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1.
Lancet Glob Health ; 9(3): e301-e308, 2021 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33607029

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Soil-transmitted helminths and Giardia duodenalis are responsible for a large burden of disease globally. In low-resource settings, household finished floors (eg, concrete floors) might reduce transmission of soil-transmitted helminths and G duodenalis. METHODS: In a prospective cohort of children nested within two randomised trials in rural Bangladesh and Kenya, we estimated associations between household finished flooring and soil-transmitted helminths and G duodenalis prevalence. In 2015-16, we collected stool samples from children aged 2-16 years in rural Bangladesh and Kenya. We detected soil-transmitted helminth infection using quantitative PCR (qPCR; Bangladesh n=2800; Kenya n=3094), and G duodenalis using qPCR in Bangladesh (n=6894) and ELISA in Kenya (n=8899). We estimated adjusted prevalence ratios (aPRs) using log-linear models adjusted for potential confounders. FINDINGS: 7187 (92·2%) of 7795 children in Bangladesh and 9077 (93·7%) of 9686 children in Kenya provided stool specimens that were analysed by qPCR. At enrolment, 691 (10%) households in Bangladesh and 471 (5%) households in Kenya had finished floors. In both countries, household finished flooring was associated with lower Ascaris lumbricoides prevalence (Bangladesh aPR 0·33, 95% CI 0·14-0·78; Kenya 0·62, 0·39-0·98) and any soil-transmitted helminths (Bangladesh 0·73, 0·52-1·01; Kenya 0·57, 0·37-0·88). Household finished floors were also associated with lower Necator americanus prevalence in Bangladesh (0·52, 0·29-0·94) and G duodenalis prevalence in both countries (Bangladesh 0·78, 0·64-0·95; Kenya 0·82, 0·70-0·97). INTERPRETATION: In low-resource settings, living in households with finished floors over a 2-year period was associated with lower prevalence of G duodenalis and some soil-transmitted helminths in children. FUNDING: Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation and Task Force for Global Health.


Assuntos
Pisos e Cobertura de Pisos/métodos , Giardíase/epidemiologia , Helmintíase/epidemiologia , População Rural , Adolescente , Bangladesh/epidemiologia , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Países em Desenvolvimento , Ensaio de Imunoadsorção Enzimática , Fezes/parasitologia , Feminino , Giardíase/transmissão , Helmintíase/transmissão , Habitação , Humanos , Quênia/epidemiologia , Masculino , Prevalência , Estudos Prospectivos , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase em Tempo Real , Solo/parasitologia
2.
BMC Infect Dis ; 21(1): 20, 2021 Jan 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33413119

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Globally, urogenital and intestinal parasitosis remain significant health challenges. They are associated with rising morbidity, death, and many harmful outcomes. A little is known concerning parasitosis and type 2 diabetes mellitus. Our study planned to investigate the urogenital and intestinal parasitic infections among type 2 diabetes patients compare to non-diabetic (Control) individuals and examine the intensity of helminthiasis in both groups. METHODS: At Kosti Teaching Hospital (Sudan), 300 Urine and 300 stool samples have collected from 150 type 2 diabetes and 150 control individuals, along with the socio-demographic data using a structured questionnaire. The parasitic infections were examined by direct sedimentation technique for urine specimens. Whereas, for fecal samples, simple-direct saline, formal-ether concentration, Kato-Katz, and modified Ziehl-Neelsen techniques were used. RESULTS: Out of 150 type 2 diabetes patients studied, 31 (20.6%) and 14 (9.3%) had intestinal parasitosis and urogenital schistosomiasis, respectively. Whereas, 16 (10.6%) and 8 (5.3%) of the control group were infected, respectively. Compared to the control group, the odds of testing positive for either urogenital schistosomiasis (AOR: 2.548, 95% CI: 0.836-7.761, P = 0.100) or intestinal parasitic diseases (AOR: 2.099, 95% CI: 0.973-4.531, P = 0.059) were greater in diabetic individuals. Likewise, the intensities of helminthiasis were much higher in the diabetic patients and positively correlated with the duration of illness. The rate of urogenital schistosomiasis was also significantly different among the disease duration subcategories. CONCLUSIONS: Our study has highlighted the relationship of type 2 diabetes with urogenital and intestinal parasitic infections and enhanced our knowledge about the frequency of particular urogenital and intestinal parasites as well as the intensity of helminths infection in type 2 diabetes compared to non-diabetic individuals, which are important for further studies.


Assuntos
Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/parasitologia , Helmintíase/epidemiologia , Enteropatias Parasitárias/epidemiologia , Enteropatias Parasitárias/parasitologia , Esquistossomose Urinária/epidemiologia , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/complicações , Fezes/parasitologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Prevalência , População Rural , Sudão/epidemiologia , Adulto Jovem
3.
Lancet Glob Health ; 9(1): e52-e60, 2021 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33338459

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Driven by global targets to eliminate soil-transmitted helminths as a public health problem, governments have rapidly rolled out control programmes using school and community-based platforms. To justify and target ongoing investment, quantification of impact and identification of remaining high-risk areas are needed. We aimed to assess regional progress towards these targets. METHODS: We did a continental-scale ecological analysis using a Bayesian space-time hierarchical model to estimate the effects of known environmental, socioeconomic, and control-related factors on the prevalence of soil-transmitted helminths, and we mapped the probability that implementation units had achieved moderate-to-heavy intensity infection prevalence of less than 2% among children aged 5-14 years between Jan 1, 2000, and Dec 31, 2018. FINDINGS: We incorporated data from 26 304 georeferenced surveys, spanning 3096 (60%) of the 5183 programmatic implementation units. Our findings suggest a reduction in the prevalence of soil-transmitted helminths in children aged 5-14 years in sub-Saharan Africa, from 44% in 2000 to 13% in 2018, driven by sustained delivery of preventive chemotherapy, improved sanitation, and economic development. Nevertheless, 1301 (25%) of 5183 implementation units still had an estimated prevalence of moderate-to-heavy intensity infection exceeding the 2% target threshold in 2018, largely concentrated in nine countries (in 1026 [79%] of 1301 implementation units): Nigeria, Democratic Republic of the Congo, Ethiopia, Cameroon, Angola, Mozambique, Madagascar, Equatorial Guinea, and Gabon. INTERPRETATION: Our estimates highlight the areas to target and strengthen interventions, and the areas where data gaps remain. If elimination of soil-transmitted helminths as a public health problem is to be achieved in sub-Saharan Africa by 2030, continued investment in treatment and prevention activities are essential to ensure that no areas are left behind. FUNDING: Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation.


Assuntos
Helmintíase/epidemiologia , Solo/parasitologia , Análise Espacial , Adolescente , África ao Sul do Saara/epidemiologia , Animais , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Feminino , Helmintos , Humanos , Masculino , Prevalência , Índice de Gravidade de Doença
4.
Trans R Soc Trop Med Hyg ; 115(3): 253-260, 2021 03 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33313897

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: On 1 April 2020, the WHO recommended an interruption of all activities for the control of neglected tropical diseases, including soil-transmitted helminths (STH), in response to the COVID-19 pandemic. This paper investigates the impact of this disruption on the progress towards the WHO 2030 target for STH. METHODS: We used two stochastic individual-based models to simulate the impact of missing one or more preventive chemotherapy (PC) rounds in different endemicity settings. We also investigated the extent to which this impact can be lessened by mitigation strategies, such as semiannual or community-wide PC. RESULTS: Both models show that without a mitigation strategy, control programmes will catch up by 2030, assuming that coverage is maintained. The catch-up time can be up to 4.5 y after the start of the interruption. Mitigation strategies may reduce this time by up to 2 y and increase the probability of achieving the 2030 target. CONCLUSIONS: Although a PC interruption will only temporarily impact the progress towards the WHO 2030 target, programmes are encouraged to restart as soon as possible to minimise the impact on morbidity. The implementation of suitable mitigation strategies can turn the interruption into an opportunity to accelerate progress towards reaching the target.


Assuntos
Anti-Helmínticos/uso terapêutico , Helmintíase/prevenção & controle , Helmintíase/transmissão , Solo/parasitologia , Animais , Helmintíase/epidemiologia , Humanos , Modelos Teóricos , Doenças Negligenciadas/epidemiologia , Doenças Negligenciadas/prevenção & controle , Pandemias , Organização Mundial da Saúde
5.
PLoS Negl Trop Dis ; 14(12): e0008938, 2020 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33326420

RESUMO

Soil-transmitted helminths (STH) are endemic and widespread across Sub-Saharan Africa. A community wide soil-transmitted helminth (STH) prevalence survey was performed on the island of Bubaque in Guinea-Bissau using both Kato-katz microscopy and qPCR methodology. Predictors of infection and morbidity indicators were identified using multivariable logistic regression, and diagnostic methods were compared using k statistics. Among 396 participants, prevalence of STH by microscopy was 23.2%, hookworm was the only species identified by this method and the mean infection intensity was 312 eggs per gram. qPCR analysis revealed an overall prevalence of any STH infection of 47.3%, with the majority A. duodenale (32.3%), followed by N. americanus (15.01%) and S. stercoralis (13.2%). A. lumbricoides, and T. trichiura infections were negligible, with a prevalence of 0.25% each. Agreement between diagnostic tests was k = 0.22, interpreted as fair agreement, and infection intensity measured by both methods was only minimally correlated (Rs = -0.03). STH infection overall was more common in females and adults aged 31-40. STH infection was associated with open defaecation, low socio-economic status and further distance to a water-source. The prevalence of anaemia (defined as a binary outcome by the WHO standards for age and sex) was 69.1%, and 44.2% of children were malnourished according to WHO child growth standards. Hookworm infection intensity by faecal egg count showed no statistically significant association with age (Rs 0.06) but S. Stercoralis infection intensity by qPCR cycle threshold was higher in pre-school aged children (Rs = 0.30, p-value 0.03) There was no statistically significant association between STH infection and anaemia (OR 1.0 p = 0.8), stunting (OR 1.9, p-value 0.5) and wasting (OR 2.0, p-value 0.2) in children. This study reveals a persistent reservoir of STH infection across the community, with high rates of anaemia and malnutrition, despite high-coverage of mebendazole mass-drug administration in pre-school children. This reflects the need for a new strategy to soil-transmitted helminth control, to reduce infections and ultimately eliminate transmission.


Assuntos
Antinematódeos/uso terapêutico , Helmintíase/epidemiologia , Helmintos/isolamento & purificação , Mebendazol/uso terapêutico , Solo/parasitologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Animais , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Guiné-Bissau/epidemiologia , Helmintíase/parasitologia , Helmintíase/prevenção & controle , Humanos , Lactente , Masculino , Administração Massiva de Medicamentos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Prevalência , Fatores de Risco , Adulto Jovem
6.
Lancet Glob Health ; 8(11): e1418-e1426, 2020 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33069302

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Few studies have been done of patterns of treatment during mass drug administration (MDA) to control neglected tropical diseases. We used routinely collected individual-level treatment records that had been collated for the Tuangamize Minyoo Kenya Imarisha Afya (Swahili for Eradicate Worms in Kenya for Better Health [TUMIKIA]) trial, done in coastal Kenya from 2015 to 2017. In this analysis we estimate the extent of and factors associated with the same individuals not being treated over multiple rounds of MDA, which we term systematic non-treatment. METHODS: We linked the baseline population of the TUMIKIA trial randomly assigned to receive biannual community-wide MDA for soil-transmitted helminthiasis to longitudinal records on receipt of treatment in any of the four treatment rounds of the study. We fitted logistic regression models to estimate the association of non-treatment in a given round with non-treatment in the previous round, controlling for identified predictors of non-treatment. We also used multinomial logistic regression to identify factors associated with part or no treatment versus complete treatment. FINDINGS: 36 327 participants were included in our analysis: 16 236 children aged 2-14 years and 20 091 adults aged 15 years or older. The odds of having no treatment recorded was higher if a participant was not treated during the previous round of MDA (adjusted odds ratio [OR] 3·60, 95% CI 3·08-4·20 for children and 5·58, 5·01-6·21 for adults). For children, school attendance and rural residence reduced the odds of receiving part or no treatment, whereas odds were increased by least poor socioeconomic status and living in an urban or periurban household. Women had higher odds than men of receiving part or no treatment. However, when those with pregnancy or childbirth in the previous 2 weeks were excluded, women became more likely to receive complete treatment. Adults aged 20-25 years were the age group with the highest odds of receiving part (OR 1·41, 95% CI 1·22-1·63) or no treatment (OR 1·81, 95% CI 1·53-2·14). INTERPRETATION: Non-treatment was associated with specific sociodemographic groups and characteristics and did not occcur at random. This finding has important implications for MDA programme effectiveness, the relevance of which will intensify as disease prevalence decreases and infections become increasingly clustered. FUNDING: Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation, Joint Global Health Trials Scheme of the Medical Research Council, UK Department for International Development, Wellcome Trust, Children's Investment Fund Foundation, and London Centre for Neglected Tropical Diseases.


Assuntos
Helmintíase/prevenção & controle , Administração Massiva de Medicamentos/estatística & dados numéricos , Solo/parasitologia , Suspensão de Tratamento/estatística & dados numéricos , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Feminino , Helmintíase/epidemiologia , Helmintíase/transmissão , Humanos , Quênia/epidemiologia , Estudos Longitudinais , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Avaliação de Programas e Projetos de Saúde , Fatores Socioeconômicos , Adulto Jovem
7.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33027397

RESUMO

Poverty, malnutrition and neglected tropical diseases such as soil-transmitted helminthiases (STHs) interact in a multi-causal feedback network. This study aimed to assess the relationships between STHs, income and nutritional status of children in impoverished communities in the city of Caxias, Maranhao State, Northeastern Brazil. A cross-sectional survey (n=259 children) was carried out with the collection of fecal samples and assessment of sociodemographic, anthropometric, dietary and sanitation data. Hookworm infection and ascariasis presented prevalence rates of 14.3% and 9.3%, respectively. The logistic regression analysis showed that hookworm infection was more frequent in males (odds ratio [OR]=3.43; 95% confidence interval [CI]=1.45-8.08), children aged 11-15 years old (OR=3.72; 95% CI=1.19-11.62), children living in poor families (OR=2.44; 95% CI=1.04-5.68) and those living in rented houses (OR=5.74; 95%CI=1.91-17.25). Concerning ascariasis, living in the Caldeiroes community (OR=0.01; 95%CI=0-0.17) and belonging to the 11-15 years age group (OR=0.21; 95%CI=0.04-1.02) were protection factors. Poor children have a significantly lower frequency of consumption of meat, milk, vegetables, tubers and fruits than not poor children. The frequent consumption of meat, milk and tubers was associated with significant higher values in the parameter height-for-age, whereas the consumption of meat and milk positively influenced the weight-for-age. The frequencies of stunting, underweight and wasting were 8.1%, 4.9% and 2.9%, respectively. The multivariate model demonstrated that stunting was significantly associated with economic poverty (OR=2.82; 95%CI=1.03-7.70) and low weight was associated with male sex (OR=6.43; 95% CI=1.35-30.68). In conclusion, the study describes the interactions between the dimensions of development represented by income, STHs and nutritional status revealing the importance of raising income levels to improve the living conditions of families in impoverished communities in Northeastern Brazil.


Assuntos
Helmintíase/epidemiologia , Desnutrição/epidemiologia , Pobreza , Solo/parasitologia , Adolescente , Animais , Brasil/epidemiologia , Criança , Cidades , Estudos Transversais , Humanos , Masculino
8.
PLoS Negl Trop Dis ; 14(9): e0008625, 2020 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32956390

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Efforts to control soil-transmitted helminth (STH) infections have intensified over the past decade. Field-survey data on STH prevalence, infection intensity and drug efficacy is necessary to guide the implementation of control programs and should be of the best possible quality. METHODOLOGY: During four clinical trials designed to evaluate the efficacy of albendazole against STHs in Brazil, Ethiopia, Lao PDR and Tanzania, quality control (QC) was performed on the duplicate Kato-Katz thick smears and the data entry. We analyzed datasets following QC on both fecal egg counts (FECs) and data entry, and compared the prevalence of any STH infection and moderate-to-heavy intensity (MHI) infections and the drug efficacy against STH infections. RESULTS: Across the four study sites, a total of 450 out of 4,830 (9.3%) Kato-Katz thick smears were re-examined. Discrepancies in FECs varied from ~3% (hookworms) to ~6.5% (Ascaris lumbricoides and Trichuris trichiura). The difference in STH prevalence and prevalence of MHI infections using the datasets with and without QC of the FECs did not exceed 0.3%, except for hookworm infections in Tanzania, where we noted a 2.2 percentage point increase in MHI infections (pre-QC: 1.6% vs. post-QC: 3.8%). There was a 100% agreement in the classification of drug efficacy of albendazole against STH between the two datasets. In total, 201 of the 28,980 (0.65%) data entries that were made to digitize the FECs were different between both data-entry clerks. Nevertheless, the overall prevalence of STH, the prevalence of MHI infections and the classification of drug efficacy remained largely unaffected. CONCLUSION/SIGNIFICANCE: In these trials, where staff was informed that QC would take place, minimal changes in study outcomes were reported following QC on FECs or data entry. Nevertheless, imposing QC did reduce the number of errors. Therefore, application of QC together with proper training of the personnel and the availability of clear standard operating procedures is expected to support higher data quality.


Assuntos
Albendazol/uso terapêutico , Helmintíase/tratamento farmacológico , Controle de Qualidade , Ancylostomatoidea , Animais , Ascaris , Brasil/epidemiologia , Ensaios Clínicos como Assunto , Etiópia/epidemiologia , Fezes/parasitologia , Guias como Assunto , Helmintíase/epidemiologia , Helmintíase/transmissão , Infecções por Uncinaria/tratamento farmacológico , Infecções por Uncinaria/epidemiologia , Humanos , Laos/epidemiologia , Contagem de Ovos de Parasitas , Prevalência , Solo/parasitologia , Tanzânia/epidemiologia , Trichuris
9.
PLoS Negl Trop Dis ; 14(9): e0008511, 2020 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32976499

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Soil-transmitted helminthiasis (STH) is endemic in Fiji but its prevalence is not known and likely to have changed after a decade of mass drug administration (MDA) for lymphatic filariasis (LF). By linking with LF transmission assessment surveys (LF-TAS), we undertook the first nation-wide assessment of STH in Fijian primary schools, as well as an analysis of factors associated with STH infections. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: A cross-sectional assessment for STH was conducted in all four Divisions of Fiji from 2014 to 2015. In the Western, Central, and Northern Divisions, schools were sub-sampled after LF-TAS, while, in the Eastern Division, schools were selected via simple random sampling. For the diagnosis of STH, stool samples were examined by coproscopy with a single Kato-Katz thick smear (KK) and the formol-ether-acetate concentration technique, except for the samples from the Eastern Division where only KK was used. Mean prevalence of any STH among class 1-2 students at the national level was 10.5% (95% CI: 6.9-15.5). Across the three Divisions via LF-TAS, the prevalence levels for ascariasis were 8.7% (95% CI: 4.3-16.6), hookworm 3.9% (95% CI: 2.3-6.6) and trichuriasis 0%. In the Eastern Division, ascariasis prevalence was 13.3% (95% CI: 6.4-25.6), and hookworm 0.7% (95% CI: 0.2-2.5), with one case of trichuriasis. Among class 3-8 students, ascariasis prevalence was lower. Lower risk of any STH was associated with wearing shoes (adjusted OR 0.54, 95% CI: 0.32-0.90) and having piped water from the Fiji Water Authority at home (adjusted OR 0.48, 95% CI: 0.25-0.92). CONCLUSIONS: After a decade of community-based LF-MDA, STH in school-age children in Fiji is now close to 10%, but localities of endemicity remain. Preventive chemotherapy should be maintained in areas with elevated STH prevalence alongside targeted delivery of integrated WASH interventions. LF-TAS has provided an opportunity to develop future public health surveillance platforms.


Assuntos
Ascaríase/epidemiologia , Infecções por Uncinaria/epidemiologia , Tricuríase/epidemiologia , Adolescente , Ancylostomatoidea/isolamento & purificação , Animais , Ascaris/isolamento & purificação , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Estudos Transversais , Filariose Linfática/epidemiologia , Feminino , Fiji/epidemiologia , Helmintíase/epidemiologia , Humanos , Masculino , Contagem de Ovos de Parasitas , Prevalência , Sapatos , Estudantes , Inquéritos e Questionários , Trichuris/isolamento & purificação , Abastecimento de Água
10.
PLoS One ; 15(9): e0239557, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32970747

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Soil-transmitted helminths (STH) remain one of the most common causes of morbidity among children in Ethiopia. Assessment of the magnitude of STH and its association with water, sanitation, and hygiene (WASH) and identify barriers for school-level prevention assist public health planners to prioritize promotion strategies and is a basic step for intervention. However, there is a lack of evidence on the prevalence of STH and its association with WASH and barriers for school-level prevention among schoolchildren. OBJECTIVE: To assess the prevalence of STH and its association with WASH and identify barriers for school level prevention in technology village of Hawassa University; 2019. METHODS: An institution-based analytical cross-sectional study was conducted on a sample of 1080 schoolchildren from September 5 to October 15, 2019. A two-stage cluster and purposive sampling technique were used to draw the study participants. A pretested, structured questionnaire, observation checklist, and in-depth interview were used to collect the data. Two grams of stool samples were collected from each study participant and examined using direct wet mount and Kato-Katz technique. Data were entered into Epi Info version 7 and analyzed using SPSS version 25. Both bi-variable and multivariable logistic regression analyses were done. Qualitative data were analyzed using thematic content analysis method by Atlas-Ti software and presented in narratives. RESULTS: The overall prevalence of STHs was 23.1% (95% CI = 21.4, 27.6). The identified predictors of STHs were large family size (AOR = 2.03; 95% CI = 1.53-3.99), absence of separate toilet room for male and female (AOR = 3.33; 95% CI = 1.91-5.79), toilet not easy to clean (AOR = 2.17; 95% CI = 1.44-3.33), inadequate knowledge about STHs (AOR = 2.08; 95% CI = 1.07-3.44) and children who had travelled greater than 100 meters to access toilet (AOR = 3.45; 95% CI = 2.24-8.92). These results were supported by the individual, institutional, socio-economic and cultural qualitative results. CONCLUSION: The STHs was moderate public health concerns. Reinforcing the existing fragile water, sanitation and hygiene programs and regular deworming of schoolchildren may support to reduce the burden of STHs. Also, increasing modern family planning methods utilization to decrease family size is recommended.


Assuntos
Helmintíase/epidemiologia , Helmintíase/transmissão , Helmintos/patogenicidade , Adolescente , Animais , Criança , Estudos Transversais , Etiópia/epidemiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Higiene , Masculino , Prevalência , Saúde Pública , Saneamento , Serviços de Saúde Escolar , Instituições Acadêmicas/estatística & dados numéricos , Solo/parasitologia , Água/parasitologia
11.
Parasitol Res ; 119(10): 3451-3457, 2020 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32869168

RESUMO

Anemia and intestinal helminth infections are overlapping health problems in developing countries. This study examined the determinants of intestinal helminth infection and anemia in a human population in Harbu Town, northeastern Ethiopia. A total of 484 individuals provided stool and blood samples as well as information about their sociodemographic characteristics and living practices in a community-based cross-sectional survey conducted between May and June, 2013. Stool specimens were examined for intestinal helminth infections using the Kato-Katz method. While a HemoCue machine was used to measure blood hemoglobin levels, a CareStartTM malaria Pf/Pv combo test was used to test the blood specimens for Plasmodium infection. Out of 484 individuals examined, 15.5% were anemic and 32.0% were infected with intestinal helminths. Plasmodium infection was not detected in any of the study participants. Schistosoma mansoni infection was most common (26.7%) followed by Hymenolepis nana (4.1%). The prevalence of S. mansoni and H. nana infection was greater among school-age children than in pre-school-age children and adults. The prevalence of helminth infection decreased with an increase in monthly income (P = 0.048) and varied among different occupations (P = 0.023). The odds of anemia increased with an increase in the age of individuals (adjusted odds ratio = 1.03, 95% CI = 1.01, 1.06). Hookworm infection was associated with anemia (P = 0.029). In conclusion, intestinal helminth infections and anemia were public health problems among the community of Harbu Town. Increasing age and hookworm infection may increase susceptibility to anemia. Controlling helminth infection may help to reduce the burden of anemia in Harbu Town, Ethiopia.


Assuntos
Anemia/epidemiologia , Anemia/parasitologia , Helmintíase/epidemiologia , Helmintíase/parasitologia , Helmintos/isolamento & purificação , Enteropatias Parasitárias/epidemiologia , Enteropatias Parasitárias/parasitologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Fatores Etários , Idoso , Animais , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Cidades/epidemiologia , Estudos Transversais , Etiópia/epidemiologia , Fezes/parasitologia , Feminino , Helmintos/classificação , Hemoglobinas/análise , Humanos , Lactente , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Prevalência , Fatores Socioeconômicos , Adulto Jovem
12.
Korean J Parasitol ; 58(4): 387-392, 2020 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32871632

RESUMO

A serological survey was performed using ELISA to estimate the prevalence of tissue and luminal helminthic infections among hospital patients in Hanoi region, Vietnam. An overall seroprevalence of tissue and luminal helminthiases was 64.0% (95% CI 61.2-66.8) among 1,120 patients who visited Hanoi Medical University Hospital, Vietnam in 2018. The highest seroprevalence was observed against Toxocara spp. (59.0%), followed by Strongyloides stercoralis (46.3%), Gnathostoma spp. (25.5%), cysticercus (12.8%), Angiostrongylus cantonensis (10.5%), Fasciola spp. (11.1%), and Clonorchis sinensis (8.7%). Mono-infection by one species (11.1%) was lower than multiple infections (53.0%) (P<0.05). The seroprevalence in males (59.3%) was lower than in females (66.2%) but not statistically significant (P>0.05). Children (<15 years) revealed lower seroprevalence (34.0%) than adults (68.4%), and the age group 51-70 years revealed the highest seroprevalence (76.0%). Among the seropositive patients, eosinophilia (≥8.0%) was noted in 80.2%. The present results suggested active transmission of various tissue and luminal helminths among people in Hanoi, Vietnam.


Assuntos
Helmintíase/epidemiologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Fatores Etários , Idoso , Animais , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Ensaio de Imunoadsorção Enzimática , Feminino , Helmintíase/transmissão , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Prevalência , Estudos Soroepidemiológicos , Fatores Sexuais , Strongyloides stercoralis , Toxocara , Vietnã/epidemiologia , Adulto Jovem
13.
Korean J Parasitol ; 58(4): 431-443, 2020 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32871637

RESUMO

Echinostoma mekongi n. sp. (Digenea: Echinostomatidae) is described based on adult flukes collected from humans residing along the Mekong River in Cambodia. Total 256 flukes were collected from the diarrheic stool of 6 echinostome egg positive villagers in Kratie and Takeo Province after praziquantel treatment and purging. Adults of the new species were 9.0-13.1 (av. 11.3) mm in length and 1.3-2.5 (1.9) mm in maximum width and characterized by having a head collar armed with 37 collar spines (dorsal spines arranged in 2 alternative rows), including 5 end group spines. The eggs in feces and worm uterus were 98-132 (117) µm long and 62-90 (75) µm wide. These morphological features closely resembled those of Echinostoma revolutum, E. miyagawai, and several other 37-collar-spined Echinostoma species. However, sequencing of the nuclear ITS (ITS1-5.8S rRNA-ITS2) and 2 mitochondrial genes, cox1 and </>nad1, revealed unique features distinct from E. revolutum and also from other 37-collar-spined Echinostoma group available in GenBank (E. bolschewense, E. caproni, E. cinetorchis, E. deserticum, E. miyagawai, E. nasincovae, E. novaezealandense, E. paraensei, E. paraulum, E. robustum, E. trivolvis, and Echinostoma sp. IG). Thus, we assigned our flukes as a new species, E. mekongi. The new species revealed marked variation in the morphology of testes (globular or lobulated), and smaller head collar, collar spines, oral and ventral suckers, and cirrus sac compared to E. revolutum and E. miyagawai. Epidemiological studies regarding the geographical distribution and its life history, including the source of human infections, remain to be performed.


Assuntos
Echinostoma/anatomia & histologia , Echinostoma/isolamento & purificação , Helmintíase/epidemiologia , Helmintíase/parasitologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Animais , Camboja/epidemiologia , Criança , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Contagem de Ovos de Parasitas , Adulto Jovem
14.
PLoS One ; 15(7): e0236924, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32735608

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Soil-transmitted helminth (STH) infections have many negative health outcomes (e.g., diarrhea, nutritional deficiencies) that can also exacerbate poverty. These infections are generally highest among low-income populations, many of which are also undergoing market integration (MI; increased participation in a market-based economy). Yet the direct impact of MI-related social and environmental changes on STH infection patterns is poorly understood, making it unclear which lifestyle factors should be targeted to better control disease spread. This cross-sectional study examines if household infrastructure associated with greater MI is associated with lower STH burdens among Indigenous Ecuadorian Shuar. METHODS: Kato-Katz fecal smears were used to determine STH infection status and intensity (n = 620 participants; 308 females, 312 males, aged 6 months-86 years); Ascaris lumbricoides (ascarid) and Trichuris trichiura (whipworm) were the primary infection types detected. Structured interviews assessing lifestyle patterns (e.g., measures of household infrastructure) measured participant MI. Multilevel regression analyses and zero-inflated negative binomial regression models tested associations between MI measures and STH infection status or intensity, controlling for individual and community characteristics. RESULTS: Participants residing in more market-integrated households exhibited lower infection rates and intensities than those in less market integrated households. Parasite infection status and T. trichiura infection intensity were lower among participants living in houses with wood floors than those with dirt floors, while individuals using well or piped water from a spring exhibited lower A. lumbricoides infection intensities compared to those using river or stream water. Unexpectedly, latrine type was not significantly related to STH infection status or intensity. These results suggest that sources of exposure differ between the two helminth species. CONCLUSIONS: This study documents associations between household measures and STH infection among an Indigenous population undergoing rapid MI. These findings can help healthcare programs better target interventions and reduce STH exposure among at-risk populations.


Assuntos
Fezes/parasitologia , Helmintíase , Pobreza/estatística & dados numéricos , Solo/parasitologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Animais , Ascaríase/epidemiologia , Ascaríase/transmissão , Ascaris lumbricoides/isolamento & purificação , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Estudos Transversais , Equador/epidemiologia , Características da Família , Feminino , Helmintíase/epidemiologia , Helmintíase/transmissão , Humanos , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Grupos Populacionais/estatística & dados numéricos , Prevalência , Fatores de Risco , Saneamento/estatística & dados numéricos , Inquéritos e Questionários , Toaletes/estatística & dados numéricos , Tricuríase/epidemiologia , Tricuríase/transmissão , Trichuris/isolamento & purificação , Adulto Jovem
15.
PLoS Negl Trop Dis ; 14(8): e0008600, 2020 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32853225

RESUMO

Helminth infections are among the World Health Organization's top neglected diseases with significant impact in many Less Economically Developed Countries. Despite no longer being endemic in Europe, the widespread presence of helminth eggs in archaeological deposits indicates that helminths represented a considerable burden in past European populations. Prevalence of infection is a key epidemiological feature that would influence the elimination of endemic intestinal helminths, for example, low prevalence rates may have made it easier to eliminate these infections in Europe without the use of modern anthelminthic drugs. To determine historical prevalence rates we analysed 589 grave samples from 7 European sites dated between 680 and 1700 CE, identifying two soil transmitted nematodes (Ascaris spp. and Trichuris trichiura) at all locations, and two food derived cestodes (Diphyllobothrium latum and Taenia spp.) at 4 sites. The rates of nematode infection in the medieval populations (1.5 to 25.6% for T. trichiura; 9.3-42.9% for Ascaris spp.) were comparable to those reported within modern endemically infected populations. There was some evidence of higher levels of nematode infection in younger individuals but not at all sites. The genetic diversity of T. trichiura ITS-1 in single graves was variable but much lower than with communal medieval latrine deposits. The prevalence of food derived cestodes was much lower (1.0-9.9%) than the prevalence of nematodes. Interestingly, sites that contained Taenia spp. eggs also contained D. latum which may reflect local culinary practices. These data demonstrate the importance of helminth infections in Medieval Europe and provide a baseline for studies on the epidemiology of infection in historical and modern contexts. Since the prevalence of medieval STH infections mirror those in modern endemic countries the factors affecting STH decline in Europe may also inform modern intervention campaigns.


Assuntos
Helmintíase/epidemiologia , Intestinos/parasitologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Animais , Anti-Helmínticos/uso terapêutico , Ascaríase/epidemiologia , Ascaríase/transmissão , Ascaris , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Europa (Continente)/epidemiologia , Feminino , Variação Genética , Helmintíase/tratamento farmacológico , Helmintíase/transmissão , Helmintos/genética , Humanos , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Doenças Negligenciadas/epidemiologia , Nematoides , Prevalência , Solo/parasitologia , Toaletes , Tricuríase/epidemiologia , Tricuríase/transmissão , Trichuris , Adulto Jovem
16.
Niger Postgrad Med J ; 27(3): 184-189, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32687117

RESUMO

Background: The need to generate a robust epidemiological data on the neglected tropical diseases is imperative, in order to encourage access to formal care, drive public policies and ensure the allocation of resources by policy-makers. Objectives: The objective of this study was to determine the prevalence of soil-transmitted helminthiasis (STH) and its association with nutritional variables among primary school pupils living in urban slums in a South-Eastern sub-Saharan African city of Enugu, Nigeria. Methods: The stool samples of school-aged children living in urban slums were analyzed for ova of the helminths using the Kato-Katz methods, whereas the nutritional assessment (weight and height) was obtained and analyzed to indicate acute or chronic malnutrition. Degrees of helminthic load were then classified. The socioeconomic status was determined while the prevalence of STH and the relationship between it and the nutritional stratus was assessed to ascertain any significance between being malnourished and having STH as this will inform policy decisions. Results: There were a total of 371 analyzed stool samples from 228 females (61.5%) and 143 males (38.5%), with 285 (76.8%) from the lowest socioeconomic class. The prevalence of STH was 18.1%, while that of acute and chronic malnutrition were 3.3% and 7.5%, respectively. The intensity of infestation was, however, light, with the highest mean egg intensity of 74.4 ± 32.8 documented for ascariasis. There was no statistically significant association between the presence of STH and various indices of acute and chronic malnutrition (P > 0.05). Conclusion: STHs prevalence is high among children living in urban slums. Nutritional status was, however, not adversely affected by helminthic infestation.


Assuntos
Fezes/microbiologia , Helmintíase/epidemiologia , Enteropatias Parasitárias/epidemiologia , Doenças Negligenciadas/epidemiologia , Áreas de Pobreza , Solo/parasitologia , Animais , Criança , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Helmintíase/diagnóstico , Humanos , Enteropatias Parasitárias/parasitologia , Masculino , Doenças Negligenciadas/microbiologia , Nigéria/epidemiologia , Estado Nutricional , Prevalência , Classe Social , População Urbana
17.
Parasitol Res ; 119(8): 2383-2397, 2020 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32607706

RESUMO

Although black (Rattus rattus) and brown (Rattus norvegicus) rats are among the most widespread synanthropic wild rodents, there is a surprising scarcity of knowledge about their ecology in the urban ecosystem. In particular, relatively few studies have investigated their helminth species diversity in such habitat. We followed the PRISMA (Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analysis) guideline to synthesize the existing published literature regarding the helminth fauna of urban rats in developed countries (North America, Europe, Australia, New Zealand and Japan). We aimed at describing the species diversity and richness of urban rat helminths, the species prevalence and associations, the methods of investigation, the pathological changes observed in the hosts, the risk factors of infection and the public health significance of rat-borne helminthiases. Twenty-three scientific papers published between 1946 and 2019 were reviewed, half of them were conducted in Europe. Twenty-five helminth species and eight genera were described from the liver, digestive tract, lungs and muscles of urban rats. The most commonly reported parasite was Calodium hepaticum. Prevalence and risk factors of helminth infection in urban rats varied greatly between studies. Observed pathological findings in the rat host were generally minor, except for C. hepaticum. Several rat helminths can parasitize humans and are therefore of public health significance. The lack of references to identification keys and the rare use of molecular tools for species confirmation represent the main limitation of these studies. Knowledge gap on this topic and the needs for future research are discussed.


Assuntos
Pesquisa/tendências , Doenças dos Roedores/parasitologia , Animais , Países Desenvolvidos/estatística & dados numéricos , Helmintíase/epidemiologia , Helmintíase/parasitologia , Humanos , Prevalência , Saúde Pública/estatística & dados numéricos , Ratos , Fatores de Risco , Doenças dos Roedores/epidemiologia
18.
PLoS Negl Trop Dis ; 14(7): e0007613, 2020 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32678821

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: This study aims to establish the prevalence of soil-transmitted helminth (STH) intestinal infections, nutritional status, and anemia in school children aged 7 to 10 years old in the biogeographic provinces of Colombia in 2012-2013. STH prevalence in the country has not been described within the last 30 years and it is needed in order to establish policies its control in the country. METHODOLOGY: National Survey of STH in school-aged children with a multistage stratified probability sampling was conducted. The overall prevalence and intensity of STH infection, as well as for each parasite, (A. lumbricoides, T. trichiura and hookworms) were calculated for the country and for each of the nine biogeographic provinces. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Stool samples were collected from 6045 children in eight out of nine biogeographic provinces. The combined prevalence of STH in the country was 29.6%. T. trichiura was the most prevalent helminth (18.4%), followed by A. lumbricoides (11.3%), and hookworms (6.4%). For A. lumbricoides and hookworms, the highest prevalence values were found in the Amazonía province (58.0% and 35.7%, respectively). Regarding STH intensity, most cases showed moderate intensity (41.3%) for A. lumbricoides, and light intensity, for T. trichiura and hookworms. The national prevalence of anemia in school-aged children was 14.2%, lowest in the Nor-Andina province (3.5%), and highest in the Territorios Insulares oceánicos del Caribe province (45.1%). SIGNIFICANCE: Colombia has a moderate risk of STH infection in school-aged populations, with considerable variation in the prevalence values among the biogeographic provinces. Like any public health issue, this problem should be handled with a comprehensive approach that involves deworming programs and strategies for STH control according to the specific epidemiological and socioeconomic conditions and sanitation service coverage in each biogeographic province. The program should be further supported by intersectoral action to improve living conditions, particularly the excreta disposal, promoted at municipality levels.


Assuntos
Helmintíase/parasitologia , Helmintíase/transmissão , Helmintos/isolamento & purificação , Solo/parasitologia , Animais , Criança , Colômbia/epidemiologia , Estudos Transversais , Fezes/parasitologia , Feminino , Helmintíase/epidemiologia , Helmintos/classificação , Helmintos/genética , Humanos , Masculino , Prevalência , Instituições Acadêmicas/estatística & dados numéricos
19.
PLoS Negl Trop Dis ; 14(6): e0008388, 2020 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32569278

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The World Health Organization recommends that schistosomiasis be treated through Mass Drug Administration (MDA). In line with this recommendation, Zimbabwe commenced a national helminth control program in 2012 targeting schoolchildren throughout the country for 6 years. This study, part of a larger investigation of the impact of helminth treatment on the overall health of the children, determined the effect of annual praziquantel treatment on schistosome infection and morbidity in a cohort of children during Zimbabwe's 6-year national helminth control program. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: A school-based longitudinal study was carried out in 35 sentinel sites across Zimbabwe from September 2012 to November 2017. The sentinel sites were selected following a countrywide survey conducted in 280 primary schools. Schistosoma haematobium was diagnosed using the urine filtration technique. Schistosoma mansoni was diagnosed using both the Kato-Katz and formol-ether concentration techniques. S. haematobium morbidity was determined through detection of macro and microhaematuria. A cohort of children aged 6-15 years old was surveyed annually before MDA and 6 weeks post treatment. Maximum treatment coverage reached 90% over the 6 rounds of MDA. At baseline S. haematobium infection prevalence and intensity were 31.7% (95% CI = 31.1-32.2) and 28.75 eggs/10ml urine (SEM = 0.81) respectively, while S. mansoni prevalence and intensity were 4.6% (95% CI = 4.4-4.8) and 0.28 eggs/25mg (SEM = 0.02). Prior to the 6th round of MDA, S. haematobium infection prevalence had reduced to 1.56% (p<0.001) and infection intensity to 0.07 (SEM 0.02). Six weeks later after the 6th MDA, both were 0. Similarly the prevalence of S. haematobium morbidity as indicated by haematuria also fell significantly from 32.3% (95% CI = 29.9-34.6) to 0% (p< 0.0001) prior to the final MDA. For S.mansoni, both prevalence and intensity had decreased to 0 prior to the 6th MDA. After 6 rounds of annual MDA, prevalence and intensity of both schistosome species decreased significantly to 0% (p< 0.0001). CONCLUSION: Zimbabwe's helminth control program significantly reduced schistosome infection intensity and prevalence and urogenital schistosomiasis morbidity prevalence in a cohort of school-aged children, moving the schistosome prevalence in the children from moderate to low by WHO classification. These findings will inform the design of the country's next stage interventions for helminth control and eventual elimination.


Assuntos
Helmintíase/tratamento farmacológico , Administração Massiva de Medicamentos/métodos , Praziquantel/uso terapêutico , Infecções por Trematódeos/tratamento farmacológico , Adolescente , Animais , Criança , Estudos de Coortes , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Helmintíase/diagnóstico , Helmintíase/epidemiologia , Helmintos/isolamento & purificação , Hematúria , Humanos , Estudos Longitudinais , Masculino , Morbidade , Prevalência , Schistosoma haematobium , Schistosoma mansoni , Schistosomatidae/isolamento & purificação , Esquistossomose Urinária/tratamento farmacológico , Instituições Acadêmicas , Inquéritos e Questionários , Infecções por Trematódeos/diagnóstico , Infecções por Trematódeos/epidemiologia , Zimbábue/epidemiologia
20.
PLoS Negl Trop Dis ; 14(6): e0008322, 2020 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32574160

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The World Health Organization now recommends semiannual mass drug administration (MDA) of albendazole with integrated vector management as an option for eliminating lymphatic filariasis (LF) in areas of loiasis-endemic countries where it may not be safe to use diethylcarbamazine or ivermectin in MDA programs. However, the published evidence base to support this policy is thin, and uptake by national programs has been slow. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We conducted a community trial to assess the impact of semiannual MDA on lymphatic filariasis and soil-transmitted helminth infections (STH) in two villages in the Bandundu province of the Democratic Republic of the Congo with moderately high prevalences for LF and hookworm infections. MDA with albendazole was provided every six months from June 2014 to December 2017 with treatment coverages of the eligible population (all ≥ 2 year of age) that ranged between 56% and 88%. No adverse effects were reported during the trial. Evaluation at 48 months, (i.e. 6 months after the 8th round of MDA), showed that W. bancrofti microfilaremia (Mf) prevalence in the study communities had decreased between 2014 to 2018 from 12% to 0.9% (p<0.001). The prevalence of W. bancrofti antigenemia was also significantly reduced from 31.6% to 8.5% (p<0.001). MDA with albendazole also reduced hookworm, Ascaris lumbricoides and Trichuris trichiura infection prevalences in the community from 58.6% to 21.2% (p<0.001), from 14.0% to 1.6% and 4.1% to 2.9%, respectively. Hookworm and Ascaris infection intensities were reduced by 93% (p = 0.02) and 57% (p = 0.03), respectively. In contrast, Trichuris infection intensity was not significantly reduced by MDA (p = 0.61) over this time period. CONCLUSION/SIGNIFICANCE: These results provide strong evidence that semiannual MDA with albendazole alone is a safe and effective strategy for LF elimination in Central Africa. Community MDA also had a major impact on STH infections.


Assuntos
Albendazol/uso terapêutico , Anti-Helmínticos/uso terapêutico , Filariose Linfática/tratamento farmacológico , Helmintíase/tratamento farmacológico , Adolescente , Adulto , Animais , Antígenos de Helmintos/imunologia , Ascaríase/tratamento farmacológico , Ascaríase/epidemiologia , Ascaris lumbricoides/efeitos dos fármacos , Ascaris lumbricoides/isolamento & purificação , Criança , República Democrática do Congo/epidemiologia , Filariose Linfática/epidemiologia , Feminino , Helmintíase/epidemiologia , Helmintíase/parasitologia , Infecções por Uncinaria/tratamento farmacológico , Infecções por Uncinaria/epidemiologia , Humanos , Masculino , Solo/parasitologia , Tricuríase/epidemiologia , Trichuris/efeitos dos fármacos , Trichuris/isolamento & purificação , Wuchereria bancrofti/efeitos dos fármacos , Wuchereria bancrofti/isolamento & purificação , Adulto Jovem
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