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1.
BMJ Case Rep ; 14(2)2021 Feb 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33568413

RESUMO

Cocaine, an alkaloid, is an addictive drug and its abuse as a recreational drug is on the increasing side with its associated complications. Gastrointestinal complications, after cocaine abuse, are less known and need to be addressed since the abuse is on the rise and the existing evidence is scarce. We report a case of a 22-year-old male patient who presented with abdominal pain following a cocaine injection. On examination, signs of peritonitis were noted and laparotomy revealed a 2×1 cm perforation in the distal ileum. The unhealthy intestinal segment was resected and taken out as a double-barrel ileostomy. The patient had an episode of severe lower gastrointestinal bleeding on postoperative day 6. CT and colonoscopy revealed signs of ischaemic bowel and tissue biopsy showed oedematous, inflamed and haemorrhagic bowel mucosa. The patient was managed conservatively and is doing well under follow-up in a de-addiction centre.


Assuntos
Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Cocaína/complicações , Hemorragia Gastrointestinal/induzido quimicamente , Hemorragia Gastrointestinal/cirurgia , Perfuração Intestinal/induzido quimicamente , Perfuração Intestinal/cirurgia , Doenças Raras/diagnóstico , Doenças Raras/cirurgia , Adulto , Humanos , Masculino , Resultado do Tratamento , Adulto Jovem
2.
Ann Intern Med ; 174(1): JC4, 2021 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33395330

RESUMO

SOURCE CITATION: Mahady SE, Margolis KL, Chan A, et al. Major GI bleeding in older persons using aspirin: incidence and risk factors in the ASPREE randomised controlled trial. Gut. 2020. [Epub ahead of print.] 32747412.


Assuntos
Aspirina , Prevenção Primária , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Aspirina/efeitos adversos , Hemorragia Gastrointestinal/induzido quimicamente , Hemorragia Gastrointestinal/prevenção & controle , Humanos , Incidência , Fatores de Risco
3.
Cochrane Database Syst Rev ; 1: CD013133, 2021 01 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33448032

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Symptomatic patent ductus arteriosus (PDA) is associated with mortality and morbidity in preterm infants. In these infants, prophylactic use of indomethacin, a non-selective cyclooxygenase inhibitor, has demonstrated short-term clinical benefits. The effect of indomethacin in preterm infants with a symptomatic PDA remains unexplored. OBJECTIVES: To determine the effectiveness and safety of indomethacin (given by any route) compared to placebo or no treatment in reducing mortality and morbidity in preterm infants with a symptomatic PDA. SEARCH METHODS: We used the standard search strategy of Cochrane Neonatal to search Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL; 2020, Issue 7), in the Cochrane Library; Ovid MEDLINE(R) and Epub Ahead of Print, In-Process & Other Non-Indexed Citations, Daily and Versions(R); and Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature (CINAHL), on 31 July 2020. We also searched clinical trials databases and the reference lists of retrieved articles for randomized controlled trials (RCTs) and quasi-RCTs. SELECTION CRITERIA: We included RCTs and quasi-RCTs that compared indomethacin (any dose, any route) versus placebo or no treatment in preterm infants. DATA COLLECTION AND ANALYSIS: We used the standard methods of Cochrane Neonatal, with separate evaluation of trial quality and data extraction by at least two review authors. We used the GRADE approach to assess the certainty of evidence for the following outcomes: failure of PDA closure within one week of administration of the first dose of indomethacin; bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD) at 28 days' postnatal age and at 36 weeks' postmenstrual age; proportion of infants requiring surgical ligation or transcatheter occlusion; all-cause neonatal mortality; necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC) (≥ Bell stage 2); and mucocutaneous or gastrointestinal bleeding. MAIN RESULTS: We included 14 RCTs (880 preterm infants). Four out of the 14 included studies were judged to have high risk of bias in one or more domains. Indomethacin administration was associated with a large reduction in failure of PDA closure within one week of administration of the first dose (risk ratio (RR) 0.30, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.23 to 0.38; risk difference (RD) -0.52, 95% CI -0.58 to -0.45; 10 studies, 654 infants; high-certainty evidence). There may be little to no difference in the incidence of BPD (BPD defined as supplemental oxygen need at 28 days' postnatal age: RR 1.45, 95% CI 0.60 to 3.51; 1 study, 55 infants; low-certainty evidence; BPD defined as supplemental oxygen need at 36 weeks' postmenstrual age: RR 0.80, 95% CI 0.41 to 1.55; 1 study, 92 infants; low-certainty evidence) and probably little to no difference in mortality (RR 0.78, 95% CI 0.46 to 1.33; 8 studies, 314 infants; moderate-certainty evidence) with use of indomethacin for symptomatic PDA. No differences were demonstrated in the need for surgical PDA ligation (RR 0.66, 95% CI 0.33 to 1.29; 7 studies, 275 infants; moderate-certainty evidence), in NEC (RR 1.27, 95% CI 0.36 to 4.55; 2 studies, 147 infants; low-certainty evidence), or in mucocutaneous or gastrointestinal bleeding (RR 0.33, 95% CI 0.01 to 7.58; 2 studies, 119 infants; low-certainty evidence) with use of indomethacin compared to placebo or no treatment. Certainty of evidence for BPD, surgical PDA ligation, NEC, and mucocutaneous or gastrointestinal bleeding was downgraded for very serious or serious imprecision. AUTHORS' CONCLUSIONS: High-certainty evidence shows that indomethacin is effective in closing a symptomatic PDA compared to placebo or no treatment in preterm infants. Evidence is insufficient regarding effects of indomethacin on other clinically relevant outcomes and medication-related adverse effects.


Assuntos
Inibidores de Ciclo-Oxigenase/uso terapêutico , Permeabilidade do Canal Arterial/tratamento farmacológico , Indometacina/uso terapêutico , Viés , Displasia Broncopulmonar/epidemiologia , Causas de Morte , Inibidores de Ciclo-Oxigenase/administração & dosagem , Inibidores de Ciclo-Oxigenase/efeitos adversos , Permeabilidade do Canal Arterial/mortalidade , Permeabilidade do Canal Arterial/cirurgia , Enterocolite Necrosante/induzido quimicamente , Hemorragia Gastrointestinal/induzido quimicamente , Humanos , Incidência , Indometacina/administração & dosagem , Indometacina/efeitos adversos , Recém-Nascido de Baixo Peso , Recém-Nascido , Recém-Nascido Prematuro , Ligadura/estatística & dados numéricos , Oxigenoterapia/estatística & dados numéricos , Placebos/uso terapêutico , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto/estatística & dados numéricos
5.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33375495

RESUMO

Background: Non-vitamin K antagonist oral anticoagulants (NOACs) are more commonly used to prevent atrial fibrillation (AF) patients from thromboembolic events than vitamin K antagonists (VKAs). However, the gastrointestinal bleeding (GIB) risk in the Asian AF patients associated with NOACs in comparison with VKAs remained unaddressed. Materials and Methods: A systematic search of studies on NOACs and VKAs in the Asian AF patients was conducted in PubMed, Cochrane Library, and ClinicalTrials.gov. The primary outcome was the hazard ratio (HR) of any GIB associated with NOACs versus VKAs. The secondary outcome was the GIB risks in different kinds of NOACs compared with VKAs. Results: This meta-analysis included two randomized controlled trials (RCTs) and four retrospective studies, comprising at least 200,000 patients in total. A significantly lower HR of GIB risks was found in all kinds of NOACs than VKAs in the Asian AF patients (HR: 0.633; 95% confidence interval: 0.535-0.748; p < 0.001). Additionally, the GIB risks of different NOACs were apixaban (HR: 0.392), edoxaban (HR: 0.603), dabigatran (HR: 0.685), and rivaroxaban (HR: 0.794), respectively. Conclusions: NOACs significantly reduced the risk of GIB in the Asian AF patients compared with VKAs. In the four NOACs compared with VKAs, apixaban probably had a trend of the least GIB risk. We need further head-to-head studies of different NOACs to confirm which NOAC is the most suitable for Asian AF patients and to know the optimal dosage regimen of different NOACs.


Assuntos
Anticoagulantes/efeitos adversos , Fibrilação Atrial , Hemorragia Gastrointestinal/induzido quimicamente , Vitamina K/antagonistas & inibidores , Administração Oral , Fibrilação Atrial/complicações , Fibrilação Atrial/tratamento farmacológico , Hemorragia Gastrointestinal/epidemiologia , Humanos , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto , Estudos Retrospectivos
6.
Ter Arkh ; 92(9): 30-38, 2020 Oct 14.
Artigo em Russo | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33346428

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Upper gastrointestinal (UGI) bleeding is a common complication of antiplatelet therapy. Data from real clinical practice that characterize the range of risk factors for UGI bleeding, prophylactic proton pump inhibitors (PPIs) therapy, bleeding frequency and their long-term effects in patients with stable coronary artery disease (CAD) are limited. AIM: To identify predictors of UGI bleeding in patients with stable CAD, to assess the role of PPI in the prevention of bleeding and the long-term prognosis of patients after bleeding. MATERIALS AND METHODS: 934 patients with stable CAD (median age 61 [5368] years, 78.6% men) were included in the single institution prospective REGistry of Long-term AnTithrombotic TherApy (REGATTA). Atherosclerosis of peripheral arteries (APA) and abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA) screening was performed by doctor decision, as well as esophagogastroduodenoscopy. 76% of patients received dual antiplatelet therapy for 612 months after elective PCI. PPIs were prescribed in 28.3% of cases. RESULTS: The median follow-up was 2.5 [1.15.1] years. The frequency of overt UGI bleeding was 1.9 per 100 patients per year. Anamnesis of peptic ulcer disease (OR 4.7; 95% CI 1.911.8;p=0.001), erosion of the upper gastrointestinal tract (OR 6.7; 2.716.6;p=0.00004 ), as well as concomitant diseases associated with a decrease in blood supply to the mucosa, such as heart failure HF (OR 6.1; 2.316.0;p=0.0002), AAA (OR 9.3; 2.534.2;p=0.0008) and APA (OR 2.3; 0.985.5;p=0.05) turned out to be independent predictors of UGI bleeding. The frequency of AAA among those who underwent UGI bleeding was 19.6% (in patients without bleeding 1.4%;p0.001). 90.2% of patients with UGI bleeding received PPI; the frequency of UGI bleeding in patients receiving pantoprazole and omeprazole did not differ significantly. After UGI bleeding, rebleeding rate was 7.8%, thrombotic events (TE) rate 31.4%, mortality rate 17.7% for 30 days, 19.4% for 1 year and 35.3% for the entire observation period. The predictors of deaths were AAA (OR 92.5; 7.7107.9;p0.0001), APA (OR 4.2; 1.0317.2;p=0.045) and HF (OR 34.5; 8.5140.6;p0.0001). The worst prognosis was expected for patients who underwent UGI bleeding and thrombotic events: 2/3 of these patients died. CONCLUSION: In a prospective analysis of patients with stable CAD, we identified UGI bleeding was a significant risk factor for late thromboembolism and death, compared with patients without bleeding. Predictors of UGI bleeding and poor prognosis are factors that indicate atherothrombotic burden abdominal aortic aneurysm, peripheral atherosclerosis and HF. Registration: URL: https://www.clinicaltrials.gov; Unique identifier: NCT04347200.


Assuntos
Doença da Artéria Coronariana , Intervenção Coronária Percutânea , Feminino , Fibrinolíticos/efeitos adversos , Hemorragia Gastrointestinal/induzido quimicamente , Hemorragia Gastrointestinal/diagnóstico , Hemorragia Gastrointestinal/epidemiologia , Humanos , Masculino , Inibidores da Bomba de Prótons/efeitos adversos , Sistema de Registros , Fatores de Risco
7.
Kardiologiia ; 60(7): 115-124, 2020 Aug 11.
Artigo em Russo | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33155950

RESUMO

The review focuses on upper gastrointestinal (GI) bleeding in patients with ischemic heart disease (IHD) receiving an antithrombotic therapy. Approaches to risk stratification for GI bleeding and correction of modifiable factors that determine the probability of such events are addressed in detail. Recommendations are provided for administration of stomach-protecting drugs. The interrelation of risk factors for thromboses and bleedings is stressed, and possible indications for a multicomponent antithrombotic therapy in patients with stable IHD are discussed.


Assuntos
Doença da Artéria Coronariana , Isquemia Miocárdica , Trombose , Anticoagulantes , Doença da Artéria Coronariana/complicações , Doença da Artéria Coronariana/tratamento farmacológico , Fibrinolíticos/efeitos adversos , Hemorragia Gastrointestinal/induzido quimicamente , Hemorragia Gastrointestinal/prevenção & controle , Humanos , Isquemia Miocárdica/complicações , Isquemia Miocárdica/tratamento farmacológico , Inibidores da Agregação de Plaquetas/efeitos adversos , Fatores de Risco , Trombose/tratamento farmacológico
8.
Kardiologiia ; 60(7): 125-135, 2020 Aug 11.
Artigo em Russo | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33155951

RESUMO

Extensive use of antithrombotic drugs (ATD) in patients with ischemic heart disease (IHD), on the one hand, provides a considerable decrease in the risk for development of life-threatening cardiovascular complications but on the other hand, is associated with a risk of gastrointestinal bleedings (GIB), which may develop in 0.5-1.0 % of patients. In such cases, the major measures for prevention of GIB are strict adherence to indications for the ATD treatment, detection and analysis of risk factors for GIB and their elimination as far as feasible. For evaluation of GIB risk in patients with IHD, the PRECISE-DAPT and DAPT, HAS-BLED scales should be used. If the risk factors are non-modifiable the therapeutic tactics for further management of these patients should be strictly individual with determining the nature of damage, degree of a risk for present and possible complications, and the range of required therapeutic and diagnostic measures. The use of ATD requires monitoring of the patient's condition to timely detect and treat GI complications.


Assuntos
Doença das Coronárias , Inibidores da Agregação de Plaquetas , Hemorragia Gastrointestinal/induzido quimicamente , Hemorragia Gastrointestinal/prevenção & controle , Humanos , Inibidores da Agregação de Plaquetas/efeitos adversos , Estudos Retrospectivos , Fatores de Risco
10.
Vnitr Lek ; 66(3): 169-179, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32972161

RESUMO

Proton pump inhibitors (PPIs) are popular and widely used “gastroprotectives”. More than 10% of our population is treated. In addition to classical indications such as gastroduodenal peptic disease or gastroesophageal reflux disease, they are indicated for the reduction of hemorrhagic complications in the digestive tract during antithrombotic treatment. The effect of PPIs on reducing upper gastrointestinal bleeding in antithrombotic treatment (rivaroxaban, acetylsalicylic acid or a combination) was called into question by a recently published randomised mega-study - COMPASS pantoprazole. Treatment of PPIs is accompanied by a number of significant drug interactions, in particular a severe reduction in  the bioactivation of clopidogrel and a reduction in the absorption of acetylsalicylic acid or dabigatran. As a result, the effect of these antithrombotics is reduced. A number of observational studies - in the indication of PPIs in the treatment of gastroduodenal or gastrooesophageal disease or when used in the treatment of PPIs in antithrombotic treatment - found a greater incidence of major vascular events and an increase in mortality. So are PPIs effective in protecting gastrointestinal bleeding and are they safe?


Assuntos
Fibrinolíticos , Inibidores da Bomba de Prótons , Aspirina , Clopidogrel , Interações Medicamentosas , Fibrinolíticos/efeitos adversos , Hemorragia Gastrointestinal/induzido quimicamente , Hemorragia Gastrointestinal/prevenção & controle , Humanos
11.
Am Heart J ; 228: 8-16, 2020 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32745734

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Gastrointestinal injury is a common complication in patients treated with antiplatelet agents after percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI). However, the effects of different antiplatelet regimens on the incidence and severity of gastrointestinal injury have not been well studied, principally due to the lack of a low-risk sensitive and accurate detection system. TRIAL DESIGN: OPT-PEACE is a multicenter, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial. Gastrointestinal injury will be evaluated with the ANKON magnetically controlled capsule endoscopy system (AMCE), a minimally invasive approach for detecting mucosal lesions in the stomach, duodenum and small intestine. Patients without AMCE-detected gastrointestinal erosions, ulceration or bleeding after drug-eluting stent implantation are enrolled and treated with open-label aspirin (100 mg/d) plus clopidogrel (75 mg/d) for 6 months. Thereafter, 480 event-free patients will undergo repeat AMCE and are randomly assigned in a 1:1:1 ratio to receive aspirin plus clopidogrel, aspirin plus placebo or clopidogrel plus placebo for an additional 6 months. A final AMCE is performed at 12 months. The primary endpoint is the incidence of gastric or intestinal mucosal lesions (erosions, ulceration, or bleeding) within 12 months after enrollment. CONCLUSIONS: OPT-PEACE is the first study to investigate the incidence and severity of gastrointestinal injury in patients receiving different antiplatelet therapy regimens after stent implantation. This trial will inform clinical decision-making for personalized antiplatelet therapy post-PCI.


Assuntos
Aspirina , Endoscopia por Cápsula/métodos , Clopidogrel , Doença da Artéria Coronariana , Hemorragia Gastrointestinal , Intervenção Coronária Percutânea , Adulto , Aspirina/administração & dosagem , Aspirina/efeitos adversos , Clopidogrel/administração & dosagem , Clopidogrel/efeitos adversos , Angiografia Coronária/métodos , Doença da Artéria Coronariana/diagnóstico , Doença da Artéria Coronariana/tratamento farmacológico , Doença da Artéria Coronariana/cirurgia , Método Duplo-Cego , Stents Farmacológicos , Terapia Antiplaquetária Dupla/métodos , Feminino , Hemorragia Gastrointestinal/induzido quimicamente , Hemorragia Gastrointestinal/diagnóstico , Hemorragia Gastrointestinal/prevenção & controle , Humanos , Masculino , Avaliação de Processos e Resultados em Cuidados de Saúde , Intervenção Coronária Percutânea/instrumentação , Inibidores da Agregação de Plaquetas/administração & dosagem , Inibidores da Agregação de Plaquetas/efeitos adversos , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto , Risco Ajustado/métodos
13.
PLoS One ; 15(8): e0237022, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32764775

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Major bleedings other than gastrointestinal (GI) and intracranial (ICH) and mortality rates associated with antiplatelet drugs in real-world clinical practice are unknown. The objective was to estimate major bleeding risk and mortality among new users of antiplatelet drugs in real-world clinical practice. METHODS AND FINDINGS: A population-based prospective cohort using the French national health data system (SNIIRAM), identified 69,911 adults living within five well-defined geographical areas, who were new users of antiplatelet drugs in 2013-2015 and who had not received any antithrombotics in 2012. Among them, 63,600 started a monotherapy and 6,311 a dual regimen. Clinical data for all adults referred for bleeding was collected from all emergency departments within these areas, and medically validated. Databases were linked using common key variables. The main outcome measure was time to major bleeding (GI, ICH and other bleedings). Secondary outcomes were death, and event-free survival (EFS). Hazard ratios (HR) were derived from adjusted Cox proportional hazard models. We used Inverse Propensity of Treatment Weighting as a stratified sensitivity analysis according to the antiplatelet monotherapy indication: primary prevention without cardiovascular (CV) risk factors, with CV risk factors, and secondary prevention. We observed 250 (0.36%) major haemorrhages, 81 ICH, 106 GI and 63 other types of bleeding. Incidences were twice as high in dual therapy as in monotherapy. Compared to low-dose aspirin (≤ 100 mg daily), high-dose (> 100 up to 325 mg daily) was associated with an increased risk of ICH (HR = 1.80, 95%CI 1.10 to 2.95). EFS was improved by high-dose compared to low-dose aspirin (1.41, 1.04 to 1.90 and 1.32, 1.03 to 1.68) and clopidogrel (1.30, 0.73 to 2.3 and 1.7, 1.24 to 2.34) respectively in primary prevention with and without CV risk factors. CONCLUSION: The incidence of major bleeding and mortality was low. In monotherapy, low-dose aspirin was the safest therapeutic option whatever the indication. TRIAL REGISTRATION: NCT02886533.


Assuntos
Hemorragia/induzido quimicamente , Hemorragia/mortalidade , Inibidores da Agregação de Plaquetas/efeitos adversos , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Aspirina/administração & dosagem , Aspirina/efeitos adversos , Clopidogrel/administração & dosagem , Clopidogrel/efeitos adversos , Estudos de Coortes , Bases de Dados Factuais , Quimioterapia Combinada , Feminino , França/epidemiologia , Hemorragia Gastrointestinal/induzido quimicamente , Hemorragia Gastrointestinal/epidemiologia , Hemorragia Gastrointestinal/mortalidade , Hemorragia/epidemiologia , Humanos , Incidência , Hemorragias Intracranianas/induzido quimicamente , Hemorragias Intracranianas/epidemiologia , Hemorragias Intracranianas/mortalidade , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Avaliação de Resultados em Cuidados de Saúde , Inibidores da Agregação de Plaquetas/administração & dosagem , Estudos Prospectivos , Fatores de Risco , Adulto Jovem
14.
Aliment Pharmacol Ther ; 52(4): 646-654, 2020 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32657466

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Gastrointestinal bleeding (GIB) frequently occurs following percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) for acute coronary syndrome (ACS) with the prescription of P2Y12 inhibiting antiplatelet agents. Compared with clopidogrel, the newer P2Y12 inhibitors lower major adverse cardiac events with similar or possibly higher major bleeding events. The comparative GIB rates of these medications remain poorly understood. AIM: To compare GIB rates associated with clopidogrel, prasugrel and ticagrelor using national medical and pharmacy claims data from privately insured and Medicare Advantage enrollees . METHODS: Propensity score and inverse probability treatment weighting were used to balance baseline characteristics among treatment groups. The 1-year GIB risk was calculated using weighted Cox proportional hazard models and expressed as hazard ratios (HR) with 95% confidence intervals (CI) and number needed to harm (NNH). RESULTS: We identified 37 019 patients with ACS (non-ST elevation ACS [NSTE-ACS] and ST-elevation myocardial infarction [STEMI]) within 14 days of a PCI (mean age 63 years and 70% male). Clopidogrel prescription was most common (69%) with prasugrel (16%) and ticagrelor (14%) prescribed less frequently. When compared with clopidogrel, ticagrelor was associated with a 34% risk reduction (HR 0.66; 95% CI: 0.54-0.81) in GIB overall and with NSTE-ACS, and a 37% GIB risk reduction (HR 0.63; 95% CI: 0.42-0.93) in STEMI patients. When compared with clopidogrel, prasugrel was associated with a 21% risk reduction (HR 0.79; 95% CI: 0.64-0.97) overall, a 36% GIB risk reduction (HR 0.64; 95% CI: 0.49-0.85) in STEMI patients but no reduction of GIB risk in NSTE-ACS patients. CONCLUSIONS: In the first year following PCI, ticagrelor or prasugrel are associated with fewer GIB events than clopidogrel.


Assuntos
Síndrome Coronariana Aguda/tratamento farmacológico , Síndrome Coronariana Aguda/cirurgia , Clopidogrel/efeitos adversos , Hemorragia Gastrointestinal/induzido quimicamente , Intervenção Coronária Percutânea , Cloridrato de Prasugrel/efeitos adversos , Ticagrelor/efeitos adversos , Síndrome Coronariana Aguda/epidemiologia , Idoso , Clopidogrel/uso terapêutico , Estudos de Coortes , Feminino , Hemorragia Gastrointestinal/epidemiologia , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Intervenção Coronária Percutânea/efeitos adversos , Intervenção Coronária Percutânea/métodos , Inibidores da Agregação de Plaquetas/efeitos adversos , Complicações Pós-Operatórias/induzido quimicamente , Complicações Pós-Operatórias/epidemiologia , Complicações Pós-Operatórias/prevenção & controle , Cloridrato de Prasugrel/uso terapêutico , Estudos Retrospectivos , Tromboembolia/epidemiologia , Tromboembolia/prevenção & controle , Ticagrelor/uso terapêutico , Resultado do Tratamento , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia
15.
Orv Hetil ; 161(30): 1231-1242, 2020 07.
Artigo em Húngaro | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32653866

RESUMO

Gastrointestinal bleeding has a profound impact on public health due to its high prevalence and severity. With the elderly population taking more anticoagulants/antiaggregants/non-steroid anti-inflammatory drugs, the digestive bleeding will certainly raise more and more challenges in quantity as well as in severity for the public healthcare system. The emergency medicine specialists and gastroenterologists have a central role in the management of patients presenting with gastrointestinal bleeding. In certain cases, radiologists, invasive radiologists, intensive care specialists and surgeons should also be involved in the decision making process and management of patients. Therefore, Hungarian experts felt the need to elaborate a comprehensive, multidisciplinary, practical local guideline reflecting the frequently arisen aspects based on current international guidelines. This guideline proposal covers topics of basic requirements, initial assessment of patients, risk evaluation, laboratory tests, hemodynamic resuscitation in the case of gastrointestinal bleeding followed by its consecutive steps of diagnosis and therapy sorted by location of the source of the hemorrhage. The authors give practical instructions for unsuccessful hemostasis or rebleeding. Finally, the role of surgery is also summarized in the management of gastrointestinal bleeding. Orv Hetil. 2020; 161(30): 1231-1242.


Assuntos
Anticoagulantes/efeitos adversos , Hemorragia Gastrointestinal , Equipe de Assistência ao Paciente , Guias de Prática Clínica como Assunto , Doença Aguda , Idoso , Anticoagulantes/administração & dosagem , Hemorragia Gastrointestinal/induzido quimicamente , Hemorragia Gastrointestinal/diagnóstico , Hemorragia Gastrointestinal/terapia , Humanos , Hungria
16.
Dig Dis Sci ; 65(8): 2181-2186, 2020 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32537704

RESUMO

Coronavirus disease of 2019 (COVID-19) can be associated with high morbidity and mortality; patients with severe clinical manifestations may develop significant coagulopathy as well as unexpected thromboembolic complications. In response, centers are increasingly treating selected patients with intermediate-dose prophylactic or even therapeutic dose anticoagulation in order to prevent potentially catastrophic thrombotic complications. With this changing practice, the authors suspect that inpatient gastrointestinal consult teams across the country will be frequently managing COVID-19 patients with gastrointestinal bleeding (GIB). In order to reduce potentially avoidable hospital readmissions for GIB while improving patient outcomes, it is imperative to appropriately risk-stratify patients prior to initiation of anticoagulation. In this review, we discuss how to appropriately identify high-risk patients for GIB and how to mitigate GIB risk with proton-pump inhibitor co-therapy, medication reconciliation, and Helicobacter pylori testing and treating in this complex and morbid population.


Assuntos
Anticoagulantes/efeitos adversos , Transtornos da Coagulação Sanguínea , Infecções por Coronavirus/sangue , Hemorragia Gastrointestinal , Pneumonia Viral/sangue , Inibidores da Bomba de Prótons/uso terapêutico , Risco Ajustado/métodos , Anticoagulantes/administração & dosagem , Betacoronavirus/isolamento & purificação , Transtornos da Coagulação Sanguínea/prevenção & controle , Transtornos da Coagulação Sanguínea/virologia , Quimioprevenção/métodos , Quimioprevenção/normas , Hemorragia Gastrointestinal/induzido quimicamente , Hemorragia Gastrointestinal/prevenção & controle , Humanos , Pandemias
17.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 99(20): e20307, 2020 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32443379

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Uncertainty remains regarding the impact of enteric-coated (EC) aspirin as it relates to the reduction of cardiovascular risk. We hypothesize that EC formulation based on a previous report may blunt aspirin response as evidenced by reduced Thromboxane A2 (TXA 2) levels in diabetic patients. Thus, it was imperative to ascertain and validate the effect of the EC formulation of Aspirin on the Thromboxane B2 (TXB2) level. METHODS/DESIGN: An open-label consecutive randomized interventional controlled trial. Patients with newly diagnosed ischemic stroke who are just about to start Aspirin were assessed for eligibility and inclusion in our trial. Consecutive patients (admitted to the stroke unit of Hamad General Hospital, Hamad Medical Corporation, Doha, Qatar) will be randomized to receive either EC aspirin or plain Aspirin. They will be required to continue taking them throughout the study (3 days). Demographics and laboratory records of the study participants will be abstracted from online records. Further study variables will be obtained manually in designated case record forms (CRF). The primary outcomes are the incidence of aspirin non-responders (level of residual serum TXB2 associated with elevated thrombotic risk (<99.0% inhibition or TXB2 >3.1 ng/mL) within 72 h after three daily aspirin doses). Whereas secondary outcomes are the incidence of GIT bleeding of various preparations of Aspirin. The study was approved by MRC and IRB of Hamad Medical Corporation (MRC number: 01-18-156). DISCUSSION: This trial will determine potential differences in the efficacy of EC Aspirin and plain Aspirin on the Thromboxane B2 level. Additionally, it will ascertain the tolerability and safety of both formulations of Aspirin in patients with newly diagnosed ischemic stroke. These results will either support the current notion of no difference between the two formulations. However, if a difference is found, this will invite for future trials exploring clinical outcomes occurrence between various formulations. CLINICAL TRIAL REGISTRATION: Clinicaltrials.gov NCT04330872 registered on April 2, 2020.


Assuntos
Aspirina/uso terapêutico , Isquemia Encefálica/tratamento farmacológico , Inibidores da Agregação de Plaquetas/uso terapêutico , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/tratamento farmacológico , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Aspirina/administração & dosagem , Aspirina/efeitos adversos , Plaquetas/efeitos dos fármacos , Feminino , Hemorragia Gastrointestinal/induzido quimicamente , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Inibidores da Agregação de Plaquetas/administração & dosagem , Inibidores da Agregação de Plaquetas/efeitos adversos , Método Simples-Cego , Fatores Socioeconômicos , Comprimidos com Revestimento Entérico , Tromboxano B2/sangue , Adulto Jovem
18.
Am J Emerg Med ; 38(8): 1696.e3-1696.e5, 2020 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32327246

RESUMO

Spontaneous intramural hematoma of the alimentary canal has rarely been reported. We present two cases in which anticoagulation therapy brings spontaneous intramural hematoma of the alimentary canal. In one case, the lesion was located in the ileum, and the other was located in the ascending colon and distal ileum. Both patients were cured through conservative treatment. We suggest that increased attention should be paid if a patient has acute abdominal pain with a history of oral anticoagulant therapy, and the diagnosis of spontaneous intermural hematoma should be considered.


Assuntos
Doenças do Colo/diagnóstico por imagem , Hemorragia Gastrointestinal/diagnóstico , Hematoma/diagnóstico , Doenças do Íleo/diagnóstico , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Anticoagulantes/efeitos adversos , Doenças do Colo/induzido quimicamente , Feminino , Hemorragia Gastrointestinal/induzido quimicamente , Hemorragia Gastrointestinal/diagnóstico por imagem , Hematoma/induzido quimicamente , Hematoma/diagnóstico por imagem , Humanos , Doenças do Íleo/induzido quimicamente , Doenças do Íleo/diagnóstico por imagem , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Tomografia Computadorizada por Raios X , Ultrassonografia
20.
N Engl J Med ; 382(11): 1018-1028, 2020 03 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32160663

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: More information is needed about the long-term effects of low-dose aspirin (≤160 mg) on incident hepatocellular carcinoma, liver-related mortality, and gastrointestinal bleeding in persons with chronic hepatitis B or hepatitis C virus infection. METHODS: Using nationwide Swedish registries, we identified all adults who received a diagnosis of chronic hepatitis B or hepatitis C from 2005 through 2015 and who did not have a history of aspirin use (50,275 patients). Patients who were starting to take low-dose aspirin (14,205 patients) were identified by their first filled prescriptions for 90 or more consecutive doses of aspirin. We constructed a propensity score and applied inverse probability of treatment weighting to balance baseline characteristics between groups. Using Cox proportional-hazards regression modeling, we estimated the risk of hepatocellular carcinoma and liver-related mortality, accounting for competing events. RESULTS: With a median of 7.9 years of follow-up, the estimated cumulative incidence of hepatocellular carcinoma was 4.0% among aspirin users and 8.3% among nonusers of aspirin (difference, -4.3 percentage points; 95% confidence interval [CI], -5.0 to -3.6; adjusted hazard ratio, 0.69; 95% CI, 0.62 to 0.76). This inverse association appeared to be duration-dependent; as compared with short-term use (3 months to <1 year), the adjusted hazard ratios were 0.90 (95% CI, 0.76 to 1.06) for 1 to less than 3 years of use, 0.66 (95% CI, 0.56 to 0.78) for 3 to less than 5 years of use, and 0.57 (95% CI, 0.42 to 0.70) for 5 or more years of use. Ten-year liver-related mortality was 11.0% among aspirin users and 17.9% among nonusers (difference, -6.9 percentage points [95% CI, -8.1 to -5.7]; adjusted hazard ratio, 0.73 [95% CI, 0.67 to 0.81]). However, the 10-year risk of gastrointestinal bleeding did not differ significantly between users and nonusers of aspirin (7.8% and 6.9%, respectively; difference, 0.9 percentage points; 95% CI, -0.6 to 2.4). CONCLUSIONS: In a nationwide study of patients with chronic viral hepatitis in Sweden, use of low-dose aspirin was associated with a significantly lower risk of hepatocellular carcinoma and lower liver-related mortality than no use of aspirin, without a significantly higher risk of gastrointestinal bleeding. (Funded by the National Institutes of Health and others.).


Assuntos
Anti-Inflamatórios não Esteroides/administração & dosagem , Aspirina/administração & dosagem , Carcinoma Hepatocelular/mortalidade , Hemorragia Gastrointestinal/induzido quimicamente , Hepatite B Crônica/complicações , Hepatite C Crônica/complicações , Neoplasias Hepáticas/mortalidade , Adulto , Anti-Inflamatórios não Esteroides/uso terapêutico , Aspirina/efeitos adversos , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Sistema de Registros , Risco , Suécia/epidemiologia
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