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1.
Pan Afr Med J ; 38: 250, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34104298

RESUMO

Introduction: diabetic complications have been identified as the major causes of morbidity and mortality in persons with type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM). Lack of appropriate glycaemic control is a significant risk factor for the onset and progression of long term complications of diabetes. Identifying the determinants of good glycaemic control is therefore imperative. Methods: this was a cross-sectional, hospital-based study of children aged 3-18 years with T1DM. Subjects were consecutively enrolled after obtaining consent from their parents and assent from children aged ≥7 years. A questionnaire was completed recording their clinical history and sociodemographic variables. Their HbA1c was estimated and values ≤7.5% was defined as the cut-off for optimal glycaemic control. Results: seventy-one children with T1DM were enrolled for the study. Thirty-eight (53.5%) of them were males. Mean age (years) was 13.7±4. Mean age at onset of diabetes was 11.6 years (range: 3-16 years), mean duration of diabetes was 24.4 months (range: 4-84 months), mean HbA1c value was 10.5% (range: 6.4%-14%); a multivariate logistic regression analysis was performed to identify determinants of optimal glycaemic control. Only caregivers' involvement in diabetes management P<0.016, odd ratio 13.03 (95% CI: 1.60-105.95) was identified as determinant of good glycaemic control. Conclusion: our data suggest that of all the sociodemographic factors studied, caregivers' involvement in diabetes management was the only strong determinant for optimal glycaemic control.


Assuntos
Glicemia/análise , Cuidadores/estatística & dados numéricos , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 1/terapia , Controle Glicêmico , Adolescente , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Estudos Transversais , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 1/complicações , Feminino , Hemoglobina A Glicada/análise , Humanos , Masculino , Nigéria , Fatores de Risco , Inquéritos e Questionários
2.
Medicina (Kaunas) ; 57(5)2021 May 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34065046

RESUMO

Background and Objectives: This observational study aims to determine the correlation between glycemic control with the HbA1c value and adverse obstetric outcome in women affected by pre-gestational diabetes. Materials and Methods: A retrospective analysis has been performed at the University Hospital of Udine. Only patients with a singleton pregnancy, pre-gestational diabetes, and known level of Hb A1c throughout pregnancy were included in the study. Results: According to the HbA1c level, at the beginning of pregnancy, 49 patients with HbA1c ≤ 7.0% were compared with 45 patients with HbA1c > 7.0%. Maternal age at diagnosis of the disease was significantly higher in the group with HbA1c ≤ 7% than in the group with HbA1c > 7%, 26.00 (18.00-32.00) vs. 20.00 (12.50-27.00). Women with HbA1c ≤ 7.0% reached, at term of pregnancy, significantly lower levels of HbA1c, 5.8% (5.7-6.0) vs. 6.7% (6.3-7.3). Daily insulin units were statistically different between the two groups at the end of pregnancy (47.92 (39.00-67.30) vs. 64.00 (48.00-82.00)). Proteinuria was significantly higher in the group with HbA1c > 7.0%, who delivered at earlier gestational age (37.57 (35.57-38.00) vs. 38.14 (38.00-38.43). Moreover, women with HbA1c > 7.0% had a significantly higher prevalence of an adverse composite outcome. Of note, in multivariate logistic regression analysis, pregnancy complications were significantly correlated to pre-pregnancy HbA1c > 7.0% (OR 2.95 CI.95 1.16-7.48, p < 0.05) independently of age, insulin treatment, and type of diabetes. Conclusions: Our data, obtained from a single-center cohort study, suggest that starting pregnancy with poor glycemic control might predict more complex management of diabetes in the following trimesters.


Assuntos
Diabetes Gestacional , Resultado da Gravidez , Glicemia , Estudos de Coortes , Diabetes Gestacional/tratamento farmacológico , Diabetes Gestacional/epidemiologia , Feminino , Hemoglobina A Glicada/análise , Humanos , Gravidez , Resultado da Gravidez/epidemiologia , Estudos Retrospectivos
3.
Rev Med Suisse ; 17(741): 1078-1082, 2021 Jun 02.
Artigo em Francês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34077039

RESUMO

Insulin therapy, often initiated after hygiene and dietary measures and non-insulin antidiabetics, is part of the treatment of patients with type 2 diabetes. Fear of injections or hypoglycemia often delays its implementation. However, its introduction is recommended in cases of poorly balanced diabetes despite a well-controlled therapeutic escalation but also in cases of acute imbalance. Introduction of insulin therapy requires patient education and close monitoring by the healthcare team. Type of insulin and its titration reduce the incidence of hypoglycemia in patients at risk. The determination of the fasting glycemic target - relative to HbA1c - for the titration of insulin is important to define for an optimal benefit (prevention of secondary complications)/risk (hypoglycemia, weight gain) balance.


Assuntos
Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2 , Hipoglicemia , Glicemia , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/tratamento farmacológico , Hemoglobina A Glicada/análise , Humanos , Hipoglicemia/induzido quimicamente , Hipoglicemia/epidemiologia , Hipoglicemia/prevenção & controle , Hipoglicemiantes , Insulina
4.
N Engl J Med ; 384(23): 2219-2228, 2021 Jun 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34107181

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Documenting current trends in diabetes treatment and risk-factor control may inform public health policy and planning. METHODS: We conducted a cross-sectional analysis of data from adults with diabetes in the United States participating in the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) to assess national trends in diabetes treatment and risk-factor control from 1999 through 2018. RESULTS: Diabetes control improved from 1999 to the early 2010s among the participants but subsequently stalled and declined. Between the 2007-2010 period and the 2015-2018 period, the percentage of adult NHANES participants with diabetes in whom glycemic control (glycated hemoglobin level, <7%) was achieved declined from 57.4% (95% confidence interval [CI], 52.9 to 61.8) to 50.5% (95% CI, 45.8 to 55.3). After major improvements in lipid control (non-high-density lipoprotein cholesterol level, <130 mg per deciliter) in the early 2000s, minimal improvement was seen from 2007-2010 (52.3%; 95% CI, 49.2 to 55.3) to 2015-2018 (55.7%; 95% CI, 50.8 to 60.5). From 2011-2014 to 2015-2018, the percentage of participants in whom blood-pressure control (<140/90 mm Hg) was achieved decreased from 74.2% (95% CI, 70.7 to 77.4) to 70.4% (95% CI, 66.7 to 73.8). The percentage of participants in whom all three targets were simultaneously achieved plateaued after 2010 and was 22.2% (95% CI, 17.9 to 27.3) in 2015-2018. The percentages of participants who used any glucose-lowering medication or any blood-pressure-lowering medication were unchanged after 2010, and the percentage who used statins plateaued after 2014. After 2010, the use of combination therapy declined in participants with uncontrolled blood pressure and plateaued for those with poor glycemic control. CONCLUSIONS: After more than a decade of progress from 1999 to the early 2010s, glycemic and blood-pressure control declined in adult NHANES participants with diabetes, while lipid control leveled off. (Funded by the National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute.).


Assuntos
Anti-Hipertensivos/uso terapêutico , Diabetes Mellitus/tratamento farmacológico , Inibidores de Hidroximetilglutaril-CoA Redutases/uso terapêutico , Hipoglicemiantes/uso terapêutico , Adulto , Fatores Etários , Idoso , Peso Corporal , Colesterol/sangue , Estudos Transversais , Diabetes Mellitus/sangue , Diabetes Mellitus/epidemiologia , Quimioterapia Combinada/tendências , Uso de Medicamentos/tendências , Feminino , Hemoglobina A Glicada/análise , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Inquéritos Nutricionais , Fatores Socioeconômicos , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia , Adulto Jovem
5.
Endocr Pract ; 27(6): 545-551, 2021 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34120699

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Many youth do not use the hybrid closed-loop system for type 1 diabetes effectively. This study evaluated the impact of financial incentives for diabetes-related tasks on use of the 670G hybrid closed-loop system and on glycemia. METHODS: At auto mode initiation and for 16 weeks thereafter, participants received a flat rate for wearing and calibrating the sensor ($1/day), administering at least 3 mealtime insulin boluses per day ($1/day), and uploading ($5/week). Weekly bonuses were given for maintaining at least 70% of the time in auto mode, which were increased for persistent auto mode use from $3/week to a maximum of $13/week. If a participant failed to maintain auto mode for a week, the rewards were reset to baseline. Data from 17 participants aged 15.9 years ± 2.5 years (baseline hemoglobin A1c [HbA1c] 8.6% ± 1.1%) were collected at 6, 12, and 16 weeks. The reinforcers were withdrawn at 16 weeks, with a follow-up assessment at 24 weeks. RESULTS: With reinforcers, the participants administered an average of at least 3 mealtime insulin boluses per day and wore the sensor over 70% of the time. However, auto mode use waned. HbA1c levels decreased by 0.5% after 6 weeks, and this improvement was maintained at 12 and 16 weeks (P < .05). Upon withdrawal of reinforcers, HbA1c levels increased back to baseline at 24 weeks. CONCLUSION: Compensation for diabetes-related tasks was associated with lower HbA1c levels, consistent administration of mealtime insulin boluses, and sustained sensor use. These results support the potential of financial rewards for improving outcomes in youth with type 1 diabetes.


Assuntos
Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 1 , Adolescente , Glicemia , Automonitorização da Glicemia , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 1/tratamento farmacológico , Economia Comportamental , Hemoglobina A Glicada/análise , Humanos , Hipoglicemiantes/uso terapêutico , Insulina/uso terapêutico , Sistemas de Infusão de Insulina , Projetos Piloto
6.
Niger J Clin Pract ; 24(6): 808-813, 2021 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34121726

RESUMO

Background: Mean platelet volume (MPV) is associated with cardiovascular morbidity and mortality in type 2 diabetic patients. However, the effects of blood glucose regulation and treatment regime on MPV has not been adequately studied in type 2 diabetic patients. Aims: We studied the effects of blood glucose regulation and treatment regimen on mean platelet volume in Type 2 diabetic patients. Subjects and Methods: A total of 232 diabetic patients who were admitted to the hospital in short intervals of 3 months in the last 2 years were included in the study. When the second admission HbA1c was greater than the first admission HbA1c, they were classified as being in the deteriorated blood glucose regulation group, otherwise they were classified in the improved blood glucose regulation group. Also, the deteriorated and improved blood glucose regulation groups were classified based on therapy modalities as the sulfonylurea + metformin group and the insulin + metformin group. Paired t-test was used for comparison of the groups. Results: Of the 232 patients, 98 (42.2%) were male and 134 (57.8%) were female. There were 126 (55.2%) patients using sulfonylurea + metformin, while 106 (44.8%) patients were using insulin + metformin. MPV levels were significantly increased in patients with deteriorating glucose regulation (p = 0.003). This increase in MPV was only seen in the oral hypoglycemic treatment group (p = 0.003). Conclusions: Our results suggested a close relationship between poor glycemic control and increased platelet activity in type 2 diabetic patients with oral antidiabetic therapy when compared to the insulin and metformin therapy modality.


Assuntos
Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2 , Metformina , Glicemia , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/tratamento farmacológico , Feminino , Hemoglobina A Glicada/análise , Humanos , Hipoglicemiantes/uso terapêutico , Masculino , Volume Plaquetário Médio , Metformina/uso terapêutico
7.
JAMA ; 325(22): 2262-2272, 2021 06 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34077499

RESUMO

Importance: Continuous glucose monitoring (CGM) has been shown to be beneficial for adults with type 2 diabetes using intensive insulin therapy, but its use in type 2 diabetes treated with basal insulin without prandial insulin has not been well studied. Objective: To determine the effectiveness of CGM in adults with type 2 diabetes treated with basal insulin without prandial insulin in primary care practices. Design, Setting, and Participants: This randomized clinical trial was conducted at 15 centers in the US (enrollment from July 30, 2018, to October 30, 2019; follow-up completed July 7, 2020) and included adults with type 2 diabetes receiving their diabetes care from a primary care clinician and treated with 1 or 2 daily injections of long- or intermediate-acting basal insulin without prandial insulin, with or without noninsulin glucose-lowering medications. Interventions: Random assignment 2:1 to CGM (n = 116) or traditional blood glucose meter (BGM) monitoring (n = 59). Main Outcomes and Measures: The primary outcome was hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c) level at 8 months. Key secondary outcomes were CGM-measured time in target glucose range of 70 to 180 mg/dL, time with glucose level at greater than 250 mg/dL, and mean glucose level at 8 months. Results: Among 175 randomized participants (mean [SD] age, 57 [9] years; 88 women [50%]; 92 racial/ethnic minority individuals [53%]; mean [SD] baseline HbA1c level, 9.1% [0.9%]), 165 (94%) completed the trial. Mean HbA1c level decreased from 9.1% at baseline to 8.0% at 8 months in the CGM group and from 9.0% to 8.4% in the BGM group (adjusted difference, -0.4% [95% CI, -0.8% to -0.1%]; P = .02). In the CGM group, compared with the BGM group, the mean percentage of CGM-measured time in the target glucose range of 70 to 180 mg/dL was 59% vs 43% (adjusted difference, 15% [95% CI, 8% to 23%]; P < .001), the mean percentage of time at greater than 250 mg/dL was 11% vs 27% (adjusted difference, -16% [95% CI, -21% to -11%]; P < .001), and the means of the mean glucose values were 179 mg/dL vs 206 mg/dL (adjusted difference, -26 mg/dL [95% CI, -41 to -12]; P < .001). Severe hypoglycemic events occurred in 1 participant (1%) in the CGM group and in 1 (2%) in the BGM group. Conclusions and Relevance: Among adults with poorly controlled type 2 diabetes treated with basal insulin without prandial insulin, continuous glucose monitoring, as compared with blood glucose meter monitoring, resulted in significantly lower HbA1c levels at 8 months. Trial Registration: ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT03566693.


Assuntos
Glicemia/análise , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/tratamento farmacológico , Controle Glicêmico/métodos , Hipoglicemiantes/uso terapêutico , Insulina/uso terapêutico , Idoso , Intervalos de Confiança , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/sangue , Feminino , Hemoglobina A Glicada/análise , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Satisfação do Paciente , Período Pós-Prandial , Tamanho da Amostra , Fatores de Tempo , Resultado do Tratamento
8.
JAMA ; 325(22): 2273-2284, 2021 06 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34077502

RESUMO

Importance: Continuous glucose monitoring (CGM) is recommended for patients with type 1 diabetes; observational evidence for CGM in patients with insulin-treated type 2 diabetes is lacking. Objective: To estimate clinical outcomes of real-time CGM initiation. Design, Setting, and Participants: Exploratory retrospective cohort study of changes in outcomes associated with real-time CGM initiation, estimated using a difference-in-differences analysis. A total of 41 753 participants with insulin-treated diabetes (5673 type 1; 36 080 type 2) receiving care from a Northern California integrated health care delivery system (2014-2019), being treated with insulin, self-monitoring their blood glucose levels, and having no prior CGM use were included. Exposures: Initiation vs noninitiation of real-time CGM (reference group). Main Outcomes and Measures: Ten end points measured during the 12 months before and 12 months after baseline: hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c); hypoglycemia (emergency department or hospital utilization); hyperglycemia (emergency department or hospital utilization); HbA1c levels lower than 7%, lower than 8%, and higher than 9%; 1 emergency department encounter or more for any reason; 1 hospitalization or more for any reason; and number of outpatient visits and telephone visits. Results: The real-time CGM initiators included 3806 patients (mean age, 42.4 years [SD, 19.9 years]; 51% female; 91% type 1, 9% type 2); the noninitiators included 37 947 patients (mean age, 63.4 years [SD, 13.4 years]; 49% female; 6% type 1, 94% type 2). The prebaseline mean HbA1c was lower among real-time CGM initiators than among noninitiators, but real-time CGM initiators had higher prebaseline rates of hypoglycemia and hyperglycemia. Mean HbA1c declined among real-time CGM initiators from 8.17% to 7.76% and from 8.28% to 8.19% among noninitiators (adjusted difference-in-differences estimate, -0.40%; 95% CI, -0.48% to -0.32%; P < .001). Hypoglycemia rates declined among real-time CGM initiators from 5.1% to 3.0% and increased among noninitiators from 1.9% to 2.3% (difference-in-differences estimate, -2.7%; 95% CI, -4.4% to -1.1%; P = .001). There were also statistically significant differences in the adjusted net changes in the proportion of patients with HbA1c lower than 7% (adjusted difference-in-differences estimate, 9.6%; 95% CI, 7.1% to 12.2%; P < .001), lower than 8% (adjusted difference-in-differences estimate, 13.1%; 95% CI, 10.2% to 16.1%; P < .001), and higher than 9% (adjusted difference-in-differences estimate, -7.1%; 95% CI, -9.5% to -4.6%; P < .001) and in the number of outpatient visits (adjusted difference-in-differences estimate, -0.4; 95% CI, -0.6 to -0.2; P < .001) and telephone visits (adjusted difference-in-differences estimate, 1.1; 95% CI, 0.8 to 1.4; P < .001). Initiation of real-time CGM was not associated with statistically significant changes in rates of hyperglycemia, emergency department visits for any reason, or hospitalizations for any reason. Conclusions and Relevance: In this retrospective cohort study, insulin-treated patients with diabetes selected by physicians for real-time continuous glucose monitoring compared with noninitiators had significant improvements in hemoglobin A1c and reductions in emergency department visits and hospitalizations for hypoglycemia, but no significant change in emergency department visits or hospitalizations for hyperglycemia or for any reason. Because of the observational study design, findings may have been susceptible to selection bias.


Assuntos
Técnicas Biossensoriais/métodos , Automonitorização da Glicemia/métodos , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 1/sangue , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/sangue , Adulto , Técnicas Biossensoriais/instrumentação , Automonitorização da Glicemia/estatística & dados numéricos , Intervalos de Confiança , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 1/tratamento farmacológico , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/tratamento farmacológico , Feminino , Hemoglobina A Glicada/análise , Necessidades e Demandas de Serviços de Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Hospitalização/estatística & dados numéricos , Humanos , Hiperglicemia/sangue , Hiperglicemia/diagnóstico , Hiperglicemia/epidemiologia , Hipoglicemia/sangue , Hipoglicemia/diagnóstico , Hipoglicemia/epidemiologia , Hipoglicemiantes/uso terapêutico , Insulina/uso terapêutico , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Números Necessários para Tratar , Pontuação de Propensão , Estudos Retrospectivos , Viés de Seleção , Fatores de Tempo , Resultado do Tratamento
9.
Rev Bras Epidemiol ; 24: e210032, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34105595

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the association between dental visits and variation in the glycated hemoglobin index (A1C) of patients with type 2 diabetes (T2DM) with well or not well glycemic control over time. METHODS: Patients with T2DM, A1C ≥ 7% (not well-controlled) and < 7% (well-controlled), who attended a primary care service and were followed up from January 2010 to May 2018. The outcome was the variation of A1C obtained from reference laboratories. At the beginning of the study, a questionnaire with behavioral, clinical, and socioeconomic information was carried out. Multiple linear regression analyses tested interaction terms of all variables with the initial glycemic level (not well-controlled or well-controlled). RESULTS: The sample consisted of 507 people, 65% women, and 66% individuals 55 to 74 years old, followed on average for 5.4 years. There was an interaction (p = 0.01) between dental visits and initial A1C. Patients not well-controlled with at least one dental visit had an average reduction in A1C of -0.56 percentage point (95%CI -1.06 - -0.56), whereas the well-controlled group who also had at least one dental visit had an increase of 0.34 percentage point (95%CI -0.18 - 0.87). CONCLUSION: Dental visits were associated with an improvement in A1C of approximately a half-percentage point in patients who had the initial A1C considered as not well-controlled.


Assuntos
Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2 , Idoso , Brasil , Estudos de Coortes , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/terapia , Feminino , Hemoglobina A Glicada/análise , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Atenção Primária à Saúde , Estudos Retrospectivos
10.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(9)2021 Apr 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33947045

RESUMO

Upstream stimulatory factor 1 (USF1) is a transcription factor that is increased in high-glucose conditions and activates the transforming growth factor (TGF)-ß1 promoter. We examined the effects of synthetic pyrrole-imidazole (PI) polyamides in preventing USF1 binding on the TGF-ß1 promoter in Wistar rats in which diabetic nephropathy was established by intravenous administration of streptozotocin (STZ). High glucose induced nuclear localization of USF1 in cultured mesangial cells (MCs). In MCs with high glucose, USF1 PI polyamide significantly inhibited increases in promoter activity of TGF-ß1 and expression of TGF-ß1 mRNA and protein, whereas it significantly decreased the expression of osteopontin and increased that of h-caldesmon mRNA. We also examined the effects of USF1 PI polyamide on diabetic nephropathy. Intraperitoneal injection of USF1 PI polyamide significantly suppressed urinary albumin excretion and decreased serum urea nitrogen in the STZ-diabetic rats. USF1 PI polyamide significantly decreased the glomerular injury score and tubular injury score in the STZ-diabetic rats. It also suppressed the immunostaining of TGF-ß1 in the glomerulus and proximal tubules and significantly decreased the expression of TGF-ß1 protein from kidney in these rats. These findings indicate that synthetic USF1 PI polyamide could potentially be a practical medicine for diabetic nephropathy.


Assuntos
Nefropatias Diabéticas/tratamento farmacológico , Inativação Gênica , Fator de Crescimento Transformador beta1/antagonistas & inibidores , Fatores Estimuladores Upstream/antagonistas & inibidores , Albuminúria/etiologia , Albuminúria/prevenção & controle , Animais , Nitrogênio da Ureia Sanguínea , Peso Corporal/efeitos dos fármacos , Diabetes Mellitus Experimental/complicações , Nefropatias Diabéticas/genética , Nefropatias Diabéticas/urina , Desenho de Fármacos , Avaliação Pré-Clínica de Medicamentos , Ensaio de Desvio de Mobilidade Eletroforética , Glucose/farmacologia , Hemoglobina A Glicada/análise , Glomérulos Renais/química , Túbulos Renais/química , Masculino , Células Mesangiais/efeitos dos fármacos , Células Mesangiais/metabolismo , Osteopontina/análise , Regiões Promotoras Genéticas , Ligação Proteica/efeitos dos fármacos , Ratos , Transcrição Genética , Fator de Crescimento Transformador beta1/genética , Fatores Estimuladores Upstream/metabolismo
11.
Arch Endocrinol Metab ; 64(6): 720-725, 2021 May 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34033281

RESUMO

Objective: Evaluate ferritin levels in children and adolescents with type 1 diabetes mellitus and its relation to diabetic microvascular complications, and metabolic control. Methods: This study included 180 children and adolescents with type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM) with a mean age of 14.9 ± 3.1 years and 180 apparently normal children matched for age and sex (control group). All children were evaluated with full history taking, thorough clinical examination, laboratory assessment of high-sensitivity C-reactive protein and hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c), and evaluation of the presence of microvascular complications. Serum ferritin levels were measured using electrochemiluminescence immunoassay. The patients were divided into two groups according to the presence or absence of microvascular complications. Results: Serum ferritin levels were significantly higher in patients with T1DM in both groups compared with healthy controls (p < 0.001). Additionally, patients with microvascular complications had higher serum ferritin concentrations than those without microvascular complications (p < 0.001). Patients with microalbuminuria showed higher ferritin levels compared with patients without microalbuminuria (p < 0.05). Stepwise regression analysis revealed that levels of HbA1c and urinary albumin excretion were independently related to ferritin levels (p < 0.001 for both). On receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve analysis, a ferritin cutoff value of 163.6 ng/mL differentiated patients with microvascular complications from those without microvascular complications with a sensitivity of 92.1% and specificity of 93.4%. Conclusion: Serum ferritin levels are elevated in T1DM, particularly in patients with microvascular complications.


Assuntos
Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 1 , Adolescente , Albuminúria , Criança , Ferritinas , Hemoglobina A Glicada/análise , Controle Glicêmico , Humanos
12.
Arch Endocrinol Metab ; 64(5): 528-532, 2021 May 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34033292

RESUMO

Objective: The objective of this study is to study association between testosterone and diabetes in Kashmiri males. Methods: A total of 300 males with Type 2 diabetes visited an outpatient and inpatient clinic at Shri Maharaja Hari Singh (SMHS) hospital, Srinagar, J&K India. The blood sugar and HbA1c, which are the markers of diabetes, and sérum testosterone levels were measured. The blood samples from both the cases and controls were collected. Results: Out of 300 subjects, 42% had a testosterone deficiency. A relationship between type 2 diabetic males and healthy males was observed, and testosterone levels were determined to be significantly lower among diabetic males (p < 0.001) when compared to healthy males. Then, we compared diabetic markers among testosterone deficient and normal testosterone level groups; the mean fasting plasma glucose (p = 0.0019) and glycated haemoglobin (HbA1c; p = 0.0449) levels were significantly higher in the testosterone deficient group than in the control group. To elucidate the relationship between the serum total testosterone level and fasting plasma glucose and HbA1c values, Pearson's correlation test was performed. Fasting plasma glucose levels (r = -0.252, p = 0.001) and HbA1c values (r = -0.697, p = 0.001) showed a significant negative correlation with serum testosterone levels among diabetic males. Conclusion: This study shows that diabetes causes low testosterone levels among males, and lower testosterone levels can act as a marker for diabetes. Thus, with timely intervention, mortality and co-morbidity associated with diabetes can be prevented.


Assuntos
Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2 , Glicemia , Hemoglobina A Glicada/análise , Humanos , Índia , Masculino , Testosterona
13.
J Pak Med Assoc ; 71(3): 933-937, 2021 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34057952

RESUMO

In the last decade, there has been an emergent interest, supported by various experimental and epidemiological studies, for health benefits of camel milk, in preventing various pathologic conditions, ranging from cancer to diabetes. However, the precise mechanisms by which camel milk induce these health benefits remain to be investigated. Various reports have shown that consumption of camel milk by diabetes patients on a daily basis reduces blood sugar and glycosylated hemoglobin (HbA1C) levels and also reduces insulin requirements. Despite that these findings provide scientific evidences of anti-diabetic activities of camel milk, research is yet to be initiated with assurance for patients of diabetes and other metabolic disorders. This review summarizes the medicinal values of bioactive constituents of camel milk and reviews camel milk findings from the most significant preclinical studies in diabetes.


Assuntos
Camelus , Leite , Animais , Glicemia , Hemoglobina A Glicada/análise , Humanos , Insulina , Leite/química
14.
FP Essent ; 504: 11-15, 2021 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33970586

RESUMO

Type 1 diabetes is defined as a state of hyperglycemia due to insulin deficiency caused by autoimmune pancreatic beta-cell destruction. The risk among individuals in the general population has been estimated at 0.5%. A family history of diabetes and a personal history of conditions associated with type 1 diabetes (ie, autoimmune diseases) increase the risk. Currently, the American Diabetes Association (ADA) recommends screening asymptomatic patients for type 1 diabetes autoimmune markers in the context of clinical research trials. All patients with diabetes should be referred to a diabetes self-management education program and for medical nutrition therapy. Medical nutrition therapy has been shown to lower the A1c by up to 1.9% in patients with type 1 diabetes. The mainstay of management is a regimen of multiple daily injections of insulin or continuous subcutaneous insulin delivered via an insulin pump. For most patients, a regimen consisting of 50% of the total daily dose prescribed as basal insulin and 50% prescribed as bolus insulin is used. Currently, pramlintide is the only Food Drug Administration (FDA)-approved adjunct to insulin therapy for patients with type 1 diabetes. Patients with type 1 diabetes should be screened regularly for hypertension and other associated conditions and complications.


Assuntos
Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 1 , Hiperglicemia , Glicemia , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 1/diagnóstico , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 1/tratamento farmacológico , Hemoglobina A Glicada/análise , Hemoglobina A Glicada/uso terapêutico , Humanos , Hipoglicemiantes/uso terapêutico , Insulina/uso terapêutico , Sistemas de Infusão de Insulina
15.
Endocr Pract ; 27(6): 538-544, 2021 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34016530

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Rapid improvement in blood glucose (BG) after weight-loss surgery (WLS) can make postoperative glucose management challenging in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). Our study examined the safety and efficacy of insulin management strategies during hospitalization and after discharge following WLS. METHODS: This single-center retrospective cohort study included 160 adult patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus undergoing WLS. Patients with glycated hemoglobin A1C (HbA1C) level <7% (53 mmol/mol) and not on antihyperglycemic medications or metformin monotherapy were excluded. BG and insulin dosing during hospitalization and at 2-week follow-up, and impact of preoperative HbA1C level were analyzed. RESULTS: Mean age was 46.3 years. Median preoperative HbA1C level was 8% (64 mmol/mol). Postoperatively, most patients received basal insulin plus sliding-scale insulin (SSI; 79/160, 49%) or SSI alone (77/160, 48%). The initial postoperative basal dose was 0.23 units/kg/day. The median basal insulin dose at discharge was 61% lower than preoperative dose. At 2-week follow-up, 34 of 44 patients (77%) had BG levels between 70-200 mg/dL and 1 of 44 (2.2%) had BG levels >200 mg/dL, with no hypoglycemia. Patients with HbA1C level >9% (75 mmol/mol) had higher BG on admission and during hospitalization, required higher insulin doses while hospitalized, and were more frequently discharged on insulin. CONCLUSION: SSI is effective in managing BG in some patients immediately after WLS. However, about half of the patients may require basal insulin at doses similar to those required by other inpatients. Preoperative hyperglycemia may affect inpatient insulin needs and BG. Low-dose basal insulin appears safe and effective upon discharge for select patients.


Assuntos
Cirurgia Bariátrica , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2 , Adulto , Glicemia , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/tratamento farmacológico , Hemoglobina A Glicada/análise , Humanos , Hipoglicemiantes/uso terapêutico , Pacientes Internados , Insulina , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Alta do Paciente , Estudos Retrospectivos
16.
Complement Ther Clin Pract ; 43: 101393, 2021 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33894577

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to determine the effect of acupressure on stress, fasting blood glucose (FBG) and glycosylated hemoglobin (HBA1C) in patients with type 2 diabetes. METHODS: In this randomized controlled clinical trial, sixty-six diabetic patients who met the inclusion criteria were randomly divided into intervention and sham groups. The intervention group applied self-acupressure to the desired points for a month. The sham group were asked to slightly touch the same points. The DASS-21 and FBG were measured before intervention, 24 h after the intervention for both groups. In addition, HBA1C was measured for both groups before intervention and three months after the beginning of the intervention. Data were analyzed with SPSS 15. RESULTS: Statistical data analysis of 60 patients showed that the mean FBG and the mean stress score of the intervention group reduced significantly after the intervention (p < 0.001) but the mean rate of HBA1C in the intervention group did not differ significantly after the intervention (p = 0.21). CONCLUSION: Acupressure should be considered for diabetic patients to reduce their stress and FBG.


Assuntos
Acupressão , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2 , Glicemia , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/terapia , Jejum , Hemoglobina A Glicada/análise , Humanos
17.
BMJ Open ; 11(4): e044478, 2021 04 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33820788

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Exercise is recommended to improve glycaemic control. Yet, individual changes in glycaemic control following exercise can vary greatly, meaning while some significantly improve others, coined 'non-responders', do not. Increasing the intensity of exercise may 'rescue' non-responders and help generate a response to training. This trial will identify non-responders to changes in glycated haemoglobin (HbA1c) across inactive individuals living with pre-diabetes or type 2 diabetes mellitus following an aerobic exercise programme and evaluate if increasing training intensity will elicit beneficial changes to 'rescue' previously categorised non-responders. METHODS AND ANALYSIS: This study will recruit 60 participants for a two-phase aerobic exercise training programme. Participants will be allocated to a control group or assigned to an intervention group. Control participants will maintain their current lifestyle habits. During phase 1, intervention participants will complete 16 weeks of aerobic exercise at an intensity of 4.5 metabolic equivalents (METs) for 150 min per week. Participants will then be categorised as responders or non-responders based on the change in HbA1c. For phase 2, participants will be blocked based on responder status and randomly allocated to a maintained intensity, or increased intensity group for 12 weeks. The maintained group will continue to train at 4.5 METs, while the increased intensity group will train at 6.0 METs for 150 min per week. ETHICS AND DISSEMINATION: Results will be presented at scientific meetings and submitted to peer-reviewed journals. Publications and presentations related to the study will be authorised and reviewed by all investigators. Findings from this study will be used to provide support for future randomised control trials. All experimental procedures have been approved by the Research Ethics Board at the University of New Brunswick (REB: 2018-168). TRIAL REGISTRATION NUMBER: NCT03787836.


Assuntos
Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2 , Estado Pré-Diabético , Canadá , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/terapia , Exercício Físico , Hemoglobina A Glicada/análise , Humanos , Estado Pré-Diabético/terapia
18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33919529

RESUMO

This secondary analysis was designed to evaluate the independent effect of physical activity (PA) on hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c) level in Chinese patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). A total of 799 T2DM patients from eight communities of Shanghai, China, were randomized into one control arm and three intervention arms receiving 1-year interventions of health literacy, exercise, or both. PA was measured using the International Physical Activity Questionnaire at baseline, 12 months, and 24 months and quantified as metabolic equivalents (Mets). A multiple level mixed regression model was applied to evaluate the associations between PA and HbA1c level. After adjusting for potential confounders including interaction of PA level with initial PA or HbA1c, a significant improved HbA1c was observed for the patients in the medium versus the lowest tertile groups of overall PA at 12 months (ß: -3.47, 95%CI: -5.33, -1.60) and for those in the highest versus the lowest tertile group at 24 months (ß: -0.50, 95%CI: -1.00, -0.01), resulting in a ß (95%CI) of -3.49 (95%CI: -5.87, -1.11) during the whole two-year period of follow-up. The negative association was also observed when the subjects were classified according to their exercise levels using the World Health Organization (WHO) recommendation as a cut-off point. The beneficial effect of higher PA level was only observed among patients having a lower level of baseline HbA1c or PA or both (all p values for interaction <0.05). Our results provide evidence for the beneficial effect of PA and suggest that the exercise intervention should be addressed to the physically inactive patients to improve their PA level to a physiological threshold.


Assuntos
Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2 , Glicemia , China , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/terapia , Exercício Físico , Hemoglobina A Glicada/análise , Controle Glicêmico , Humanos
19.
Endocr Pract ; 27(5): 449-454, 2021 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33853718

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To determine whether the use of an inhaled insulin would improve HbA1c. METHODS: This study was performed in 20 type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) participants with HbA1c values ≥7.5 (58) to ≤11.5% (102 mmol/mol) on a variety of glucose-lowering regimens. Prandial Technosphere insulin (TI) was rapidly titrated based on a treatment algorithm using postprandial blood glucose to calculate premeal doses. A 2-week baseline period was followed by 12 weeks of active treatment with TI. The primary outcome was change in HbA1c. Secondary outcomes included glucose time in range (time in range: 70-180 mg/dL) obtained by a blinded continuous glucose monitoring during the baseline period and at the end of 12 weeks. Goals were to assess how to rapidly and safely initiate TI intensification, determine dosing requirements, and establish an effective dose range in uncontrolled T2DM. RESULTS: Mean HbA1c decreased by -1.6% (-17 mmol/mol) from 9.0% (75 mmol/mol) at baseline to 7.4% (57 mmol/mol) at 12 weeks (P < .0001). Mean time in range increased from 42.2% to 65.7% (P < .0002). Mean prandial doses of TI were 18 or 19 units for all meals. Time below range was 1.1% baseline and 2.6% post treatment (P = .01). CONCLUSION: Treatment with inhaled TI dosed using a simple algorithm improved glycemic control measured by both HbA1c and time in range, with low rates of hypoglycemia. These data add significantly to understanding TI in the management of T2DM patients for whom prandial insulin is a consideration.


Assuntos
Glicemia , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2 , Automonitorização da Glicemia , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/tratamento farmacológico , Hemoglobina A Glicada/análise , Humanos , Hipoglicemiantes , Insulina , Insulina Glargina , Resultado do Tratamento
20.
Nutrients ; 13(3)2021 Mar 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33806867

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Diet has been associated with poor glycemic control in diabetes. Few studies have examined this association in people with type 1 diabetes (T1D), who are at a higher risk for cardiovascular disease than people without diabetes. METHODS: We report data from cross-sectional and longitudinal analyses from a coronary artery calcification in type 1 diabetes (CACTI) study (n = 1257; T1D: n = 568; non-diabetic controls: n = 689) collected between the years 2000 and 2002. Participants completed a validated food frequency questionnaire, a physical examination, and biochemical analyses. Dietary patterns based on variations in food group intake were created with principal components analysis. Linear regression was used to examine the associations of dietary patterns, macronutrients, and food groups with HbA1c in a model adjusted for relevant covariates and stratified by diabetes status. RESULTS: Three dietary patterns were identified: "fruits, veggies, meats, cereal", "baked desserts" and "convenience foods and alcohol" patterns. At baseline, a higher intake of the "baked dessert" pattern was significantly associated with higher HbA1c in T1D at baseline as well at year 6 of the study when adjusted for age, sex, BMI, total calories, and diabetes duration. No such associations were observed in the case of non-diabetic controls. Dietary saturated fats and animal fats were also positively associated with HbA1c in adults with T1D at baseline and/or at year 6. CONCLUSIONS: The habitual intake of a dietary pattern that is characterized by an increased intake of added sugar and saturated fats, such as in baked desserts, may increase risks of poor glycemic control in T1D.


Assuntos
Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 1/complicações , Hemoglobina A Glicada/análise , Nutrientes/análise , Adulto , Idoso , Estudos Transversais , Depressão , Transtorno Depressivo Maior , Dieta Mediterrânea , Gorduras na Dieta/análise , Ingestão de Energia , Feminino , Frutas/química , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Prospectivos , Inquéritos e Questionários
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