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1.
Adv Exp Med Biol ; 1232: 263-269, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31893419

RESUMO

Ahematological and morphological investigation was made of the effects of pulsed magnetic field (PMF) stimulus on oxidized erythrocyte membrane using the smear method and spectroscopic measurement. Tert-butyl hydroperoxide (tBHP) was used for oxidative stress, and verapamil was used as reduction agent on red blood cells (RBCs). Our PMF stimulator system was designed to generate a maximum intensity of 0.27 T at a transition time of 0.102 ms. The morphology of oxidized RBCs, and oxidative stressed RBCs after treatment with a reducing agent were observed before and after PMF. Light absorbance of hemoglobin (Hb) was measured in the membrane as well as plasma, through hemolysis of RBCs. Absorbance for a sample exposed to PMF before the oxidation treatment was lower than that for a sample not exposed to PMF in the plasma. This means that PMF plays a role in preventing hemolysis of erythrocyte membrane from oxidative stress. Our results were confirmed using an osmotic fragility test. Hemolysis in the case of PMF treatment is 28% lower than that of non-PMF treatment. As a result, PMF stimulus is proposed to achieve an improvement of RBCs aggregation and prevent RBCs from oxidative stress, and could be used in various clinical fields related to peripheral vascular diseases. For further clinical application, we need to optimize PMF intensity and stimulated duration.


Assuntos
Eritrócitos , Hemólise , Campos Magnéticos , Estresse Oxidativo , Membrana Eritrocítica , Eritrócitos/patologia , Eritrócitos/efeitos da radiação , Hemólise/efeitos da radiação , Humanos , Campos Magnéticos/efeitos adversos
2.
Arch Insect Biochem Physiol ; 103(1): e21623, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31579962

RESUMO

Cytolytic activity against invading microorganisms is one of the innate forms of immunity in invertebrates. A serine protease-associated sialic acid-specific cytolytic lectin was purified using glutaraldehyde-fixed ox erythrocytes from the larval extract of blowfly (Chrysomya megacephala). The purified lectin lysed vertebrate erythrocytes with effective haemolysis of ox red blood cells (RBCs) in an isotonic medium. The degree of haemolytic (HL) activity of the purified cytolytic lectin depended on its concentration, pH, temperature, and calcium ions. It was sensitive to ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid. The native molecular mass of the C-type lectin was 260 ± 26 kDa, comprising four different polypeptide subunits of 75 kDa (pI ~8), 69 kDa (pI ~7.0), 61 kDa (pI ~5.3), and 55 kDa (pI ~4.6). The association between the C-type lectin and serine protease was confirmed by MALDI-TOF-MS analysis that revealed its homology in the same spectral peak as well as the proteases and phenylmethylsulphonyl fluoride inhibition of HL activity. Haemolysis inhibition by N-acetylneuraminic acid and other sugars revealed the properties of the lectin. The purified lectin distorted the integrity of ox RBCs and Paenalcaligenes hermetiae. This in vitro study documents the presence of a cytolytic system in blowfly (C. megacephala) larvae for the clearance of invading microbial pathogens in their feeding niche.


Assuntos
Lectinas/química , Alcaligenaceae/efeitos dos fármacos , Animais , Bovinos , Dípteros/química , Hemólise , Proteínas de Insetos/química , Larva/química , Lectinas/farmacologia , Lectinas Tipo C/química , Serina Proteases/química
3.
J Photochem Photobiol B ; 201: 111683, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31710928

RESUMO

In recent years dendrimers have fascinated the investigators towards targeted drug delivery because of their versatile framework and exhibit immense potentiality in entrapping drug moieties through host-guest interactions and serve as a promising vector in biological applications. The current investigation is focused on developing pegylated citric acid cefotaxime dendrimers through the divergent method and its characterization through spectroscopic, microscopic, thermal and microscopic techniques. Among the spectroscopic techniques, 1H NMR and 13C NMR elucidated the key functional groups at various chemical shifts while ESI-MS pointed out the molecular weight of cefotaxime sodium in various generations. Similarly, FTIR, DSC, and AFM investigations detailed that the generations are devoid of incompatibilities, structural deformities and can be opted for targeted drug delivery. The drug entrapment studies and in-vitro drug release studies highlight CFTX G5 containing 92.4% entrapment efficacy and 83.8% drug release in 48 h and specifies a sustain release characteristics. In connection to the above, the in-vivo studies reveal a potent antibacterial activity against various gram-positive and gram-negative microorganisms with a decreased hemolysis and cytotoxicity effects and reflect a high margin of safety regarding pegylated CFTX dendrimers. Further, the antibacterial activities are supported through confocal microscopy that clarified the cellular uptake of dendritic molecules and their internalization.


Assuntos
Cefotaxima/química , Ácido Cítrico/química , Dendrímeros/química , Nanoestruturas/química , Células A549 , Antibacterianos/química , Antibacterianos/metabolismo , Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Cefotaxima/metabolismo , Cefotaxima/farmacologia , Sobrevivência Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Portadores de Fármacos/química , Liberação Controlada de Fármacos , Bactérias Gram-Negativas/efeitos dos fármacos , Bactérias Gram-Positivas/efeitos dos fármacos , Meia-Vida , Hemólise/efeitos dos fármacos , Humanos , Testes de Sensibilidade Microbiana , Nanoestruturas/toxicidade , Polietilenoglicóis/química
4.
J Photochem Photobiol B ; 200: 111645, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31671371

RESUMO

Antimicrobial peptide W3R6 was derived from chensinin-1b and showed potential as a novel antibiotics. However, W3R6 was susceptible to protease cleavage, which limited its therapeutic application. To improve the proteolytic resistance of W3R6, D-amino acids were incorporated into its sequence by specific amino acid substitution or whole sequence substitution according to the specificity of the cleavage site. In this study, partially substituted analog D-Arg-W3R6 and completely substituted D-enantiomer D-W3R6 were synthesized. The resistance of D-Arg-W3R6 and D-W3R6 to cleavage by the tested protease increased, particularly of D-W3R6. The antimicrobial activity of D-Arg-W3R6 was almost the same as that of the parent peptide W3R6, but the antimicrobial activity of D-W3R6 was slightly decreased. The hemolytic activity of both D-Arg-W3R6 and D-W3R6 was negligible. The CD spectrum of D-W3R6 exhibited symmetry with that of W3R6 in a membrane-mimetic environment. The membrane interaction between the D-amino acid substituted analogs and a real/mimic bacterial cell membrane was examined. The outer membrane depolarization, inner membrane permeability and dye leakage in three types of liposomes treated with D-Arg-W3R6 and D-W3R6 were not obviously different from W3R6, which could be due to the similar physical and chemical properties. In addition, these three peptides showed the binding ability with LPS micelles detected by ITC, and their ability to disrupt the LPS micelles was examined by DLS experiment and even neutralize the surface negative charge of E. coli cells. These results suggest that D-Arg-W3R6 is a promising antibiotic molecule.


Assuntos
Aminoácidos/química , Anti-Infecciosos/química , Peptídeos Catiônicos Antimicrobianos/química , Anti-Infecciosos/síntese química , Anti-Infecciosos/farmacologia , Peptídeos Catiônicos Antimicrobianos/síntese química , Peptídeos Catiônicos Antimicrobianos/farmacologia , Parede Celular/química , Parede Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Parede Celular/metabolismo , Eritrócitos/citologia , Eritrócitos/efeitos dos fármacos , Eritrócitos/metabolismo , Bactérias Gram-Negativas/efeitos dos fármacos , Bactérias Gram-Positivas/efeitos dos fármacos , Hemólise/efeitos dos fármacos , Humanos , Lipossomos/química , Lipossomos/metabolismo , Peptídeos/química , Permeabilidade/efeitos dos fármacos , Estabilidade Proteica
5.
Appl Biochem Biotechnol ; 189(3): 709-728, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31602558

RESUMO

Dense brush conformation-bearing theranostic agents are emerging as drug delivery systems due to their higher ability to escape from reticuloendothelial system uptake which prolongs their in vivo circulation time. With the aim of developing dual therapy agent, 13-nm gold nanoparticles' (AuNPs) surfaces were coated with different amounts of polyethylene glycol (PEG) (SH-PEG-NH2) to obtain dense brush conformation-bearing theranostic agents. Among the 14 different theranostic agent candidates prepared, the one hosting 1819 PEG per particle was selected as the most promising theranostic agent candidate based on structural conformation, stability, size, zeta potential, hemocompatibility, cell inhibition, and cell death pathway towards MCF-7 cell line. To test drug delivery efficiency of the developed PEGylated AuNP and to improve efficacy of the treatment, apoptotic peptide (AP) was covalently conjugated to NH2 terminus of the PEG in various ratios to yield AuNP-AP conjugate. Among the prepared conjugates, the one having 1 nmol of peptide per milliliter of AuNP yielded the most promising results based on the same criteria as employed for PEGylated AuNPs. Besides, incorporation of AP to AuNP returned in superior efficacy of AP since it was possible to achieve 50% cell death with 1000 times less amount of AP alone.


Assuntos
Portadores de Fármacos/química , Ouro/química , Nanopartículas Metálicas , Nanomedicina Teranóstica , Morte Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Ácido Cítrico/química , Portadores de Fármacos/toxicidade , Ouro/toxicidade , Hemólise/efeitos dos fármacos , Humanos , Células MCF-7 , Conformação Molecular , Tamanho da Partícula , Polietilenoglicóis/química
6.
Rinsho Ketsueki ; 60(9): 1100-1107, 2019.
Artigo em Japonês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31597833

RESUMO

In 2017, The British Society of Haematology published new guidelines for the diagnosis and management of autoimmune hemolytic anemia (AIHA). Usually this is diagnosed using a combination of clinical and laboratory findings of hemolysis using the direct antiglobulin test (DAT). The revised guidelines propose several steps to evaluate and diagnose patients with unexplained hemolysis and a negative DAT, and they recommend screening for cold agglutinin disease (CAD) using a direct agglutination test (DAggT) before evaluating the cold agglutinin titer. Rituximab is becoming the preferred second-line choice for steroid-refractory warm AIHA and the first-line choice for primary CAD. Rituximab is an off-label drug for use in AIHA treatment in Japan, but in future will be used as standard therapy. Anti-C1s antibody is a new drug for CAD that has entered phase 3 trials.


Assuntos
Anemia Hemolítica Autoimune/diagnóstico , Anemia Hemolítica Autoimune/terapia , Testes de Aglutinação , Ensaios Clínicos Fase III como Assunto , Hemólise , Humanos , Uso Off-Label , Guias de Prática Clínica como Assunto , Rituximab/uso terapêutico
7.
F1000Res ; 82019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31598213

RESUMO

The thrombotic microangiopathies (TMAs) are a group of diseases characterised by microangiopathic haemolysis, thrombocytopenia, and thrombus formation leading to tissue injury. Traditionally, TMAs have been classified as either thrombotic thrombocytopenic purpura (TTP) or haemolytic uremic syndrome (HUS) based on the clinical presentation, with neurological involvement predominating in the former and acute kidney injury in the latter. However, as our understanding of the pathogenesis of these conditions has increased, it has become clear that this is an over-simplification; there is significant overlap in the clinical presentation of TTP and HUS, there are different forms of HUS, and TMAs can occur in other, diverse clinical scenarios. This review will discuss recent developments in the diagnosis of HUS, focusing on the different forms of HUS and how to diagnose and manage these potentially life-threatening diseases.


Assuntos
Lesão Renal Aguda , Síndrome Hemolítico-Urêmica , Púrpura Trombocitopênica Trombótica , Microangiopatias Trombóticas , Lesão Renal Aguda/diagnóstico , Lesão Renal Aguda/terapia , Hemólise , Síndrome Hemolítico-Urêmica/diagnóstico , Síndrome Hemolítico-Urêmica/terapia , Humanos , Púrpura Trombocitopênica Trombótica/diagnóstico , Púrpura Trombocitopênica Trombótica/terapia , Microangiopatias Trombóticas/diagnóstico , Microangiopatias Trombóticas/terapia
8.
Int J Nanomedicine ; 14: 7017-7038, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31564863

RESUMO

Background: Fabrication of a smart drug delivery system that could dramatically increase the efficiency of chemotherapeutic drugs and reduce the side effects is still a challenge for pharmaceutical researchers. By the emergence of nanotechnology, a huge window was opened towards this goal, and a wide type of nanocarriers were introduced for delivering the chemotherapeutic to the cancer cells, among them are cyclodextrins with the ability to host different types of hydrophobic bioactive molecules through inclusion complexation process. Aim: The aim of this study is to design and fabricate a pH-responsive theranostic nanocapsule based on cyclodextrin supramolecular nano-structure. Materials and methods: This nanostructure contains iron oxide nanoparticles in the core surrounded with three polymeric layers including polymeric ß-cyclodextrin, polyacrylic acid conjugated to sulfadiazine, and polyethylenimine functionalized with ß-cyclodextrin. Sulfadiazine is a pH-responsive hydrophobic component capable of making inclusion complex with ß-cyclodextrin available in the first and third layers. Doxorubicin, as an anti-cancer drug model, was chosen and the drug loading and release pattern were determined at normal and acidic pH. Moreover, the biocompatibility of the nanocapsule (with/without drug component) was examined using different techniques such as MTT assay, complement activation, coagulation assay, and hemolysis. Results: The results revealed the successful preparation of a spherical nanocapsule with mean size 43±1.5 nm and negatively charge of -43 mV that show 160% loading efficacy. Moreover, the nanocapsule has an on/off switching release pattern in response to pH that leads to drug released in low acidic pH. The results of the biocompatibility tests indicated that this nano drug delivery system had no effect on blood and immune components while it could affect cancer cells even at very low concentrations (0.3 µg mL-1). Conclusion: The obtained results suggest that this is a "switchable" theranostic nanocapsule with potential application as an ideal delivery system for simultaneous cancer diagnosis and therapy.


Assuntos
Nanocápsulas/química , Polietilenoimina/química , Nanomedicina Teranóstica , beta-Ciclodextrinas/química , Animais , Doxorrubicina/química , Doxorrubicina/farmacologia , Sistemas de Liberação de Medicamentos , Liberação Controlada de Fármacos , Compostos Férricos/química , Hemólise/efeitos dos fármacos , Humanos , Concentração de Íons de Hidrogênio , Células MCF-7 , Camundongos , Nanocápsulas/ultraestrutura , Tempo de Tromboplastina Parcial , Tempo de Protrombina , Eletricidade Estática , Compostos de Sulfidrila/síntese química , Compostos de Sulfidrila/química , Difração de Raios X , beta-Ciclodextrinas/síntese química
9.
Int J Nanomedicine ; 14: 7107-7121, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31564868

RESUMO

Background: Cervical cancer (CxCa) ranks as the fourth most prevalent women-related cancer worldwide. Therefore, there is a crucial need to develop newer treatment modalities. Ormeloxifene (ORM) is a non-steroidal, selective estrogen receptor modulator (SERM) that is used as an oral contraceptive in humans. Recent investigations suggest that ORM exhibits potent anti-cancer activity against various types of cancers. Nanoparticulates offer targeted delivery of anti-cancer drugs with minimal toxicity and promise newer approaches for cancer diagnosis and treatment. Therefore, the nanotherapy approach is superior compared to traditional chemotherapy, which is not site-specific and is often associated with various side effects. Methods: Pursuing this novel nanotherapy approach, our lab has recently developed ORM-loaded poly [lactic-co-glycolic acid] (PLGA), an FDA-approved biodegradable polymer, nanoparticles to achieve targeted drug delivery and improved bioavailability. Our optimized PLGA-ORM nanoformulation showed improved internalization in both dose- and energy-dependent manners, through endocytosis-mediated pathways in both Caski and SiHa cell lines. Additionally, we employed MTS and colony forming assays to determine the short- and long-term effects of PLGA-ORM on these cells. Results: Our results showed that this formulation demonstrated improved inhibition of cellular proliferation and clonogenic potential compared to free ORM. Furthermore, the PLGA-ORM nanoformulation exhibited superior anti-tumor activities in an orthotopic cervical cancer mouse model than free ORM. Conclusion: Collectively, our findings suggest that our novel nanoformulation has great potential for repurposing the drug and becoming a novel modality for CxCa management.


Assuntos
Benzopiranos/uso terapêutico , Nanopartículas/uso terapêutico , Neoplasias do Colo do Útero/tratamento farmacológico , Animais , Benzopiranos/farmacologia , Carcinogênese/efeitos dos fármacos , Carcinogênese/metabolismo , Carcinogênese/patologia , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Membrana Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Membrana Celular/metabolismo , Proliferação de Células/efeitos dos fármacos , Sobrevivência Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Células Clonais , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Endocitose/efeitos dos fármacos , Eritrócitos/metabolismo , Feminino , Hemólise/efeitos dos fármacos , Humanos , Teste de Materiais , Potencial da Membrana Mitocondrial/efeitos dos fármacos , Camundongos Nus , Copolímero de Ácido Poliláctico e Ácido Poliglicólico/química , Soro/química , Neoplasias do Colo do Útero/patologia
10.
Chem Commun (Camb) ; 55(80): 12016-12019, 2019 Oct 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31498360

RESUMO

Redox-modulating anticancer drugs allow the exploitation of altered redox biology observed in many cancer cells. We discovered dinuclear RhIII(Cp*) and IrIII(Cp*) complexes that have in vitro anticancer activity superior to cisplatin and the investigational drug IT-139, while being less toxic in haemolysis and in vivo zebrafish models. The mode of action appears to be related to DNA damage and ROS-mediated stress pathways.


Assuntos
Antineoplásicos/farmacologia , Complexos de Coordenação/farmacologia , Dano ao DNA/efeitos dos fármacos , Irídio/química , Espécies Reativas de Oxigênio/metabolismo , Ródio/química , Animais , Antineoplásicos/química , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Sobrevivência Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Cisplatino/farmacologia , Complexos de Coordenação/química , Ensaios de Seleção de Medicamentos Antitumorais , Hemólise , Humanos , Ligantes , Camundongos , Oxirredução , Rutênio/química , Relação Estrutura-Atividade , Peixe-Zebra
11.
Cell Physiol Biochem ; 53(3): 496-507, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31486324

RESUMO

BACKGROUND/AIMS: Like nucleated cells, erythrocytes (red blood cells, RBCs) are capable of executing programmed cell death pathways. RBCs undergo necroptosis in response to CD59-specific pore-forming toxins (PFTs). The relationship between blood bank storage and RBC necroptosis was explored in this study. METHODS: Human RBCs were stored in standard blood bank additive solutions (AS-1, AS-3, or AS-5) for 1 week and hemolysis was evaluated in the context of necroptosis inhibitors and reactive oxygen species (ROS) scavengers. Activation of key factors including RIP1, RIP3, and MLKL was determined using immunoprecipitations and western blot. RBC vesiculation and formation of echinocytes was determined using phase-contrast microscopy. The effect of necroptosis and storage on RBC clearance was determined using a murine transfusion model. RESULTS: Necroptosis is associated with increased RBC clearance post-transfusion. Moreover, storage in AS-1, AS-3, or AS-5 sensitizes RBCs for necroptosis. Importantly, storage-sensitized RBCs undergo necroptosis in response to multiple PFTs, regardless of specificity for CD59. Storage-sensitized RBCs undergo necroptosis via NADPH oxidase-generated ROS. RBC storage led to RIP1 phosphorylation and necrosome formation in an NADPH oxidase-dependent manner suggesting the basis for this sensitization. In addition, storage led to increased RBC clearance post-transfusion. Clearance of these RBCs was due to Syk-dependent echinocyte formation. CONCLUSION: Storage-induced sensitization to RBC necroptosis and clearance is important as it may be relevant to hemolytic transfusion reactions.


Assuntos
Antígenos CD59/metabolismo , Eritrócitos/citologia , Eritrócitos/metabolismo , Necrose/metabolismo , Adjuvantes Imunológicos , Animais , Apoptose/fisiologia , Bancos de Sangue , Western Blotting , Morte Celular/genética , Morte Celular/fisiologia , Células Cultivadas , Hemólise/fisiologia , Humanos , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Camundongos Transgênicos , Fosforilação/genética , Fosforilação/fisiologia , Espécies Reativas de Oxigênio/metabolismo
12.
Ann Hematol ; 98(11): 2507-2521, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31493004

RESUMO

Microparticles are sub-micron vesicles possessing protein and other materials derived from the plasma membrane of their parent cells, and literature suggests that they may have a role in the pathophysiology and downstream manifestations of sickle cell disease (SCD). The contributions of red blood cells microparticles (RMP) to the pathogenic mechanisms and clinical phenotypes of SCD are largely unknown. There is a controversy as to whether the proportions of intravascular hemolysis (approximately ≤ 30% of total hemolysis) would be enough to explain some complications seen in patients with SCD. We investigated RMP among 138 SCD patients and 39 HbAA individuals. Plasma RMPs were quantified by flow cytometry, plasma hemoglobin and heme by colorimetric assays, and haptoglobin and hemopexin by ELISA. The patients had higher RMP, plasma hemoglobin, and heme compared to the controls. On the contrary, haptoglobin and hemopexin were depleted in the patients. The RMP correlated positively with heme, lactate dehydrogenase, plasma hemoglobin, serum bilirubin, reticulocyte counts, and tricuspid regurgitant jet velocity of the patients. Contrarily, it correlated negatively with HbF, hemopexin, red blood cells counts, hemoglobin concentration, and haptoglobin. Although patients treated with hydroxyurea had lower RMP, this did not attain statistical significance. Patients with sickle leg ulcer and elevated tricuspid regurgitant jet velocity had higher levels of RMP. In conclusion, these data suggest that RMPs are associated with hemolysis and may have important roles in the pathophysiology and downstream complications of SCD.


Assuntos
Anemia Falciforme/sangue , Micropartículas Derivadas de Células/metabolismo , Eritrócitos/metabolismo , Hemólise , Adolescente , Adulto , Anemia Falciforme/tratamento farmacológico , Anemia Falciforme/patologia , Biomarcadores/sangue , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade
13.
Chem Biodivers ; 16(10): e1900362, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31400187

RESUMO

A series of novel esters and amides was synthesized on the basis of para-coumaric acid containing isobornyl groups in ortho-positions relative to the phenolic hydroxy group. Antioxidant properties of the obtained compounds were evaluated and compared on in vitro models: radical-scavenging ability, antioxidant activity on a substrate containing the lipids of animal brain, cytotoxicity of red blood cells, antioxidant and membrane-protective properties on the model of oxidative red blood cells hemolysis. Statistically significant relationship was established between the antioxidant activity of the studied compounds in model system containing animal lipids and the parameters reflecting their antioxidant properties on the model of H2 O2 -induced hemolysis of red blood cells. It was determined that an amide with a morpholine fragment has the highest antioxidant activity. The specified derivative significantly surpassed the reference substances (parent acid, BHT) and was not inferior to the effective antioxidant 2,6-diisobornyl-4-methylphenol in terms of its properties.


Assuntos
Antioxidantes/farmacologia , Encéfalo/efeitos dos fármacos , /farmacologia , Eritrócitos/efeitos dos fármacos , Propionatos/farmacologia , Animais , Antioxidantes/síntese química , Antioxidantes/química , Hidroxitolueno Butilado/química , /química , Hemólise/efeitos dos fármacos , Peróxido de Hidrogênio/farmacologia , Camundongos , Estrutura Molecular , Propionatos/síntese química , Propionatos/química
14.
J Photochem Photobiol B ; 198: 111582, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31442827

RESUMO

Poly(lactide-co-glycolide) (PLGA) has been used for the encapsulation of phthalocyanine motived by its biocompatibility and biodegradability. Many studies have already been done to evaluate the influence of parameters used in the PLGA nanoparticle synthesis but without the evaluation of the combinatory interaction between these parameters on the nanoparticulate properties. Ga(III)-phthalocyanine (GaPc) was encapsulated into the PEGlated PLGA-nanoparticles and the individual and combinatory effects of the emulsification time, the method used for the nanoparticle synthesis and the temperature of the aqueous phase was evaluated on the size, entrapment efficiency, efficacy of nanoparticle recovery, residual PVA and zeta potential value using a 23 factorial design (FD). Mathematical models were adjustable to the data and evolutionary operations were performed to optimize the nanoparticle size. The ability of the optimized nanoparticle to decrease the viability of the Hepa-1C1C7 cell and the blood red cell was also evaluated. The FD disclosed the emulsification-diffusion method decreased the residual PVA and the size of PLGA-PEG nanoparticle, but also decreased the entrapment efficiency of GaPc, the zeta potential absolute value and the recovery efficacy of nanoparticles. The combinatory effect between the method used in the nanoparticle preparation and the temperature of aqueous phase influenced four of the five evaluated properties. The viability of Hepa-1C1C7 cells was reduced until 13× when the cells were irradiated in the presence of encapsulated GaPc while it was decreased until 4.7× when the experiment was carried out with the free GaPc. The encapsulated GaPc was also more efficient to cause the haemolysis of the RBC than it was the free GaPc. The optimization of the nanoparticles synthesis increased the efficiency of the GaPc to oxidize the evaluated cells.


Assuntos
Gálio/química , Nanopartículas/química , Poliésteres/química , Polietilenoglicóis/química , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Sobrevivência Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Eritrócitos/citologia , Eritrócitos/efeitos dos fármacos , Eritrócitos/metabolismo , Hemólise/efeitos dos fármacos , Humanos , Indóis/química , Nanopartículas/toxicidade , Tamanho da Partícula , Temperatura Ambiente
15.
Clin Biochem ; 73: 77-81, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31386833

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: HbA1c shows low in patients with hemolysis, whereas glycated albumin (GA) is not affected by hemolysis. Therefore, the GA/HbA1c ratio reflects hemolysis in diabetic patients with hemolysis. Erythrocyte creatine (EC) is an indicator of hemolysis that reflects the mean erythrocyte age. The aim of this study was to examine whether HbA1c adjusted by EC accurately reflected glycemic control in patients with hemolysis. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A total of 238 individuals, consisting of 131 diabetic patients and 107 non-diabetic subjects, and consisting of 42 patients with hemolysis, and 196 subjects without hemolysis were selected for the study. HbA1c expressed in the IFCC units (iA1c) as well as in the NGSP units (A1C) were used. From the fact that EC and the GA/iA1c ratio showed a significant positive correlation, a formula for iA1c adjusted by EC (ECadj-iA1c) was created from a regression equation between EC and the GA/iA1c ratio. RESULTS: Significant correlations were observed between the GA/iA1c ratio and various hemolytic indicators but not between the GA/ECadj-iA1c ratio and those hemolytic indicators. The GA/iA1c ratio in individuals with hemolysis was significantly higher than in individuals without hemolysis, while no significant differences were observed in the GA/ECadj-iA1c ratio between the groups. Further, iA1c concentrations in non-diabetic patients with hemolysis were significantly lower than in the non-diabetic subjects without hemolysis, whereas ECadj-iA1c and GA concentrations showed no significant difference between the two groups. CONCLUSIONS: These results suggested that ECadj-iA1c accurately reflected glycemic control in patients with hemolysis.


Assuntos
Creatina/sangue , Diabetes Mellitus/sangue , Eritrócitos/metabolismo , Hemoglobina A Glicada/metabolismo , Hemólise , Idoso , Diabetes Mellitus/patologia , Eritrócitos/patologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Albumina Sérica/metabolismo
16.
Int J Nanomedicine ; 14: 5817-5829, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31440049

RESUMO

Purpose: Acetylcholinesterase (AChE) plays a critical role in the transmission of nerve impulse at the cholinergic synapses. Design and synthesis of AChE inhibitors that increase the cholinergic transmission by blocking the degradation of acetylcholine can serve as a strategy for the treatment of AChE-associated disease. Herein, an operational targeted drug delivery platform based on AChE-responsive system has been presented by combining the unique properties of enzyme-controlled mesoporous silica nanoparticles (MSN) with clinical-used AChE inhibitor. Methods: Functionalized MSNs were synthesized by liquid phase method and characterized by using different analytical methods. The biocompatibility and cytotoxicity of MSNs were determined by hemolysis experiment and MTT assay, respectively. Comparison of AChE activity between drug-loading system and inhibitor was developed with kits and by ELISA method. The efficacy of drug-loaded nanocarriers was investigated in a mouse model. Results: Compared with AChE inhibitor itself, the inhibition efficiency of this drug delivery system was strongly dependent on the concentration of AChE. Only AChE with high concentration could cause the opening of pores in the MSN, leading to the controlled release of AChE inhibitor in disease condition. Critically, the drug delivery system can not only exhibit long duration of drug action on AChE inhibition but also reduce the hepatotoxicity in vivo. Conclusion: In summary, AChE-responsive drug release systems have been far less explored. Our results would shed lights on the design of enzyme controlled-release multifunctional system for enzyme-associated disease treatment.


Assuntos
Acetilcolinesterase/metabolismo , Doença Hepática Induzida por Substâncias e Drogas/tratamento farmacológico , Inibidores da Colinesterase/farmacologia , Portadores de Fármacos/química , Fígado/patologia , Fosfatase Alcalina/sangue , Animais , Aspartato Aminotransferases/sangue , Calixarenos/química , Sobrevivência Celular , Doença Hepática Induzida por Substâncias e Drogas/patologia , Liberação Controlada de Fármacos , Fluoresceína/química , Hemólise , Fígado/efeitos dos fármacos , Masculino , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Nanopartículas/química , Nanopartículas/ultraestrutura , Fenóis/química , Porosidade , Ratos , Dióxido de Silício/química , Temperatura Ambiente , Fatores de Tempo
17.
Ann Hematol ; 98(10): 2257-2265, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31440871

RESUMO

Vascular complications of sickle cell anemia (SCA) are influenced by many factors. Elevated plasma homocysteine (Hcy) is supposed to be an independent risk factor and is either genetic or nutritional origin. The present study evaluated the plasma Hcy level, MTHFR C677T gene polymorphism, effect of folic acid (FA) supplementation' and hemato-biochemical parameters in SCA and their effect on the vaso-occlusive crisis (VOC) in SCA patients of an Asian-Indian haplotype population. One hundred twenty cases of SCA (HbSS) and 50 controls with normal hemoglobin(HbAA) were studied. It was found that the plasma Hcy level is significantly higher (p < 0.0001) in patients with SCA (22.41 ± 7.8 µmol/L) compared to controls (13.2 ± 4.4 µmol/L). Moreover, patients without FA supplementation had a significantly (p < 0.001) higher Hcy level (27 ± 7 µmol/L) compared to those with supplementation (17.75 ± 5.7 µmol/L). Turkey-Kramer multiple comparison tests show that there is a significant difference (p < 0.05) in HbF percent, hemoglobin (Hb), platelet count, serum bilirubin (direct:Bil-D and total:Bil-T), aspartate transaminase (AST), lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), and plasma Hcy levels between mild and severe VOC. Between moderate VOC and severe VOC, there was a significant difference (p < 0.05) in HbF%, Bil-D, AST, Hcy. Pearson correlation revealed that plasma Hcy had a significantly (p < 0.05) positive correlation with AST, serum bilirubin (indirect and total), LDH, jaundice, stroke, VOC per year, and hospitalization per year whereas it was inversely correlated with HbF percentage, Hb level, and FA treatment. In the study population, increased plasma Hcy level, hemolysis, and platelet activation were found to influence VOC in SCA.


Assuntos
Anemia Falciforme , Homocisteína/sangue , Metilenotetra-Hidrofolato Redutase (NADPH2)/genética , Polimorfismo Genético , Doenças Vasculares , Adolescente , Adulto , Anemia Falciforme/sangue , Anemia Falciforme/complicações , Anemia Falciforme/genética , Anemia Falciforme/fisiopatologia , Aspartato Aminotransferases/sangue , Bilirrubina/sangue , Plaquetas/metabolismo , Feminino , Hemoglobina Fetal/genética , Hemoglobina Fetal/metabolismo , Hemólise , Homocisteína/genética , Humanos , L-Lactato Desidrogenase/sangue , Masculino , Metilenotetra-Hidrofolato Redutase (NADPH2)/sangue , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Ativação Plaquetária , Contagem de Plaquetas , Doenças Vasculares/sangue , Doenças Vasculares/etiologia , Doenças Vasculares/genética , Doenças Vasculares/fisiopatologia
18.
Parasitol Res ; 118(10): 3067-3076, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31392413

RESUMO

This study is a report on the anti-Leishmania activity of Morita-Baylis-Hillman (MBH) homodimers adducts against the promastigote and axenic amastigote forms of Leishmania (Leishmania) infantum and Leishmania (Leishmania) amazonensis and on the cytotoxicity of these adducts to human blood cells. Both studied homodimers, MBH 1 and MBH 2, showed activity against the promastigote forms of L. infantum and L. amazonensis, which are responsible for visceral and cutaneous leishmaniasis, respectively. Additionally, the homodimers presented biological activity against the axenic amastigote forms of these two Leishmania species. The adducts exhibited no hemolytic activity to human peripheral blood mononuclear cells or erythrocytes at the tested concentrations and achieved higher selectivity indices than amphotericin B. Evaluation of cell death by apoptosis revealed that the homodimers had better apoptosis/necrosis profiles than amphotericin B in the promastigote forms of both L. infantum and L. amazonensis. In conclusion, these Morita-Baylis-Hillman adducts had anti-Leishmania activity in an in vitro model and may thus be promising molecules in the search for new drugs to treat leishmaniasis.


Assuntos
Antiprotozoários/síntese química , Antiprotozoários/farmacologia , Leishmania/efeitos dos fármacos , Anfotericina B/farmacologia , Animais , Antiprotozoários/química , Apoptose/efeitos dos fármacos , Dimerização , Avaliação Pré-Clínica de Medicamentos , Hemólise , Humanos , Leishmania/crescimento & desenvolvimento
19.
Int J Nanomedicine ; 14: 5323-5338, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31409990

RESUMO

Background: Candida albicans as an opportunistic fungus is one of the most important causes of late-onset morbidity and mortality in patients with major burns and severely impaired immune system. In recent years, the emergence of resistance to opportunistic fungi and toxicity of antimicrobial drugs make it necessary to develop new drugs. Methods: In the present study, we investigated anticandidal effects of indolicidin, as a representative of host defense peptide, conjugated with gold nanoparticles in fluconazole-resistant clinical isolates of C. albicans. After characterizing the conjugation of indolicidin using biophysical methodologies, the cytotoxicity and hemolytic activity of the nanocomplex were examined. In addition, the expression level of ERG11, responsible for antifungal resistance, and the immunomodulatory effect of peptide-nanomaterial conjugates were assessed. Results: Our data indicated that the nanocomplex was nontoxic for the fibroblast cells and erythrocytes. Treatment with the nanocomplex significantly reduced the expression levels of the ERG11 gene in fluconazole-resistant C. albicans isolates and the iNOS gene in macrophages. Conclusion: The study data provides a chance to develop innovative therapies for the treatment of C. albicans burn infections. However, further investigation is required to examine the efficiency of the nanocomplex.


Assuntos
Antifúngicos/farmacologia , Peptídeos Catiônicos Antimicrobianos/farmacologia , Queimaduras/microbiologia , Candida albicans/efeitos dos fármacos , Candida albicans/isolamento & purificação , Fluconazol/farmacologia , Ouro/farmacologia , Nanopartículas Metálicas/química , Animais , Peptídeos Catiônicos Antimicrobianos/química , Queimaduras/tratamento farmacológico , Candida albicans/genética , Morte Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Farmacorresistência Fúngica/efeitos dos fármacos , Eritrócitos/efeitos dos fármacos , Eritrócitos/metabolismo , Fluconazol/química , Regulação Fúngica da Expressão Gênica/efeitos dos fármacos , Genes Fúngicos , Hemólise/efeitos dos fármacos , Humanos , Nanopartículas Metálicas/ultraestrutura , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos BALB C , Testes de Sensibilidade Microbiana , Células NIH 3T3 , Óxido Nítrico Sintase Tipo II/genética , Óxido Nítrico Sintase Tipo II/metabolismo
20.
BMC Infect Dis ; 19(1): 719, 2019 Aug 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31416426

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Clostridium perfringens can cause various infections, including food poisoning, gas gangrene, cellulitis and fasciitis. C. perfringens septicemia is rare, but is a known cause of hemolysis by damaging red blood cell, and often proves rapidly fatal in emergency department (ED) situations. CASE PRESENTATION: A previously healthy 76-year-old man presented to the ED 8 h after onset of acute abdominal pain and diarrhea. Laboratory examination revealed a large discrepancy between the red blood cell count of 1.91 × 106/mm3 and the hemoglobin level of 10.3 g/dL, suggesting massive intravascular hemolysis. Computed tomography revealed liver abscesses with gas. During ED treatment, the state of the patient rapidly deteriorated and he entered cardiopulmonary arrest. Blood cultures finally identified C. perfringens. CONCLUSION: Intravascular hemolysis and red blood cell (RBC) / hemoglobin (Hb) discrepancy in the presence of infection should prompt ED physicians to consider C. perfringens septicemia and to act quickly to provide appropriate treatment.


Assuntos
Infecções por Clostridium/diagnóstico , Clostridium perfringens/patogenicidade , Gangrena Gasosa/diagnóstico , Hemoglobinas/análise , Abscesso Hepático/microbiologia , Idoso , Bacteriemia/microbiologia , Hemocultura , Infecções por Clostridium/etiologia , Gangrena Gasosa/etiologia , Parada Cardíaca , Hemólise , Humanos , Abscesso Hepático/diagnóstico por imagem , Masculino , Tomografia Computadorizada por Raios X
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