Kumar et al. in PLoS ONE 13(11):e0207495, 2018) and lion-tailed macaques of Anamalai Hills (Hussain et al. in PLoS ONE 8(5):e63685, 2013) revealed: (a) a much higher prevalence of endoparasites in lion-tailed macaques from fragments of Anamalai Hills than in lion-tailed and bonnet macaques of Chiksuli; (b) higher richness of endoparasites in both macaque species of Chiksuli than in Anamalai lion-tailed macaques; and (c) more similar composition of endoparasite taxa between the Chiksuli lion-tailed and bonnet macaques than with the Anamalai Hills lion-tailed macaques. We suggest a complete cessation of relocation of commensal animals to the wild habitat. If relocation is necessary, then individuals to be relocated should be thoroughly screened and treated to prevent transferring endoparasite infections to wild populations.


Assuntos
Gastroenteropatias/veterinária , Macaca , Doenças dos Macacos/epidemiologia , Animais , Fezes/parasitologia , Feminino , Gastroenteropatias/epidemiologia , Gastroenteropatias/parasitologia , Helmintíase Animal/epidemiologia , Helmintíase Animal/parasitologia , Índia/epidemiologia , Masculino , Doenças dos Macacos/parasitologia , Prevalência , Infecções Protozoárias em Animais/epidemiologia , Infecções Protozoárias em Animais/parasitologia , Estações do Ano
8.
J Helminthol ; 94: e65, 2019 Jul 23.
Artigo em Catalão | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31331406

RESUMO

Helminths were examined from 145 scaled quail (Callipepla squamata) collected during the 2012-2013, 2013-2014 and 2014-2015 hunting seasons from a semi-arid region of Texas that spans four ecoregions. Helminth infracommunities were species poor, averaging 1.7 (range 1-4) species. Six species occurred within the component community of which one (Oxyspirura petrowi) is known to be pathogenic to quail. Aulonocephalus pennula was most abundant (9991 individuals, 95% of total) followed by O. petrowi (391 individuals, 4%). Each of the remaining four species was rare (≤21% prevalence) and contributed few individuals (<1%). In the High Plains ecoregion, prevalence of O. petrowi was higher in host collections made during the 2013-2014 hunting season than either hunting seasons 2012-2013 or 2014-2015 and was higher in the High Plains ecoregion than the Edwards Plateau ecoregion during the 2013-2014 hunting season. Mean abundance of A. pennula and O. petrowi was higher in scaled quail from the High Plains ecoregion than the Edwards Plateau ecoregion. Our results provide new information about helminth fauna in scaled quail, persistence of indirect lifecycle helminth species within a semi-arid region, and the occurrence of pathogenic helminth species within this host species.


Assuntos
Doenças das Aves/parasitologia , Helmintíase Animal/epidemiologia , Helmintos/classificação , Codorniz/parasitologia , Animais , Feminino , Helmintos/isolamento & purificação , Estágios do Ciclo de Vida , Prevalência , Texas/epidemiologia
9.
Biomed Res Int ; 2019: 4798906, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31360712

RESUMO

Cystic Echinococcosis (CE) is a widespread neglected zoonotic disease and is caused by the larval stage of the dog tapeworm Echinococcus granulosus sensu lato. CE is more frequent in livestock-rearing areas and where people live a nomadic or seminomadic lifestyle such as in Kajiado County, Kenya. There is limited data on CE disease situation in the county of Maasailand; the present study, therefore, reports on the prevalence of CE in cattle, sheep, and goats and their relative importance in CE transmission in Kajiado County. In total, 1,486 livestock (388 cattle, 625 sheep, and 473 goats) slaughtered in two abattoirs were examined for the presence of hydatid cysts in various organs. Cyst isolates were genotyped by polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP) of the NADH dehydrogenase subunit 1 gene (nad1). The overall prevalence of CE was 14.8% (220/1486), while prevalence per livestock species was 15.2% (72/473) in goats, 14.9% (93/625) in sheep, and 14.2% (55/388) in cattle. Out of the 421 cysts isolated, 389 cysts were successfully characterized to be either E. granulosus sensu stricto (s. s.), 356/389 (91.5%), E. canadensis (G6/7), 26/389 (6.7%), or E. ortleppi, 7/389 (1.8%). This record confirms predominance of E. granulosus s. s. in Maasailand and other parts of Kenya, while the importance of E. ortleppi and E. canadensis (G6/7) to the general CE burden in Maasailand might be higher than previously thought. More so, a higher infection pressure for humans by E. granulosus s. s. based on its abundance could be speculated. The study sheds significant light on CE situation in livestock in the nomadic/seminomadic society of the Maasai in Kajiado County and provides good bases to investigate human CE in the area.


Assuntos
Equinococose , Echinococcus , Técnicas de Genotipagem , Proteínas de Helminto/genética , Helmintíase Animal , Gado/parasitologia , Animais , Bovinos , Cães , Equinococose/diagnóstico , Equinococose/epidemiologia , Equinococose/genética , Echinococcus/classificação , Echinococcus/genética , Cabras , Helmintíase Animal/diagnóstico , Helmintíase Animal/epidemiologia , Helmintíase Animal/genética , Humanos , Quênia/epidemiologia , Polimorfismo de Fragmento de Restrição , Ovinos
10.
Parasitol Int ; 72: 101946, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31229552

RESUMO

Deep evolutionary relationships within raptorial niche have recently been challenged. Little is known as to whether birds of the raptorial niche share congruent or host-switching communities of parasites. Here, we analyzed the helminth component communities associated with birds of prey and owls. From 1962 to 2015, we examined 1731 birds of prey and owls in Czechia, and we provide a meta-analysis based on the available literature. Both the analysis of newly examined birds as well as the meta-analysis of previous studies suggested low similarities in the helminth component communities in Strigiformes relative to those in Accipitriformes (Sørensen similarity indices 0.380 in Czechia and 0.324 worldwide) or Falconiformes (0.341 and 0.328), as well as low similarities in the helminth component communities in Falconiformes to those in Accipitriformes (0.366 and 0.413). Globally, 59.6% of helminth species found in Accipitriformes, 39.5% of those in Falconiformes and 38.3% of those in Strigiformes were obligate specialists that were limited to a single examined bird order. Another 11.5%, 12.8% and 8.3% of species had core hosts in only a single order. Only five helminth species infected all three bird orders at a similar prevalence. The differences in prevalence cannot be explained by differences in food composition. We provide detailed information on the prevalence, seasonality, age- and sex-specificity, intensity and lethality of helminth infections. In conclusion, we provide the first systematically collected evidence on the congruence of the helminth distribution and phylogeny of the raptorial niche, which is consistent with its split into Australaves and Afroaves.


Assuntos
Distribuição Animal , Doenças das Aves/parasitologia , Falconiformes/parasitologia , Helmintos/classificação , Aves Predatórias/parasitologia , Animais , Doenças das Aves/epidemiologia , República Tcheca/epidemiologia , Feminino , Helmintíase Animal/epidemiologia , Helmintos/fisiologia , Masculino , Filogenia , Prevalência , Estações do Ano , Fatores Sexuais
11.
Onderstepoort J Vet Res ; 86(1): e1-e8, 2019 Apr 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31038321

RESUMO

Pigs are kept by farmers as a source of livelihood and food. Unfortunately, helminthiasis and other internal parasites are major setbacks to profitable pig production in Africa. There is a lack of information on the prevalence and intensity of gastrointestinal helminths and parasites plaguing resource-poor pig farmers in the Free State. Knowledge of these endemic parasites can be used as baseline data to help design future intervention plans. The aim of this study was to identify and quantify the types of gastrointestinal helminths and parasites prevalent in smallholder pigs reared in the central Free State Province. Faecal samples were randomly collected from 77 pigs and parasitologically analysed. Quantification was done using the McMaster counting technique. Farming system, age, gender and health status were the risk factors considered. The study was conducted between January and March 2016. Overall, results showed that 61 samples (79.2%) tested positive for one or more gastrointestinal parasites, which were observed as single or mixed infections. Amongst the positive samples, 44.5% were infected with Ascaris suum, 50.6% with Trichuris suis, 26.0% and 72.7% were infected with Oesophagostomum dentatum and coccidia, respectively. There were significant differences (p < 0.05) between the rate of infection in the intensive and semi-intensive systems and between the dewormed and non-dewormed pigs. Piglets and female pigs recorded a higher prevalence in their categories. Pigs excreted mostly low (eggs per gram [EPG] ≤ 100) to moderate (EPG > 100 < 500) levels of helminth eggs. It is concluded that different species of gastrointestinal parasites are present in most pigs reared by smallholder farmers in this study area.


Assuntos
Criação de Animais Domésticos , Helmintíase Animal/epidemiologia , Enteropatias Parasitárias/veterinária , Doenças dos Suínos/epidemiologia , Animais , Demografia , Fezes/parasitologia , Feminino , Helmintíase Animal/parasitologia , Enteropatias Parasitárias/epidemiologia , Enteropatias Parasitárias/parasitologia , Masculino , Contagem de Ovos de Parasitas/veterinária , Prevalência , Fatores de Risco , África do Sul/epidemiologia , Suínos , Doenças dos Suínos/parasitologia
12.
Vet Parasitol Reg Stud Reports ; 16: 100289, 2019 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31027594

RESUMO

In Nigeria, helminths have over the last decades been established as important parasite of poultry including pigeons. However, the prevalence of these parasites of pigeons in Kano State is yet to be established. The prevalence of helminth parasites of domestic pigeon (Columba livia domestica) in Kano State, Nigeria was investigated in this study. The differences in the prevalence of infection between the pigeons examined on the basis of sex of the pigeon and season of the year were analyzed statistically using the students' "t" -test. The intestinal contents of 144 pigeons were examined for gastrointestinal helminths between February and April representing the dry season and between June and August for the wet season. Pigeons were grouped according to Squabs (chicks) (0-4 weeks), Squeakers (Juveniles) (5-8 weeks) and Youngsters (Adults) (9 weeks onwards). Intestinal parasites found include Cestodes: Raillietina tetragona, 20 (13.80%), R. echinobothrida, 11 (7.64%), Amoebotaenia cuneata, 5 (3.47%), Hymenolopis contaniana, 10 (6.95%), Davainea proglottina, 1(0.69%) and Ornithostrongylus quadriatus 1(0.69%). Nematodes: Capillaria obsignata, 10(6.95%) and Ascaridia columbae, 9(6.25%). Forty-two (29.16%) of the birds had mild infection, 17 (11.81%) had moderate infection, 9 (6.25%) and 2(1.39%) had heavy and severe infection, respectively. The prevalence was higher during the wet season (36.65%) than during the dry season (27.97%). Of all the age groups, only Youngsters, 34 (23.61%) were infected with intestinal helminths. However, there were statistically significant differences between the age, sex and seasons in this study (P < 0.005). Pigeons raised on semi-intensive had the highest rate of infection (37.50%) and those raised on intensive management had the lowest rate of infection (9.03%). A number of measures are recommended for the control of these helminthic parasites.


Assuntos
Doenças das Aves/epidemiologia , Columbidae/parasitologia , Helmintíase Animal/epidemiologia , Enteropatias Parasitárias/veterinária , Distribuição por Idade , Ração Animal/classificação , Ração Animal/estatística & dados numéricos , Criação de Animais Domésticos/métodos , Animais , Doenças das Aves/parasitologia , Infecções por Cestoides/epidemiologia , Infecções por Cestoides/veterinária , Métodos de Alimentação/veterinária , Feminino , Abrigo para Animais/normas , Enteropatias Parasitárias/epidemiologia , Masculino , Infecções por Nematoides/epidemiologia , Infecções por Nematoides/veterinária , Nigéria/epidemiologia , Razão de Chances , Prevalência , Estações do Ano , Distribuição por Sexo
13.
Vet Parasitol Reg Stud Reports ; 16: 100285, 2019 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31027601

RESUMO

As laws change around the United States, wildlife that were once kept as companion animals are now often confiscated by local authorities. They are then euthanized unless a home is found for them at a sanctuary. Wolf sanctuaries are, therefore, becoming increasingly important for their conservation and management. However, little data is available on best practices for the health management of captive wolves, including data on parasitic diseases. Our objective was to assess the prevalence of parasites of captive wolves combining classical coprological techniques and immunoassays based on the detection of coproantigen of selected canid parasites. Fecal samples of 39 animals were collected upon observation of individual animals defecating. All samples were processed using the Fecal Dx® tests, a suite of coproantigen ELISAs for detection of ascarid, hookworm, whipworm, and Giardia (IDEXX Laboratories Inc.). Out of the 39 samples, 38 were processed using the double-centrifugation sugar flotation (DCSF) and 34 using a modification of the Baermann technique. Twenty-eight samples (71.8%) were positive for hookworm, and none positive for the other parasites tested using coproantigen ELISA. Ancylostoma sp. (26, 68.4%), Eucoleus boehmi (13, 34.2%), and Trichuris sp. (2; 5.3%), and Sarcocystis sp. (13, 34.2%) were detected using DCSF. No metastrongyloid lungworm larvae were found. The Cohen's kappa index (0.97) showed excellent agreement between the hookworm coproantigen ELISA and the DCSF using feces preserved in ethanol for a short period of time. This study provides a baseline on the parasites of captive wolves, and shows that recent innovative diagnostics in veterinary parasitology, developed and optimized for dogs, may be used for assessing the health of wolves.


Assuntos
Fezes/parasitologia , Helmintíase Animal/diagnóstico , Infecções Protozoárias em Animais/diagnóstico , Lobos/parasitologia , Ancylostoma/imunologia , Ancylostoma/isolamento & purificação , Ancylostomatoidea/imunologia , Ancylostomatoidea/isolamento & purificação , Animais , Antígenos de Helmintos/análise , Antígenos de Helmintos/isolamento & purificação , Antígenos de Protozoários/análise , Antígenos de Protozoários/isolamento & purificação , Centrifugação/métodos , Centrifugação/veterinária , Ensaio de Imunoadsorção Enzimática/veterinária , Helmintíase Animal/epidemiologia , Helmintíase Animal/parasitologia , Nematoides/imunologia , Nematoides/isolamento & purificação , Pennsylvania , Infecções Protozoárias em Animais/epidemiologia , Infecções Protozoárias em Animais/parasitologia , Sarcocystis/imunologia , Sarcocystis/isolamento & purificação , Sensibilidade e Especificidade , Trichuris/imunologia , Trichuris/isolamento & purificação , Estados Unidos
14.
Vet Parasitol Reg Stud Reports ; 16: 100277, 2019 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31027604

RESUMO

Reindeer (Rangifer tarandus tarandus) host numerous parasites. Although there is a general knowledge about parasite diversity in reindeer, detailed baseline information about parasitic infections is limited. Detailed knowledge of parasite prevalence and diversity provide a pathway for more targeted parasite control, an increasing need expected in the future. The main aim of our cross-sectional study was to estimate the prevalence of gastrointestinal parasites in semidomesticated reindeer calves. The 480 reindeer calves included in our study were aged 6-7 months, originated from 9 reindeer herding cooperatives in Finland and 1 in Norway, and were slaughtered during September-November 2015 in 10 reindeer slaughterhouses. All the reindeer calves passed meat inspection, and the detected parasitic infections were subclinical. As the reindeer included in this study were young animals intended for slaughter, they had never been administrated any antiparasitic treatment. Assessments of gastrointestinal parasitism among these reindeer calves were based on fecal examination and morphological identification of coccidian oocysts or helminth eggs. Individual fecal samples collected from the rectum of each of the reindeer were examined using a modified McMaster method. Most (78.3%) of the reindeer calves had eggs or oocysts of at least one parasite species in their feces, and more than half (53.5%) had a mixed infection. Strongylid eggs were detected in 75.6%, Eimeria sp. oocysts in 50.6%, Moniezia sp. eggs in 28.1%, Nematodirus sp. eggs in 22.1%, Capillaria sp. eggs in 9.4%, and Trichuris sp. eggs in 0.6% of the samples. The prevalence of gastrointestinal parasites was similar or higher relative to previous estimates from the region; the proportion of reindeer calves shedding strongylid eggs and the proportion of reindeer calves shedding Moniezia sp. eggs had increased. Prevalence varied by geographical region, which may reflect different herding practices or environmental parameters. Higher reindeer density was a risk factor for testing positive for Eimeria sp. oocysts, and the odds of testing positive for Nematodirus sp. eggs were higher if a peroral route was used for antiparasitic treatment in the reindeer herding cooperative. The mean proportion of reindeer estimated to receive antiparasitic treatment in Finland was 86% in 2004-2005 and 91% in 2014-2015. During the historical time frames of current management practices, this routine annual antiparasitic treatment of breeding reindeer has not decreased the prevalence of gastrointestinal parasites in reindeer calves, which can be seen as sentinels or indicators of the infection pressure.


Assuntos
Coccidiose/veterinária , Gastroenteropatias/veterinária , Helmintíase Animal/epidemiologia , Enteropatias Parasitárias/veterinária , Rena/parasitologia , Matadouros , Criação de Animais Domésticos/métodos , Animais , Capillaria/isolamento & purificação , Coccidiose/epidemiologia , Coccidiose/parasitologia , Estudos Transversais , Eimeria/isolamento & purificação , Infecções por Enoplida/epidemiologia , Infecções por Enoplida/parasitologia , Infecções por Enoplida/veterinária , Fezes/parasitologia , Finlândia/epidemiologia , Inspeção de Alimentos , Gastroenteropatias/epidemiologia , Gastroenteropatias/parasitologia , Helmintíase Animal/parasitologia , Enteropatias Parasitárias/epidemiologia , Enteropatias Parasitárias/parasitologia , Carne/normas , Moniezíase/epidemiologia , Moniezíase/parasitologia , Nematodirus/isolamento & purificação , Noruega/epidemiologia , Densidade Demográfica , Prevalência , Fatores de Risco , Estrongilídios/isolamento & purificação , Infecções por Strongylida/epidemiologia , Infecções por Strongylida/parasitologia , Infecções por Strongylida/veterinária
15.
J Parasitol ; 105(2): 271-282, 2019 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30945988

RESUMO

The ecology of host-parasite interactions can be studied in the infracommunity and component community scales, which may show different patterns in species distributions, interacting and affecting each other on a regional scale. Few studies have been carried out concerning the structure and variation of the helminth communities of wild rodents in Brazil. The rodent Necromys lasiurus is typical from the mammalian fauna of the Cerrado biome; however, the environmental disturbances are making this species occur in rural areas and in other biomes where it may act as host/reservoir of many diseases. This study aimed to describe the composition and structure of the helminth metacommunity in the rodent N. lasiurus in the Brazilian Cerrado, Uberlândia, State of Minas Gerais, using the analysis of metacommunity structure. Rodents were sampled in 3 habitat types: borders of soybean and corn plantations, pasturelands, and preserved areas of Cerrado borders. Adult helminths of 8 species were found in the gastrointestinal tract: Protospirura numidica criceticola, Physaloptera sp., Pterygodermatites ( Paucipectines) zygodontomis (Spirurida), Stilestrongylus freitasi (Rhabditida), Trichuris navonae (Trichurida) and Syphacia ( Syphacia) alata (Oxiurida) of the Phylum Nematoda; Rodentolepis akodontis (Cyclophyllidea) of the Phylum Platyhelminthes; and Moniliformis sp. (Moniliformida) of the Phylum Acanthocephala. Season and the kind of land use favored some helminths species in this rodent, especially in the plantation area, although diversity was not largely influenced by the land use. Plantation areas could provide an increase in the host abundance and the occurrence of other rodent species, favoring a higher rate of parasite exchange among different hosts. A checkerboard structure of metacommunity was found on the infracommunity scale, which suggests the existence of interspecific competition. A quasi-nested structure of metacommunity was observed on the component community scale showing that most species were influenced by the same environmental gradient and that the species-poor communities were subsets of species-rich communities. Syphacia alata, P. zygodontomis, S. freitasi, and R. akodontis were dominant species in all habitats and represented the core-species in the metacommunity.


Assuntos
Helmintíase Animal/parasitologia , Doenças dos Roedores/parasitologia , Sigmodontinae/parasitologia , Animais , Brasil/epidemiologia , Ecossistema , Feminino , Helmintíase Animal/epidemiologia , Interações Hospedeiro-Parasita , Modelos Lineares , Masculino , Prevalência , Doenças dos Roedores/epidemiologia , Estações do Ano
16.
Vet Parasitol Reg Stud Reports ; 15: 100265, 2019 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30929942

RESUMO

Gastrointestinal parasites of chickens are prevalent in many parts of the world including Ethiopia. This study was conducted with backyard chickens in Ambo, Holeta and, Dire Inchini in the West Shoa zone with the objectives of estimating the prevalence of gastrointestinal helminth infections, identifying the species present and determining associated risk factors. A cross-sectional study was conducted using 252 chickens purchased from local markets. Chickens were killed humanely and gastrointestinal tracts were examined for adult helminths. Identification of the helminths was performed using morphology and microscopy. The overall prevalence of helminth parasites in chickens was 92.1% (232/252) [95% confidence interval (CI): 88.0% - 95.1%]. 80.2% (204/252) [95% CI: 75.3% - 86.9%] and 77.8% (196/252) [95% CI: 72.1% - 82.8%] of chickens were infected with diverse nematode and cestode species, respectively. Parasitological examination revealed the presence of three nematode and five cestode species. Ascaridia galli (69.8%) and Heterakis gallinarum (13.5%) were the dominant nematode species and Railletina tetragona (54.0%) and Railletina echinobothrida (46.8%) were the most prevalent species of cestodes identified. A significant difference (p < .05) was observed between the prevalence of nematode parasites and sex, age, and origin of the chicken. Similarly, sex and origin of the chickens were significantly different with the prevalence of cestode infections. Higher prevalence was observed in male versus female chickens, in young versus adult chickens and in chickens from Holeta and Direinchin compared to Ambo. In contrast, weight, health status, diarrhea status, and age (for cestodes) were not significantly associated with nematode and cestode infection. In conclusion, the present study detected a high prevalence of diverse types of gastrointestinal helminths in backyard chickens, which could result in poor health and reduce productivity. Therefore, the present study strongly suggests appropriate and strategic control of helminthiasis to improve the health and output of backyard chickens in the study areas.


Assuntos
Galinhas/parasitologia , Trato Gastrointestinal/parasitologia , Helmintíase Animal/epidemiologia , Helmintos/isolamento & purificação , Enteropatias Parasitárias/veterinária , Doenças das Aves Domésticas/parasitologia , Criação de Animais Domésticos , Animais , Ascaridídios/anatomia & histologia , Ascaridídios/isolamento & purificação , Cestoides/anatomia & histologia , Cestoides/isolamento & purificação , Estudos Transversais , Etiópia/epidemiologia , Feminino , Helmintos/anatomia & histologia , Enteropatias Parasitárias/epidemiologia , Masculino , Doenças das Aves Domésticas/epidemiologia , Fatores de Risco
17.
Parasitol Res ; 118(5): 1473-1478, 2019 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30927061

RESUMO

The acanthocephalan parasite Plagiorhynchus cylindraceus has a global distribution and utilizes isopods and birds as intermediate and definitive hosts, respectively. Occasionally, mammals of various orders can act as paratenic hosts. In hedgehogs, severe cases have been reported in juvenile specimens due to secondary infections, as a consequence of complete penetrations of the intestinal wall by cystacanths. In a 66-month study period, we found seven larvae of this parasite encysted in both, the peritoneal cavity and intestine of the Algerian hedgehog, Atelerix algirus in Majorca. Morphology alone was insufficient to identify the species, due to the lack of previous reports and taxonomy-informative characters. In the present report, we combined the use of morphology and the DNA-barcoding approach to confirm to identify cystacanths as P. cylindraceus. This is the first report of this parasite in this hedgehog species. The epidemiological implications will be discussed, including the risk of zoonosis and the importance of using modern approaches to identify immature acanthocephalan larvae in wildlife hosts.


Assuntos
Acantocéfalos/classificação , Acantocéfalos/genética , Código de Barras de DNA Taxonômico , Ouriços-Cacheiros/parasitologia , Helmintíase Animal/epidemiologia , Intestinos/patologia , Cavidade Peritoneal/parasitologia , Acantocéfalos/anatomia & histologia , Animais , Aves/parasitologia , DNA/genética , Feminino , Helmintíase Animal/parasitologia , Larva/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Masculino , Zoonoses/epidemiologia
18.
J Helminthol ; 94: e30, 2019 Feb 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30714552

RESUMO

The black rat Rattus rattus and the house mouse Mus musculus are two commensal rodent species that harbour and shed zoonotic pathogens, including helminths. The aim of this survey was to study the helminth community and the patterns of infections in R. rattus and M. musculus from two Mayan communities in Mexico. Gastrointestinal helminths were isolated from 322 M. musculus and 124 R. rattus, including Gongylonema neoplasticum, Hassalstrongylus aduncus, Hassalstrongylus musculi, Hydatigera taeniaeformis metacestode, Hymenolepis diminuta, Nippostrongylus brasiliensis, Oligacanthorhynchidae gen. sp., Syphacia muris, Syphacia obvelata, Rodentolepis microstoma and Trichuris muris. The overall richness of helminths was seven in R. rattus and six in M. musculus. The results of generalized linear models showed that juvenile rodents had lower probabilities of being infected with G. neoplasticum, H. taeniaeformis and H. musculi than adult rodents. A positive association between the prevalence of S. muris and rat abundance was found. The intensity of infection with S. muris was higher in the rainy season than in the dry season; the opposite result was found for H. musculi infection. Male R. rattus harboured more S. muris specimens. The intensity of infection with T. muris was inversely associated with mouse abundance. The presence of the zoonotic H. diminuta, as well as H. taeniaeformis and R. microstoma in rodent populations indicates that there is risk of transmission, and that their entire life cycle occurs in the study area.


Assuntos
Helmintíase Animal/parasitologia , Helmintos/isolamento & purificação , Doenças dos Roedores/parasitologia , Animais , Feminino , Trato Gastrointestinal/parasitologia , Helmintíase Animal/epidemiologia , Helmintos/classificação , Helmintos/genética , Masculino , México/epidemiologia , Camundongos , Prevalência , Ratos , Estações do Ano
19.
Acta Parasitol ; 64(1): 205-212, 2019 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30644061

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES AND DESIGN: Knowledge of which and how many species are part of an ecosystem is fundamental to understanding the diversity of organisms, including parasitic organisms that vary widely among host populations. This study describes the composition, infection patterns, and similarity in composition of helminths associated with P. albifrons, P. cicada, and P. cuvieri. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Four samplings were carried out in two caatinga areas in the southern region of Ceará State, Brazil. The specimens were collected by active search, necropsied, and surveyed for helminths. The infection patterns for all helminth species found were estimated through prevalence, mean abundance, and mean intensity of infection. RESULTS: A total of 242 helminth specimens were collected from 264 hosts-100 Physalaemus albifrons with overall prevalence of 20%, 93 Physalaemus cicada with overall prevalence of 27%, and 71 Physalaemus cuvieri with overall prevalence of 15%. Ten parasite taxa with a mean of one-three parasite species per host were identified. The nematode Raillietnema spectans was present in the three host species and had the highest prevalence. CONCLUSIONS: The results of this study represent 38.4% of known parasites for the species of the subfamily Leiuperinae, and 52.6% for the species of Physalaemus. Four parasite taxa (Oswaldocruzia cf. mazzai, Raillietnema spectans, Schrankiana schranki, and Cylindrotaenia americana) are new records for the host species studied, contributing to the knowledge of the parasitic interactions of amphibians of the genus Physalaemus.


Assuntos
Anuros/parasitologia , Helmintíase Animal/epidemiologia , Helmintíase Animal/parasitologia , Helmintos/classificação , Helmintos/isolamento & purificação , Animais , Brasil , Coinfecção/epidemiologia , Coinfecção/parasitologia , Carga Parasitária , Prevalência
20.
Parasitol Res ; 118(2): 701-706, 2019 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30610365

RESUMO

This study aimed to investigate the endoparasite fauna of wild European gray wolves, which are currently recolonizing Germany. In total, 69 fecal samples of wild wolves were collected in Lower Saxony, Germany, from 2013 to 2015, analyzed by the sedimentation-flotation and McMaster techniques and compared to previous results on captive European Gray wolves living in zoological gardens in Germany. In addition to coproscopy, taeniid-positive samples from wild as well as captive wolves were differentiated by amplification and sequencing of small subunit ribosomal RNA (SSU rRNA) and NADH dehydrogenase 1 (nad1) gene fragments. Missing Taenia krabbei SSU rRNA reference sequences were generated from two T. krabbei specimens. Overall, 60.87% (42/69) of wild wolve samples were microscopically positive for at least one of seven egg types. Capillaria/Eucoleus spp. showed the highest frequency (31.88% [22/69]), followed by Taeniidae (21.74% [15/69]), Ancylostomatidae (20.29% [14/69]), Alaria alata (15.94% [11/69]), Toxocara canis (13.04% [9/69]), and Toxascaris leonina and Trichuris vulpis (each 5.80% [4/69]). Amplification of SSU rRNA was successful for 7/15 Taeniidae-positive samples from wild and 20/39 samples from captive wolves, revealing T. hydatigena in two and 14 samples, respectively. Taenia krabbei was detected in two further samples of wild and three samples of captive wolves, while for the remaining samples, no differentiation between T. serialis/T. krabbei was possible. Echinococcus spp. were not detected. Sequence comparisons revealed that the SSU rRNA gene fragment was not suitable to differentiate between T. serialis and T. krabbei. Therefore, the use of this fragment alone cannot be recommended for species identification in future studies.


Assuntos
Ancylostomatoidea/isolamento & purificação , Helmintíase Animal/epidemiologia , Taenia/isolamento & purificação , Trematódeos/isolamento & purificação , Lobos/parasitologia , Ancylostomatoidea/classificação , Ancylostomatoidea/genética , Animais , Fezes/parasitologia , Alemanha/epidemiologia , Helmintíase Animal/parasitologia , NADH Desidrogenase/genética , Taenia/classificação , Taenia/genética , Trematódeos/classificação , Trematódeos/genética
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