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1.
Lakartidningen ; 1192022 09 07.
Artigo em Sueco | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36082914

RESUMO

Blood culture is the standard method for microbiological diagnostics in sepsis. In many countries, the traditional recommendation for blood culture has been collection of four blood culture bottles with two bottles from each of two venipunctures. New studies show that four blood culture bottles from the same venipuncture provides similar culture results and higher number of obtained blood culture bottles, than the traditional method. Thus, new national recommendations recommend collection of four blood culture bottles from the same venipuncture as the routine blood culture method in Sweden.


Assuntos
Hemocultura , Sepse , Humanos , Flebotomia , Suécia
2.
Eur J Clin Microbiol Infect Dis ; 41(10): 1263-1268, 2022 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36066759

RESUMO

Staphylococcus aureus bacteremia (SAB) is a relevant finding which prompts a thorough diagnostic work-up. Follow-up blood cultures (BC) are essential in this work-up. We investigate the probability of detecting an ongoing bacteremia after initiation of active therapy according to the number of BC taken at key time points. A retrospective analysis of all patients with SAB in a 6-year period was performed. Total number of BCs taken and the positivity was registered for each day after start of therapy. A positivity-rate was corrected using a logistic mixed effects model. Observed detection frequencies were applied to calculate detection probabilities using binomial distributions. Three hundred and seventeen cases were withheld for analysis. A BC bottle positivity rate of 66.7% was found 1 day after initiation of active therapy, which decreased to 48.5% on day 4. When using 1 set of FU-BC, 73.4% of persisting SABs are detected. To maintain a probability of detection of ≥ 90%, 2 BC sets should be taken on day 2 and day 4 after start of therapy. In 10 of 109 patients with positive FU-BC, skip phenomena were registered, with a significant higher proportion in patients with < 4 BC bottles taken (14%) than when ≥ 4 BC bottles were taken (4.1%). We recommend taking 2 BC sets on days 2 and 4 after start of therapy in order to detect ≥ 90% of persisting SABs, limiting skip phenomena and blood volume required. We strongly advice against taking a single BC set as follow-up for SAB.


Assuntos
Bacteriemia , Infecções Estafilocócicas , Bacteriemia/microbiologia , Hemocultura , Seguimentos , Humanos , Probabilidade , Estudos Retrospectivos , Infecções Estafilocócicas/diagnóstico , Infecções Estafilocócicas/tratamento farmacológico , Infecções Estafilocócicas/microbiologia , Staphylococcus aureus
3.
Oncología (Ecuador) ; 32(2): 157-168, 2 de Agosto del 2022.
Artigo em Espanhol | LILACS | ID: biblio-1391894

RESUMO

Introducción: El cáncer en el año 2020 provoco 1,4 millones de muertes, el 47% en personas menores de 65 años de edad,la neutropenia febril en el paciente oncológico aumenta los casos de infecciones graves, incrementando la morbimortalidad cuando no se ha empezado un tratamiento de oportuno. El objetivo del presente estudio fue describir una población con esta patología en un centro de referencia regional. Metodología: Este estudio transversal, se realizó en el Instituto Oncológico Nacional "Dr. Juan Tanca Marengo", Sociedad de Lucha contra el Cáncer, Solca Guayaquil, período enero 2020-junio 2021, con una muestra no probabilística, de pacientes con neoplasias, neutropenias y cultivos positivos. Se registraron variables demográficas, clínicas, de laboratorio. Se utiliza estadística descriptiva invariada. Resultados: Se analizan 126casos, de edad promedio 55 años, el 50.8% fue de sexo femenino; el 88.1 % ingresó con neutropenia febril; la estancia hospitalaria promedio fue de 7 días. La Escherichia coli fue el microorganismo más frecuente con el 17.5 %, seguido por Klebsiella neumonía en el 9.5 %, Enterobacteria aerógenas y Pseudomonas eruginosa en el 4.8 %. El 70.2 % de las bacterias aisladas presentó resistencia bacteriana, el 47 % fueron bacterias betalactamasa de espectro ampliado (BLEA), el 40 % fue betalactamasa de espectro extendido (BLEE), y el 5 % productor de carbapenémicas (KPC), el 57.5 % con resistencia bacteriana tuvo una estancia hospitalaria mayor a 7 días Conclusión: El principal microorganismo fue Escherichia coli y la resistencia mayormente la tuvieron las bacterias betalactamasa de espectro ampliado positiva; permitiendo conocer la epidemiología local del perfil microbiológico y su relación con los pacientes oncológicos con neutropenia febril


In troduction:Cancer in 2020 caused 1.4 million deaths, 47% in people under 65 years of age, febrile neu-tropenia in cancer patientsincreases cases of serious infections, increasing morbidity and mortality when Timely treatment has not been started. The objective of the present study was to describe a pop-ulation with this pathology in a regional reference center.Met hodology: This cross-sectional study was conducted at the National Oncology Institute "Dr. Juan Tanca Marengo," Society for the Fight Against Cancer, Solca-Guayaquil, period January 2020-June 2021, with a non-probabilistic sample of patients with neoplasms, neutropenia, and positive cultures. Demo-graphic, clinical, and laboratory variables were recorded. Univariate descriptive statistics are used.R esults: 126 cases were analyzed, with an average age of 55 years; 50.8% were female; 88.1% were admitted with febrile neutropenia; the average hospital stay was seven days. Escherichia coli was the most frequent microorganism with 17.5%, followed by Klebsiella pneumoniae in 9.5%, Enterobacter aerogenes, and Pseudomonas aureginosa in 4.8%. 70.2% of the isolated bacteria presented bacterial resistance, 47% were extendedspectrum beta-lactamase bacteria (ESBL), 40% were extended-spectrum betalactamase (ESBL), and 5% produced carbapenemases (KPC), 57.5% with bacterial resistance had a hospital stay greater than seven days.C o nclusion: The main microorganism was Escherichia coli, and resistance was primarily found in ex-tended-spectrum beta-lactamase-positive bacteria, allowing us to know the local epidemiology of the microbiological profile and its relationship with cancer patients with febrile neutropenia


Assuntos
Neutropenia , Neutropenia Febril , Neutropenia Febril Induzida por Quimioterapia , Hemocultura , Neoplasias
4.
Rev. esp. quimioter ; 35(4): 344-356, ag. - sept. 2022. graf, tab
Artigo em Espanhol | IBECS | ID: ibc-205380

RESUMO

La atención de pacientes con sospecha de un proceso infeccioso en los servicios de urgencias hospitalarios(SUH) se haincrementado en la última década hasta suponer alrededor del15-20% de todas las atenciones diarias. En la valoración inicialde estos enfermos se toman muestras para los distintos estudios microbiológicos en un 45% de los casos, donde predomina la obtención de hemocultivos (HC), en el 14,6% de todosellos. La rentabilidad diagnóstica de estos HC es muy variable(2-20%). Los focos o procesos infecciosos más frecuentes sospechados o confirmados de las bacteriemias verdaderas(BV) enlos SUH son la infección del tracto urinario (45%) y la infecciónrespiratoria (25%). Por todo ello, la sospecha y confirmaciónde la BV tiene un relevante significado diagnóstico, pronósticoy obliga a cambiar algunas de las decisiones más importantesa tomar en el SUH. Entre otras, indicar el alta o ingreso, extraer HC y administrar el antimicrobiano adecuado y precoz.La intención de esta revisión es poner de manifiesto las evidencias científicas publicadas en los últimos cinco años, aclararlas controversias existentes actuales y comparar la capacidadpara predecir bacteriemia de los últimos modelos predictivospublicados desde el año 2017 con los ya existentes en esa fecha, año en el que se publicó una revisión que dejaba abierta lapropuesta de seguir buscando un modelo con un rendimientoadecuado para los SUH. Y así, a partir de ella, generar distintasrecomendaciones que ayuden a definir el papel que pueden tener estos modelos o escalas en la mejora de la indicación deobtención de los HC, así como en la toma inmediata de otrasdecisiones diagnóstico-terapéuticas (administración precozy adecuada del tratamiento antibiótico, solicitud de estudios complementarios y otras muestras microbiológicas, intensidaddel soporte hemodinámico, necesidad de ingreso, etc.) (AU)


The care of patients with a suspected infectious processin hospital emergency department (ED) has increased in thelast decade to account for around 15-20% of all daily care.In the initial evaluation of these patients, samples are takenfor the different microbiological studies in 45% of the cases,where obtaining blood cultures (BC) predominates, in 14.6%of all of them. The diagnostic yield of these BC is highly variable (2-20%). The most frequent suspected or confirmed focior infectious processes of true bacteremia (TB) in the ED areurinary tract infection (45%) and respiratory infection (25%).For all these reasons, the suspicion and confirmation of TB hasa relevant diagnostic and prognostic significance and requireschanging some of the most important decisions to be made inthe ED. Among others, indicate discharge or admission, extractBC and administer the appropriate and early antimicrobial. Theintention of this review is to highlight the scientific evidencepublished in the last five years, clarify the current controversies and compare the ability to predict bacteremia of the latest predictive models published since 2017 with those alreadyexisting on that date, year in which a review was publishedthat left open the proposal to continue searching for a modelwith adequate performance for ED. And so, based on it, generate different recommendations that help define the role thatthese models or scales can have in improving the indicationfor obtaining BC, as well as in the immediate making of otherdiagnostic-therapeutic decisions (administration early andappropriate antibiotic treatment, request for complementary studies and other microbiological samples, intensity of hemodynamic support, need for admission, etc.) (AU)


Assuntos
Humanos , Bacteriemia , Serviço Hospitalar de Emergência , Infecções , Infecções/diagnóstico , Infecções/tratamento farmacológico , Biomarcadores , Hemocultura
5.
Rev. esp. quimioter ; 35(4): 362-369, ag. - sept. 2022. tab
Artigo em Inglês | IBECS | ID: ibc-205382

RESUMO

Introduction. Bacteriemia is a major cause of morbidityand mortality among hospitalized patients worldwide. Earlyidentification of microorganisms from blood culture can leadto improvement of treatment and outcomes.Methods. The study was divided into two phases. Thefirst phase when a comparison of the methods was made tocheck the concordance between them, using as a reference thestandard method implemented in the laboratory. In a secondphase, both methods are combined. We used the rapid identification method and when it could not identify we used thestandard method. The microorganisms that were not identifiedby either of the two methods were identified from colony at24 hoursResults. A total of 589 microbial positive blood cultures have been included in the present study. With the rapidmethod we obtained 96% and 88% identification results forGram-negative bacilli (GNB) and Gram-positive cocci (GPC)respectively. In this study we observed that the combinationof the rapid and standard method achieved identifications of98% and 97% for GNB and GPC respectively.Conclusions. The data analysed shows that both methodscombined perform better than individually. We achieved anoptimization of the identification of microorganisms directlyfrom positive blood cultures by MALDI-TOF. This combinationidentified 98% of the microorganisms in between ten minutesto one hour and a half since the blood culture flagged positive (AU)


Introducción. La bacteriemia es una de las principalescausas de morbilidad y mortalidad entre los pacientes hospitalizados de todo el mundo. La identificación temprana de losmicroorganismos que están en la sangre, permite optimizar lostratamientos y conseguir mejores resultados.Material y métodos. El estudio se dividió en dos fases. Enla primera fase se realizó una comparación de los dos métodospara comprobar la concordancia entre ambos, tomando comoreferencia el método estándar implementado en el laboratorio.La segunda fase combinó ambos métodos para la identificación de hemocultivos positivos. Se utilizó el método de identificación rápida como primera opción y el método estándarsolo cuando no se consiguió identificar por la primera opción.Los microorganismos que no fueron identificados por ningunode los dos métodos, se identificaron directamente de la coloniacrecida a las 24 horas.Resultados. Se analizaron un total de 589 hemocultivospositivos en este estudio. Con el método rápido obtuvimos un96% y 88% de identificación de bacilos gramnegativos y cocosgrampositivos respectivamente. En este estudio observamosque la combinación del método rápido y el método estándarconsiguió identificaciones del 98% y 97% para bacilos gramnegativos y cocos grampositivos respectivamente.Conclusiones. Los datos analizados muestran que ambosmétodos combinados consiguen mejores resultados que utilizados de forma individual. Logramos una optimización de laidentificación de microorganismos directamente a partir dehemocultivos positivos por MALDI-TOF. Con esta combinaciónse identificó el 98% de los microorganismos entre los primeros10 minutos y hora y media de hemocultivo positivo. (AU)


Assuntos
Humanos , Hemocultura/métodos , Bacteriemia , Bacteriemia/tratamento farmacológico , Bacteriemia/mortalidade
6.
J Clin Microbiol ; 60(9): e0050022, 2022 Sep 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36040158

RESUMO

The utility of anaerobic blood culture bottles remains controversial, especially for specimens from children. Data are limited on the inclusion of an anaerobic bottle as part of a blood culture "set" when using contemporary blood culture instruments and media. Here, we evaluated the clinical utility of anaerobic blood culture bottles (FN Plus) and aerobic bottles (FA Plus) for the BacT/Alert Virtuo blood culture system (bioMérieux). A total of 158,710 bottles collected between November 2018 and October 2019 were evaluated. There were 6,652 positive anaerobic bottles, of which 384 (5.8%) contained 403 obligate anaerobes. In patients <19 years old, there were 389 positive anaerobic bottles, with 15 (1.8%) containing 16 obligate anaerobes. If not for anaerobic bottles, all but 8 obligate anaerobes would have gone undetected. Furthermore, anaerobic bottles were advantageous for some facultative anaerobes. Staphylococcus aureus from anaerobic bottles demonstrated statistically significant increased recovery (1,992 anaerobic versus 1,901 aerobic bottles, P = 0.009) and faster mean time to positivity (1,138 versus 1,174 min, P = 0.027). Only 25 microorganisms had statistically significant improved recovery and/or faster time to positivity from aerobic versus anaerobic bottles, suggesting anaerobic bottles offer comparable growth for most species. Finally, if only an aerobic bottle had been collected, 2,027 fewer positive cultures would have been detected and 7,452 fewer isolates would have been reported, including cultures with S. aureus (413 isolates, 10.6% less), Pseudomonas aeruginosa (9 isolates, 3.1% less) and Escherichia coli (193 isolates, 14.0% less). Taken together, these findings support the practice of routinely including an anaerobic bottle for blood culture collection.


Assuntos
Bacteriemia , Hemocultura , Adulto , Anaerobiose , Bacteriemia/diagnóstico , Bactérias , Bactérias Anaeróbias , Técnicas Bacteriológicas , Criança , Meios de Cultura , Humanos , Staphylococcus aureus , Adulto Jovem
7.
J Med Microbiol ; 71(8)2022 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35930326

RESUMO

Sepsis is one of the leading causes of death worldwide. The rapid identification (ID) of the causative micro-organisms is crucial for the patients' clinical outcome. MALDI-TOF MS has been widely investigated to speed up the time-to-report for ID from positive blood cultures, and many different procedures and protocols were developed, all of them attributable either to the direct separation of microbial cells from the blood cells, or to a short subculture approach. In this study, the Rapid Sepsityper workflow (MBT Sepsityper IVD Kit, Bruker Daltonics GmbH and Co. KG, Bremen, Germany) was compared to three different short subculturing methods, established into the routine practice of three different clinical microbiology laboratories. A total of N=503 routine samples were included in this study and tested in parallel with the two approaches. Results of the rapid procedures were finally compared to routine proceedings with Gram-staining and overnight subculture. Among monomicrobial samples, the Rapid Sepsityper workflow enabled overall the correct identification of 388/443 (87.6 %) micro-organisms, while the short subculturing methods of 267/435 (61.8 %). Except for the performance with Streptococcus pneumoniae, in each one of the three sites the Rapid Sepsityper workflow proved to be superior to the short subculture method, regardless of the protocol applied, and it delivered a result from 1 to 5 h earlier.


Assuntos
Bacteriemia , Hemocultura , Bacteriemia/diagnóstico , Bacteriemia/microbiologia , Técnicas Bacteriológicas/métodos , Hemocultura/métodos , Humanos , Espectrometria de Massas por Ionização e Dessorção a Laser Assistida por Matriz/métodos , Fluxo de Trabalho
8.
Crit Care ; 26(1): 243, 2022 08 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35941654

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Droplet digital PCR (ddPCR) has emerged as a promising tool of pathogen detection in bloodstream infections (BSIs) in critical care medicine. However, different ddPCR platforms have variable sensitivity and specificity for diverse microorganisms at various infection sites. There is still a lack of prospective clinical studies aimed at validating and interpreting the discrepant ddPCR results for diagnosing BSI in intensive care unit (ICU) practice. METHODS: A prospective diagnostic study of multiplex ddPCR panels was conducted in a general ICU from May 21, 2021, to December 22, 2021. Paired blood cultures (BCs) and ddPCRs (2.5 h) were obtained synchronously to detect the 12 most common BSI pathogens and three antimicrobial resistance (AMR) genes. Firstly, ddPCR performance was compared to definite BSI. Secondly, clinical validation of ddPCR was compared to composite clinical diagnosis. Sensitivity, specificity, and positive and negative predictive values were calculated. Thirdly, the positive rate of AMR genes and related analysis was presented. RESULTS: A total of 438 episodes of suspected BSIs occurring in 150 critical patients were enrolled. BC and ddPCR were positive for targeted bacteria in 40 (9.1%) and 180 (41.1%) cases, respectively. There were 280 concordant and 158 discordant. In comparison with BCs, the sensitivity of ddPCR ranged from 58.8 to 86.7% with an aggregate of 72.5% in different species, with corresponding specificity ranging from 73.5 to 92.2% with an aggregate of 63.1%. Furthermore, the rate of ddPCR+/BC- results was 33.6% (147/438) with 87.1% (128 of 147) cases was associated with probable (n = 108) or possible (n = 20) BSIs. When clinically diagnosed BSI was used as true positive, the final sensitivity and specificity of ddPCR increased to 84.9% and 92.5%, respectively. In addition, 40 blaKPC, 3blaNDM, and 38 mecA genes were detected, among which 90.5% were definitely positive for blaKPC. Further, 65.8% specimens were predicted to be mecA-positive in Staphylococcus sp. according to all microbiological analysis. CONCLUSIONS: The multiplexed ddPCR is a flexible and universal platform, which can be used as an add-on complementary to conventional BC. When combined with clinical infection evidence, ddPCR shows potential advantages for rapidly diagnosing suspected BSIs and AMR genes in ICU practice.


Assuntos
Sepse , Hemocultura , Humanos , Unidades de Terapia Intensiva , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase , Estudos Prospectivos , Sepse/diagnóstico , Sepse/microbiologia
9.
Med Mycol ; 60(9)2022 Sep 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36002024

RESUMO

Invasive fungal infections are increasingly common and carry high morbidity and mortality, yet fungal diagnostics lag behind bacterial diagnostics in rapidly identifying the causal pathogen. We previously devised a fluorescent hybridization-based assay to identify bacteria within hours directly from blood culture bottles without subculture, called phylogeny-informed rRNA-based strain identification (Phirst-ID). Here, we adapt this approach to unambiguously identify 11 common pathogenic Candida species, including C. auris, with 100% accuracy from laboratory culture (33 of 33 strains in a reference panel, plus 33 of 33 additional isolates tested in a validation panel). In a pilot study on 62 consecutive positive clinical blood cultures from two hospitals that showed yeast on Gram stain, Candida Phirst-ID matched the clinical laboratory result for 58 of 59 specimens represented in the 11-species reference panel, without misclassifying the 3 off-panel species. It also detected mixed Candida species in 2 of these 62 specimens, including the one discordant classification, that were not identified by standard clinical microbiology workflows; in each case the presence of both species was validated by both clinical and experimental data. Finally, in three specimens that grew both bacteria and yeast, we paired our prior bacterial probeset with this new Candida probeset to detect both pathogen types using Phirst-ID. This simple, robust assay can provide accurate Candida identification within hours directly from blood culture bottles, and the conceptual approach holds promise for pan-microbial identification in a single workflow. LAY SUMMARY: Candida bloodstream infections cause considerable morbidity and mortality, yet slow diagnostics delay recognition, worsening patient outcomes. We develop and validate a novel molecular approach to accurately identify Candida species directly from blood culture one day faster than standard workflows.


Assuntos
Candida , Candidíase , Animais , Hemocultura/veterinária , Candidíase/microbiologia , Candidíase/veterinária , Projetos Piloto , Saccharomyces cerevisiae
10.
J Glob Health ; 12: 10004, 2022 Aug 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35993167

RESUMO

Background: Streptococcus pneumoniae is one of the most common bacteria causing pneumonia and the World Health Organization (WHO) recommends first-line treatment of pneumonia with penicillins. Due to increases in the frequency of penicillin resistance, this systematic review aimed to determine the clinical outcomes of children with pneumonia in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs), with penicillin-group resistant pneumococci in respiratory and/or blood cultures specimens. Methods: English-language articles from January 2000 to November 2020 were identified by searching four databases. Systematic reviews and epidemiological studies from LMICs that included children aged one month to 9 years and reported outcomes of pneumonia with a penicillin-resistant pneumococcus in respiratory and blood culture specimens with or without comparison groups were included. Risk of bias was assessed using the Effective Public Health Practice Project (EPHPP) Quality Assessment Tool for Quantitative Studies. A narrative synthesis of findings based on the results of included studies was performed. Results: We included 7 articles involving 2864 children. One strong- and four medium-quality studies showed no difference in clinical outcomes (duration of symptoms, length of hospital stay and mortality) between those children with penicillin non-susceptible compared to susceptible pneumococci. Two weak quality studies suggested better outcomes in the penicillin-susceptible group. Conclusions: Current evidence suggests no difference in clinical outcomes of child pneumonia due to a penicillin-resistant S. pneumoniae and as such, there is no evidence to support a change in current WHO antibiotic guidelines.


Assuntos
Pneumonia , Streptococcus pneumoniae , Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Antibacterianos/uso terapêutico , Hemocultura , Criança , Países em Desenvolvimento , Humanos , Testes de Sensibilidade Microbiana , Penicilinas/farmacologia , Penicilinas/uso terapêutico , Pneumonia/tratamento farmacológico
11.
Mikrobiyol Bul ; 56(3): 432-448, 2022 Jul.
Artigo em Turco | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35960236

RESUMO

In this study, it was aimed to evaluate the use of multiplex real time polymerase chain reaction (RtPCR) method, directly from whole blood and blood culture bottles of intensive care unit patients with a pre-diagnosis of sepsis for the determination of the causative agent by comparing it with the conventional method. The study was carried out prospectively between November 2019 and August 2020. Ninety patients hospitalized with a pre-diagnosis of sepsis were included in the study. Samples were collected simultaneously with aseptic technique as whole blood and at least two sets of blood cultures. Blood culture bottles were monitored by the BACT/ALERT 3D (bioMerieux, France) instrument. Blood culture bottles were studied both by Sepsis Pathogens Panel Kit v1 (Anatolia, Turkey) using the multiplex Rt-PCR and with the conventional culture methods. The duration of detection and reporting of the multiplex Rt-PCR methods were compared with the conventional method. In this study, a total of 90 whole blood samples and 280 blood culture bottles were collected from the patients. It was found that 73 (81%) patients had already been administered antibiotic treatment at the time of blood sampling. Conventional blood culture was accepted as the gold standard in the diagnosis of sepsis. Rt-PCR performed from blood culture bottles was found to have a sensitivity of 89.58%; specificity of 57.14%; positive predictive value of 70.49%; negative predictive value of 82.76% and accuracy of 74.44% (p= 0.019). On the basis of the bacterial species, the sensitivity of the Rt-PCR method was determined to be between 66.7-100% and the specificity was between 86.6-100%. The Rt-PCR performed from whole blood, was found to have a sensitivity of 11.67% and a specificity of 96.67%; positive predictive value of 87.50%; negative predictive value of 35.37% and accuracy of 40% (p= 1.684). In this study, the duration of reporting of blood culture results was in average 116:50 hours, that of PCR from blood culture bottles was 80:57 hours, and that of PCR from whole blood samples was 15:38 hours (p<0.001). It was determined that the PCR from whole blood shortened the reporting time by an average of 101:12 hours (approximately four days), and that the PCR from blood culture bottles shortened the reporting time by an average of 35:53 hours (1.5 days) compared to the conventional method. In this study, the results determined by the Sepsis Pathogens Panel Kit v1 (Anatolia, Turkey) performed from blood culture bottles were superior compared to the conventional method. It has been determined that improvement is required for the usage of the sepsis kit directly from whole blood. On the other hand, considering the species detected by the blood culture method and not by the assay, the species range detected by the multiplex assay panel needs to be improved.


Assuntos
Hemocultura , Sepse , Bactérias , Humanos , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase Multiplex , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase em Tempo Real/métodos , Sensibilidade e Especificidade , Sepse/diagnóstico , Sepse/microbiologia
12.
Scand J Surg ; 111(3): 31-38, 2022 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36000748

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: The prevalence of bacteremia in acute appendicitis is unknown. We aimed to assess prevalence and predictive factors of bacteremia in adult patients with appendicitis. METHODS: In this prospective propensity score-matched cohort study, patients were recruited as part of one single-center prospective observational study assessing appendicitis microbiology in concurrence with two randomized controlled trials on non-operative treatment of uncomplicated acute appendicitis. All patients evaluated for enrollment in these three trials between April 2017 and December 2018 with both a confirmed diagnosis of appendicitis and available blood culture on admission were included in this study. Potential predictive factors of bacteremia (age, sex, body mass index (BMI), body temperature, C-reactive protein (CRP), leukocyte count, comorbidities, symptom duration, and appendicitis severity) were assessed. Prevalence of bacteremia was determined by all available blood cultures followed by propensity score matching using sex, age, BMI, CRP, leukocyte count, and body temperature of the patients without available blood culture. RESULTS: Out of the 815 patients with appendicitis, 271 patients had available blood culture and the prevalence of bacteremia was 12% (n = 33). Based on propensity score estimation, the prevalence of bacteremia in the whole prospective appendicitis cohort was 11.1%. Bacteremia was significantly more frequent in complicated acute appendicitis (15%; 29/189) compared with uncomplicated acute appendicitis (5%; 4/82) (p = 0.015). Male sex (p = 0.024) and higher body temperature (p = 0.0044) were associated with bacteremia. CONCLUSIONS: Estimated prevalence of bacteremia in patients with acute appendicitis was 11.1%. Complicated appendicitis, male sex, and higher body temperature were associated with bacteremia in acute appendicitis.


Assuntos
Apendicite , Bacteriemia , Doença Aguda , Adulto , Apendicite/complicações , Apendicite/diagnóstico , Apendicite/cirurgia , Bacteriemia/diagnóstico , Bacteriemia/epidemiologia , Bacteriemia/etiologia , Biomarcadores , Hemocultura , Proteína C-Reativa/análise , Proteína C-Reativa/metabolismo , Estudos de Coortes , Humanos , Contagem de Leucócitos , Masculino , Pontuação de Propensão , Estudos Prospectivos , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto
13.
Radiat Prot Dosimetry ; 198(12): 862-869, 2022 Aug 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35795919

RESUMO

Four different cytokines (IL1-ß, IL-6, IL-10 and TNF-α) and the cytokinesis-block micronucleus (CBMN) cytome assay investigations were evaluated in six human blood samples. They were divided into the control (nonirradiated) and five gamma-irradiated groups which were exposed to five different doses (0.5, 1, 2, 4 and 8 Gy). Blood groups were cultured in triplets for 72 h following 1 h of irradiation. Immunological and cytogenetics were investigated parallelly at different irradiation doses to understand the connection between them. Our aim is anchoring the active proliferation action of cytokines by presence of binucleated cells and resting immune system by mononuclear cell. Also, cell death by increasing necrotic cell count and TNF-α concentration. When compared with the control group, 0.5, 1, 2 and 4 Gy irradiation groups recorded a gradual increase in the cytokines levels, an increase in the total micronucleated cells (binucleated and mononucleated cells), an increase in necrotic and apoptotic cells counts. While 8 Gy irradiation leads to depletion in TNF-α concentration, although the number of necrotic cells was high.


Assuntos
Hemocultura , Citocinas , Análise Citogenética , Humanos , Testes para Micronúcleos , Fator de Necrose Tumoral alfa
14.
J Glob Antimicrob Resist ; 30: 269-275, 2022 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35787987

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: To investigate the impact of the time-to-positivity of blood cultures (TTP) on 30-day mortality in patients with Pseudomonas aeruginosa bacteremia. METHODS: All nonduplicated episodes of P. aeruginosa monomicrobial bacteremia in adult patients from January 2013 to February 2020 were analysed. Epidemiological and clinical data were collected. TTP of blood cultures for P. aeruginosa isolates was automatically recorded. Multivariate analysis identified factors predicting 30-day overall mortality. RESULTS: A total of 328 patients were identified. The median TTP for P. aeruginosa isolates was 15 h (interquartile range [IQR] 12-18 h). All multidrug-resistant and extensively drug-resistant (MDR/XDR) episodes were positive within the first 36 h. The 30-day mortality rate was 32.3%. The best cut-off value of the TTP for predicting mortality was 16 h (area under the receiver operating characteristic curve 0.62, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.56-0.67, P = 0.001). The 30-day mortality rate was significantly higher in the TTP ≤16 h group (41.0% vs. 19.5%, P < 0.001). In a multivariate analysis, severe neutropenia (adjusted odds ratio [aOR] 2.67, 95% CI 1.4-5.09, P = 0.002), septic shock (aOR 3.21, 95% CI 1.57-5.89, P < 0.001), respiratory source (aOR 4.37, 95% CI 2.24-8.52, P < 0.001), nosocomial acquisition (aOR 1.99, 95% CI 1.06-3.71, P = 0.030), TTP ≤16 h (aOR 2.27, 95% CI 2.12-4.25, P = 0.010), and MDR/XDR phenotype (aOR 2.54, 95% CI 1.38-4.67, P = 0.002) were independently associated with 30-day mortality. CONCLUSIONS: A short TTP (≤16 h) was independently associated with increased 30-day mortality. After local validation, this routinely available microbiological parameter might be useful for guiding empirical antipseudomonal therapies and supporting the close monitoring of patients with P. aeruginosa bacteremia.


Assuntos
Bacteriemia , Choque Séptico , Bacteriemia/microbiologia , Hemocultura , Humanos , Pseudomonas aeruginosa , Fatores de Risco
15.
BMC Infect Dis ; 22(1): 593, 2022 Jul 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35790903

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: In low- and middle-income countries (LMIC) Staphylococcus aureus is regarded as one of the leading bacterial causes of neonatal sepsis, however there is limited knowledge on the species diversity and antimicrobial resistance caused by Gram-positive bacteria (GPB). METHODS: We characterised GPB isolates from neonatal blood cultures from LMICs in Africa (Ethiopia, Nigeria, Rwanda, and South Africa) and South-Asia (Bangladesh and Pakistan) between 2015-2017. We determined minimum inhibitory concentrations and performed whole genome sequencing (WGS) on Staphylococci isolates recovered and clinical data collected related to the onset of sepsis and the outcome of the neonate up to 60 days of age. RESULTS: From the isolates recovered from blood cultures, Staphylococci species were most frequently identified. Out of 100 S. aureus isolates sequenced, 18 different sequence types (ST) were found which unveiled two small epidemiological clusters caused by methicillin resistant S. aureus (MRSA) in Pakistan (ST8) and South Africa (ST5), both with high mortality (n = 6/17). One-third of S. aureus was MRSA, with methicillin resistance also detected in Staphylococcus epidermidis, Staphylococcus haemolyticus and Mammaliicoccus sciuri. Through additional WGS analysis we report a cluster of M. sciuri in Pakistan identified between July-November 2017. CONCLUSIONS: In total we identified 14 different GPB bacterial species, however Staphylococci was dominant. These findings highlight the need of a prospective genomic epidemiology study to comprehensively assess the true burden of GPB neonatal sepsis focusing specifically on mechanisms of resistance and virulence across species and in relation to neonatal outcome.


Assuntos
Staphylococcus aureus Resistente à Meticilina , Sepse Neonatal , Hemocultura , Países em Desenvolvimento , Etiópia , Humanos , Recém-Nascido , Sepse Neonatal/epidemiologia , Estudos Prospectivos , Staphylococcus aureus/genética
16.
BMC Infect Dis ; 22(1): 622, 2022 Jul 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35843933

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Catheter-related bloodstream infection (CRBSI) is associated with increased morbidity, mortality, and cost of treatment in critically ill patients. A differential time to positivity (DTP) of 120 min or more between blood cultures obtained through the catheter vs. peripheral vein is an indicator of CRBSI with high sensitivity and specificity. However, it is no clear whether pooled sampling would be as efficient as individual sampling in order to reduce costs, contamination, or anemia. METHODS: This was a prospective diagnostic study conducted at the medical ICU and semi-ICU of Khon Kaen University's Srinagarind Hospital in Thailand from May 2020 to November 2021. Fifty patients with triple-lumen central venous catheters (CVCs) who were clinically suspected of CRBSI were enrolled. 15 mL of blood was drawn through each catheter lumen, 10 mL of which was inoculated into three blood culture bottles, and the remaining 5 mL was pooled into a single bottle. Sensitivity, specificity, accuracy, and time to positivity of the pooled blood cultures were calculated using individual blood cultures as a reference. RESULTS: Of the 50 patients enrolled, 14 (28%) were diagnosed with CRBSI, 57.9% of whom were infected with gram-negative bacteria as the causative pathogen (57.9%). Extensively drug-resistant (XDR) Klebsiella pneumoniae was the most common organism. Sensitivity and specificity of the pooled blood sampling method were 69.23% (95% CI [0.44-0.94]) and 97.3% (95% CI [0.92-1.02]), respectively. The area under the ROC curve (AUC) was 0.83 (95% CI [0.68-0.99]). A paired T-Test to compare time to positivity of the pooled blood bottle and the first positive culture from the individual bottles indicated statistical significance (14.9 and 12.4 h, respectively). The mean difference was 2.5 [0.9-4.1] h, with a 95% CI and a p-value of 0.006. CONCLUSION: Pooled blood sampling results in a lower sensitivity and longer time to positivity for CRBSI diagnosis in patients with triple-lumen CVCs than individual lumen sampling. Trial registration Retrospectively registered at Thai Clinical Trials Registry. The study was reviewed and approved on 08/03/2022. TCTR identification number is TCTR20220308002.


Assuntos
Bacteriemia , Infecções Relacionadas a Cateter , Cateterismo Venoso Central , Bacteriemia/diagnóstico , Bacteriemia/microbiologia , Hemocultura , Infecções Relacionadas a Cateter/diagnóstico , Infecções Relacionadas a Cateter/microbiologia , Cateteres , Humanos , Estudos Prospectivos , Tailândia , Fatores de Tempo
17.
EBioMedicine ; 82: 104176, 2022 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35853298

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Overuse of blood cultures (BCs) in emergency departments (EDs) leads to low yields and high numbers of contaminated cultures, accompanied by increased diagnostics, antibiotic usage, prolonged hospitalization, and mortality. We aimed to simplify and validate a recently developed machine learning model to help safely withhold BC testing in low-risk patients. METHODS: We extracted data from the electronic health records (EHR) for 44.123 unique ED visits with BC sampling in the Amsterdam UMC (locations VUMC and AMC; the Netherlands), Zaans Medical Center (ZMC; the Netherlands), and Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center (BIDMC; United States) in periods between 2011 and 2021. We trained a machine learning model on the VUMC data to predict blood culture outcomes and validated it in the AMC, ZMC, and BIDMC with subsequent real-time prospective evaluation in the VUMC. FINDINGS: The model had an Area Under the Receiver Operating Characteristics curve (AUROC) of 0.81 (95%-CI = 0.78-0.83) in the VUMC test set. The most important predictors were temperature, creatinine, and C-reactive protein. The AUROCs in the validation cohorts were 0.80 (AMC; 0.78-0.82), 0.76 (ZMC; 0.74-0.78), and 0.75 (BIDMC; 0.74-0.76). During real-time prospective evaluation in the EHR of the VUMC, it reached an AUROC of 0.76 (0.71-0.81) among 590 patients with BC draws in the ED. The prospective evaluation showed that the model can be used to safely withhold blood culture analyses in at least 30% of patients in the ED. INTERPRETATION: We developed a machine learning model to predict blood culture outcomes in the ED, which retained its performance during external validation and real-time prospective evaluation. Our model can identify patients at low risk of having a positive blood culture. Using the model in practice can significantly reduce the number of blood culture analyses and thus avoid the hidden costs of false-positive culture results. FUNDING: This research project was funded by the Amsterdam Public Health - Quality of Care program and the Dutch "Doen of Laten" project (project number: 839205002).


Assuntos
Hemocultura , Serviço Hospitalar de Emergência , Área Sob a Curva , Humanos , Aprendizado de Máquina , Curva ROC
18.
J Am Med Inform Assoc ; 29(10): 1705-1714, 2022 Sep 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35877074

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Surviving Sepsis guidelines recommend blood cultures before administration of intravenous (IV) antibiotics for patients with sepsis or moderate to high risk of bacteremia. Clinical decision support (CDS) that reminds emergency department (ED) providers to obtain blood cultures when ordering IV antibiotics may lead to improvements in this process measure. METHODS: This was a multicenter causal impact analysis comparing timely blood culture collections prior to IV antibiotics for adult ED patients 1 year before and after a CDS intervention implementation in the electronic health record. A Bayesian structured time-series model compared daily timely blood cultures collected compared to a forecasted synthetic control. Mixed effects models evaluated the impact of the intervention controlling for confounders. RESULTS: The analysis included 54 538 patients over 2 years. In the baseline phase, 46.1% had blood cultures prior to IV antibiotics, compared to 58.8% after the intervention. Causal impact analysis determined an absolute increase of 13.1% (95% CI 10.4-15.7%) of timely blood culture collections overall, although the difference in patients with a sepsis diagnosis or who met CDC Adult Sepsis Event criteria was not significant, absolute difference 8.0% (95% CI -0.2 to 15.8). Blood culture positivity increased in the intervention phase, and contamination rates were similar in both study phases. DISCUSSION: CDS improved blood culture collection before IV antibiotics in the ED, without increasing overutilization. CONCLUSION: A simple CDS alert increased timely blood culture collections in ED patients for whom concern for infection was high enough to warrant IV antibiotics.


Assuntos
Sistemas de Apoio a Decisões Clínicas , Sepse , Adulto , Antibacterianos/uso terapêutico , Teorema de Bayes , Hemocultura , Serviço Hospitalar de Emergência , Humanos , Estudos Retrospectivos , Sepse/diagnóstico , Sepse/tratamento farmacológico
19.
Front Cell Infect Microbiol ; 12: 954355, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35880078

RESUMO

A 39-year-old woman with a 3-year human papillomavirus (HPV) 18 infection history was admitted to the hospital for a 16-day history of vaginal bleeding after sex. She was diagnosed with cervical cancer based on the results of the electronic colposcopy, cervical cytology, microscopy, and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Then, she received chemotherapy, with paclitaxel 200 mg (day 1), cisplatin 75 mg (day 2), and bevacizumab 700 mg (day 3) twice with an interval of 27 days. During the examination for the diagnosis and treatment, many invasive operations, including removal of intrauterine device, colposcopy, and ureteral dilatation, were done. After that, the patient was discharged and entered the emergency department about 2.5 months later with a loss of consciousness probably caused by septic shock. The patient finally died of multiple organ failure and bacterial infection, although she has received antimicrobial therapy. The blood cultures showed a monobacterial infection with an anaerobic Gram-positive bacterial strain, designated as SAHP1. Matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS) indicated that the patient was infected with Peptoniphilus asaccharolyticus, while molecular analysis and genome-based taxonomy confirmed the infection with a novel Peptoniphilus species that has a close genetic relationship with Peptoniphilus vaginalis and proposed provisionally as Peptoniphilus septimus sp. nov., which may also act as a commensal of the human vagina. Genomic features of SAHP1 have been fully described, and comparative genomic analysis reveals the known prokaryote relative of Peptoniphilus septimus sp. nov. in the genus Peptoniphilus. The invasive operations on the genital tract during the diagnosis and treatment of the patient and the tumor tissue damage and bleeding may have a certain role in the bloodstream infection. This study casts a new light on the Peptoniphilus bacteria and prompts clinicians to include anaerobic blood cultures as part of their blood culture procedures, especially on patients with genital tract tumors. Furthermore, due to the incomplete database and unsatisfying resolution of the MALDI-TOF MS for Peptoniphilus species identification, molecular identification, especially whole-genome sequencing, is required for those initially identified as bacteria belonging to Peptoniphilus in the clinical laboratory.


Assuntos
Hemocultura , Neoplasias do Colo do Útero , Adulto , Bactérias , Clostridiales , Feminino , Firmicutes , Bactérias Gram-Positivas , Humanos , Espectrometria de Massas por Ionização e Dessorção a Laser Assistida por Matriz/métodos , Neoplasias do Colo do Útero/tratamento farmacológico
20.
J Infect Chemother ; 28(10): 1427-1429, 2022 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35724915

RESUMO

For immunocompromised patients receiving chemotherapy or bone mallow transplantation, slow-growing bacteria should also be considered one of the pathogenic microorganisms. However, there is no evidence pertaining to the microbiological tests associated with a patient with febrile neutropenia before peripheral blood stem cell harvest (PBSCH). We report a case of a 4-year-old cancer-bearing female presenting with a catheter-related bloodstream infection due to Gordonia otitidis. We detected G. otitidis from long-term blood cultures for approximately 6 days and prevented iatrogenic bacteremia by identifying the same organism from the culture of the PBSC sample and postponing the scheduled PBSCH. If febrile neutropenia occurs before PBSCH, we should collect multiple sets of blood cultures and culture them for a longer period.


Assuntos
Bacteriemia , Neutropenia Febril , Neoplasias , Actinobacteria , Bacteriemia/diagnóstico , Bacteriemia/tratamento farmacológico , Bacteriemia/microbiologia , Hemocultura , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Feminino , Humanos
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