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1.
Arq Bras Cir Dig ; 33(3): e1525, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês, Português | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33331427

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Portal hypertension (PH) can be measured indirectly through a hepatic vein pressure gradient greater than 5 mmHg. Cirrhosis is the leading cause for PH and can present as complications ascites, hepatic dysfunction, renal dysfunction, and esophagogastric varices, characterizing gastropathy. AIM: To evaluate the use of carvedilol as primary prophylaxis in the development of collateral circulation in rats submitted to the partial portal vein ligament (PPVL) model. METHOD: This is a combined qualitative and quantitative experimental study in which 32 Wistar rats were divided into four groups (8 animals in each): group I - cirrhosis + carvedilol (PPVL + C); group II - cirrhosis + vehicle (PPVL); group III - control + carvedilol (SO-sham-operated + C); group IV - control + vehicle (SO-sham-operated). After seven days of the surgical procedure (PPVL or sham), carvedilol (10 mg/kg) or vehicle (1 mL normal saline) were administered to the respective groups daily for seven days. RESULTS: The histological analysis showed no hepatic alteration in any group and a decrease in edema and vasodilatation in the PPVL + C group. The laboratory evaluation of liver function did not show a statistically significant change between the groups. CONCLUSION: Carvedilol was shown to have a positive effect on gastric varices without significant adverse effects.


Assuntos
Antagonistas Adrenérgicos beta/administração & dosagem , Anti-Hipertensivos/administração & dosagem , Carvedilol/administração & dosagem , Hemorragia Gastrointestinal/prevenção & controle , Hipertensão Portal/complicações , Animais , Varizes Esofágicas e Gástricas/complicações , Varizes Esofágicas e Gástricas/prevenção & controle , Hemorragia Gastrointestinal/etiologia , Ratos , Ratos Wistar
2.
Zhonghua Wei Chang Wai Ke Za Zhi ; 23(12): 1149-1154, 2020 Dec 25.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33353268

RESUMO

Anastomotic bleeding is a common complication after colorectal surgery, mainly manifesting as continuous or intermittent bloody stool. The risk factors for anastomotic bleeding mainly include suboptimal surgical skill, surgical methods (such as laparoscopic anastomosis), close distance between the tumor and the anal margin, benign colorectal diseases, anastomotic leakage after colorectal surgery, severe pelvic and abdominal infections, and the patient's own condition, etc. Anastomotic bleeding can be prevented by standardized operation and intraoperative endoscopic examination. Anastomotic bleeding is mostly a self-limited disease, which can be cured by conservative treatments such as fluid resuscitation, blood transfusion and endoscopic treatment. When serious anastomotic bleeding threatens the life of patients, surgical treatment should be taken into consideration decisively.


Assuntos
Anastomose Cirúrgica/efeitos adversos , Procedimentos Cirúrgicos do Sistema Digestório , Hemorragia Gastrointestinal/prevenção & controle , Laparoscopia , Fístula Anastomótica/etiologia , Colo/cirurgia , Procedimentos Cirúrgicos do Sistema Digestório/efeitos adversos , Hemorragia Gastrointestinal/etiologia , Hemorragia Gastrointestinal/terapia , Humanos , Laparoscopia/efeitos adversos , Reto/cirurgia , Fatores de Risco
3.
Kardiologiia ; 60(7): 115-124, 2020 Aug 11.
Artigo em Russo | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33155950

RESUMO

The review focuses on upper gastrointestinal (GI) bleeding in patients with ischemic heart disease (IHD) receiving an antithrombotic therapy. Approaches to risk stratification for GI bleeding and correction of modifiable factors that determine the probability of such events are addressed in detail. Recommendations are provided for administration of stomach-protecting drugs. The interrelation of risk factors for thromboses and bleedings is stressed, and possible indications for a multicomponent antithrombotic therapy in patients with stable IHD are discussed.


Assuntos
Doença da Artéria Coronariana , Isquemia Miocárdica , Trombose , Anticoagulantes , Doença da Artéria Coronariana/complicações , Doença da Artéria Coronariana/tratamento farmacológico , Fibrinolíticos/efeitos adversos , Hemorragia Gastrointestinal/induzido quimicamente , Hemorragia Gastrointestinal/prevenção & controle , Humanos , Isquemia Miocárdica/complicações , Isquemia Miocárdica/tratamento farmacológico , Inibidores da Agregação de Plaquetas/efeitos adversos , Fatores de Risco , Trombose/tratamento farmacológico
4.
Kardiologiia ; 60(7): 125-135, 2020 Aug 11.
Artigo em Russo | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33155951

RESUMO

Extensive use of antithrombotic drugs (ATD) in patients with ischemic heart disease (IHD), on the one hand, provides a considerable decrease in the risk for development of life-threatening cardiovascular complications but on the other hand, is associated with a risk of gastrointestinal bleedings (GIB), which may develop in 0.5-1.0 % of patients. In such cases, the major measures for prevention of GIB are strict adherence to indications for the ATD treatment, detection and analysis of risk factors for GIB and their elimination as far as feasible. For evaluation of GIB risk in patients with IHD, the PRECISE-DAPT and DAPT, HAS-BLED scales should be used. If the risk factors are non-modifiable the therapeutic tactics for further management of these patients should be strictly individual with determining the nature of damage, degree of a risk for present and possible complications, and the range of required therapeutic and diagnostic measures. The use of ATD requires monitoring of the patient's condition to timely detect and treat GI complications.


Assuntos
Doença das Coronárias , Inibidores da Agregação de Plaquetas , Hemorragia Gastrointestinal/induzido quimicamente , Hemorragia Gastrointestinal/prevenção & controle , Humanos , Inibidores da Agregação de Plaquetas/efeitos adversos , Estudos Retrospectivos , Fatores de Risco
6.
Cochrane Database Syst Rev ; 10: CD000553, 2020 10 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33089892

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: People with liver cirrhosis who have had one episode of variceal bleeding are at risk for repeated episodes of bleeding. Endoscopic intervention and portosystemic shunts are used to prevent further bleeding, but there is no consensus as to which approach is preferable. OBJECTIVES: To compare the benefits and harms of shunts (surgical shunts (total shunt (TS), distal splenorenal shunt (DSRS), or transjugular intrahepatic portosystemic shunt (TIPS)) versus endoscopic intervention (endoscopic sclerotherapy or banding, or both) with or without medical treatment (non-selective beta blockers or nitrates, or both) for prevention of variceal rebleeding in people with liver cirrhosis. SEARCH METHODS: We searched the CHBG Controlled Trials Register; CENTRAL, in the Cochrane Library; MEDLINE Ovid; Embase Ovid; LILACS (Bireme); Science Citation Index - Expanded (Web of Science); and Conference Proceedings Citation Index - Science (Web of Science); as well as conference proceedings and the references of trials identified until 22 June 2020. We contacted study investigators and industry researchers. SELECTION CRITERIA: Randomised clinical trials comparing shunts versus endoscopic interventions with or without medical treatment in people with cirrhosis who had recovered from a variceal haemorrhage. DATA COLLECTION AND ANALYSIS: We used standard methodological procedures expected by Cochrane. When possible, we collected data to allow intention-to-treat analysis. For each outcome, we estimated a meta-analysed estimate of treatment effect across trials (risk ratio for binary outcomes). We used random-effects model meta-analysis as our main analysis and as a means of presenting results. We reported differences in means for continuous outcomes without a meta-analytic estimate due to high variability in their assessment among all trials. We assessed the certainty of evidence using GRADE. MAIN RESULTS: We identified 27 randomised trials with 1828 participants. Three trials assessed TSs, five assessed DSRSs, and 19 trials assessed TIPSs. The endoscopic intervention was sclerotherapy in 16 trials, band ligation in eight trials, and a combination of band ligation and either sclerotherapy or glue injection in three trials. In eight trials, endoscopy was combined with beta blockers (in one trial plus isosorbide mononitrate). We judged all trials to be at high risk of bias. We assessed the certainty of evidence for all the outcome review results as very low (i.e. the true effects of the results are likely to be substantially different from the results of estimated effects). The very low evidence grading is due to the overall high risk of bias for all trials, and to imprecision and publication bias for some outcomes. Therefore, we are very uncertain whether portosystemic shunts versus endoscopy interventions with or without medical treatment have effects on all-cause mortality (RR 0.99, 95% CI 0.86 to 1.13; 1828 participants; 27 trials), on rebleeding (RR 0.40, 95% CI 0.33 to 0.50; 1769 participants; 26 trials), on mortality due to rebleeding (RR 0.51, 95% CI 0.34 to 0.76; 1779 participants; 26 trials), and on occurrence of hepatic encephalopathy, both acute (RR 1.60, 95% CI 1.33 to 1.92; 1649 participants; 24 trials) and chronic (RR 2.51, 95% CI 1.38 to 4.55; 956 participants; 13 trials). No data were available regarding health-related quality of life. Analysing each modality of portosystemic shunts individually (i.e. TS, DSRS, and TIPS) versus endoscopic interventions with or without medical treatment, we are very uncertain if each type of shunt has effect on all-cause mortality: TS, RR 0.46, 95% CI 0.19 to 1.13; 164 participants; 3 trials; DSRS, RR 0.93, 95% CI 0.65 to 1.33; 352 participants; 4 trials; and TIPS, RR 1.10, 95% CI 0.92 to 1.31; 1312 participants; 19 trial; on rebleeding: TS, RR 0.28, 95% CI 0.14 to 0.56; 127 participants; 2 trials; DSRS, RR 0.26, 95% CI 0.11 to 0.65; 330 participants; 5 trials; and TIPS, RR 0.44, 95% CI 0.36 to 0.55; 1312 participants; 19 trials; on mortality due to rebleeding: TS, RR 0.25, 95% CI 0.06 to 0.96; 164 participants; 3 trials; DSRS, RR 0.31, 95% CI 0.13 to 0.74; 352 participants; 5 trials; and TIPS, RR 0.65, 95% CI 0.40 to 1.04; 1263 participants; 18 trials; on acute hepatic encephalopathy: TS, RR 1.66, 95% CI 0.70 to 3.92; 115 participants; 2 trials; DSRS, RR 1.70, 95% CI 0.94 to 3.08; 287 participants; 4 trials, TIPS, RR 1.61, 95% CI 1.29 to 1.99; 1247 participants; 18 trials; and chronic hepatic encephalopathy: TS, Fisher's exact test P = 0.11; 69 participants; 1 trial; DSRS, RR 4.87, 95% CI 1.46 to 16.23; 170 participants; 2 trials; and TIPS, RR 1.88, 95% CI 0.93 to 3.80; 717 participants; 10 trials. The proportion of participants with shunt occlusion or dysfunction was overall 37% (95% CI 33% to 40%). It was 3% (95% CI 0.8% to 10%) following TS, 7% (95% CI 3% to 13%) following DSRS, and 47.1% (95% CI 43% to 51%) following TIPS. Shunt dysfunction in trials utilising polytetrafluoroethylene-covered stents was 17% (95% CI 11% to 24%). Length of inpatient hospital stay and cost were not comparable across trials. Funding was unclear in 16 trials; 11 trials were funded by government, local hospitals, or universities. AUTHORS' CONCLUSIONS: Evidence on whether portosystemic shunts versus endoscopy interventions with or without medical treatment in people with cirrhosis and previous hypertensive portal bleeding have little or no effect on all-cause mortality is very uncertain. Evidence on whether portosystemic shunts may reduce bleeding and mortality due to bleeding while increasing hepatic encephalopathy is also very uncertain. We need properly conducted trials to assess effects of these interventions not only on assessed outcomes, but also on quality of life, costs, and length of hospital stay.


Assuntos
Endoscopia/métodos , Varizes Esofágicas e Gástricas/terapia , Hemorragia Gastrointestinal/terapia , Cirrose Hepática/complicações , Derivação Portossistêmica Cirúrgica/métodos , Viés , Causas de Morte , Varizes Esofágicas e Gástricas/prevenção & controle , Hemorragia Gastrointestinal/epidemiologia , Hemorragia Gastrointestinal/prevenção & controle , Encefalopatia Hepática/epidemiologia , Encefalopatia Hepática/etiologia , Humanos , Análise de Intenção de Tratamento , Derivação Portossistêmica Cirúrgica/efeitos adversos , Derivação Portossistêmica Transjugular Intra-Hepática/efeitos adversos , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto , Prevenção Secundária , Derivação Esplenorrenal Cirúrgica/efeitos adversos
7.
Zhonghua Wai Ke Za Zhi ; 58(10): 808-812, 2020 Oct 01.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32993269

RESUMO

Esophagogastric variceal bleeding (EVB) is the most dangerous complication of cirrhotic portal hypertension.With the continuous emergence of research findings on EVB, multiple disciplinary team, including internal medicine department, surgery department, intervention therapy department, radiology department, has become a new mode for the prevention and treatment of EVB. This article first reviewed the classification of esophageal varices and gastric varices, and then reviewed the recent research findings of EVB from three aspects: primary prophylaxis, active variceal bleeding treatment, and secondary prophylaxis.The aim was to provide new ideas for the individualized prevention and treatment of EVB.


Assuntos
Varizes Esofágicas e Gástricas , Hemorragia Gastrointestinal/terapia , Hipertensão Portal , Cirrose Hepática/complicações , Varizes Esofágicas e Gástricas/classificação , Varizes Esofágicas e Gástricas/etiologia , Varizes Esofágicas e Gástricas/terapia , Hemorragia Gastrointestinal/etiologia , Hemorragia Gastrointestinal/prevenção & controle , Humanos , Hipertensão Portal/etiologia , Hipertensão Portal/terapia
9.
Vnitr Lek ; 66(3): 169-179, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32972161

RESUMO

Proton pump inhibitors (PPIs) are popular and widely used “gastroprotectives”. More than 10% of our population is treated. In addition to classical indications such as gastroduodenal peptic disease or gastroesophageal reflux disease, they are indicated for the reduction of hemorrhagic complications in the digestive tract during antithrombotic treatment. The effect of PPIs on reducing upper gastrointestinal bleeding in antithrombotic treatment (rivaroxaban, acetylsalicylic acid or a combination) was called into question by a recently published randomised mega-study - COMPASS pantoprazole. Treatment of PPIs is accompanied by a number of significant drug interactions, in particular a severe reduction in  the bioactivation of clopidogrel and a reduction in the absorption of acetylsalicylic acid or dabigatran. As a result, the effect of these antithrombotics is reduced. A number of observational studies - in the indication of PPIs in the treatment of gastroduodenal or gastrooesophageal disease or when used in the treatment of PPIs in antithrombotic treatment - found a greater incidence of major vascular events and an increase in mortality. So are PPIs effective in protecting gastrointestinal bleeding and are they safe?


Assuntos
Fibrinolíticos , Inibidores da Bomba de Prótons , Aspirina , Clopidogrel , Interações Medicamentosas , Fibrinolíticos/efeitos adversos , Hemorragia Gastrointestinal/induzido quimicamente , Hemorragia Gastrointestinal/prevenção & controle , Humanos
10.
Yonsei Med J ; 61(9): 741-749, 2020 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32882758

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Non-vitamin K antagonist oral anticoagulants (NOACs) are widely used in patients with atrial fibrillation (AF) because of their effectiveness in preventing stroke and their better safety, compared with warfarin. However, there are concerns for an increased risk of bleeding associated with concomitant use of non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) or selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) with NOACs. In this study, we aimed to evaluate the risk of bleeding events in individuals taking concomitant NSAIDs or SSRIs with NOACs after being diagnosed with AF. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A nested case-control analysis to assess the safety of NSAIDs and SSRIs among NOAC users with AF was performed using data from Korean National Health Insurance Service from January 2012 to December 2017. Among patients who were newly prescribed NOACs, 1233 cases hospitalized for bleeding events were selected, and 24660 controls were determined. RESULTS: The risk of bleeding events was higher in patients receiving concomitant NSAIDs [adjusted odds ratio (aOR) 1.41; 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.24-1.61] or SSRIs (aOR 1.92; 95% CI 1.52-2.42) with NOACs, compared to no use of either drug, respectively. The risk of upper gastrointestinal bleeding was higher in patients receiving concomitant NSAIDs or SSRIs without proton pump inhibitors (PPIs) (NSAIDs: aOR 2.47; 95% CI 1.26-4.83, SSRI: aOR 10.8; 95% CI 2.41-2.48) compared to no use. CONCLUSION: When NSAIDs or SSRIs are required for NOAC users with AF, physicians need to monitor bleeding events and consider the use of PPIs, especially for combined use of both drugs or when initiating NOACs treatment.


Assuntos
Anti-Inflamatórios não Esteroides/uso terapêutico , Anticoagulantes/uso terapêutico , Fibrilação Atrial/tratamento farmacológico , Hemorragia Gastrointestinal/prevenção & controle , Hemorragia/prevenção & controle , Inibidores de Captação de Serotonina/uso terapêutico , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/prevenção & controle , Varfarina/uso terapêutico , Administração Oral , Idoso , Anti-Inflamatórios não Esteroides/efeitos adversos , Fibrilação Atrial/complicações , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Feminino , Hemorragia Gastrointestinal/complicações , Hemorragia/epidemiologia , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Inibidores de Captação de Serotonina/efeitos adversos , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/etiologia
11.
J Vasc Interv Radiol ; 31(9): 1382-1391.e2, 2020 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32792277

RESUMO

PURPOSE: To investigate from a population health perspective the effects of transjugular intrahepatic portosystemic shunt (TIPS) creation on recurrent variceal bleeding and survival in patients with cirrhosis. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Patients with cirrhosis who presented to outpatient and acute-care hospitals in California (2005-2011) and Florida (2005-2014) with variceal bleeding comprised the study cohort. Patients entered the study cohort at their first presentation for variceal bleeding; all subsequent hospital encounters were then evaluated to determine subsequent interventions, complications, and mortality data. RESULTS: A total of 655,577 patients with cirrhosis were identified, of whom 42,708 (6.5%) had at least 1 episode of variceal bleeding and comprised the study cohort. The median follow-up time was 2.61 years. A TIPS was created in 4,201 (9.8%) of these patients. There were significantly greater incidences of coagulopathy (83.9% vs 72.8%; P < .001), diabetes (45.5% vs 38.8%; P < .001), and hepatorenal syndrome (15.3% vs 12.5%; P < .001) in TIPS recipients vs those without a TIPS. Following propensity-score matching, TIPS recipients were found to have improved overall survival (82% vs 77% at 12 mo; P < .001) and a lower rate of recurrent variceal bleeding (88% vs 83% recurrent bleeding-free survival at 12 months,; P < .001) than patients without a TIPS. Patients with a TIPS had a significant increase in encounters for hepatic encephalopathy vs those without (1.01 vs 0.49 per year; P < .001). CONCLUSIONS: TIPS improves recurrent variceal bleeding rates and survival in patients with cirrhosis complicated by variceal bleeding. However, TIPS creation is also associated with a significant increase in hepatic encephalopathy.


Assuntos
Varizes Esofágicas e Gástricas/terapia , Hemorragia Gastrointestinal/prevenção & controle , Cirrose Hepática/terapia , Derivação Portossistêmica Transjugular Intra-Hepática , California/epidemiologia , Comorbidade , Bases de Dados Factuais , Varizes Esofágicas e Gástricas/diagnóstico por imagem , Varizes Esofágicas e Gástricas/mortalidade , Feminino , Florida/epidemiologia , Hemorragia Gastrointestinal/diagnóstico por imagem , Hemorragia Gastrointestinal/mortalidade , Encefalopatia Hepática/epidemiologia , Humanos , Cirrose Hepática/diagnóstico , Cirrose Hepática/mortalidade , Masculino , Derivação Portossistêmica Transjugular Intra-Hepática/efeitos adversos , Derivação Portossistêmica Transjugular Intra-Hepática/mortalidade , Recidiva , Fatores de Risco , Fatores de Tempo , Resultado do Tratamento
14.
Am Heart J ; 228: 8-16, 2020 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32745734

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Gastrointestinal injury is a common complication in patients treated with antiplatelet agents after percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI). However, the effects of different antiplatelet regimens on the incidence and severity of gastrointestinal injury have not been well studied, principally due to the lack of a low-risk sensitive and accurate detection system. TRIAL DESIGN: OPT-PEACE is a multicenter, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial. Gastrointestinal injury will be evaluated with the ANKON magnetically controlled capsule endoscopy system (AMCE), a minimally invasive approach for detecting mucosal lesions in the stomach, duodenum and small intestine. Patients without AMCE-detected gastrointestinal erosions, ulceration or bleeding after drug-eluting stent implantation are enrolled and treated with open-label aspirin (100 mg/d) plus clopidogrel (75 mg/d) for 6 months. Thereafter, 480 event-free patients will undergo repeat AMCE and are randomly assigned in a 1:1:1 ratio to receive aspirin plus clopidogrel, aspirin plus placebo or clopidogrel plus placebo for an additional 6 months. A final AMCE is performed at 12 months. The primary endpoint is the incidence of gastric or intestinal mucosal lesions (erosions, ulceration, or bleeding) within 12 months after enrollment. CONCLUSIONS: OPT-PEACE is the first study to investigate the incidence and severity of gastrointestinal injury in patients receiving different antiplatelet therapy regimens after stent implantation. This trial will inform clinical decision-making for personalized antiplatelet therapy post-PCI.


Assuntos
Aspirina , Endoscopia por Cápsula/métodos , Clopidogrel , Doença da Artéria Coronariana , Hemorragia Gastrointestinal , Intervenção Coronária Percutânea , Adulto , Aspirina/administração & dosagem , Aspirina/efeitos adversos , Clopidogrel/administração & dosagem , Clopidogrel/efeitos adversos , Angiografia Coronária/métodos , Doença da Artéria Coronariana/diagnóstico , Doença da Artéria Coronariana/tratamento farmacológico , Doença da Artéria Coronariana/cirurgia , Método Duplo-Cego , Stents Farmacológicos , Terapia Antiplaquetária Dupla/métodos , Feminino , Hemorragia Gastrointestinal/induzido quimicamente , Hemorragia Gastrointestinal/diagnóstico , Hemorragia Gastrointestinal/prevenção & controle , Humanos , Masculino , Avaliação de Processos e Resultados em Cuidados de Saúde , Intervenção Coronária Percutânea/instrumentação , Inibidores da Agregação de Plaquetas/administração & dosagem , Inibidores da Agregação de Plaquetas/efeitos adversos , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto , Risco Ajustado/métodos
15.
Lancet ; 395(10241): 1927-1936, 2020 06 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32563378

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Tranexamic acid reduces surgical bleeding and reduces death due to bleeding in patients with trauma. Meta-analyses of small trials show that tranexamic acid might decrease deaths from gastrointestinal bleeding. We aimed to assess the effects of tranexamic acid in patients with gastrointestinal bleeding. METHODS: We did an international, multicentre, randomised, placebo-controlled trial in 164 hospitals in 15 countries. Patients were enrolled if the responsible clinician was uncertain whether to use tranexamic acid, were aged above the minimum age considered an adult in their country (either aged 16 years and older or aged 18 years and older), and had significant (defined as at risk of bleeding to death) upper or lower gastrointestinal bleeding. Patients were randomly assigned by selection of a numbered treatment pack from a box containing eight packs that were identical apart from the pack number. Patients received either a loading dose of 1 g tranexamic acid, which was added to 100 mL infusion bag of 0·9% sodium chloride and infused by slow intravenous injection over 10 min, followed by a maintenance dose of 3 g tranexamic acid added to 1 L of any isotonic intravenous solution and infused at 125 mg/h for 24 h, or placebo (sodium chloride 0·9%). Patients, caregivers, and those assessing outcomes were masked to allocation. The primary outcome was death due to bleeding within 5 days of randomisation; analysis excluded patients who received neither dose of the allocated treatment and those for whom outcome data on death were unavailable. This trial was registered with Current Controlled Trials, ISRCTN11225767, and ClinicalTrials.gov, NCT01658124. FINDINGS: Between July 4, 2013, and June 21, 2019, we randomly allocated 12 009 patients to receive tranexamic acid (5994, 49·9%) or matching placebo (6015, 50·1%), of whom 11 952 (99·5%) received the first dose of the allocated treatment. Death due to bleeding within 5 days of randomisation occurred in 222 (4%) of 5956 patients in the tranexamic acid group and in 226 (4%) of 5981 patients in the placebo group (risk ratio [RR] 0·99, 95% CI 0·82-1·18). Arterial thromboembolic events (myocardial infarction or stroke) were similar in the tranexamic acid group and placebo group (42 [0·7%] of 5952 vs 46 [0·8%] of 5977; 0·92; 0·60 to 1·39). Venous thromboembolic events (deep vein thrombosis or pulmonary embolism) were higher in tranexamic acid group than in the placebo group (48 [0·8%] of 5952 vs 26 [0·4%] of 5977; RR 1·85; 95% CI 1·15 to 2·98). INTERPRETATION: We found that tranexamic acid did not reduce death from gastrointestinal bleeding. On the basis of our results, tranexamic acid should not be used for the treatment of gastrointestinal bleeding outside the context of a randomised trial. FUNDING: UK National Institute for Health Research Health Technology Assessment Programme.


Assuntos
Antifibrinolíticos/efeitos adversos , Hemorragia Gastrointestinal/tratamento farmacológico , Tromboembolia/induzido quimicamente , Ácido Tranexâmico/efeitos adversos , Doença Aguda , Adulto , Idoso , Antifibrinolíticos/administração & dosagem , Antifibrinolíticos/uso terapêutico , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Método Duplo-Cego , Feminino , Hemorragia Gastrointestinal/mortalidade , Hemorragia Gastrointestinal/prevenção & controle , Humanos , Injeções Intravenosas , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Infarto do Miocárdio/epidemiologia , Razão de Chances , Avaliação de Resultados em Cuidados de Saúde , Placebos/administração & dosagem , Valor Preditivo dos Testes , Embolia Pulmonar/epidemiologia , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/epidemiologia , Tromboembolia/epidemiologia , Ácido Tranexâmico/administração & dosagem , Ácido Tranexâmico/uso terapêutico , Trombose Venosa/epidemiologia
16.
Dig Dis Sci ; 65(8): 2181-2186, 2020 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32537704

RESUMO

Coronavirus disease of 2019 (COVID-19) can be associated with high morbidity and mortality; patients with severe clinical manifestations may develop significant coagulopathy as well as unexpected thromboembolic complications. In response, centers are increasingly treating selected patients with intermediate-dose prophylactic or even therapeutic dose anticoagulation in order to prevent potentially catastrophic thrombotic complications. With this changing practice, the authors suspect that inpatient gastrointestinal consult teams across the country will be frequently managing COVID-19 patients with gastrointestinal bleeding (GIB). In order to reduce potentially avoidable hospital readmissions for GIB while improving patient outcomes, it is imperative to appropriately risk-stratify patients prior to initiation of anticoagulation. In this review, we discuss how to appropriately identify high-risk patients for GIB and how to mitigate GIB risk with proton-pump inhibitor co-therapy, medication reconciliation, and Helicobacter pylori testing and treating in this complex and morbid population.


Assuntos
Anticoagulantes/efeitos adversos , Transtornos da Coagulação Sanguínea , Infecções por Coronavirus/sangue , Hemorragia Gastrointestinal , Pneumonia Viral/sangue , Inibidores da Bomba de Prótons/uso terapêutico , Risco Ajustado/métodos , Anticoagulantes/administração & dosagem , Betacoronavirus/isolamento & purificação , Transtornos da Coagulação Sanguínea/prevenção & controle , Transtornos da Coagulação Sanguínea/virologia , Quimioprevenção/métodos , Quimioprevenção/normas , Hemorragia Gastrointestinal/induzido quimicamente , Hemorragia Gastrointestinal/prevenção & controle , Humanos , Pandemias
17.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 99(20): e20188, 2020 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32443339

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: The Chinese herb da huang (DH) (Rhubarb) is commonly used for GIF intensive care unit (ICU)/pediatric intensive care unit (PICU) gastrointestinal failure (GIF) patients in China. However, the potential preventive and therapeutic effect of DH in these patients has not yet been studied systematically. OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was to evaluate the preventive and therapeutic effects of DH in treating ICU/PICU GIF patients with the most recent evidence. METHODS: We systematically searched 7 databases from inception to March 30, 2018. RevMan 5.3 software was used to perform a meta-analysis. GRADE methodology was applied to evaluate the quality of evidence for each outcome. The review protocol was registered on PROSPERO (CRD42018092710) in advance. RESULTS: Seven studies comprising 788 pediatric or adult participants were included in this analysis. Three indicators, including GIF occurrence rates (gastrointestinal mucosal hemorrhage, enteroplegia), multiple organ dysfunction syndrome (MODS)-related items (occurrence rates of MODS, mortality rates of MODS) and duration in the ICU was analyzed. The GIF occurrence rate meta-analysis result was (RR 0.47, CI 95% 0.37-0.60; P = .95); MODS related items indicator result was (RR 0.44, CI 95% 0.33-0.59; P = .41); ICU duration ICU result was (RR -2.87, CI 95% -3.53--2.21; P = .40). The safety of Chinese herb DH (Rhubarb) remains unclear. CONCLUSION: Current evidence suggests that the Chinese herb rhubarb (DH) powder combined with Western medicine was inferior to Western medicine alone in terms of preventive and therapeutic effects in ICU/PICU patients in terms of decreasing GIF occurrence rates (gastrointestinal mucosal hemorrhage and enteroplegia), occurrence rates of MODS, mortality from MODS, and shortened duration time in the ICU/PICU. However, larger sample sizes and rigorously-designed studies are necessary to conclusively determine the association between DH powder and outcomes in ICU/PICU GIF patients.


Assuntos
Gastroenteropatias/tratamento farmacológico , Unidades de Terapia Intensiva Pediátrica/normas , Unidades de Terapia Intensiva/normas , Rheum/efeitos adversos , Adulto , Criança , China/epidemiologia , Medicamentos de Ervas Chinesas/efeitos adversos , Medicamentos de Ervas Chinesas/uso terapêutico , Feminino , Gastroenteropatias/patologia , Hemorragia Gastrointestinal/tratamento farmacológico , Hemorragia Gastrointestinal/prevenção & controle , Humanos , Unidades de Terapia Intensiva/estatística & dados numéricos , Unidades de Terapia Intensiva Pediátrica/estatística & dados numéricos , Masculino , Insuficiência de Múltiplos Órgãos/epidemiologia , Insuficiência de Múltiplos Órgãos/mortalidade , Resultado do Tratamento
18.
Transplantation ; 104(9): 1862-1868, 2020 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32345867

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Intestine graft viability compromises retrieval in most brain-dead donors. Small bowel transplantation is a complex procedure with worse outcomes than transplantation of other abdominal organs. The hormone 17ß-estradiol (E2) has shown vascular protective effects in lung tissue of brain death (BD) male rats. Thus, estradiol might be a treatment option to improve the quality of intestinal grafts. METHODS: Male Wistar rats were divided into 3 groups (n = 10/group): rats that were trepanned only (sham-operated), rats subjected to rapid-onset BD, and brain-dead rats treated with E2 (280 µg/kg, intravenous) (BD-E2). Experiments performed for 180 minutes thereafter are included: (a) laser-Doppler flowmetry and intravital microscopy to evaluate mesenteric perfusion; (b) histopathological analysis; (c) real-time polymerase chain reaction of endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) and endothelin-1; (d) immunohistochemistry of eNOS, endothelin-1, P-selectin, intercellular adhesion molecule 1, and vascular cell adhesion molecule 1 expression; and (e) ELISA for cytokines and chemokines measurement. RESULTS: 17ß-Estradiol improved microcirculatory perfusion and reduced intestinal edema and hemorrhage after BD. The proportions of perfused small vessels were (mean ± scanning electron microscope) BD rats (40% ± 6%), sham-operated rats (75% ± 8%), and BD-E2 rats (67% ± 5%) (P = 0.011). 17ß-Estradiol treatment was associated with 2-fold increase in eNOS protein (P < 0.0001) and gene (P = 0.0009) expression, with no differences in endothelin-1 expression. BD-E2 rats exhibited a reduction in vascular cell adhesion molecule 1 expression and reduced cytokine-induced neutrophil chemoattractant 1 and interleukina-10 serum levels. CONCLUSIONS: 17ß-Estradiol was effective in improving mesenteric perfusion and reducing intestinal edema and hemorrhage associated with BD. The suggestion is that E2 might be considered a therapy to mitigate, at least in part, the deleterious effects of BD in small bowel donors.


Assuntos
Morte Encefálica/fisiopatologia , Estradiol/farmacologia , Intestino Delgado/transplante , Microcirculação/efeitos dos fármacos , Perfusão , Doadores de Tecidos , Animais , Citocinas/sangue , Hemorragia Gastrointestinal/prevenção & controle , Intestino Delgado/patologia , Masculino , Ratos , Ratos Wistar , Circulação Esplâncnica/efeitos dos fármacos
19.
Cochrane Database Syst Rev ; 3: CD012056, 2020 03 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32227478

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Cystic fibrosis is an autosomal recessive inherited defect in the cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) gene resulting in abnormal regulation of salt and water movement across the membranes. In the liver this leads to focal biliary fibrosis resulting in progressive portal hypertension and end-stage liver disease in some individuals. This can be asymptomatic, but may lead to splenomegaly and hypersplenism, development of varices and variceal bleeding, and ascites; it has negative impact on overall nutritional status and respiratory function in this population. Prognosis is poor once significant portal hypertension is established. The role and outcome of various interventions for managing advanced liver disease (non-malignant end stage disease) in people with cystic fibrosis is currently unidentified. This is an updated version of a previously published review. OBJECTIVES: To review and assess the efficacy of currently available treatment options for preventing and managing advanced liver disease in children and adults with cystic fibrosis. SEARCH METHODS: We searched the Cochrane Cystic Fibrosis Trials Register, compiled from electronic database searches and handsearching of journals and conference abstract books. Date of last search: 19 November 2019. We also searched the reference lists of relevant articles and reviews and online trials registries. Date of last search: 01 January 2020. SELECTION CRITERIA: Any published and unpublished randomised controlled trials and quasi-randomised controlled trials of advanced liver disease in cystic fibrosis with cirrhosis or liver failure, portal hypertension or variceal bleeding (or both). DATA COLLECTION AND ANALYSIS: Authors independently examined titles and abstracts to identify potentially relevant trials, but none were eligible for inclusion in this review. MAIN RESULTS: A comprehensive search of the literature did not identify any published eligible randomised controlled trials. AUTHORS' CONCLUSIONS: In order to develop the best source of evidence, there is a need to undertake randomised controlled trials of interventions for preventing and managing advanced liver disease in adults and children with cystic fibrosis.


Assuntos
Fibrose Cística/complicações , Hepatopatias/terapia , Adulto , Criança , Fibrose Cística/genética , Regulador de Condutância Transmembrana em Fibrose Cística/genética , Hemorragia Gastrointestinal/prevenção & controle , Humanos , Hipertensão Portal/prevenção & controle , Hepatopatias/etiologia , Hepatopatias/prevenção & controle , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto
20.
Am J Gastroenterol ; 115(5): 774-782, 2020 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32167938

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Delayed postpolypectomy bleeding (DPPB) is a relatively common adverse event. Evidence is conflicting on the efficacy of prophylactic clipping to prevent DPPB, and real-world effectiveness data are lacking. We aimed to determine the effectiveness of prophylactic clipping in preventing DPPB in a large screening-related cohort. METHODS: We manually reviewed records of patients who underwent polypectomy from 2008 to 2014 at a screening facility. Endoscopist-, patient- and polyp-related data were collected. The primary outcome was DPPB within 30 days. All unplanned healthcare visits were reviewed; DPPB cases were adjudicated by committee using a criterion-based lexicon. Multivariable logistic regression was performed, yielding adjusted odds ratios (AORs) for the association between clipping and DPPB. Secondary analyses were performed on procedures where one polyp was removed, in addition to propensity score-matched and subgroup analyses. RESULTS: In total, 8,366 colonoscopies involving polypectomy were analyzed, yielding 95 DPPB events. Prophylactic clipping was not associated with reduced DPPB (AOR 1.27; 0.83-1.96). These findings were similar in the single-polyp cohort (n = 3,369, AOR 1.07; 0.50-2.31). In patients with one proximal polyp ≥20 mm removed, there was a nonsignificant AOR with clipping of 0.55 (0.10-2.66). Clipping was not associated with a protective benefit in the propensity score-matched or other subgroup analyses. DISCUSSION: In this large cohort study, prophylactic clipping was not associated with lower DPPB rates. Endoscopists should not routinely use prophylactic clipping in most patients. Additional effectiveness and cost-effectiveness studies are required in patients with proximal lesions ≥20 mm, in whom there may be a role for prophylactic clipping.


Assuntos
Pólipos do Colo/cirurgia , Colonoscopia , Hemorragia Gastrointestinal/prevenção & controle , Complicações Pós-Operatórias/prevenção & controle , Estudos de Coortes , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Pontuação de Propensão
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