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1.
J Parasitol ; 106(1): 56-70, 2020 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31995719

RESUMO

Rhadinorhynchus hiansi Soota and Bhattacharya, 1981 , has remained unknown since its original incomplete description from 2 male specimens collected from the flat needlefish Ablennes hians Valenciennes (Belonidae) off Trivandrum, Kerala, India. Recent collections of fishes along the Pacific coast of Vietnam in 2016 and 2017 produced many specimens of the same species from the striped bonito Sarda orientalis Temminck and Schlegel (Scombridae) off the southern Pacific coast of Vietnam at Nha Trang. We describe females for the first time, assign a female allotype status, and provide an expanded description of males from a larger collection completing missing information on hooks and hook roots, receptacle, lemnisci, cement glands, Saefftigen's pouch, and trunk spines. Specimens of R. hiansi characteristically have no dorsal spines in the posterior field of trunk spines and a long proboscis with 36-48 dorso-ventrally differentiated proboscis hooks per row becoming progressively smaller posteriorly then increasing in size near the posterior end to a maximum at the posterior-most ring. Trunk, testes, and lemnisci in our specimens were considerably larger than those reported in the original description, but the proboscis was relatively smaller. The females had long reproductive system and corrugated elliptic eggs without polar prolongation of fertilization membrane. Energy Dispersive X-ray Analysis (EDXA) demonstrates high levels of calcium and phosphorus in large gallium cut hooks and high levels of sulfur in tip cuts of large and small hooks and in spines. This EDXA pattern is a characteristic fingerprint of R. hiansi. The molecular profile of R. hiansi is described from 18S rDNA and COI genes, and phylogenetic relationships with most closely related species are discussed.


Assuntos
Acantocéfalos/anatomia & histologia , Acantocéfalos/genética , Beloniformes/parasitologia , Doenças dos Peixes/parasitologia , Helmintíase Animal/parasitologia , Acantocéfalos/classificação , Acantocéfalos/ultraestrutura , Algoritmos , Animais , Teorema de Bayes , Feminino , Peixes , Gálio , Funções Verossimilhança , Masculino , Microscopia Eletrônica de Varredura/veterinária , Oceano Pacífico , Filogenia , Espectrometria por Raios X/veterinária , Vietnã
2.
J Helminthol ; 94: e102, 2019 Nov 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31679532

RESUMO

The production of tambaqui Colossoma macropomum has been undergoing financial losses due to parasitic infection by the acanthocephalan Neoechinorhynchus buttnerae, raising an alert for aquaculture in South America. The lack of adequate treatment and use of unlicensed chemicals encourages research for alternative solutions with minimal side effects. The objectives of this study were to evaluate the in vitro antiparasitic potential of commercial nutraceutical products (Natumix® and BioFish®) against N. buttnerae and to assess the respective in vivo toxic effects on the host tambaqui. For in vitro assays, parasitized fish were necropsied for acanthocephalans sampling. The parasites were exposed to three concentrations (0.078, 0.313 and 1.25 mg/ml) of each product, as well as controls (one without product and another with a solubilizer). For the in vivo acute toxicity test, juvenile fish (<0.1 g) were exposed to five increasing concentrations of each product. Mortality of tambaqui was recorded at 24, 48, 72 and 96 h. The estimated lethal concentration (LC) for 10, 50, 90 and 99% of fish was determined to classify the toxicity of the products on the target species. After in vitro efficacy tests, the highest concentrations (1.25 mg/ml) caused 100% mortality of the parasites in both products, but only Natumix® caused 100% mortality using the intermediate concentration (0.313 mg/ml) after 24 h. According to the acute toxicity result, the LC50 classified the nutraceutical products as slightly toxic for tambaqui. The tested products had a parasiticidal effect on N. buttnerae, and the toxicity test showed that both products have therapeutic potential when added to the diet.


Assuntos
Acantocéfalos/efeitos dos fármacos , Anti-Helmínticos/farmacologia , Caraciformes/parasitologia , Suplementos Nutricionais/análise , Doenças dos Peixes/parasitologia , Helmintíase Animal/parasitologia , Acantocéfalos/fisiologia , Animais , Anti-Helmínticos/análise , Anti-Helmínticos/toxicidade , Aquicultura , Caraciformes/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Doenças dos Peixes/tratamento farmacológico , Helmintíase Animal/tratamento farmacológico , Dose Letal Mediana , América do Sul
3.
Rev Bras Parasitol Vet ; 28(4): 533-547, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31691731

RESUMO

Fish immune systems have become the subject of several studies due to the growing development of aquaculture and fisheries, and the demand for healthy produce for human consumption. Among the parasites responsible for diseases in fish farming, helminths stand out because they cause infections in farmed fish and decrease food conversion, zootechnical performance and meat quality. In the present review, the components that participate in the innate and adaptive immune responses of teleost fish that have so far been described are presented in order to summarize the defenses that these hosts have recourse to, in combating different groups of helminth parasites.


Assuntos
Doenças dos Peixes/parasitologia , Peixes/parasitologia , Helmintíase Animal/imunologia , Interações Hospedeiro-Parasita/imunologia , Imunidade Humoral , Animais , Doenças dos Peixes/imunologia , Peixes/imunologia , Helmintíase Animal/parasitologia
4.
Ann Parasitol ; 65(3): 275-279, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31599555

RESUMO

Eighty nine rats, Arvicanthis niloticus, were collected from the horticultural fields of Shendi area in Sudan, between January and June 2018, and examined for the first time for helminth parasites. Thirty seven (41.6%) of the collected rats were infected, with an overall mean intensity of 4.4 helminths per a rat. A total of 6 helminth species were identified including three nematodes (Nippostrongylus brasiliensis, Monanema nilotica and Capillaria hepatica) and three cestodes (Hymenolepis diminuta, H. nana and Taenia taeniae formis). The most prevalent helminth was found to be the nematode, N. brasiliensis (21.3%), followed by the cestode, H. diminuta (10.1%), while the least was the nematode, C. hepatica (1.1%). Higher prevalence and intensity of infection were observed among older rats. Likewise, male rats were found to harbor a higher prevalence and intensity of infection. In conclusion, the rat, A. niloticus in Shendi area has found to be parasitized by various species of helminths, which some are of zoonotic importance, thus, any possible contact between this rat and humans or their pets may pose potential risk to public health.


Assuntos
Helmintíase Animal , Helmintos , Doenças dos Roedores , Animais , Helmintíase Animal/epidemiologia , Helmintíase Animal/parasitologia , Humanos , Masculino , Carga Parasitária , Ratos , Fatores de Risco , Doenças dos Roedores/parasitologia , Sudão/epidemiologia , Zoonoses/epidemiologia
5.
Prev Vet Med ; 172: 104788, 2019 Nov 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31627164

RESUMO

The contamination of public areas by dog faeces is a social behaviour and public health problem. In fact, the most frequently isolated intestinal helminths in dogs are distributed worldwide, and most of them have zoonotic potential (i.e., ascarids and ancylostomatids). The aims of this survey were to evaluate citizen awareness of health risks for animals and humans related to canine faecal pollution and to estimate the presence and prevalence of intestinal helminths in dog faeces collected in green public areas in three municipalities of Italy (Padua, Rome and Teramo). The awareness of citizens about the health risks related to faecal pollution was evaluated using questionnaires submitted to 313 dog owners and 159 non-dog owners in Padua (n = 341) and Rome (n = 131). Most dog owners (85.4%) declared they picked up their dog's faeces every time, and these data were confirmed by operators secretly observing dog owners. Moreover, 84.3% participants were aware of the existence of a municipal regulation concerning the correct management of animals in public areas with no significant differences between dog owners and non-dog owners, whereas Rome citizens were significantly more aware than Padua citizens. Nonetheless, only 10.9% (51/469) of responders knew the health risks related to canine faecal pollution, with no significant differences between dog and non-dog owners. A total of 677 dog stool samples were collected and copromicroscopically analysed. Forty-eight (7.1%) samples were positive for at least one parasite species, with significantly lower prevalence values in Padua (2.2%) than in Rome (11.9%) and Teramo (8.6%). The highest prevalence was detected for Trichuris vulpis (4.4%), followed by Toxocara canis (1.9%); T. vulpis presented significantly lower prevalence in Padua than in the other cities. Other helminths were found with values under 0.5% in the investigated cities. This survey shows that most citizens are unaware of the health risk related to abandoned canine faeces on public soils. Nevertheless, laboratory results suggest a limited risk for dog and human health, but the zoonotic risk due to the high vitality of infective helminths eggs in the soil should always be considered.


Assuntos
Doenças do Cão/epidemiologia , Fezes/parasitologia , Helmintíase Animal/epidemiologia , Helmintos/isolamento & purificação , Enteropatias Parasitárias/veterinária , Animais , Cidades , Doenças do Cão/parasitologia , Cães , Helmintíase Animal/parasitologia , Enteropatias Parasitárias/epidemiologia , Enteropatias Parasitárias/parasitologia , Itália/epidemiologia , Parques Recreativos , Percepção , Prevalência , Medição de Risco
6.
Parasitol Res ; 118(10): 2831-2841, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31473854

RESUMO

Corynosoma australe and C. cetaceum are the most frequently reported acanthocephalans in fish from the Argentine Sea, particularly in central and northern areas. Their definitive hosts are otariids and odontocete cetaceans, respectively. The low specificity of these larvae, in combination with high infective capability and long survival periods in fish, make them potentially good biological markers for stocks and other biological features of their fish hosts. In order to determine the distribution patterns of these species and their determining factors, a large dataset composed by newly collected fish samples, published and unpublished data from previous studies by the authors in the region were analysed in relation to host and environmental variables. The complete dataset comprised a total of 5084 fish, belonging to 29 species distributed in 21 families and 9 orders. Host size and trophic habits arose as the main determinants of abundance for both species of Corynosoma, showing higher abundances on larger fish and on higher trophic levels, as it is usual for trophically transmitted parasites. Biogeographic province and depth (indirectly representing the temperature of water) were the main drivers of the spatial distribution, displaying a latitudinal pattern associated to the temperature clines created by the interaction of Malvinas and Brazil currents, determining a decrease in abundance southwards and towards the deeper areas. No patterns were found regarding the distribution of definitive hosts. The knowledge of these distribution patterns of Corynosoma spp. in fish at regional scale, as well as of their causes, provides useful information to design management and conservation policies thus contributing to maintain the full and sustainable productivity of fisheries.


Assuntos
Acantocéfalos/isolamento & purificação , Doenças dos Peixes/parasitologia , Helmintíase Animal/parasitologia , Acantocéfalos/classificação , Acantocéfalos/genética , Acantocéfalos/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Animais , Oceano Atlântico , Brasil , Peixes/classificação , Peixes/parasitologia , Larva/classificação , Larva/genética , Larva/crescimento & desenvolvimento
7.
Rev Bras Parasitol Vet ; 28(4): 613-624, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31483034

RESUMO

Black-necked swans are distributed across South America and face conservation problems in Chile according to data of the State institution SAG. The aim of this study was to identify helminths and to assess associated tissue damage via histopathology. A total of 19,291 parasites were isolated from 21 examined birds; 17 species were identified, including nematodes, flukes, and tapeworms. Of these, 12 were new host records, 13 were reported for the first time in Chile, and 5 were new records for the Neotropical region. Further, the flukes Schistosomatidae gen. sp. and Echinostoma echinatum are of zoonotic concern. Regarding histopathology, an inflammatory response was found along the birds' entire digestive tract. Nevertheless, it is difficult to declare that there is a clear association between such lesions and isolated parasites, as other noxa could be responsible as well. Although in some cases there was an evident association, such inflammatory responses and necrosis were minimal, as occurred with Capillaria, Retinometra, Catatropis, Echinostoma, and Schistosomatidae gen. sp. Nevertheless, Epomidiostomum vogelsangi caused granulomatous injuries, an important inflammatory response, and necrosis, but it always circumscribed to superficial layers of the gizzard. Conversely, Paramonostomum was not associated with an inflammatory response despite a high parasitic load.


Assuntos
Anseriformes/parasitologia , Trato Gastrointestinal/parasitologia , Helmintíase Animal/parasitologia , Helmintos/isolamento & purificação , Animais , Chile/epidemiologia , Feminino , Helmintíase Animal/epidemiologia , Helmintíase Animal/patologia , Helmintos/classificação , Masculino
8.
J Helminthol ; 94: e88, 2019 Sep 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31537202

RESUMO

Free-ranging grey wolves (Canis lupus), which are presently recolonizing Italy, can be parasitized by a diversity of helminths, but have rarely been subject to studies of their parasites. Therefore, this study aims to determine the prevalence of gastrointestinal helminths of road-killed grey wolves from the Piedmont region of Italy. Forty-two wolves were collected and examined for the presence of helminths. We recorded 12 helminth species: nine Nematoda and three Cestoda. The nematodes were: Ancylostoma caninum (7.1%), Capillaria sp. (2.4%), Molineus sp. (2.4%), Pterygodermatites affinis (11.9%), Physaloptera sibirica (9.5%), Toxocara canis (9.5%), Toxascaris leonina (2.4%) and Uncinaria stenocephala (26.2%); the cestodes were: Dipylidium caninum (4.8%), Mesocestoides sp. (4.8%) and Taenia multiceps (76.2%). Physaloptera sibirica had the highest mean intensity and T. multiceps had the highest prevalence. Based on age and sex, no differences in the intensity or prevalence of helminth species were found among the hosts. Molineus sp. was recorded for the first time in wolves from the Palearctic region; P. affinis and P. sibirica are respectively reported for the first time in wolves from Europe and Italy.


Assuntos
Trato Gastrointestinal/parasitologia , Helmintíase Animal/parasitologia , Helmintos/isolamento & purificação , Enteropatias Parasitárias/veterinária , Lobos/parasitologia , Animais , Europa (Continente)/epidemiologia , Feminino , Helmintíase Animal/epidemiologia , Helmintos/classificação , Enteropatias Parasitárias/epidemiologia , Itália/epidemiologia , Masculino , Prevalência
9.
Parasitol Res ; 118(10): 2863-2875, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31399870

RESUMO

A fundamental aim of parasite ecology is to understand the mechanisms behind spatial variation in diversity and structure of parasite assemblages. To understand the contribution of individual parasite species and their assemblages to spatial variation in parasite communities, we examined species contributions to beta diversity (SCBD) and local contributions to beta diversity (LCBD) of parasitic gastrointestinal helminths (nematodes and cestodes) in two closely related rodents, Rhabdomys dilectus and Rhabdomys pumilio, from 20 localities across South Africa. Although the two Rhabdomys spp. are morphologically similar, they differ substantially in body size, habitat preference, and sociality. We asked whether the variation in life history traits and infection parameters are associated with SCBD of helminths and whether variation in environmental factors, host population density, and species richness of host communities are associated with LCBD of component assemblages of helminths. We also considered spatial factors to test whether LCBD of helminth assemblages demonstrate geographic structure. We found that the contribution of helminth species parasitic in both hosts to beta diversity significantly increased with characteristic prevalence of these species, whereas mean abundance, type of life cycle, and location in the host's gut had no effect on SCBD. The LCBD of helminth assemblages showed a significant positive correlation with environmental factors in both host species. Our results suggest that predictors of variation in SCBD and LCBD may substantially differ between parasites with different infection parameters and/or parasite communities at different hierarchical scales.


Assuntos
Cestoides/isolamento & purificação , Infecções por Cestoides/epidemiologia , Trato Gastrointestinal/parasitologia , Murinae/parasitologia , Nematoides/isolamento & purificação , Infecções por Nematoides/epidemiologia , Animais , Cestoides/classificação , Infecções por Cestoides/parasitologia , Infecções por Cestoides/veterinária , Ecologia , Ecossistema , Helmintíase Animal/epidemiologia , Helmintíase Animal/parasitologia , Especificidade de Hospedeiro , Estágios do Ciclo de Vida , Nematoides/classificação , Infecções por Nematoides/parasitologia , Infecções por Nematoides/veterinária , Densidade Demográfica , Prevalência , África do Sul/epidemiologia
10.
J Helminthol ; 94: e75, 2019 Aug 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31434582

RESUMO

Interspecific interactions between parasites sharing the same host are often antagonistic; the presence of one species decreases the number of individuals or negatively affects both the distribution and reproduction of the other species. Antagonistic interactions between co-infecting parasites may translate into direct competition or interactive segregation, but elements of both may be present. Potential interactions between two acanthocephalan species, Pomphorhynchus laevis and Acanthocephalus anguillae, were studied in the field in two of their natural fish definitive hosts. There was no evidence for competitive exclusion between P. laevis and A. anguillae. However, a negative interaction was found for the first time in the field between these two species. Based on the analysis of parasite abundance and total biomass using a static regression approach, I found that the abundance and total biomass of parasite was also limited by host characteristics. These results are consistent with previous laboratory studies on competition between P. laevis and A. anguillae.


Assuntos
Acantocéfalos/fisiologia , Cyprinidae/parasitologia , Doenças dos Peixes/parasitologia , Helmintíase Animal/parasitologia , Intestinos/parasitologia , Acantocéfalos/classificação , Animais , Biomassa , Interações Hospedeiro-Parasita
11.
Primates ; 60(6): 537-546, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31468227

RESUMO

This study examines gastrointestinal parasites in the endangered lion-tailed macaque, which is sympatric with the bonnet macaque that has relocated from nearby towns or agriculture landscapes dominated by humans and livestock. One hundred and ninety-four fresh fecal samples from lion-tailed macaques were collected from a group located at Chiksuli in the central Western Ghats. Of these, 48.5% had at least one endoparasite taxon. The prevalence of endoparasites varied from 0 to 75.0%, and observed endoparasite taxa varied between 0 and 10 across different months. The prevalence of endoparasites decreased with increasing rainfall and with increasing average maximum temperature across months. Of the 17 endoparasite taxa, 11 were nematodes, two were cestodes, and four were protozoans. The prevalence of Ascaris sp. and Entamoeba coli was higher than the other taxa. The overall load, helminth load, and protozoan load did not differ between months. The overall endoparasite load was greater in immature macaques in all seasons. Helminth load was higher in adult males, especially in the summer. Comparing our findings with those from sympatric relocated bonnet macaques of Chiksuli (Kumar et al. in PLoS ONE 13(11):e0207495, 2018) and lion-tailed macaques of Anamalai Hills (Hussain et al. in PLoS ONE 8(5):e63685, 2013) revealed: (a) a much higher prevalence of endoparasites in lion-tailed macaques from fragments of Anamalai Hills than in lion-tailed and bonnet macaques of Chiksuli; (b) higher richness of endoparasites in both macaque species of Chiksuli than in Anamalai lion-tailed macaques; and (c) more similar composition of endoparasite taxa between the Chiksuli lion-tailed and bonnet macaques than with the Anamalai Hills lion-tailed macaques. We suggest a complete cessation of relocation of commensal animals to the wild habitat. If relocation is necessary, then individuals to be relocated should be thoroughly screened and treated to prevent transferring endoparasite infections to wild populations.


Assuntos
Gastroenteropatias/veterinária , Macaca , Doenças dos Macacos/epidemiologia , Animais , Fezes/parasitologia , Feminino , Gastroenteropatias/epidemiologia , Gastroenteropatias/parasitologia , Helmintíase Animal/epidemiologia , Helmintíase Animal/parasitologia , Índia/epidemiologia , Masculino , Doenças dos Macacos/parasitologia , Prevalência , Infecções Protozoárias em Animais/epidemiologia , Infecções Protozoárias em Animais/parasitologia , Estações do Ano
12.
J Helminthol ; 94: e81, 2019 Aug 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31469060

RESUMO

Currently, descriptive information on the host range and geographic distribution of helminth parasites associated with naturally occurring rodents in South and southern Africa is scant. Therefore, we embarked on a countrywide study to: (1) identify gastrointestinal helminths and their host range, and (2) provide baseline data on the geographic distribution of helminths across the country. Altogether, 55 helminth taxa were recovered from at least 13 rodent species (n = 1030) at 26 localities across South Africa. The helminth taxa represented 25 genera (15 nematodes, nine cestodes and one acanthocephalan). Monoxenous nematodes were the most abundant and prevalent group, while the occurrence of heteroxenous nematodes and cestodes was generally lower. The study recorded several novel helminth-host associations. Single-host-species infections were common, although multiple-host-species infections by helminth species were also recorded. Monoxenous nematodes and some cestodes were recovered countrywide, whereas heteroxenous nematodes were restricted to the eastern regions of South Africa. The study highlights the as yet unexplored diversity of helminth species associated with naturally occurring rodent species and provides initial data on their geographical distribution in South Africa.


Assuntos
Biodiversidade , Cestoides/classificação , Especificidade de Hospedeiro , Nematoides/classificação , Roedores/parasitologia , Animais , Trato Gastrointestinal/parasitologia , Geografia , Helmintíase Animal/parasitologia , Interações Hospedeiro-Parasita , Infecções por Nematoides/epidemiologia , Prevalência , Doenças dos Roedores/parasitologia , Roedores/classificação , África do Sul
13.
Parasit Vectors ; 12(1): 330, 2019 Jul 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31266521

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Endoparasites are considered a major health problem of South American camelids as shown in a recent survey among German and Austrian camelid owners. Although prophylactic and therapeutic measures such as application of anthelmintics are commonly used, treatment efficacy is usually not assessed. Owners have expressed significant concerns regarding the effect of antiparasitic therapy, so this study aimed to evaluate the outcome of anthelmintic treatment in German alpaca herds with different drugs. RESULTS: Overall, 617 samples from 538 clinically healthy alpacas > 1 year-old from 27 farms (n = 11-157 animals/herd) were examined. The most common parasites detected by flotation were Eimeria spp. (75.1%) followed by strongylids (55.0%), Nematodirus spp. (19.3%), cestodes (3.1%) and Trichuris (2.7%). After initial coproscopical examination by flotation and strongylid egg quantification by the McMaster technique, positive animals excreting at least 150 eggs per gram of faeces were included in a faecal egg count reduction test (FECRT) using fenbendazole (n = 71 samples), moxidectin (n = 71) or monepantel (n = 66). Pre-treatment larval cultures (n = 23 positive pooled farm samples) revealed Haemonchus (87% of the farms), Cooperia (43.5%), Trichostrongylus (21.7%), Ostertagia (13.0%), Nematodirus and Oesophagostomum (4.3% each). Fenbendazole treatment reduced egg excretion by 45%, moxidectin by 91% and monepantel by 96%. On the farm level, 13/18 farms that used fenbendazole, 6/6 farms that used moxidectin and 2/5 farms that used monepantel had individual FECR values < 90% (fenbendazole) or < 95% (moxidectin, monepantel). Haemonchus and Cooperia were overrepresented on the farms with reduced treatment efficacy. CONCLUSIONS: Gastrointestinal strongylids are common in German alpacas and fenbendazole in particular was not sufficiently effective to reduce strongylid egg excretion. Although the FECRT could not unambiguously determine anthelmintic resistance in the present study, the finding that small ruminant strongylids, especially Haemonchus, are common in alpacas indicates that determination of effective anthelmintic doses, monitoring of efficacy and adapted (selective) treatment regimens must be implemented as part of sustainable deworming practices in this species in accordance with recommendations for ruminants.


Assuntos
Anti-Helmínticos/administração & dosagem , Camelídeos Americanos/parasitologia , Helmintíase Animal/prevenção & controle , Enteropatias Parasitárias/veterinária , Infecções por Strongylida/veterinária , Estrongilídios/efeitos dos fármacos , Aminoacetonitrila/administração & dosagem , Aminoacetonitrila/análogos & derivados , Animais , Fezes/parasitologia , Feminino , Fenbendazol/administração & dosagem , Haemonchus/efeitos dos fármacos , Helmintíase Animal/parasitologia , Enteropatias Parasitárias/parasitologia , Enteropatias Parasitárias/prevenção & controle , Macrolídeos/administração & dosagem , Masculino , Contagem de Ovos de Parasitas/veterinária , Infecções por Strongylida/parasitologia , Infecções por Strongylida/prevenção & controle
14.
Acta Parasitol ; 64(3): 587-595, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31286360

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Pachysentis comprises 10 species, which have been reported parasitizing mammals in Africa and the American continent. However, species of Pachysentis have not been described in brow-nosed coatis. Pachysentis lauroi n. sp. (Oligacanthorhynchidae: Acanthocephala) is described from the brown-nosed coati Nasua nasua (Linnaeus, 1766) Storr, 1780 (Procyonidae: Carnivora) in the Brazilian Pantanal wetlands of the Mato Grosso do Sul State, Brazil. METHODS: Specimens were studied using light and scanning electron microscopy. RESULT: The new species is distinguished from other species of Pachysentis by the number of hooks in each longitudinal row (12 rows of 4 hooks, total of 48 hooks), presence of barbs on all hooks, and the organization of the cement glands. Notes on the genus Pachysentis [14] and a key to its species are provided. Critical comments on some species with a dubious diagnosis and questionable or missed key taxonomic characteristics are also reviewed. We also discuss the zoogeography of the members of the genus.


Assuntos
Acantocéfalos/isolamento & purificação , Helmintíase Animal/parasitologia , Procyonidae/parasitologia , Acantocéfalos/classificação , Acantocéfalos/genética , Acantocéfalos/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Animais , Brasil , Feminino , Masculino
15.
Acta Parasitol ; 64(3): 528-543, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31270659

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Of the 43 valid species of Rhadinorhynchus Lühe, 1911, 20 species are now known from the Pacific Ocean off Australia, Japan, and Vietnam. We have already described over 50 species and higher taxa from the Pacific Ocean off Vietnam over the last 15 years. PURPOSE: The present research is a continuation of our efforts to taxonomically map new acanthocephalan taxa, especially from Vietnam. Some of our collections in 2016 and 2017 revealed the presence of new species of the genus Rhadinorhynchus from various species of marine fish off the Pacific coast of Vietnam. We provide descriptions of these new species here. METHODS: Standard methods of collection and examination of marine hosts, processing and illustrating of specimens, and taxonomic identification of parasites using the extensive collections of the lead author were used. Type specimens were deposited at the Harold W. Manter Lab. collection, Lincoln, Nebraska. RESULTS: Three species Rhadinorhynchus are described from marine fish off the Vietnamese coast. Rhadinorhynchus circumspinus n. sp. with fusiform trunk, 1 field of anterior trunk spines, and anteriorly globular proboscis with up to 21 dorsoventrally differentiated hooks in 17-18 rows is described from Triacanthus biaculeatus Bloch (Triacanthidae) off Hai Phong. Rhadinorhynchus pacificus n. sp. with cylidrical trunk and proboscis with up to 25 dorso-ventrally similar hooks in 14-18 rows and trunk spines in 2 fields of dorsal, ventral and lateral spines is described from Auxis thazard (Lacepède) and Auxis rochei (Lacepède) (Scombridae) off Nha Trang. Rhadinorhynchus multispinosus n. sp. with cylindrical trunk and proboscis with up to 32 dorso-ventrally differentiated hooks in 12 rows, and many trunk spines in 2 fields of dorsal, ventral and lateral spines is described from Decapterus maruadsi (Temminck and Schlegel) (Carangidae) also off Hai Phong. Rhadinorhynchus polynemi Smales, 2014 of Australia is not the Indian species (with smallest basal hooks) as the basal hooks are largest and is now named Rhadinorhynchus australis nom. nov. (=Rhadinorhynchus polynemi Smales, 2014). Rhadinorhynchus trivandricus George and Nadakal, 1978 with smallest basal hooks and 8 pyriform cement glands is relegated to genus Indorhynchus Golvan, 1969. CONCLUSIONS: With the description of these 3 new species, the numner of valid species of Rhadinorhynchus has now increased to 46. We include a new generic diagnosis to accommodate the increased knowledge of variability within this genus.


Assuntos
Acantocéfalos/isolamento & purificação , Doenças dos Peixes/parasitologia , Helmintíase Animal/parasitologia , Acantocéfalos/classificação , Acantocéfalos/genética , Acantocéfalos/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Animais , Feminino , Masculino , Oceano Pacífico , Perciformes/classificação , Perciformes/parasitologia , Água do Mar/parasitologia , Vietnã
16.
J Helminthol ; 94: e61, 2019 Jul 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31328706

RESUMO

A new species of the genus Plagiorhynchus Lühe, 1911 from the intestine of the long-billed curlew (Numenius americanus) from northern Mexico is described. Plagiorhynchus (Plagiorhynchus) aznari n. sp. is morphologically distinguished from other congeneric species from the Americas by having a trunk expanded anteriorly and a cylindrical proboscis, armed with 19 longitudinal rows of hooks, with 14-15 hooks each row. Nearly complete sequences of the small subunit and large subunit of the nuclear ribosomal DNA of the new species were determined and compared with available sequences from GenBank. Phylogenetic analyses inferred from the two molecular markers consistently showed that P. (Plagiorhynchus) aznari n. sp. is closely related to P. (Plagiorhynchus) allisonae, and this clade is sister to a clade formed by P. (Prosthorhynchus) transversus and P. (Prosthorhynchus) cylindraceus from Plagiorhynchidae. The new species represents the second record of the genus in Mexico and the fourth species in the Americas. The phylogenetic relationships among the members of the order Polymorphida in this study provide significant insights into the evolution of ecological associations between parasites and their definitive hosts. Our analyses suggest that the colonization of marine mammals, fish-eating birds and waterfowl in Polymorphidae might have occurred independently, from a common ancestor of Centrorhynchidae and Plagiorhynchidae that colonized terrestrial birds and mammals.


Assuntos
Acantocéfalos/anatomia & histologia , Acantocéfalos/classificação , Aves/parasitologia , Helmintíase Animal/parasitologia , Filogenia , Acantocéfalos/isolamento & purificação , Animais , DNA de Helmintos/genética , DNA Ribossômico/genética , Feminino , Intestinos/parasitologia , Masculino , México
17.
Vet Pathol ; 56(5): 794-798, 2019 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31170895

RESUMO

We identified multiple extraintestinal cystacanths during routine postmortem examination of 3 small Indian mongooses and 2 African green monkeys from the Caribbean island of St. Kitts. In mongooses, cystacanths were encysted or free in the subcutaneous tissue, skeletal muscle, or peritoneal or pericardial cavities, whereas in the monkeys, they were in the cavity and parietal layer of the, tunica vaginalis, skeletal muscle, and peritoneal cavity. Morphological, histological, and molecular characterization identified these cystacanths as Oncicola venezuelensis (Acanthocephala: Oligacanthorhynchidae). There was minimal to mild lymphoplasmacytic inflammation associated with the parasite in the mongooses and moderate inflammation, mineralization, hemorrhage, and fibrosis in the connective tissue between the testis and epididymis in 1 monkey. We identified a mature male O. venezuelensis attached in the aboral jejunum of a feral cat, confirming it as the definitive host. Termites serve as intermediate hosts and lizards as paratenic hosts. This report emphasizes the role of the small Indian mongoose and African green monkey as paratenic hosts for O. venezuelensis.


Assuntos
Acantocéfalos/isolamento & purificação , Helmintíase Animal/parasitologia , Herpestidae , Doenças dos Macacos/parasitologia , Animais , Helmintíase Animal/patologia , Doenças dos Macacos/epidemiologia , São Cristóvão e Névis/epidemiologia
18.
Acta Parasitol ; 64(3): 625-637, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31165986

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: This is the first worldwide systematic and quantitative study to count and identify helminth parasites from 100 blue and 44 fin whale fecal samples collected in the Gulf of California during winter (1993-2014). RESULTS: Blue and fin whale feces had similar prevalence of adult acanthocephalans (Bolbosoma sp.) in feces (18.2% and 14.6%, respectively), but blue whales had significantly higher helminth egg prevalence in feces (100%) and mean intensity (443 ± 318 eggs/g) compared to fin whales (61%, 252 ± 327 eggs/g). Diphyllobothrium sp. eggs were identified in blue whale feces and Diphyllobothridae, Ogmogaster sp. and Crassicauda sp. eggs were identified in fin whale feces. We tested the hypothesis that egg intensity in blue whale's feces varies as a function of age class, reproductive status, sex, preservation and sampling years using a Generalized Linear Model. This model explained 61% of the variance in the helminth egg intensity, but it was not significant. Eighteen blue whale individuals were resampled over time without significant difference between consecutive samples. CONCLUSIONS: Thus, all individual blue whales that migrate to the Gulf of California during winter are permanently parasitized with helminths, while the resident fin whales showed lower prevalence and intensity. This helminth load difference is likely due to their different diets duringsummer-fall, when blue whales feed on other krill species in the California Current System and fin whales shift to school fish prey types in the Gulf of California.


Assuntos
Fezes/parasitologia , Baleia Comum/parasitologia , Helmintíase Animal/parasitologia , Helmintos/isolamento & purificação , Migração Animal , Animais , Balaenoptera/parasitologia , Balaenoptera/fisiologia , Feminino , Baleia Comum/fisiologia , Helmintíase Animal/fisiopatologia , Helmintos/classificação , Helmintos/genética , Helmintos/fisiologia , Masculino , Reprodução , Estações do Ano
19.
Acta Parasitol ; 64(3): 464-470, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31165991

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Many parasites living in aquatic ecosystems are useful indicators of environmental health. On the other hand, information is scarcer with respect to the use of helminth parasites of vertebrates living in terrestrial ecosystems as monitoring tools for toxic element environmental pollution. The present study evaluates the suitability of the model Talpa occidentalis/Ityogonimus spp. as a bioindicator system for mercury (Hg), lead (Pb) and cadmium (Cd) contamination in agricultural soils from Asturias (Spain). METHODS: Kidney and liver samples collected from T. occidentalis specimens (n = 36) and Ityogonimus spp. samples collected from 14 infected hosts were analyzed by ICP-MS. RESULTS: The highest mean levels of Hg and Pb were found in Ityogonimus individuals (20.9 and 12.4 µg g-1 wet weight, respectively). Considering renal and hepatic concentrations in T. occidentalis, bioaccumulation factors of Ityogonimus for Hg were 83.7 and 58.6, respectively, whereas concerning Pb bioaccumulation factors were 38.2 and 82.9, respectively. No bioaccumulation was detected in Ityogonimus in the case of Cd. CONCLUSIONS: More studies involving digenean parasites of small mammals are needed, especially when biomonitoring environmental toxic element pollution in terrestrial ecosystems. The present results support the above-mentioned model as a suitable biomonitoring system to evaluate environmental Hg and Pb contamination in terrestrial non-urban Iberian habitats. Similar models involving other species (Talpa spp./Ityogonimus spp.) might be used in a much wider geographical range.


Assuntos
Cádmio/análise , Eutérios/parasitologia , Helmintíase Animal/metabolismo , Helmintos/química , Chumbo/análise , Mercúrio/análise , Animais , Cádmio/metabolismo , Ecossistema , Monitoramento Ambiental , Eutérios/metabolismo , Helmintíase Animal/parasitologia , Helmintos/metabolismo , Rim/química , Rim/metabolismo , Chumbo/metabolismo , Fígado/química , Fígado/metabolismo , Mercúrio/metabolismo , Solo/parasitologia
20.
Onderstepoort J Vet Res ; 86(1): e1-e8, 2019 Apr 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31038321

RESUMO

Pigs are kept by farmers as a source of livelihood and food. Unfortunately, helminthiasis and other internal parasites are major setbacks to profitable pig production in Africa. There is a lack of information on the prevalence and intensity of gastrointestinal helminths and parasites plaguing resource-poor pig farmers in the Free State. Knowledge of these endemic parasites can be used as baseline data to help design future intervention plans. The aim of this study was to identify and quantify the types of gastrointestinal helminths and parasites prevalent in smallholder pigs reared in the central Free State Province. Faecal samples were randomly collected from 77 pigs and parasitologically analysed. Quantification was done using the McMaster counting technique. Farming system, age, gender and health status were the risk factors considered. The study was conducted between January and March 2016. Overall, results showed that 61 samples (79.2%) tested positive for one or more gastrointestinal parasites, which were observed as single or mixed infections. Amongst the positive samples, 44.5% were infected with Ascaris suum, 50.6% with Trichuris suis, 26.0% and 72.7% were infected with Oesophagostomum dentatum and coccidia, respectively. There were significant differences (p < 0.05) between the rate of infection in the intensive and semi-intensive systems and between the dewormed and non-dewormed pigs. Piglets and female pigs recorded a higher prevalence in their categories. Pigs excreted mostly low (eggs per gram [EPG] ≤ 100) to moderate (EPG > 100 < 500) levels of helminth eggs. It is concluded that different species of gastrointestinal parasites are present in most pigs reared by smallholder farmers in this study area.


Assuntos
Criação de Animais Domésticos , Helmintíase Animal/epidemiologia , Enteropatias Parasitárias/veterinária , Doenças dos Suínos/epidemiologia , Animais , Demografia , Fezes/parasitologia , Feminino , Helmintíase Animal/parasitologia , Enteropatias Parasitárias/epidemiologia , Enteropatias Parasitárias/parasitologia , Masculino , Contagem de Ovos de Parasitas/veterinária , Prevalência , Fatores de Risco , África do Sul/epidemiologia , Suínos , Doenças dos Suínos/parasitologia
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