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1.
Zhonghua Liu Xing Bing Xue Za Zhi ; 41(8): 1256-1260, 2020 Aug 10.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32867432

RESUMO

Objective: To understand the status quo of sleep and its associations with serum hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c) among nondiabetic people of 18-79 years old in Beijing. Methods: Data was gathered from the 2017 Beijing Non-communicable and Chronic Disease Surveillance Program. Multiple classified clusters sampling method was used while the 18-79 years old were sampled from the 16 districts of Beijing. Questionnaires would include information on demographic characteristics, chronic diseases and related risk factors, sleep duration and related problems (snore/asphyxia, difficult to get to sleep, waking often during the night, waking up early or taking sleeping pills) within the last 30 days. Complex sampling logistic regression models were established to analyze the association between sleep-related problems and serum HbA1c. Results: A total of 11 608 non-diabetic participants were involved in this study, with average age, reported sleep duration and median of serum HbA1c level as (43.36±15.27) years old, (7.49±1.29) h/d and 5.30%, respectively. 47.38% of them reported having sleep problems within the last 30 days. With the increasing time of sleep, serum HbA1c level was fluctuating significantly (F=413.06, P<0.01). Significant differences appeared in serum HbA1c levels among different age groups (t=358.3, P<0.01). Among participants with several kinds of sleep problems, the serum HbA1c levels were significantly higher than those without, through the single factor analysis (U=15.11, P<0.01). After adjusting for potential confounding factors, the combination of one sleep-related problem (OR=1.21, 95%CI: 1.03-1.41) and snore/asphyxia were associated with higher serum HbA1c levels (HbA1c≥5.7%) (OR=1.37, 95%CI: 1.16-1.61). People under 60 years of age were with higher risk of having higher serum HbA1c levels. Conclusion: Duration and sleep-related problems might affect the serum HbA1c levels, especially among those younger than 60 years of age.


Assuntos
Hemoglobina A Glicada/análise , Transtornos do Sono-Vigília/sangue , Transtornos do Sono-Vigília/epidemiologia , Sono , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Pequim/epidemiologia , Diabetes Mellitus/epidemiologia , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Fatores de Risco , Inquéritos e Questionários , Fatores de Tempo , Adulto Jovem
2.
N Engl J Med ; 383(9): 836-845, 2020 08 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32846062

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: A closed-loop system of insulin delivery (also called an artificial pancreas) may improve glycemic outcomes in children with type 1 diabetes. METHODS: In a 16-week, multicenter, randomized, open-label, parallel-group trial, we assigned, in a 3:1 ratio, children 6 to 13 years of age who had type 1 diabetes to receive treatment with the use of either a closed-loop system of insulin delivery (closed-loop group) or a sensor-augmented insulin pump (control group). The primary outcome was the percentage of time that the glucose level was in the target range of 70 to 180 mg per deciliter, as measured by continuous glucose monitoring. RESULTS: A total of 101 children underwent randomization (78 to the closed-loop group and 23 to the control group); the glycated hemoglobin levels at baseline ranged from 5.7 to 10.1%. The mean (±SD) percentage of time that the glucose level was in the target range of 70 to 180 mg per deciliter increased from 53±17% at baseline to 67±10% (the mean over 16 weeks of treatment) in the closed-loop group and from 51±16% to 55±13% in the control group (mean adjusted difference, 11 percentage points [equivalent to 2.6 hours per day]; 95% confidence interval, 7 to 14; P<0.001). In both groups, the median percentage of time that the glucose level was below 70 mg per deciliter was low (1.6% in the closed-loop group and 1.8% in the control group). In the closed-loop group, the median percentage of time that the system was in the closed-loop mode was 93% (interquartile range, 91 to 95). No episodes of diabetic ketoacidosis or severe hypoglycemia occurred in either group. CONCLUSIONS: In this 16-week trial involving children with type 1 diabetes, the glucose level was in the target range for a greater percentage of time with the use of a closed-loop system than with the use of a sensor-augmented insulin pump. (Funded by Tandem Diabetes Care and the National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases; ClinicalTrials.gov number, NCT03844789.).


Assuntos
Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 1/tratamento farmacológico , Hipoglicemiantes/administração & dosagem , Bombas de Infusão Implantáveis , Sistemas de Infusão de Insulina , Insulina/administração & dosagem , Adolescente , Glicemia/análise , Criança , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 1/sangue , Cetoacidose Diabética/etiologia , Feminino , Hemoglobina A Glicada/análise , Humanos , Hipoglicemia/induzido quimicamente , Hipoglicemiantes/efeitos adversos , Injeções Subcutâneas , Insulina/efeitos adversos , Sistemas de Infusão de Insulina/efeitos adversos , Masculino , Pâncreas Artificial
3.
J Assoc Physicians India ; 68(8): 25-29, 2020 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32738836

RESUMO

Objective: To find the serum hsCRP (high sensitive C reactive protein) levels in type 2 Diabetes Mellitus (DM) patients and compare its level between type 2 DM patients and healthy control subjects. To find the relationship of hsCRP levels in type 2 DM with and without vascular complications. To find the correlation of hsCRP with HbA1c and duration of type 2 DM among cases and to find the optimum cut-off value for hsCRP among type 2 DM patients. Methods: The study was conducted on type 2 DM patients with or without microvascular or macrovascular complications and nondiabetic healthy controls from April 2017 to July 2018. Fasting plasma glucose, postprandial plasma glucose, HbA1C, and hsCRP were estimated. Duration of diabetes was noted. SPSS for Windows version22 software was used for statistical analysis. Chi2 or Fisher's exact test was applied to compare frequency distribution. The student t-test was applied to compare two independent means. Test of normality was performed before applying the statistical test for significance. The area under the curve (AUC) and sensitivity and specificity of HSCRP levels in DM2 at various cut-off values were calculated. Results: The mean age of the patients 53.46±12.01 years with 49% among the age group 45 - 64 years and 62% were females. The mean value of hsCRP among diabetic subjects comes out to be 4.06 ± 2.59 mg/l, while among healthy controls is 0.93 ± 0.81 mg/l (p<0.0001). The mean duration of diabetes in our study is 6.90 ± 5.89 years with maximum cases had duration of diabetes between 1-5 years and a positive linear correlation with hsCRP (r=0.20; p=0.044). A positive linear correlation between hsCRP and HBA1C is found (r = 0.0507; p<0.0001). Among 100 cases, 71 cases were with overt complications of diabetes as either microvascular or macrovascular complications. Of these 71 cases with overt complications, 61.97% cases were with high risk levels of hsCRP (>3.0 mg/l). The mean value of hsCRP among cases with complications is 4.45 ± 2.74 mg/l while among cases without complications is 3.11 ± 1.89 mg/l (p=0.0176). The most common complication associated among the cases are microvascular complication in the form of diabetic retinopathy with mean hsCRP 4.61± 2.88 while the mean hsCRP was highest among the cases associated with cardiovascular complication as 5.37±3.10. In this study on 100 participants with type 2 diabetes mellitus, the maximum value of sensitivity of 89.00 % and specificity of 87.00% is found in diabetes at the best cut-off of serum hsCRP levels greater than 1.21 mg/L. Conclusion: hsCRP levels were high in type 2 diabetes mellitus with higher risk levels associated with macrovascular complications compared to microvascular complications. The levels of hsCRP correlated with duration of diabetes and HbA1c. Routine screening for future cardiovascular events in diabetes patients can be done with best cut-off value of hsCRP at 1.21 mg/L.


Assuntos
Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2 , Retinopatia Diabética , Adulto , Idoso , Glicemia , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Jejum , Feminino , Hemoglobina A Glicada/análise , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Sensibilidade e Especificidade
4.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 99(34): e21894, 2020 Aug 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32846852

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: At present, metformin is mainly used in the treatment of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). When the therapeutic effect is achieved, there are side effects and secondary failure will occur if taken for a long time. It is of great significance to actively explore the clinical scheme of reducing drug use while ensuring the therapeutic effect of T2DM. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the feasibility of Chinese massage (CM) in the treatment of T2DM. METHODS: Literature retrieval is divided into 2 aspects: Electronic Retrieval and Personal Check. We will search PubMed, EMBASE, CNKI, Cochrane Central, which were registered in international clinical trials registry platform systems, select all eligible studies published before November 2, 2019, and use Personal Check method to retrieve papers, conference papers, ongoing experiments, internal reports, and so on. With fasting blood glucose, 2-hour fasting blood glucose, glycosylated hemoglobin, and insulin index as the main observation indexes, we also pay attention to traditional Chinese medicine syndrome score scale, insulin resisting index, body mass index , serum total cholesterol, Curative effect and the occurrence of all adverse reactions in drug treatment.Of the research group 2 researchers respective selected literature, extracted data, and evaluated the risk of bias. After that we used Revman 5.7 and Stata 12.1 statistical software for meta-analysis. RESULTS: A total of 769 subjects were included in 10 studies for meta-analysis. Compared with metformin hydrochloride tablets, CM plus baseline treatment can reduce fasting plasma glucose (weighted mean difference [WMD] = -0.33, 95% confidence interval [CI] [-0.54, -0.13], Z = 3.15, P = .002), 2 hours postprandial blood glucose (WMD = -0.52, 95% CI [-0.70, -0.34), Z = 5.66, P < .00001], hemoglobin A1c (WMD = 0.12, 95% CI [0.04, 0.20], Z = 2.94, P = .003), fasting insulin (WMD = -3.59, 95% CI [-5.56, -1.42], Z = 10.29,P < .00001), traditional Chinese medicine syndrome score scale (WMD = -4.55, 95% CI [-7.58, -1.51], Z = 2.94, P = .003),homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance (WMD = -1.76, 95% CI [-2.25, -1.27), Z = 7.08, P < .00001),body mass index (WMD = -1.28, 95% CI [-1.65, -0.92], Z = 6.91, P < .00001), serum total cholesterol (WMD = -1.01, 95% CI [-1.14, -0.83], Z = 15.51, P < .00001), meanwhile, the effective rate was increased (risk ratio [RR] = 1.31, 95% CI [1.21, 1.42], Z = 6.57, P < .00001). CONCLUSION: CM combined with metformin hydrochloride tablet has a synergistic effect. It can not only be used as an auxiliary treatment of T2DM, but also as an important reference way of reducing drug treatment of T2DM, improving Clinical Efficacy and reducing adverse reactions. SYSTEMATIC REVIEW REGISTRATION: PROSPERO CRD42020158839.


Assuntos
Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/terapia , Hipoglicemiantes/uso terapêutico , Massagem/métodos , Metformina/uso terapêutico , Adulto , Idoso , Glicemia/análise , Estudos de Casos e Controles , China/epidemiologia , Terapia Combinada/métodos , Sinergismo Farmacológico , Jejum/sangue , Estudos de Viabilidade , Hemoglobina A Glicada/análise , Humanos , Hipoglicemiantes/efeitos adversos , Insulina/sangue , Resistência à Insulina , Massagem/tendências , Metformina/efeitos adversos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade
5.
JAMA ; 324(7): 651-662, 2020 08 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32809002

RESUMO

Importance: Mental health comorbidities are increasing worldwide and worsen outcomes for people with diabetes, especially when care is fragmented. Objective: To assess whether collaborative care vs usual care lowers depressive symptoms and improves cardiometabolic indices among adults with diabetes and depression. Design, Setting, and Participants: Parallel, open-label, pragmatic randomized clinical trial conducted at 4 socioeconomically diverse clinics in India that recruited patients with type 2 diabetes; a Patient Health Questionnaire-9 score of at least 10 (range, 0-27); and hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c) of at least 8%, systolic blood pressure (SBP) of at least 140 mm Hg, or low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol of at least 130 mg/dL. The first patient was enrolled on March 9, 2015, and the last was enrolled on May 31, 2016; the final follow-up visit was July 14, 2018. Interventions: Patients randomized to the intervention group (n = 196) received 12 months of self-management support from nonphysician care coordinators, decision support electronic health records facilitating physician treatment adjustments, and specialist case reviews; they were followed up for an additional 12 months without intervention. Patients in the control group (n = 208) received usual care over 24 months. Main Outcomes and Measures: The primary outcome was the between-group difference in the percentage of patients at 24 months who had at least a 50% reduction in Symptom Checklist Depression Scale (SCL-20) scores (range, 0-4; higher scores indicate worse symptoms) and a reduction of at least 0.5 percentage points in HbA1c, 5 mm Hg in SBP, or 10 mg/dL in LDL cholesterol. Prespecified secondary outcomes were percentage of patients at 12 and 24 months who met treatment targets (HbA1c <7.0%, SBP <130 mm Hg, LDL cholesterol <100 mg/dL [<70 mg/dL if prior cardiovascular disease]) or had improvements in individual outcomes (≥50% reduction in SCL-20 score, ≥0.5-percentage point reduction in HbA1c, ≥5-mm Hg reduction in SBP, ≥10-mg/dL reduction in LDL cholesterol); percentage of patients who met all HbA1c, SBP, and LDL cholesterol targets; and mean reductions in SCL-20 score, Patient Health Questionnaire-9 score, HbA1c, SBP, and LDL cholesterol. Results: Among 404 patients randomized (mean [SD] age, 53 [8.6] years; 165 [40.8%] men), 378 (93.5%) completed the trial. A significantly greater percentage of patients in the intervention group vs the usual care group met the primary outcome (71.6% vs 57.4%; risk difference, 16.9% [95% CI, 8.5%-25.2%]). Of 16 prespecified secondary outcomes, there were no statistically significant between-group differences in improvements in 10 outcomes at 12 months and in 13 outcomes at 24 months. Serious adverse events in the intervention and usual care groups included cardiovascular events or hospitalizations (4 [2.0%] vs 7 [3.4%]), stroke (0 vs 3 [1.4%]), death (2 [1.0%] vs 7 [3.4%]), and severe hypoglycemia (8 [4.1%] vs 0). Conclusions and Relevance: Among patients with diabetes and depression in India, a 12-month collaborative care intervention, compared with usual care, resulted in statistically significant improvements in a composite measure of depressive symptoms and cardiometabolic indices at 24 months. Further research is needed to understand the generalizability of the findings to other low- and middle-income health care settings. Trial Registration: ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT02022111.


Assuntos
Pressão Sanguínea , LDL-Colesterol/sangue , Depressão/terapia , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/terapia , Hemoglobina A Glicada/análise , Adulto , Idoso , Comportamento Cooperativo , Depressão/complicações , Países em Desenvolvimento , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/sangue , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/complicações , Feminino , Humanos , Índia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Equipe de Assistência ao Paciente , Autogestão , Fatores Socioeconômicos
7.
BMC Infect Dis ; 20(1): 473, 2020 Jul 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32620082

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: People living with the Human Immunodeficiency Virus (PLHIV) have an increased susceptibility to develop non-communicable diseases such as cardiovascular disease (CVD). Infection with HIV contributes to the development of CVD independent of traditional risk factors, with endothelial dysfunction being the central physiological mechanism. While HIV-related mortality is declining due to antiretroviral treatment (ART), the number of deaths due to CVD is rising in South Africa - the country with the highest number of PLHIV and the world's largest ART programme. The EndoAfrica study was developed to determine whether HIV infection and ART are associated with cardiovascular risk markers and changes in vascular structure and function over 18 months in adults from different provinces of South Africa. This paper describes the rationale, methodology and baseline cohort profile of the EndoAfrica study conducted in the North West Province, South Africa. METHODS: In this case-control study, conducted between August 2017 and June 2018, 382 volunteers of African descent (276 women; 106 men), comprising of 278 HIV infected and 104 HIV free individuals were included. We measured health behaviours, a detailed cardiovascular profile, and performed biomarker analyses. We compared baseline characteristics, blood pressure, vascular function and biochemical markers between those infected and HIV free. RESULTS: At baseline, the HIV infected participants were older (43 vs 39 years), less were employed (21% vs 40%), less had a tertiary education (7% vs 16%) and their body mass index was lower (26 vs 29 kg/m2) than that of the HIV free participants. While the cardiovascular profile, flow-mediated dilation and pulse wave velocity did not differ, glycated haemoglobin was lower (p = 0.017) and total cholesterol, high density lipoprotein cholesterol, triglycerides, gamma-glutamyltransferase and tobacco use were higher (all p < 0.047) in PLHIV. CONCLUSION: Despite PLHIV being older, preliminary cross-sectional analysis suggests that PLHIV being treated with ART do not have poorer endothelial or vascular function compared to the HIV free participants. More detailed analyses on the baseline and follow-up data will provide further clarity regarding the cardiovascular profile of South Africans living with HIV.


Assuntos
Síndrome de Imunodeficiência Adquirida/complicações , Síndrome de Imunodeficiência Adquirida/epidemiologia , Doenças Cardiovasculares/sangue , Doenças Cardiovasculares/etiologia , HIV , Síndrome de Imunodeficiência Adquirida/sangue , Síndrome de Imunodeficiência Adquirida/tratamento farmacológico , Adulto , Antirretrovirais/uso terapêutico , Biomarcadores/sangue , Pressão Sanguínea , Estudos de Casos e Controles , HDL-Colesterol/sangue , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Hemoglobina A Glicada/análise , Humanos , Estudos Longitudinais , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Doenças não Transmissíveis , Análise de Onda de Pulso , Fatores de Risco , África do Sul/epidemiologia , Triglicerídeos/sangue
8.
PLoS One ; 15(7): e0235335, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32628695

RESUMO

Diabetes is associated with a dramatic mortality rate due to its vascular complications. Chronic hyperglycemia in diabetes leads to enhanced glycation of erythrocytes and oxidative stress. Even though erythrocytes play a determining role in vascular complications, very little is known about how erythrocyte structure and functionality can be affected by glycation. Our objective was to decipher the impact of glycation on erythrocyte structure, oxidative stress parameters and capacity to interact with cultured human endothelial cells. In vitro glycated erythrocytes were prepared following incubation in the presence of different concentrations of glucose. To get insight into the in vivo relevance of our results, we compared these data to those obtained using red blood cells purified from diabetics or non-diabetics. We measured erythrocyte deformability, susceptibility to hemolysis, reactive oxygen species production and oxidative damage accumulation. Altered structures, redox status and oxidative modifications were increased in glycated erythrocytes. These modifications were associated with reduced antioxidant defence mediated by enzymatic activity. Enhanced erythrocyte phagocytosis by endothelial cells was observed when cultured with glycated erythrocytes, which was associated with increased levels of phosphatidylserine-likely as a result of an eryptosis phenomenon triggered by the hyperglycemic treatment. Most types of oxidative damage identified in in vitro glycated erythrocytes were also observed in red blood cells isolated from diabetics. These results bring new insights into the impact of glycation on erythrocyte structure, oxidative damage and their capacity to interact with endothelial cells, with a possible relevance to diabetes.


Assuntos
Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/sangue , Eritrócitos/patologia , Produtos Finais de Glicação Avançada/metabolismo , Espécies Reativas de Oxigênio/metabolismo , Glicemia/metabolismo , Linhagem Celular , Técnicas de Cocultura , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/patologia , Células Endoteliais , Eriptose , Deformação Eritrocítica , Eritrócitos/metabolismo , Hemoglobina A Glicada/análise , Voluntários Saudáveis , Hemólise , Humanos , Estresse Oxidativo , Cultura Primária de Células
9.
PLoS One ; 15(7): e0235376, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32629460

RESUMO

AIM: To develop a statistical model to identify determinants of glycemic control. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A database was extracted from patients' records with at least one glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c) analysis and with antidiabetic therapy established and stabilized. A logistic regression model was designed to identify the statistical significance of factors associated with glycemic control. RESULTS: Higher probability of success (HbA1c ≤8% [64 mmol/mol]) was found for those who were older in age, those who were men, and those with higher education levels. Increased values for the following variables were associated with the poorest glycemic control: number of years of T2DM since diagnosis, number of antidiabetic medicines, body mass index, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, triglycerides, systolic blood pressure and number of diabetes consultations in the last twelve months. The following pharmacotherapeutic treatments were associated with glycemic control (in decreasing order of the results): oral antidiabetic drugs; oral antidiabetic drugs and insulin; insulin. Patients using metformin and a dipeptidyl peptidase-4 inhibitors have a higher probability of success than do patients using metformin and a sulfonylurea, and patients using insulin and metformin have a higher probability of success than do patients using insulin alone. CONCLUSIONS: Sociodemographic, clinical and therapeutic parameters can strongly affect glycemic control. Studies based on real-life patient data provide important information on the development of more effective glycemic control.


Assuntos
Glicemia/análise , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/tratamento farmacológico , Hemoglobina A Glicada/análise , Hipoglicemiantes/uso terapêutico , Modelos Biológicos , Fatores Etários , Idoso , Glicemia/efeitos dos fármacos , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/sangue , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/diagnóstico , Quimioterapia Combinada/métodos , Feminino , Seguimentos , Hemoglobina A Glicada/efeitos dos fármacos , Humanos , Hipoglicemiantes/farmacologia , Modelos Logísticos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Fatores Sexuais , Fatores Socioeconômicos , Fatores de Tempo , Resultado do Tratamento
10.
J Assoc Physicians India ; 68(7): 57-61, 2020 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32602682

RESUMO

Background: In Indian clinical set-up, modern sulfonylurea, particularly glimepiride is still preferred as an add-on to metformin due to its efficacy, safety and cost effectiveness. In view of this, a case-based questionnaire survey was conducted to analyze the clinical utility of multiple strengths of glimepiride and metformin fixed dose combination in type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). Methods: The case-based questionnaire survey was conducted with 174 health care professionals across India to assess the use of glimepiride and metformin fixed dose combination according to age, duration of diabetes, body mass index (BMI), diabetes complications, concomitant medications like insulin, and statin. Results: Overall, data from 2248 patients taking multiple strengths of glimepiride and metformin fixed dose combination were analyzed. All the doses were prescribed across all the age groups and irrespective of duration of diabetes. Overall, 1429 diabetes patients had body mass index (BMI) ≥25 kg/m2, among which 1176 (81.6%) patients were receiving combination of glimepiride 1 or 2 mg and metformin 500 or 850 or 1000 mg. Glimepiride and metformin fixed dose combinations were among the preferred choices in various complications like neuropathy, retinopathy, nephropathy, peripheral vascular disease, diabetic foot and cardiovascular disease. Insulin and statins were co-prescribed in 17.3% and 28.8% patients, respectively. Hypoglycemic episodes were reported in only a minority of patients, even with higher doses of glimepiride and metformin fixed dose combinations. Conclusion: Multiple strengths of glimepiride and metformin fixed dose combinations are beneficial in T2DM, irrespective of age, duration of diabetes, BMI, diabetes complications, use of concomitant medications such as insulin and statin. Glimepiride and metformin fixed dose combinations were not associated with a significant risk of hypoglycemia.


Assuntos
Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/tratamento farmacológico , Metformina/uso terapêutico , Glicemia , Quimioterapia Combinada , Hemoglobina A Glicada/análise , Humanos , Hipoglicemiantes/uso terapêutico , Índia , Compostos de Sulfonilureia
11.
J Assoc Physicians India ; 68(6): 20-25, 2020 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32610874

RESUMO

Objective: Widely used in the management of diabetes, the premix insulin therapy is influenced by several patient preferences and physician choices. The present survey aims to provide specific recommendations based on published data for appropriate management of T2DM with premix insulins. Methods: We administered an online questionnaire where the respondent physicians were requested to go-through the published India specific and international guidelines before the survey. The respondents were requested to answer the electronic survey based on their clinical experiences with patients having diabetes. Results: Overall, 1408 doctors participated in the survey. Majority of physicians preferred a premix insulin regimen for initiation. Short-term therapy with premix insulins in insulin-naive T2DM patients with symptomatic hyperglycemia and/ or glucotoxicity was strongly recommended by 40.7% physicians. Initiation of insulin early in the course of T2DM was recommended by 58.7% of physicians in cases where glycemic goals were not achieved by non-insulin drugs. Premix insulin analogues were preferred over human premix insulins by more than half of participating physicians (52.2%). Premix insulin analogues were preferred over basal insulins by 49.8% of physicians. Nearly half (44.5%) of the physicians recommended initiation of twice daily premix analogues over once daily basal insulins to achieve recommended glycemic targets. Around forty two percent (41.9%) physicians strongly believed that twice daily/thrice daily premix insulin analogues provide comparable glycemic control and safety to basal plus regimen with additional benefit of simplicity. During Ramadan premix insulin analogues were recommended over human premix by 46.5% physicians in view of improved safety and flexibility of dosing. Summary: Majority of Indian physicians concur with the recommendations of INCG 2017 guidelines. Premix insulins were preferred for insulin initiation. IDegAsp was preferred over other premix insulins by majority of physicians. Twice daily premix insulins were recommended for intensification.


Assuntos
Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2 , Hipoglicemiantes , Glicemia , Hemoglobina A Glicada/análise , Humanos , Índia , Insulina , Estudos Prospectivos , Inquéritos e Questionários
12.
J Assoc Physicians India ; 68(6): 26-29, 2020 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32610875

RESUMO

Background: Fasting during the holy month of Ramadan is observed by Muslims worldwide as it accounts for one of the five pillars of the religion Islam. We speculate the fasts observed during the month of Ramadan to be unintentional intermittent fasts, which may have health benefits. Objective: The study was attempted to know the alterations in biomarkers viz. body weight (BW), body mass index (BMI), serum glycated haemoglobin (HbA1c), systolic and diastolic blood pressure (SBP and DBP) due to Ramadan IF on type 2 diabetes (T2D) patients of western India. Methods: A total 50 patients of T2D were selected for above-mentioned biomarkers assessment immediately before the starting of fast followed by after 45 days. Results: The present results indicated the beneficial impact on intermittent fasting among patients (baseline versus followed up) by detecting the alterations of above-mentioned biomarkers. In overall results (n=50), the BW (Kg) and BMI (Kg/m2) values were significantly (P<0.001) decreased in followed-up patients (76.06 ± 15.41 and 27.45 ± 5.06) when compared to baseline value (77.26 ± 15.53 and 27.90 ± 5.11) while the level of HbA1c (mmol/mol) was also significantly (P<0.05) decreased in followed-up patients (7.62 ± 0.99) when compared to baseline value (7.90 ± 1.24). But no significant changes in the values of SBP and DBP were observed. Conclusions: In conclusion, this observational study revealed the reduction of body weight, BMI and serum HbA1c levels probably due to IF for the T2D patients during the holy month of Ramadan. Moreover, the IF can be utilized as a therapy along with other pharmacological therapies. It is suggested future research work with other important biomarkers, which can be easier for T2D therapy.


Assuntos
Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2 , Biomarcadores , Jejum , Hemoglobina A Glicada/análise , Humanos , Índia , Islamismo
13.
Curr Opin Obstet Gynecol ; 32(5): 322-334, 2020 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32618746

RESUMO

PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) is associated with adverse pregnancy complications. Accurate screening and diagnosis of gestational diabetes are critical to treatment, and in a pandemic scenario like coronavirus disease 2019 needing a simple test that minimises prolonged hospital stay. We undertook a meta-analysis on the screening and diagnostic accuracy of the haemoglobin A1c (HbA1c) test in women with and without risk factors for gestational diabetes. RECENT FINDINGS: Unlike the oral glucose tolerance test, the HbA1c test is simple, quick and more acceptable. There is a growing body of evidence on the accuracy of HbA1c as a screening and diagnostic test for GDM. We searched Medline, Embase and Cochrane Library and selected relevant studies. Accuracy data for different thresholds within the final 23 included studies (16 921 women) were pooled using a multiple thresholds model. Summary accuracy indices were estimated by selecting an optimal threshold that optimises either sensitivity or specificity according to different scenarios. SUMMARY: HbA1c is more useful as a specific test at a cut-off of 5.7% (39 mmol/mol) with a false positive rate of 10%, but should be supplemented by a more sensitive test to detect women with GDM.


Assuntos
Diabetes Gestacional/diagnóstico , Hemoglobina A Glicada/análise , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Feminino , Humanos , Valor Preditivo dos Testes , Gravidez , Fatores de Risco
14.
S Afr Med J ; 110(5): 416-421, 2020 Apr 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32657728

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Glycated haemoglobin (HbA1c) has been used for decades as a measure of chronic glycaemia. A simple linear relationship between HbA1c values and mean blood glucose (MBG) has been identified and led to conversion of HbA1c values into estimated average glucose (eAG) levels, following the findings of the A1c-Derived Average Glucose (ADAG) Study Group. The intention was to help patients with diabetes mellitus (DM) understand their glycaemic control better, as eAG is reported in the same units as self-monitored glucose levels. However, factors other than glycaemia have been found to affect the relationship between HbA1c and MBG. OBJECTIVES: To: (i) determine the relationship between self-monitored MBG levels and HbA1c values; and (ii) evaluate the correlation between MBG levels and eAG levels calculated from HbA1c values using the regression equation derived from the ADAG Study Group in black South African patients with DM. METHODS: This was a prospective observational study of 96 diabetic patients. MBG levels were calculated using glucose measurements downloaded from the glucose meters for the previous 90 days (3 months). High-performance liquid chromatography was used for measurement of HbA1c values, collected at the end of 3 months. eAG was calculated using the regression equation from the ADAG Study Group, as follows: eAG (mmol/L) = 1.5944 × HbA1c (NGSP, %) - 2.594. RESULTS: A positive correlation was found between MBG and HbA1c in all participants (R2=0.69, p<0.0001). There was a wide range of MBG levels for any given HbA1c value. Clinically significant differences between MBG and eAG were found, with a ≥10% difference in 65.6% of the participants. eAG overestimated MBG in ~71.8% of the study population, with an overestimation of ≥1.6 mmol/L (28.7 mg/dL, equivalent to a 1% change in HbA1c value) in ~50% of the total study population. CONCLUSIONS: Our findings showed an imperfect relationship between MBG levels and HbA1c values. eAG significantly overestimated MBG, and this disagreement may cause confusion among both patients and clinicians. The risk of hypoglycaemic episodes may also increase if HbA1c and eAG alone are used to intensify therapy. We recommend that the use of eAG should be validated prior to implementation in clinical practice. It would be ideal to evaluate the relationship between average glucose and HbA1c in each individual patient in order to provide more personalised diabetes care.


Assuntos
Automonitorização da Glicemia , Glicemia/análise , Hemoglobina A Glicada/análise , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Diabetes Mellitus/sangue , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Ambulatório Hospitalar , Estudos Prospectivos , África do Sul/epidemiologia , Adulto Jovem
16.
Am Heart J ; 225: 97-107, 2020 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32480059

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: In patients with stable coronary heart disease, it is not known whether achievement of standard of care (SOC) targets in addition to evidence-based medicine (EBM) is associated with lower major adverse cardiovascular events (MACE): cardiovascular death, myocardial infarction, and stroke. METHODS: EBM use was recommended in the STabilisation of Atherosclerotic plaque By Initiation of darapLadIb TherapY trial. SOC targets were blood pressure (BP) <140/90 mm Hg and low-density lipoprotein-cholesterol (LDL-C) <100 mg/dL and <70 mg/dL. In patients with diabetes, glycosylated hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c) < 7% and BP of <130/80 mm Hg were recommended. Feedback to investigators about rates of EBM and SOC was provided regularly. RESULTS: In 13,623 patients, 1-year landmark analysis assessed the association between EBM, SOC targets, and MACE during follow-up of 2.7 years (median) after adjustment in a Cox proportional hazards model. At 1 year, aspirin was prescribed in 92.5% of patients, statins in 97.2%, ß-blockers in 79.0%, and angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors/angiotensin-II receptor blockers in 76.9%. MACE was lower with LDL-C < 100 mg/dL (70-99 mg/dL) compared with LDL-C ≥ 100 mg/dL (hazard ratio [HR] 0.694, 95% CI 0.594-0.811) and lower with LDL-C < 70 mg/dL compared with LDL-C < 100 mg/dL (70-99 mg/dL) (HR 0.834, 95% CI 0.708-0.983). MACE was lower with HbA1c < 7% compared with HbA1c ≥ 7% (HR 0.705, 95% CI 0.573-0.866). There was no effect of BP targets on MACE. CONCLUSIONS: MACE was lower with LDL-C < 100 mg/dL (70-99 mg/dL) and even lower with LDL-C < 70 mg/dL. MACE in patients with diabetes was lower with HbA1c < 7%. Achievement of targets is associated with improved patient outcomes.


Assuntos
LDL-Colesterol/sangue , Doença das Coronárias/sangue , Hemoglobina A Glicada/análise , Infarto do Miocárdio/etiologia , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/etiologia , Idoso , Doença das Coronárias/complicações , Doença das Coronárias/mortalidade , Medicina Baseada em Evidências , Feminino , Humanos , Inibidores de Hidroximetilglutaril-CoA Redutases/uso terapêutico , Estimativa de Kaplan-Meier , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Infarto do Miocárdio/epidemiologia , Fatores de Risco , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/epidemiologia
17.
Am Heart J ; 225: 88-96, 2020 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32485329

RESUMO

Intensive lipid management is critical to reduce cardiovascular (CV) risk for patients with diabetes mellitus (DM). METHODS: We performed an observational study of 7628 patients with (n = 2943) and without DM (n = 4685), enrolled in the Provider Assessment of Lipid Management (PALM) registry and treated at 140 outpatient clinics across the United States in 2015. Patient self-estimated CV risk, patient-perceived statin benefit and risk, observed statin therapy use and dosing were assessed. RESULTS: Patients with DM were more likely to believe that their CV risk was elevated compared with patients without DM (39.1% vs 29.3%, P < .001). Patients with DM were more likely to receive a statin (74.2% vs 63.5%, P < .001) but less likely to be treated with guideline-recommended statin intensity (36.5% vs 46.9%, P < .001), driven by the low proportion (16.5%) of high risk (ASCVD risk ≥7.5%) primary prevention DM patients treated with a high intensity statin. Patients with DM treated with guideline-recommended statin intensity were more likely to believe they were at high CV risk (44.9% vs 38.4%, P = .005) and that statins can reduce this risk (41.1% vs 35.6%, P = .02), compared with patients treated with lower than guideline-recommended statin intensity. Compared with patients with an elevated HgbA1c, patients with well-controlled DM were no more likely to be on a statin (77.9% vs 79.3%, P = .43). CONCLUSIONS: In this nationwide study, the majority of patients with DM were treated with lower than guideline-recommended statin intensity. Patient education and engagement may help providers improve lipid therapy for these high-risk patients.


Assuntos
Atitude Frente a Saúde , Complicações do Diabetes/tratamento farmacológico , Diabetes Mellitus , Fidelidade a Diretrizes , Inibidores de Hidroximetilglutaril-CoA Redutases/uso terapêutico , Hipercolesterolemia/tratamento farmacológico , Idoso , Doenças Cardiovasculares/prevenção & controle , Colesterol/sangue , Diabetes Mellitus/sangue , Feminino , Hemoglobina A Glicada/análise , Humanos , Inibidores de Hidroximetilglutaril-CoA Redutases/administração & dosagem , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Guias de Prática Clínica como Assunto , Sistema de Registros , Fatores de Risco , Estados Unidos
18.
West Afr J Med ; 37(3): 237-247, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32476117

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Type 2 diabetes mellitus can be a major drain on resources due to lifelong treatment and risk of catastrophic expenditure from treatment of complications. The prevalence has been projected to rise to alarming levels in developing countries. This study aimed to assess the levels of, and associations between good glycaemic control among patients with type 2 diabetes and their modes of financing healthcare. METHODS: In this hospital based descriptive cross-sectional study, 260 patients being managed for type 2 diabetes at the outpatient clinics of Lagos University Teaching Hospital, Lagos were recruited by systematic random sampling method. All participants received a HBA1C test to assess glycaemic control and a composite interviewer administered questionnaire adapted from the MMAS-8 and diabetes care profile to assess medication adherence, modes of financing and other factors related to disease management. RESULTS: Of the 260 study participants, 34.62% (90) had good glycaemic control. In the mode of health care financing only 15% (39) paid by health insurance (NHIS), while 85% of the respondents' payment was by out-of-pocket (OOP) payment. About half of these OOP payments were made by family, friends and others (in this study, a proxy for informal means of pooling finances). Significant associations were found between glycaemic control and adherence (2 13.93, p=0.001), glycaemic control and mode of payment (2 15.30, p=0.0000) and also adherence and mode of payment (2 16.59, p =0.002). CONCLUSION: In this study, only about a third of patients with type 2 diabetes achieved good glycaemic control, most patients used OOP financing and patients with OOP financing had poorer adherence and poorer glycaemic control. There is a need to scale up health insurance to improve health outcomes in diabetes management and protect people in developing countries from the burden of health care costs of chronic diseases like type 2 diabetes.


Assuntos
Glicemia/metabolismo , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/tratamento farmacológico , Financiamento Pessoal/economia , Gastos em Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Hipoglicemiantes/administração & dosagem , Insulina/administração & dosagem , Adulto , Estudos Transversais , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/diagnóstico , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/economia , Feminino , Financiamento Pessoal/estatística & dados numéricos , Hemoglobina A Glicada/análise , Hospitais de Ensino , Humanos , Hipoglicemiantes/economia , Insulina/economia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Nigéria , Fatores Socioeconômicos
19.
JAMA ; 323(23): 2397-2406, 2020 06 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32543682

RESUMO

Importance: Continuous glucose monitoring (CGM) provides real-time assessment of glucose levels and may be beneficial in reducing hypoglycemia in older adults with type 1 diabetes. Objective: To determine whether CGM is effective in reducing hypoglycemia compared with standard blood glucose monitoring (BGM) in older adults with type 1 diabetes. Design, Setting, and Participants: Randomized clinical trial conducted at 22 endocrinology practices in the United States among 203 adults at least 60 years of age with type 1 diabetes. Interventions: Participants were randomly assigned in a 1:1 ratio to use CGM (n = 103) or standard BGM (n = 100). Main Outcomes and Measures: The primary outcome was CGM-measured percentage of time that sensor glucose values were less than 70 mg/dL during 6 months of follow-up. There were 31 prespecified secondary outcomes, including additional CGM metrics for hypoglycemia, hyperglycemia, and glucose control; hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c); and cognition and patient-reported outcomes, with adjustment for multiple comparisons to control for false-discovery rate. Results: Of the 203 participants (median age, 68 [interquartile range {IQR}, 65-71] years; median type 1 diabetes duration, 36 [IQR, 25-48] years; 52% female; 53% insulin pump use; mean HbA1c, 7.5% [SD, 0.9%]), 83% used CGM at least 6 days per week during month 6. Median time with glucose levels less than 70 mg/dL was 5.1% (73 minutes per day) at baseline and 2.7% (39 minutes per day) during follow-up in the CGM group vs 4.7% (68 minutes per day) and 4.9% (70 minutes per day), respectively, in the standard BGM group (adjusted treatment difference, -1.9% (-27 minutes per day); 95% CI, -2.8% to -1.1% [-40 to -16 minutes per day]; P <.001). Of the 31 prespecified secondary end points, there were statistically significant differences for all 9 CGM metrics, 6 of 7 HbA1c outcomes, and none of the 15 cognitive and patient-reported outcomes. Mean HbA1c decreased in the CGM group compared with the standard BGM group (adjusted group difference, -0.3%; 95% CI, -0.4% to -0.1%; P <.001). The most commonly reported adverse events using CGM and standard BGM, respectively, were severe hypoglycemia (1 and 10), fractures (5 and 1), falls (4 and 3), and emergency department visits (6 and 8). Conclusions and Relevance: Among adults aged 60 years or older with type 1 diabetes, continuous glucose monitoring compared with standard blood glucose monitoring resulted in a small but statistically significant improvement in hypoglycemia over 6 months. Further research is needed to understand the long-term clinical benefit. Trial Registration: ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT03240432.


Assuntos
Automonitorização da Glicemia/métodos , Glicemia/análise , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 1/sangue , Hemoglobina A Glicada/análise , Hipoglicemia/prevenção & controle , Idoso , Automonitorização da Glicemia/instrumentação , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 1/tratamento farmacológico , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 1/psicologia , Feminino , Humanos , Hiperglicemia/diagnóstico , Hipoglicemia/induzido quimicamente , Hipoglicemia/diagnóstico , Hipoglicemiantes/administração & dosagem , Hipoglicemiantes/efeitos adversos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Monitorização Ambulatorial/instrumentação , Medidas de Resultados Relatados pelo Paciente
20.
JAMA ; 323(23): 2388-2396, 2020 06 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32543683

RESUMO

Importance: Adolescents and young adults with type 1 diabetes exhibit the worst glycemic control among individuals with type 1 diabetes across the lifespan. Although continuous glucose monitoring (CGM) has been shown to improve glycemic control in adults, its benefit in adolescents and young adults has not been demonstrated. Objective: To determine the effect of CGM on glycemic control in adolescents and young adults with type 1 diabetes. Design, Setting, and Participants: Randomized clinical trial conducted between January 2018 and May 2019 at 14 endocrinology practices in the US including 153 individuals aged 14 to 24 years with type 1 diabetes and screening hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c) of 7.5% to 10.9%. Interventions: Participants were randomized 1:1 to undergo CGM (CGM group; n = 74) or usual care using a blood glucose meter for glucose monitoring (blood glucose monitoring [BGM] group; n = 79). Main Outcomes and Measures: The primary outcome was change in HbA1c from baseline to 26 weeks. There were 20 secondary outcomes, including additional HbA1c outcomes, CGM glucose metrics, and patient-reported outcomes with adjustment for multiple comparisons to control for the false discovery rate. Results: Among the 153 participants (mean [SD] age, 17 [3] years; 76 [50%] were female; mean [SD] diabetes duration, 9 [5] years), 142 (93%) completed the study. In the CGM group, 68% of participants used CGM at least 5 days per week in month 6. Mean HbA1c was 8.9% at baseline and 8.5% at 26 weeks in the CGM group and 8.9% at both baseline and 26 weeks in the BGM group (adjusted between-group difference, -0.37% [95% CI, -0.66% to -0.08%]; P = .01). Of 20 prespecified secondary outcomes, there were statistically significant differences in 3 of 7 binary HbA1c outcomes, 8 of 9 CGM metrics, and 1 of 4 patient-reported outcomes. The most commonly reported adverse events in the CGM and BGM groups were severe hypoglycemia (3 participants with an event in the CGM group and 2 in the BGM group), hyperglycemia/ketosis (1 participant with an event in CGM group and 4 in the BGM group), and diabetic ketoacidosis (3 participants with an event in the CGM group and 1 in the BGM group). Conclusions and Relevance: Among adolescents and young adults with type 1 diabetes, continuous glucose monitoring compared with standard blood glucose monitoring resulted in a small but statistically significant improvement in glycemic control over 26 weeks. Further research is needed to understand the clinical importance of the findings. Trial Registration: ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT03263494.


Assuntos
Automonitorização da Glicemia/métodos , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 1/sangue , Hemoglobina A Glicada/análise , Hipoglicemiantes/administração & dosagem , Adolescente , Glicemia/análise , Automonitorização da Glicemia/instrumentação , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 1/tratamento farmacológico , Cetoacidose Diabética , Feminino , Humanos , Hiperglicemia/diagnóstico , Hiperglicemia/prevenção & controle , Hipoglicemia/induzido quimicamente , Hipoglicemia/diagnóstico , Hipoglicemia/prevenção & controle , Hipoglicemiantes/efeitos adversos , Masculino , Aplicativos Móveis , Monitorização Ambulatorial/instrumentação , Adulto Jovem
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