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1.
J Parasitol ; 107(1): 132-137, 2021 01 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33647985

RESUMO

The Northern bobwhite quail (Colinus virginianus) is a popular game bird that has been experiencing a well-documented decline throughout Texas since the 1960s. While much of this decline has been attributed to habitat loss and fragmentation, recent studies have identified other factors that may also contribute to decreasing quail populations. Parasites, in particular, have become increasingly recognized as possible stressors of quail, and some species, particularly the eyeworm (Oxyspirura petrowi) and cecal worm (Aulonocephalus pennula) are highly prevalent in Texas quails. Eyeworm infection has also been documented in some passerines, suggesting helminth infection may be shared between bird species. However, the lack of comprehensive helminth surveys has rendered the extent of shared infection between quail and passerines in the ecoregion unclear. Thus, helminth surveys were conducted on bobwhite, scaled quail (Callipepla squamata), Northern mockingbirds (Mimus polyglottos), curve-billed thrashers (Toxistoma curvirostre), and Northern cardinals (Cardinalis cardinalis) to contribute data to existing parasitological gaps for birds in the Rolling Plains ecoregion of Texas. Birds were trapped across 3 counties in the Texas Rolling Plains from March to October 2019. Necropsies were conducted on 54 individuals (36 quail and 18 passerines), and extracted helminths were microscopically identified. Nematode, cestode, and acanthocephalan helminths representing at least 10 helminth species were found. Specifically, A. pennula and O. petrowi had the highest prevalence, and O. petrowi was documented in all of the study species. This research adds to the body of knowledge regarding parasitic infections in quail and passerines of the Rolling Plains ecoregion and highlights the potential consequences of shared infection of eyeworms among these bird species.


Assuntos
Doenças das Aves/parasitologia , Cromadoria/isolamento & purificação , Colinus/parasitologia , Helmintíase Animal/parasitologia , Passeriformes/parasitologia , Thelazioidea/isolamento & purificação , Animais , Doenças das Aves/epidemiologia , Cromadoria/classificação , Infecções Oculares Parasitárias/epidemiologia , Infecções Oculares Parasitárias/parasitologia , Infecções Oculares Parasitárias/veterinária , Helmintíase Animal/epidemiologia , Prevalência , Infecções por Spirurida/epidemiologia , Infecções por Spirurida/parasitologia , Infecções por Spirurida/veterinária , Texas/epidemiologia , Thelazioidea/classificação
2.
Parasitol Res ; 119(11): 3675-3690, 2020 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33001253

RESUMO

In 2018, extensive field studies of diversity and prevalence of helminth infection in synanthropic rodents and non-rodent small mammals from public parks and citified areas in the Bangkok Metropolitan were conducted. Rattus rattus complex was the dominant small mammal in public parks. Of the 197 animals, 147 individuals were infected with one or more species of helminths, yielding an infection prevalence of 74.6%. Twenty-five species of helminths were recovered during necropsy. Pterygodermatites tani was the most prevalent (36.2%); other encountered species included Raillietina celebensis, Hydatigera taeniaformis (metacestode in liver tissue), Gongylonema neoplasticum and Hymenolepis diminuta. Different helminth assemblages infected three different host taxa, i.e. synanthropic Rattus spp., Tupaia belangeri (Northern treeshrew) and Suncus murinus (Asian house shrew). Nine species of possible zoonotic helminths were identified. The focus on synanthropic rats influenced the findings of helminth diversity by either host intrinsic or extrinsic factors. A significant positive correlation was found between host body mass and helminth species richness. Greater helminth species richness was found in rats from public parks compared with animals from citified areas (e.g. inside buildings or offices). Also, helminth species richness was negatively correlated with the proportion of post-flooding/rain-fed land. These results provide essential information for assessing the incidence of potential zoonotic health threats in Bangkok and updating research in parasite ecology.


Assuntos
Biota , Helmintíase Animal/parasitologia , Helmintos/classificação , Doenças dos Roedores/parasitologia , Roedores/parasitologia , Animais , Cidades , Inundações , Helmintíase Animal/epidemiologia , Helmintos/isolamento & purificação , Humanos , Parques Recreativos , Prevalência , Ratos , Doenças dos Roedores/epidemiologia , Musaranhos/parasitologia , Tailândia/epidemiologia
3.
An Acad Bras Cienc ; 92(suppl 2): e20180984, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32935738

RESUMO

Metacercariae of Diplostomidae are widely distributed in America and may cause diplostomiasis, an ocular disease in fishes. The aim of this study is to report the occurrence of metacercariae of Austrodiplostomum compactum in Plagioscion squamosissimus (non-native fish species) from Nova Avanhandava Reservoir, Tietê River, Brazil and an explanation for the high infection rates with this parasite in the Paraná River Basin is proposed. Eyes of 70 hosts were examined, the metacercariae were preserved and identified. The prevalence (P), mean intensity of infection (MII) ± standard deviation, mean abundance (MA) ± standard deviation, were calculated and a bibliographic review was performed. There was no difference in parasitism between male and female hosts. The values of P = 80%, MII = 21.55 ± 3.25 and MA = 17.24 ± 2.91 were high, as in most studies in areas where P. squamosissimus were introduced, while these values were low in areas of natural occurrence. This may be explained by the genetic susceptibility of the host to the parasite. The entire population of P. squamosissimus from the Upper Paraná has been founded by a few specimens, resulting in very low genetic variability. Consequently, the population may be highly susceptible to A. compactum.


Assuntos
Doenças dos Peixes/parasitologia , Peixes/parasitologia , Helmintíase Animal/parasitologia , Metacercárias , Trematódeos , Animais , Brasil , Feminino , Masculino , Doenças Parasitárias em Animais , Rios
4.
Rev Bras Parasitol Vet ; 29(3): e009420, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32785526

RESUMO

The broad-headed spiny rat, Clyomys laticeps, is an echimyid rodent found in open areas of Cerrado and Pantanal biomes in central Brazil and Paraguay. Little is known about the parasites associated with this semi-fossorial species, as no previous studies have been conducted on their helminth fauna. The aim of this study was to report the helminth community structure of C. laticeps inhabiting Serra de Caldas Novas State Park, a Cerrado area in central Brazil. Trappings were carried out in dry grasslands from January to October 2016, and the large and small intestines of 14 C. laticeps individuals were examined for the presence of helminths. Three nematode species were found: Fuellebornema almeidai, Pterygodermatites (Paucipectines) sp., and Subulura forcipata, and 85.7% of the studied species were infected with at least one of these helminths. F. almeidai was the most prevalent species among hosts, and S. forcipata was the most abundant. This study is the first report on helminth community structure in C. laticeps. We report a new host species and increase the known geographical range of F. almeidai, and provide the first record of Pterygodermatites (Paucipectines) sp. infecting echimyids. This is also the first report of S. forcipata in a mammal host.


Assuntos
Helmintíase Animal , Helmintos , Roedores , Animais , Brasil , Ecossistema , Helmintíase Animal/parasitologia , Helmintos/classificação , Helmintos/fisiologia , Intestinos/parasitologia , Ratos , Roedores/parasitologia
5.
Acta Vet Scand ; 62(1): 41, 2020 Aug 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32746868

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Similar to the situation in other European countries, Danish wild boars may harbour a wide range of pathogens infectious to humans and domestic pigs. Although wild boars must be kept behind fences in Denmark, hunting and consumption of the meat may cause zoonotic transmission. Moreover, most infections of wild boars are transmissible to domestic pigs, which may have important economic consequences. The aim of this study was to investigate whether Danish wild boars were infected with bacteria and parasites transmissible to humans or domestic pigs: Brucella suis, methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA), Salmonella spp., Trichinella spp., lungworms and gastrointestinal parasites, especially Ascaris suum. This is the first study to investigate the prevalence of these important pathogens in Danish wild boars. RESULTS: Wild boars from eight enclosures were analysed over a 5-year period. All tested wild boars were negative for B. suis (n = 240), MRSA (n = 244), Salmonella spp. (n = 115) and Trichinella spp. (n = 232), while eight parasite genera were identified in the faeces (n = 254): Ascaris suum, Capillaria sp., Cystoisospora suis, Eimeria spp., Metastrongylus sp. (lungworm), Strongyloides ransomi, Trichuris suis and strongylid eggs, i.e. strongyles not identified to the genera. Eimeria spp. and Metastrongylus sp. had the highest prevalence (92.3 and 79.5%, respectively) and were identified in wild boars from all eight enclosures, while the remaining parasite genera were present more sporadically. CONCLUSIONS: Wild boars from Denmark constitute a low risk of transmitting B. suis, MRSA, Salmonella spp. and Trichinella spp. to humans or domestic pigs, while economically important parasites transmissible to domestic pigs are highly prevalent in the wild boar population.


Assuntos
Infecções Bacterianas/veterinária , Coccidiose/veterinária , Monitoramento Epidemiológico/veterinária , Helmintíase Animal/epidemiologia , Doenças dos Suínos/epidemiologia , Animais , Animais Selvagens , Infecções Bacterianas/epidemiologia , Infecções Bacterianas/microbiologia , Coccidiose/epidemiologia , Coccidiose/parasitologia , Dinamarca/epidemiologia , Feminino , Helmintíase Animal/parasitologia , Masculino , Prevalência , Sus scrofa , Suínos , Doenças dos Suínos/microbiologia , Doenças dos Suínos/parasitologia
6.
Rev Bras Parasitol Vet ; 29(3): e001720, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32667499

RESUMO

In this study, we described the morphological features and unusual presentations of hydatidosis, fasciolosis, and eosinophilic myositis caused by Sarcocystis species diagnosed at the slaughterhouse lines. Twenty-seven samples of atypical parasitic lesions from distinct cattle were evaluated, of which 12 corresponded to hydatidosis, 11 to fasciolosis, and 4 to eosinophilic sarcocystosis. Hydatid cysts were observed mainly in the heart, with all cases involving the left ventricle. Fasciolosis lesions involved mainly the lungs, and were characterized by a focal nodular elevated area involving the edges of the lobes. Intralesional trematodes were observed in three cases. Sarcocystosis lesions were observed in four cases, and lesions were primarily located in the skeletal and cardiac muscles. Grossly, they presented as focal or focally extensive streaks, patches, or numerous nodules that were greenish to mildly yellowish. Histologically, all the cases had intralesional ruptured cysts of Sarcocystis that were associated with severe eosinophilic myositis and myocarditis. Parasitic lesions in atypical locations and/or with aberrant responses should be promptly identified because it may mistakenly diagnosed as other potentially zoonotic diseases, such as cysticercosis and tuberculosis.


Assuntos
Doenças dos Bovinos , Helmintíase Animal , Matadouros , Animais , Brasil , Bovinos , Doenças dos Bovinos/parasitologia , Doenças dos Bovinos/patologia , Helmintíase Animal/parasitologia , Helmintíase Animal/patologia
7.
Rev Bras Parasitol Vet ; 29(3): e005120, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32638835

RESUMO

Siganids are the most important marine fish distributed along the African coast. Therefore, the current study aimed to investigate parasite fauna infects one of the most important mariculture fish species in the Red Sea, the Rabbit fish Siganus rivulatus. One acanthocephalan species has been isolated from the posterior region of fish intestine, belonging to the Neoechinorhynchidae family, and named as Neoechinorhynchus macrospinosus Amin & Nahhas, 1994 based on its morphological and morphometric features. In order to determine the accurate taxonomic position of this acanthocephalan species, molecular phylogenetic analysis was carried out based on the partial sequences of 18S rDNA gene region. The obtained data revealed that this species was associated with a close identity ˃71% for other species belonging to the Neoechinorhynchidae family. In addition, the recovered species deeply embedded in the Neoechinorhynchus genus, closely related to the previously described Neoechinorhynchus sp., N. mexicoensis, and N. golvani with identity percent of 95.14, 93.59, 93.59%, respectively. Therefore, the present study provide a better understanding about the taxonomic status of N. macrospinosus based on 18S rDNA that can be useful for achieving a proper assessment of biodiversity.


Assuntos
Acantocéfalos , Doenças dos Peixes , Helmintíase Animal , Filogenia , Acantocéfalos/anatomia & histologia , Acantocéfalos/classificação , Acantocéfalos/genética , Animais , DNA de Helmintos/genética , Doenças dos Peixes/parasitologia , Helmintíase Animal/parasitologia , RNA Ribossômico 18S/genética
8.
Parasitol Res ; 119(10): 3221-3231, 2020 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32671541

RESUMO

Members of the genus Lueheia Travassos, 1919, are endoparasites of birds, particularly passerines, throughout the Americas. Adults of Lueheia sp., (Plagiorhynchidae Golvan, 1960; Porrorchinae Golvan, 1956) were recovered from the intestine of the American robin (Turdus migratorius phillipsi Bangs) in Mexico City, and two other species of acanthocephalans identified as Porrorchis nickoli, (Plagiorhynchidae: Porrorchinae) Salgado-Maldonado and Cruz-Reyes, 2002 and Centrorhynchus microcephalus (Bravo-Hollis, 1947) Golvan, 1956 (Centrorhynchidae Van Cleave, 1916), were recovered from the Virginia opossum (Didelphis virginiana Allen) and groove-billed ani (Crotophaga sulcirostris Swainson), respectively in southeastern Mexico. Specimens of three species were sequenced at two molecular markers, the small subunit (SSU) and large subunit (LSU) of the nuclear rDNA and compared with other sequences available in GenBank. Maximum likelihood and Bayesian inference analyses of the combined (LSU + SSU) dataset and each individual dataset revealed that the specimens of Lueheia sp. formed an independent lineage, which is recognized herein as a new species, Lueheia aztecae n. sp., representing the fifth species of the genus in the Americas, and the second in the Nearctic region. The new species can be morphologically distinguished from the other five species in the genus by having a cylindrical proboscis, armed with 24-26 longitudinal rows with 9-10 hooks each. Phylogenetic inference performed with the combined dataset consisting of two genes (LSU + SSU) revealed that Lueheia aztecae n. sp. and P. nickoli belonging to subfamily Porrorchinae, formed two independent lineages, indicating that the subfamily is paraphyletic. Porrorchis nickoli and C. microcephalus formed a clade with other species of the genus Centrorhynchus, suggesting that P. nickoli should be transferred to genus Centrorhynchus, to form C. nickoli n. comb. In addition, we briefly discuss the ecological associations between the members of the families Plagiorhynchidae and Centrorhynchidae.


Assuntos
Acantocéfalos/anatomia & histologia , Acantocéfalos/classificação , Helmintíase Animal/parasitologia , Aves Canoras/parasitologia , Acantocéfalos/genética , Animais , Sequência de Bases , Teorema de Bayes , DNA Ribossômico/genética , Marcadores Genéticos/genética , Intestinos/parasitologia , México , Filogenia
9.
Ann Parasitol ; 66(2): 237-241, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32592546

RESUMO

The garfish Belone belone (Linnaeus, 1760) is a marine fish which can be found in the shallow waters of the Baltic Sea in the spring and summer spawning period. In 2010 and in 2016, 73 specimens of garfish collected in the Gulf of Gdansk (southern Baltic Sea) were examined for the presence of helminths. The fish were found to support the nematode Anisakis simplex (Rudolphi, 1809) L3, Hysterothylacium aduncum (Rudolphi, 1802) L4, ad., Contracaecum sp. L3 as well as the acanthocephalan Echinorhynchus gadi Zoega in Müller, 1776. For all garfish caught in 2010 and 2016, the overall prevalence of infection by all parasites was 38.4%, with a mean intensity of 2.9 (range 1-5). The dominant parasites were H. aduncum (20.5%, 1.8) and E. gadi (17.8%, 2.1). This study constitutes the first record of Contracaecum larvae in garfish in the Polish exclusive economic zone of the Baltic Sea.


Assuntos
Doenças dos Peixes , Helmintíase Animal , Helmintos , Animais , Doenças dos Peixes/epidemiologia , Doenças dos Peixes/parasitologia , Peixes/parasitologia , Helmintíase Animal/epidemiologia , Helmintíase Animal/parasitologia , Helmintos/fisiologia , Oceanos e Mares , Polônia/epidemiologia
10.
Folia Parasitol (Praha) ; 672020 May 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32410732

RESUMO

Current data on reproductive biology and population dynamics of the acanthocephalans are scarce mainly in regions from the tropical Pacific. An analysis was done to identify possible factors that influence variation in infection levels of the acanthocephalan Pseudoleptorhynchoides lamothei Salgado-Maldonado, 1976 in its final host, the blue sea catfish Ariopsis guatemalensis (Günther, 1864), and describe its main reproductive traits. A total of 1,094 A. guatemalensis were collected from Tres Palos Lagoon from August 2014 to December 2015. Prevalence of P. lamothei varied from 1.47% to 38.33%, and mean abundance from 0.03 to 4.44 helminths per examined host. In female P. lamothei relative fecundity increased with total length. Temporal variations in P. lamothei infection levels were attributed mainly to changes in host feeding and reproductive behaviour in response to local environmental factors as climatic season, and variations in water temperature.


Assuntos
Acantocéfalos/fisiologia , Peixes-Gato , Doenças dos Peixes/epidemiologia , Helmintíase Animal/epidemiologia , Reprodução , Animais , Feminino , Doenças dos Peixes/parasitologia , Helmintíase Animal/parasitologia , Masculino , México , Estações do Ano
11.
Vet Parasitol ; 281: 109121, 2020 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32361524

RESUMO

The search of novel strategies for anthelmintic control is a crucial need considering the widespread increase in resistant parasitic populations in livestock. Bioactive phytochemicals may contribute to improve parasite control by enhancing the effect of existing anthelmintic drugs. The aim of the current work was to evaluate the in vivo and in vitro pharmaco-chemical interaction and the in vivo efficacy of the combination of albendazole (ABZ) with thymol (TML) in lambs naturally infected with resistant gastrointestinal nematodes. Thirty (30) lambs were allocated into three experimental groups. Each group was treated orally with either ABZ (5 mg/kg), TML (150 mg/kg, twice every 24 h) or the co-administration of both compounds. Blood samples were collected between 0 and 51 h post-treatment and TML, ABZ and its metabolites were measured by HPLC. Individual faecal samples were collected at days -1 and 14 post-treatment to perform the faecal egg count reduction test. Additionally, the effect of TML on the sulphoreduction and sulphonation of ABZ sulphoxide was assessed in vitro using ruminal content and liver microsomes, respectively. The metabolism of TML in the ruminal content was very low and the monoterpene exhibited a low degree of association with the particulate phase of the ruminal content. No changes in the pharmacokinetic behavior of ABZ sulphoxide were observed in the presence of the natural product (TML). In contrast, the ABZ sulphone Cmax and AUC were lower (P 0.002 and 0.001 respectively) in the co-administered animals (0.16 ±â€¯0.07 µg/mL and 3.63 ±â€¯1.21 µg.h/mL) compared with those that received ABZ alone (0.45 ±â€¯0.15 µg/mL and 9.50 ±â€¯2.84 µg.h/mL). TML was detected in the bloodstream between 1 and 48 h post-treatment, which indicates the time of target nematodes being exposed to the bioactive monoterpene. However, the in vivo efficacy of TML was 0% and the presence of this terpene did not increase the efficacy of ABZ. The presence of TML significantly inhibited the ruminal sulphoreduction (P 0.001) and the hepatic sulphonation (P 0.001) of ABZ sulphoxide. These observations point out that in vivo pharmaco-parasitological studies are relevant to corroborate the adverse kinetic/metabolic interactions and the efficacy of bioactive natural products combined with synthetic anthelmintics.


Assuntos
Albendazol/administração & dosagem , Resistência a Medicamentos/efeitos dos fármacos , Gastroenteropatias/tratamento farmacológico , Helmintíase Animal/tratamento farmacológico , Doenças dos Ovinos/tratamento farmacológico , Timol/administração & dosagem , Animais , Anti-Helmínticos/administração & dosagem , Anti-Helmínticos/farmacologia , Quimioterapia Combinada , Gastroenteropatias/parasitologia , Helmintíase Animal/parasitologia , Compostos Fitoquímicos/farmacologia , Ovinos , Doenças dos Ovinos/parasitologia , Resultado do Tratamento
12.
J Parasitol ; 106(3): 334-340, 2020 06 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32369595

RESUMO

We investigated the mean abundance of helminths and analyzed helminth composition and structure at the infracommunity and component community levels for 3 anuran species (Pleurodema diplolister, Rhinella jimi, and Rhinella granulosa) from the Caatingas, a semiarid Brazilian region characterized by accentuated seasonality and unpredictability of rains. Data were collected during the reproductive period and during drought, when P. diplolister estivated buried underground but R. jimi and R. granulosa remained foraging actively. We expected higher parasitological parameters during the reproductive period when compared to drought for these 3 anurans. We also expected higher parasite infection in the Rhinella species and higher similarity between their helminth parasite communities when compared to the estivating species, P. diplolister. Contrary to our hypothesis, the season was not related to parasite community structure. As predicted, the Rhinella toads shared more similar species composition of parasite communities. These similarities in the composition of the parasite community between Rhinella species could be due to similar temporal/spatial patterns of activity and phylogenetic proximity. Pleurodema diplolister hosted a more restricted helminth fauna, a result that might be associated with estivation restricting the temporal window available to acquire parasites. This study also presents new helminth fauna records for R. jimi and P. diplolister, and the first helminth fauna record of R. granulosa from the Caatingas in semiarid Brazil.


Assuntos
Anuros/parasitologia , Helmintíase Animal/parasitologia , Animais , Anuros/fisiologia , Brasil/epidemiologia , Secas , Helmintíase Animal/epidemiologia , Masculino , Chuva , Reprodução , Estações do Ano
13.
Rev Bras Parasitol Vet ; 29(1): e012819, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32294719

RESUMO

Endoparasitic infections are associated with morbidity in cats. This study aimed to investigate the occurrence of endoparasites among cats of different life stages in the city of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. The samples were analyzed individually by macroscopic exploration for proglottids and centrifugal-flotation. Stool samples were obtained from household cats (n = 57) and shelter cats (n = 336). Endoparasites were detected in 50.64% of the samples. Among household and shelter cats, 21.05% and 55.66% were infected with endoparasites, respectively. In household cats, the most prevalent endoparasites were Ancylostoma spp. (in 25.0%) and Strongyloides spp. (in 25.0%), followed by Toxocara spp. (in 16.67%), Dipylidium caninum (in 16.67%), Cystoisospora spp. (in 8.33%), and Uncinaria spp. + Ancylostoma spp. (in 8.33%). In shelter cats, the most prevalent endoparasite was Ancylostoma spp. (in 29.41%), followed by Cystoisospora spp. (in 26.20%) and Toxocara spp. (in 16.58%), as well as Cystoisospora spp. + Toxocara spp. (in 8.02%); Ancylostoma spp. + Toxocara spp. (in 11.76%); Cystoisospora spp. + Ancylostoma spp. (in 3.74%); Cystoisospora spp. + Toxocara spp. + Ancylostoma spp. (in 3.21%); and Dipylidium caninum + Ancylostoma spp. (in 0.53%). Endoparasitic infections in cats underscore the need for preventive veterinary care and routine coproparasitologic tests.


Assuntos
Doenças do Gato/epidemiologia , Helmintíase Animal/epidemiologia , Infecções Protozoárias em Animais/epidemiologia , Animais , Brasil/epidemiologia , Doenças do Gato/diagnóstico , Doenças do Gato/parasitologia , Gatos , Fezes/parasitologia , Helmintíase Animal/diagnóstico , Helmintíase Animal/parasitologia , Prevalência , Infecções Protozoárias em Animais/diagnóstico , Infecções Protozoárias em Animais/parasitologia
14.
J Parasitol ; 106(2): 268-275, 2020 04 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32294758

RESUMO

Gambusia affinis (western mosquitofish) serves as a host for a variety of larval and adult parasites. Gambusia affinis is also an incipient matrotroph, exhibiting adjustments in post-fertilization provisioning to some offspring within a brood using recently acquired resources. Nutrient transfer to embryos is expected to limit the loss of embryo mass during development resulting in larger offspring. Since larger offspring are more likely to survive, maternal contributions are expected to increase fitness. The presence of parasites, particularly intestinal helminths, potentially reduces body condition and resources available for developing offspring, thereby reducing host fitness. The effects of parasitism on the fitness of G. affinis were investigated in the present study. Fish were collected from 3 sites monthly from June 2015 through August 2016. All helminth parasites were collected during necropsy and identified. Brood size and embryo developmental stage were recorded for each female fish. Additionally, 10 ova/embryos of each developmental stage from each female fish collected from May through August 2016 were haphazardly selected and individually weighed. From 429 female mosquitofish, 5,072 helminths were collected. Brood size varied among collection sites and was positively influenced by maternal body condition, the number of daylight hours, water temperature, and the intensity of both plerocercoid and adult Schyzocotyle acheilognathi. However, brood size was negatively related to the intensity of Neoechinorhynchus cylindratus cystacanth and an increasing number of days between collection and dissection. Embryo weight increased with the presence of either Camallanidae or Contracaecum multipapulatum, embryo developmental stage, and relative host density. These results indicate that some parasitic helminth species negatively affect the fitness of G. affinis, while some positively affect fitness, and that effect can vary with intensity.


Assuntos
Acantocéfalos/fisiologia , Ciprinodontiformes/parasitologia , Doenças dos Peixes/parasitologia , Helmintíase Animal/parasitologia , Animais , Infecções por Ascaridida/parasitologia , Infecções por Ascaridida/veterinária , Ascaridoidea/fisiologia , Ciprinodontiformes/embriologia , Ciprinodontiformes/fisiologia , Feminino , Modelos Lineares , Fígado/parasitologia , Fígado/patologia , Distribuição Normal , Fotoperíodo , Reprodução , Estações do Ano , Temperatura
15.
J Parasitol ; 106(3): 341-345, 2020 06 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32227228

RESUMO

Rodents are reservoirs and hosts of several pathogens around the world, including zoonotic parasite species. This study aimed to determine the occurrence of zoonotic gastrointestinal helminths in rodents captured inside households in a rural community from southern Guatemala. Sixty-nine rodents were captured in 33% (49/148) of the surveyed households, including Rattus rattus, Rattus norvegicus, Mus musculus, and Sigmodon hispidus. Thirty-six percent (25/69) of these rodents (3 Rattus and 22 Mus musculus), from 45% (22/49) of the households, were parasitized with at least 1 gastrointestinal helminth species. Helminths from 6 species were identified: Hymenolepis diminuta, Moniliformis moniliformis, Heterakis spumosa, Nippostrongylus sp., Strongyloides sp., and Syphacia sp. Two zoonotic species were found in Rattus, H. diminuta in R. rattus (1/6), and M. moniliformis in R. norvegicus (1/1). Coinfection with other non-zoonotic helminth parasites, such as He. spumosa and Strongyloides sp., also was observed in the Rattus genus. Mus musculus had only non-zoonotic helminths: He. spumosa, Nippostrongylus sp., and Syphacia sp. being the most common, and He. spumosa (96%) followed by Nippostrongylus sp. (48%), with a higher presence in males than females, with a similar proportion in adult and young individuals. This is the first report of zoonotic and non-zoonotic helminths parasites in rodents from Guatemala.


Assuntos
Helmintíase Animal/parasitologia , Camundongos/parasitologia , Ratos/parasitologia , Doenças dos Roedores/parasitologia , Zoonoses/parasitologia , Animais , Reservatórios de Doenças/parasitologia , Características da Família , Feminino , Guatemala/epidemiologia , Helmintíase Animal/epidemiologia , Humanos , Masculino , Doenças dos Roedores/epidemiologia , População Rural
16.
J Parasitol ; 106(2): 247-253, 2020 04 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32206794

RESUMO

In north-central Texas streams, seasonal changes in ambient temperature and rainfall result in dynamic variation in microhabitat structure, affecting the distribution and abundance of hosts. Since the complex life cycles of parasites require the presence and interaction of multiple hosts, the seasonal variations in microhabitats could influence parasite component communities within these ecosystems. Gambusia affinis (western mosquitofish) serves as a host for a variety of larval and adult parasites. Factors that affect helminth component communities in populations of mosquitofish from the Paluxy River were investigated in this study. Gambusia affinis individuals were collected from 3 sites monthly from June 2015 through August 2016. All helminth parasites were collected during necropsy and subsequently identified. From 495 mosquitofish, 5,283 helminths were collected. Component community diversity varied among collection sites and collection dates and was positively influenced by river flow. These results indicate that helminth assemblages infecting mosquitofish in the Paluxy River vary through time and space, as well as in response to environmental variation (i.e., changes in water flow).


Assuntos
Ciprinodontiformes/parasitologia , Doenças dos Peixes/parasitologia , Helmintíase Animal/parasitologia , Animais , Autopsia/veterinária , Biodiversidade , Ecossistema , Feminino , Helmintos/classificação , Helmintos/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Helmintos/isolamento & purificação , Intestinos/parasitologia , Modelos Lineares , Masculino , Modelos Biológicos , Distribuição Normal , Prevalência , Rios , Estações do Ano , Temperatura , Texas
17.
Ann Parasitol ; 66(1): 3-12, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32198990

RESUMO

Parasites are transferred between domestic and wild animals, when host animals come in contact with each other, particularly while grazing the same pastures, or when using same water bodies for drinking. Chances of parasite transmission and adaptation are high when hosts are genetically related. Afghan urial (Ovis vignei blanfordi), Suleiman markhor (Capra falconeri jerdoni) and Chiltan wild goat (C. aegagrus chialtanensis) are wild kin of domestic sheep and goats, sharing numerous parasitic diseases with each other. The present study was conducted in 2014­2015, to determine parasitic infections of Suleiman markhor and Afghan urial of Torghar Game Reserve, and the endemic wild goat of Chiltan National Park. For comparison, parasites of domestic small ruminants of these areas were also studied. A total of 11 species of helminth and 20 species of protozoa were recorded. Highly prevalent helminth among wild ruminants were Trichuris spp., Nematodirus spp., Protostrongylus rufescens and Moniezia benedeni, while highly prevalent Eimeria were E. arloingi and E. ninakohlyakimovae in caprines and E. ovinoidalis in urial. Chiltan wild goats were also found infected with Entamoeba spp. A short tabulated review of the helminth and protozoan parasites of wild sheep and goats of Pakistan, India, Iran and Turkey has been presented.


Assuntos
Doenças das Cabras , Cabras/parasitologia , Helmintíase Animal , Parasitos , Infecções Protozoárias em Animais , Animais , Eucariotos/classificação , Eucariotos/isolamento & purificação , Doenças das Cabras/parasitologia , Helmintíase Animal/parasitologia , Helmintos/classificação , Helmintos/isolamento & purificação , Índia , Irã (Geográfico) , Paquistão , Parasitos/classificação , Parasitos/isolamento & purificação , Infecções Protozoárias em Animais/parasitologia
18.
Ann Parasitol ; 66(1): 39­47, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32198994

RESUMO

The present study describes the helminth community collected from juveniles of Dermatonotus muelleri (Anura: Microhylidae) from the Chaco Seco Ecoregion. Helminths were found in 80.0% of specimens examined (n = 16). The helminth community of this microhylid presented very low species richness; a total of 1,339 specimens belonging four helminth species were found; three adult nematodes, Aplectana hylambatis, Cosmocerca podicipinus and Parapharyngodon sp., and an adult cestode, Ophiotaenia sp. Parasites were found in the large and small intestines. Maximum helminth richness was 2 species per infected frog. The nematode A. hylambatis presented the highest prevalence and was the most abundant (d = 0.97) indicating that it is the dominant species in the community (I = 63.0). Host snout-vent length did not influence the intensity of infection or the richness of helminth species at the community component level. Two species showed significant co-variation (A. hylambatis and Parapharyngodon sp.). The high prevalence of infection and number of parasites found for A. hylambatis could be related to the characteristics of their life cycles; the possession of the infective stage (L3) protected inside the egg membrane would have benefits against extreme drought in the area in which the study was conducted. The studies of helminths in the Chaco Seco Ecoregion, an area seriously threatened in terms of its biodiversity, are incipient. This is the second study that has been carried out to determine the structure of the parasite community in amphibians of this ecoregion.


Assuntos
Anuros , Biodiversidade , Helmintíase Animal , Helmintos , Nematoides , Animais , Anuros/parasitologia , Clima Desértico , Helmintíase Animal/epidemiologia , Helmintíase Animal/parasitologia , Helmintos/classificação , Nematoides/classificação , Prevalência , Estados Unidos
19.
Ann Parasitol ; 66(1): 101­106, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32199001

RESUMO

Gymnotiformes are currently recognized as electric fish, the vast majority of which emit low power electrical discharges. Clinostomum trematodes have been the subject of numerous investigations in several host species due to the ability of metacercariae of this genus to infect the muscles, fins and internal organs of fish. The present study aimed to record, for the first time, the occurrence of parasitism by Clinostomum marginatum in Gymnotiformes from the natural environments of two tributaries of the Amazon River in the Brazilian Amazon. Two specimens of Gymnotus coropinae, ten specimens of Brachyhypopomus brevirostris, two specimens of Gymnorhamphycthys petiti and one specimen of Microsternarchus bilineatus were captured. Infection with C. marginatum was identified in the form of 12 encysted metacercariae in the epidermis, with a prevalence of 0.1%, a mean infection intensity of 12/fish and an average abundance of 1.2. This is the first record of parasitism by the C. marginatum in South American Gymnotiformes of the B. brevirostris species.


Assuntos
Gimnotiformes , Helmintíase Animal , Trematódeos , Infecções por Trematódeos , Animais , Brasil/epidemiologia , Gimnotiformes/parasitologia , Helmintíase Animal/epidemiologia , Helmintíase Animal/parasitologia , Metacercárias/isolamento & purificação , Rios , Trematódeos/isolamento & purificação , Infecções por Trematódeos/epidemiologia , Infecções por Trematódeos/parasitologia
20.
Ann Parasitol ; 66(1): 115­118, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32199004

RESUMO

Three hundred and sixty fecal samples of stray dogs were collected between July and December 2018, from open grounds of Shendi city and two suburbs (Gulia and Musiab), River Nile State, Sudan, and were examined for helminthic infections. The results showed 43 (11.9%) of the samples were positive for at least one species of helminth. A total of four helminth species were identified, including two nematodes (Ancylostoma caninum and Trichuris vulpis) and two cestodes (Dipylidium caninum and Taenia spp.). Taenia spp. was found to be the most common helminth infection in stray dogs (6.7%) followed by D. caninum (3.1%), while the least was the nematode, A. caninum (0.8%). The prevalence of infection among stray dogs in the suburbs was found to be higher than those in the city; however, there was no statistical significance (P = 0.07). In conclusion, stray dogs in Shendi area were found to be harboring several important zoonotic helminthes such as A. caninum and Taenia spp.; this shows the necessity of stray dog population management in this area as they present a health risk to the community.


Assuntos
Doenças do Cão , Helmintíase Animal , Helmintos , Enteropatias Parasitárias , Animais , Doenças do Cão/epidemiologia , Doenças do Cão/parasitologia , Cães/parasitologia , Fezes/parasitologia , Helmintíase Animal/epidemiologia , Helmintíase Animal/parasitologia , Helmintos/isolamento & purificação , Enteropatias Parasitárias/epidemiologia , Enteropatias Parasitárias/veterinária , Prevalência , Sudão/epidemiologia
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