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1.
Int J Gynaecol Obstet ; 150(1): 53-57, 2020 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32350871

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To study vaginal delivery outcomes and neonatal prognosis and summarize the management of vaginal delivery during the COVID-19 pandemic. METHODS: A retrospective analysis of medical records and comparison of vaginal delivery outcomes between 10 pregnant women with clinical diagnosis of COVID-19 and 53 pregnant women without COVID-19 admitted to Zhongnan Hospital of Wuhan University between January 20 and March 2, 2020. Results of laboratory tests, imaging tests, and SARS-CoV-2 nucleic acid tests were also analyzed in neonates delivered by pregnant women with clinical diagnosis of COVID-19. RESULTS: There were no significant differences in gestational age, postpartum hemorrhage, and perineal resection rates between the two groups. There were no significant differences in birth weight of neonates and neonatal asphyxia rates between the two groups. Neonates delivered by pregnant women with clinical diagnosis of COVID-19 tested negative for SARS-CoV-2 infection. CONCLUSIONS: Under the premise of full evaluation of vaginal delivery conditions and strict protection measures, pregnant women with ordinary type COVID-19 can try vaginal delivery without exacerbation of COVID-19 and without increasing the risk of SARS-CoV-2 infection in neonates.


Assuntos
Betacoronavirus , Infecções por Coronavirus/complicações , Parto Obstétrico/métodos , Pneumonia Viral/complicações , Complicações Infecciosas na Gravidez/virologia , Resultado da Gravidez/epidemiologia , Adulto , Peso ao Nascer , China/epidemiologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/transmissão , Infecções por Coronavirus/virologia , Feminino , Hospitalização , Humanos , Recém-Nascido , Transmissão Vertical de Doença Infecciosa/estatística & dados numéricos , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral/transmissão , Pneumonia Viral/virologia , Hemorragia Pós-Parto/epidemiologia , Hemorragia Pós-Parto/virologia , Gravidez , Estudos Retrospectivos , Vagina/virologia
2.
BMJ ; 368: m237, 2020 02 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32075794

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the risk of adverse maternal and infant outcomes following in utero exposure to duloxetine. DESIGN: Cohort study nested in the Medicaid Analytic eXtract for 2004-13. SETTING: Publicly insured pregnancies in the United States. PARTICIPANTS: Pregnant women 18 to 55 years of age and their liveborn infants. INTERVENTIONS: Duloxetine exposure during the etiologically relevant time window, compared with no exposure to duloxetine, exposure to selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors, exposure to venlafaxine, and exposure to duloxetine before but not during pregnancy. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Congenital malformations overall, cardiac malformations, preterm birth, small for gestational age infant, pre-eclampsia, and postpartum hemorrhage. RESULTS: Cohort sizes ranged from 1.3 to 4.1 million, depending on the outcome. The number of women exposed to duloxetine varied by cohort and exposure contrast and was around 2500-3000 for early pregnancy exposure and 900-950 for late pregnancy exposure. The base risk per 1000 unexposed women was 36.6 (95% confidence interval 36.3 to 36.9) for congenital malformations overall, 13.7 (13.5 to 13.9) for cardiovascular malformations, 107.8 (107.3 to 108.3) for preterm birth, 20.4 (20.1 to 20.6) for small for gestational age infant, 33.6 (33.3 to 33.9) for pre-eclampsia, and 23.3 (23.1 to 23.4) for postpartum hemorrhage. After adjustment for measured potential confounding variables, all baseline characteristics were well balanced for all exposure contrasts. In propensity score adjusted analyses versus unexposed pregnancies, the relative risk was 1.11 (95% confidence interval 0.93 to 1.33) for congenital malformations overall and 1.29 (0.99 to 1.68) for cardiovascular malformations. For preterm birth, the relative risk was 1.01 (0.92 to 1.10) for early exposure and 1.19 (1.04 to 1.37) for late exposure. For small for gestational age infants the relative risks were 1.14 (0.92 to 1.41) and 1.20 (0.83 to 1.72) for early and late pregnancy exposure, respectively, and for pre-eclampsia they were 1.12 (0.96 to 1.31) and 1.04 (0.80 to 1.35). The relative risk for postpartum hemorrhage was 1.53 (1.08 to 2.18). Results from sensitivity analyses were generally consistent with the findings from the main analyses. CONCLUSIONS: On the basis of the evidence available to date, duloxetine is unlikely to be a major teratogen but may be associated with an increased risk of postpartum hemorrhage and a small increased risk of cardiac malformations. While continuing to monitor the safety of duloxetine as data accumulate over time, these potential small increases in risk of relatively uncommon outcomes must be weighed against the benefits of treating depression and pain during pregnancy in a given patient. TRIAL REGISTRATION: EUPAS 15946.


Assuntos
Cloridrato de Duloxetina/efeitos adversos , Complicações na Gravidez/tratamento farmacológico , Resultado da Gravidez/epidemiologia , Inibidores da Recaptação de Serotonina e Norepinefrina/efeitos adversos , Anormalidades Induzidas por Medicamentos/epidemiologia , Anormalidades Induzidas por Medicamentos/etiologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Estudos de Coortes , Cloridrato de Duloxetina/uso terapêutico , Feminino , Cardiopatias Congênitas/induzido quimicamente , Cardiopatias Congênitas/epidemiologia , Humanos , Recém-Nascido Pequeno para a Idade Gestacional , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Hemorragia Pós-Parto/induzido quimicamente , Hemorragia Pós-Parto/epidemiologia , Pré-Eclâmpsia/induzido quimicamente , Gravidez , Complicações na Gravidez/epidemiologia , Nascimento Prematuro/induzido quimicamente , Nascimento Prematuro/epidemiologia , Efeitos Tardios da Exposição Pré-Natal/induzido quimicamente , Efeitos Tardios da Exposição Pré-Natal/epidemiologia , Inibidores da Recaptação de Serotonina e Norepinefrina/uso terapêutico , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia , Adulto Jovem
3.
Acta Obstet Gynecol Scand ; 99(2): 274-282, 2020 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31520414

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Peripartum hysterectomy is usually undertaken in cases of life-threatening obstetric hemorrhage to prevent the death of the mother. Near-miss events are still under-researched and inappropriate care continues to be a critical issue, even in countries with advanced obstetric surveillance systems. The aim of the present study was to estimate the prevalence, associated factors, management and intraoperative and postoperative complications of peripartum hysterectomy due to obstetric hemorrhage. MATERIAL AND METHODS: A prospective population-based study has been conducted in six Italian regions covering 49% of births in Italy. The study population comprised all women aged 11-59 years undergoing peripartum hysterectomy, from September 2014 to August 2016, due to obstetric hemorrhage within 7 days of delivery. In each maternity unit a trained reference person reported incident cases using electronic data collection forms. The background population comprised all women who delivered in the participating regions during the study period. RESULTS: The overall peripartum hysterectomy prevalence was 1.09 per 1000 maternities, with a large variability among regions, ranging from 0.52 to 1.60. Previous cesarean section (relative risk [RR] 4.97, 95% CI 4.13-5.96), assisted reproductive technology (RR 5.99, 95% CI 4.42-8.11) multiple pregnancy (RR 5.03, 95% CI 3.57-7.09) and maternal age ≥35 years (RR 2.69, 95% CI 2.25-3.21) were the main associated factors for hysterectomy. The most common causes of peripartum hysterectomy were uterine atony (45.1%) and abnormally invasive placentation (40.2%). Intensive care unit admission was reported in 49.9% of cases, 16.8% of women suffered severe morbidity and 5 women died. CONCLUSIONS: The rate of peripartum hysterectomy in Italy was three times higher compared with the UK, the Netherlands and the Nordic countries. The wide difference may be associated with women's characteristics, such as age at delivery and previous cesarean section, and with different management options leading to peripartum hysterectomy.


Assuntos
Histerectomia , Hemorragia Pós-Parto/cirurgia , Adolescente , Adulto , Criança , Feminino , Humanos , Itália/epidemiologia , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Período Periparto , Hemorragia Pós-Parto/epidemiologia , Prevalência , Estudos Prospectivos
4.
Am J Obstet Gynecol ; 222(1): 77.e1-77.e11, 2020 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31310750

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Although consensus guidelines on the management of cardiovascular disease in pregnancy reserve cesarean delivery for obstetric indications, there is a paucity of data to support this approach. OBJECTIVE: The objective of the study was to compare cardiovascular and obstetric morbidity in women with cardiovascular disease according to the plan for vaginal birth or cesarean delivery. STUDY DESIGN: We assembled a prospective cohort of women delivering at an academic tertiary care center with a protocolized multidisciplinary approach to management of cardiovascular disease between September 2011 and December 2016. Our practice is to encourage vaginal birth in women with cardiovascular disease unless there is an obstetric indication for cesarean delivery. We allow women attempting vaginal birth a trial of Valsalva in the second stage with the ability to provide operative vaginal delivery if pushing leads to changes in hemodynamics or symptoms. Women were classified according to planned mode of delivery: either vaginal birth or cesarean delivery. We then used univariate analysis to compare adverse outcomes according to planned mode of delivery. The primary composite cardiac outcome of interest included sustained arrhythmia, heart failure, cardiac arrest, cerebral vascular accident, need for cardiac surgery or intervention, or death. Secondary obstetric and neonatal outcomes were also considered. RESULTS: We included 276 consenting women with congenital heart disease (68.5%), arrhythmias (11.2%), connective tissue disease (9.1%), cardiomyopathy (8.0%), valvular disease (1.4%), or vascular heart disease (1.8%) at or beyond 24 weeks' gestation. Seventy-six percent (n = 210) planned vaginal birth and 24% (n = 66) planned cesarean delivery. Women planning vaginal birth had lower rates of left ventricular outflow tract obstruction, multiparity, and preterm delivery. All women attempting vaginal birth were allowed Valsalva. Among planned vaginal deliveries 86.2% (n = 181) were successful, with a 9.5% operative vaginal delivery rate. Five women underwent operative vaginal delivery for the indication of cardiovascular disease without another obstetric indication at the discretion of the delivering provider. Four of these patients tolerated trials of Valsalva ranging from 15 to 75 minutes prior to delivery. Adverse cardiac outcomes were similar between planned vaginal birth and cesarean delivery groups (4.3% vs 3.0%, P = 1.00). Rates of postpartum hemorrhage (1.9% vs 10.6%, P < .01) and transfusion (1.9% vs 9.1%, P = .01) were lower in the planned vaginal birth group. There were no differences in adverse cardiac, obstetric, or neonatal outcomes in the cohort overall or the subset of women with high-risk cardiovascular disease or a high burden of obstetric comorbidity. CONCLUSION: These findings suggest that cesarean delivery does not reduce adverse cardiovascular outcomes and lend support to a planned vaginal birth for the majority of women with cardiovascular disease including those with high-risk disease.


Assuntos
Cesárea/métodos , Parto Obstétrico/métodos , Cardiopatias , Complicações Cardiovasculares na Gravidez , Adulto , Arritmias Cardíacas , Cardiomiopatias , Doenças do Tecido Conjuntivo , Doença da Artéria Coronariana , Gerenciamento Clínico , Extração Obstétrica/métodos , Feminino , Cardiopatias Congênitas , Doenças das Valvas Cardíacas , Humanos , Hemorragia Pós-Parto/epidemiologia , Gravidez , Estudos Prospectivos , Manobra de Valsalva
5.
BJOG ; 127(5): 628-634, 2020 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31808245

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To assess the maternal characteristics and causes associated with refractory postpartum haemorrhage (PPH). DESIGN: Secondary analysis of the WHO CHAMPION trial data. SETTING: Twenty-three hospitals in ten countries. POPULATION: Women from the CHAMPION trial who received uterotonics as first-line treatment of PPH. METHODS: We assessed the association between sociodemographic, pregnancy and childbirth factors and refractory PPH, and compared the causes of PPH between women with refractory PPH and women responsive to first-line PPH treatment. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Maternal characteristics; causes of PPH. RESULTS: Women with labour induced or augmented with uterotonics (adjusted odds ratio [aOR] 1.35; 95% CI 1.07-1.72), with episiotomy or tears requiring suturing (aOR 1.82; 95% CI 1.34-2.48) and who had babies with birthweights ≥3500 g (aOR 1.33; 95% CI 1.04-1.69) showed significantly higher odds of refractory PPH compared with the reference categories in the multivariate analysis adjusted by centre and trial arm. While atony was the sole PPH cause in 53.2% (116/218) of the women in the responsive PPH group, it accounted for only 31.5% (45/143) of the causes in the refractory PPH group. Conversely, tears were the sole cause in 12.8% (28/218) and 28% (40/143) of the responsive PPH and refractory PPH groups, respectively. Placental problems were the sole cause in 11 and 5.6% in the responsive and refractory PPH groups, respectively. CONCLUSION: Women with refractory PPH showed a different pattern of maternal characteristics and PPH causes compared with those with first-line treatment responsive PPH. TWEETABLE ABSTRACT: Women with refractory postpartum haemorrhage are different from those with first-line treatment responsive PPH.


Assuntos
Parto Obstétrico/efeitos adversos , Hemorragia Pós-Parto/etiologia , Adulto , Peso ao Nascer , Colo do Útero/lesões , Episiotomia/estatística & dados numéricos , Feminino , Humanos , Trabalho de Parto Induzido/estatística & dados numéricos , Estudos Multicêntricos como Assunto , Ocitócicos/efeitos adversos , Períneo/lesões , Placenta Retida/epidemiologia , Hemorragia Pós-Parto/epidemiologia , Hemorragia Pós-Parto/terapia , Gravidez , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto , Inércia Uterina/epidemiologia , Vagina/lesões , Adulto Jovem
6.
J Matern Fetal Neonatal Med ; 33(2): 307-313, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29909749

RESUMO

Objective: To compare maternal and neonatal outcomes by forceps vaginal delivery versus cesarean delivery during the second stage of labor.Methods: We conducted a retrospective cohort study in a large tertiary maternity center in Shanghai, China through 2007-2016. A total of 7046 women carrying a singleton term nonanomalous fetus with vertex presentation who underwent forceps vaginal delivery, or cesarean delivery from a low station in the second stage of labor were included.Results: Of the 7046 women, 6265 underwent forceps and 781 underwent second stage cesarean delivery. Forceps were associated with lower frequency of maternal infection (2.2 versus 4.7%), but higher incidence of mild postpartum hemorrhage (PPH) (4.3 versus 0.6%). When the procedures were performed for fetal indication, forceps were associated with lower frequency of the composite of perinatal mortality and/or hypoxic ischemic encephalopathy (HIE) (0.5 versus 1.9%; adjusted odds ratio (aOR), 0.24; 95% CI: 0.08-0.75), and also shorter decision to delivery interval (12.3 ± 3.5 versus 19.1 ± 5.0 min). The neonatal infection rate was higher in the forceps group (3.9 versus 2.0%). There were no differences in other neonatal outcomes including birth trauma.Conclusions: In women who had a need for intervention during the second stage with a station of +2 or below, forceps were associated with a lower frequency of maternal infection but a higher rate of PPH. Deliveries performed for nonreassuring status were accomplished faster by forceps and were associated with a lower frequency of the composite of perinatal mortality and HIE.


Assuntos
Cesárea/estatística & dados numéricos , Extração Obstétrica/estatística & dados numéricos , Forceps Obstétrico/estatística & dados numéricos , Resultado da Gravidez/epidemiologia , Adulto , Cesárea/efeitos adversos , China , Episiotomia/estatística & dados numéricos , Extração Obstétrica/efeitos adversos , Feminino , Sofrimento Fetal/epidemiologia , Humanos , Forceps Obstétrico/efeitos adversos , Hemorragia Pós-Parto/epidemiologia , Hemorragia Pós-Parto/etiologia , Gravidez , Estudos Retrospectivos
7.
Anesth Analg ; 130(4): 857-868, 2020 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31880627

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Postpartum hemorrhage (PPH) is a leading cause of maternal mortality worldwide. While volumetric and gravimetric blood loss measurement techniques have been shown to increase PPH detection compared to visual estimation of blood loss (vBL), a combination of these methods has not been evaluated. The primary aim of this study was to compare the change in odds of PPH detection after vaginal delivery (VD; the intervention series) versus cesarean delivery (CD; the control series) before versus after implementation of a device (Triton L&D, Gauss Surgical, Inc, Los Altos, CA) that combines gravimetric and volumetric estimation of blood loss (tBL). METHODS: After institutional review board (IRB) approval, patients were identified who had a VD or CD at our institution 3 months before and 3 months after the implementation of a tBL device for VD. The levels and trends in odds of PPH detection (the primary outcome, defined as blood loss ≥500 mL for VD and ≥1000 mL for CD) were compared within and between delivery methods before and after implementation of the device. Secondary outcomes were blood loss ≥1000 mL, total blood loss, secondary uterotonic use, and a composite outcome related to PPH management (transfusion, vasopressor administration, and/or surgical procedures). A post hoc subgroup analysis compared nadir hematocrit, hematocrit reduction ≥10%, and difference between vBL or tBL and calculated blood loss (cBL) between VDs before and after introduction of the device. All outcome comparisons were performed using segmented regression with inverse probability of treatment weighting. RESULTS: The weighted odds ratio (wOR) of PPH detection post- versus preimplementation of the device was 2.74 (95% confidence interval [CI], 1.39-5.41; P = .004) for VDs versus 1.43 (95% CI, 0.72-2.85; P = .304) for CDs (P for interaction .190). No difference was detected in the secondary outcomes for VDs between time periods. In the subgroup of VD patients who had postdelivery hematocrits measured, the mean difference between vBL or tBL and cBL was smaller in the tBL (mean ± standard deviation [SD]: -237 ± 522 mL) versus vBL group (-600 ± 596 mL; weighted difference in means [95% CI]: 349 mL [13-684]; P = .042). CONCLUSIONS: In this interrupted time series analysis, the odds of PPH detection after VD increased after implementation of the tBL device. However, a statistical difference was not detected between the increase in PPH detection post- versus preimplementation of the device in VDs versus CDs.


Assuntos
Perda Sanguínea Cirúrgica/prevenção & controle , Parto Obstétrico/métodos , Hemorragia Pós-Parto/prevenção & controle , Adulto , Cesárea/estatística & dados numéricos , Grupos Controle , Feminino , Hematócrito , Humanos , Recém-Nascido , Análise de Séries Temporais Interrompida , Mortalidade Materna , Hemorragia Pós-Parto/epidemiologia , Gravidez , Resultado da Gravidez , Estudos Retrospectivos , Resultado do Tratamento
8.
BMC Pregnancy Childbirth ; 19(1): 467, 2019 Dec 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31801506

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: We aimed to analyze the correlation between increased fetal movements in the third trimester and neonatal outcomes. METHODS: We enrolled pregnant women (n = 219) who reported increased/excessive fetal movements in the third trimester in our hospital. A control group of healthy women (n = 278) who had undergone regular childbirth and delivery in our hospital during the same period and did not report abnormal fetal movements were also recruited. All pregnant women underwent fetal non-stress test. We analyzed the neonatal weight, appearance, pulse, grimace, activity, and respiration score, degrees of amniotic fluid contamination, amniotic fluid volume, conditions of umbilical cord around the neck and cord length, and incidence of small for gestational age. In addition, the incidence of preterm delivery, cesarean section rate, postpartum hemorrhage, and other postpartum complications were also analyzed. We then analyzed the correlation between increased/excessive fetal activity and neonatal outcomes. RESULTS: Women with complaints of increased/excessive fetal movements exhibited increased fetal movements mainly around 31 and 39 weeks of gestation. Several pregnancy variables, including number of previous delivery, gestational age (less than 34 weeks and more than 37 weeks) and vaginal birth rate, were associated with increased/excessive fetal movements. In addition, women who reported increased/excessive fetal movements had higher odds of large for gestational age (LGA), particularly those with gestational age over 37 weeks. CONCLUSION: Increased/excessive fetal movements may be used to predict adverse neonatal outcome such as LGA.


Assuntos
Parto Obstétrico/estatística & dados numéricos , Movimento Fetal , Resultado da Gravidez/epidemiologia , Terceiro Trimestre da Gravidez/fisiologia , Adulto , Peso ao Nascer , Cesárea/estatística & dados numéricos , Correlação de Dados , Feminino , Idade Gestacional , Humanos , Incidência , Recém-Nascido , Hemorragia Pós-Parto/epidemiologia , Gravidez , Nascimento Prematuro/epidemiologia
9.
BMC Pregnancy Childbirth ; 19(1): 476, 2019 Dec 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31805890

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Hypothyroidism in pregnancy is an arena of ongoing research, with international conflicts regarding screening, management, and outcomes. Various studies have described the outcomes depending on geographical and international diagnostic criteria. No study has been conducted in this regard from the region of Pakistan. Therefore, we aim to report the clinical features and maternal outcomes of hypothyroid pregnancies and compare the maternal outcomes between uncontrolled and controlled TSH levels in the preconception as well as the gestational period. METHODS: We conducted a cross-sectional retrospective study on 718 cases in the Aga Khan University Hospital after ethical approval. We collected information on pregnant females who have diagnosed hypothyroidism before conception or during their antenatal period. We noted the maternal characteristics and maternal comorbidities. Laboratory data were recorded for thyroid stimulating hormone levels before conception and during gestation. We recorded maternal outcomes as pregnancy loss (including miscarriage, stillbirth/intrauterine death, medical termination of pregnancy and ectopic pregnancy), gestational hypertension, pre-eclampsia, postpartum hemorrhage, placental abruption, and modalities of delivery. Data analysis was performed on Statistical Package for the Social Sciences version 20.0. RESULTS: Among 708 hypothyroid women 638 had live births. Postpartum hemorrhage was the most frequent maternal outcome (38.8%). The emergency cesarean section occurred in 23.4% of cases. We determined TSH levels in 53.2, 56.7, 61.7 and 66.6% of cases in preconception, 1st, 2nd, and 3rd trimester periods. A significant association existed between cesarean section and preconception thyrotropin levels > 2.5 mIU/L, whereas postpartum hemorrhage was significantly associated with thyrotropin levels > 2.5 mIU/L in the preconception and third trimester. CONCLUSION: Successful live births in our patients were complicated by maternal postpartum hemorrhage and a frequent number of emergency cesarean section.


Assuntos
Cesárea/estatística & dados numéricos , Hipotireoidismo/complicações , Hemorragia Pós-Parto/epidemiologia , Complicações na Gravidez/epidemiologia , Resultado da Gravidez , Aborto Espontâneo/epidemiologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Hipertensão Induzida pela Gravidez/epidemiologia , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Paquistão , Pré-Eclâmpsia/epidemiologia , Gravidez , Estudos Retrospectivos , Tireotropina/metabolismo , Fatores de Tempo , Adulto Jovem
10.
J Glob Health ; 9(2): 020432, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31788230

RESUMO

Background: Postpartum hemorrhage (PPH) is the leading cause of maternal mortality worldwide, but it mainly affects women from low- and middle-income countries. Despite being a treatable condition, the high number of maternal deaths resulting from PPH is outstanding for at least 25 years. Late diagnosis and difficulties in identifying women who will develop severe postpartum bleeding can, in part, explain the high incidence of PPH. Over the past few years, researchers have focused on identifying a simple, accessible and low-cost diagnostic tool that could be applied to avoid maternal deaths. In particular, it has been suggested that vital signs and shock index (SI) could be useful. The objective of this study was to evaluate whether vital signs are correlated with the percentage of body blood volume (BBVp) lost after vaginal delivery. Methods: A prospective cohort study was performed at the Women's Hospital of UNICAMP, Brazil. The inclusion criteria were women delivering vaginally who did not suffer from hypertension, hyper- or hypothyroidism, cardiac disease, infections or coagulopathy. Blood loss was measured over 24 hours using a calibrated drape and by weighing compresses, gauzes and pads. Vital signs were measured up to 24 hours after delivery. We evaluated the BBVp lost, and generated a Receiver operating characteristics (ROC) curve with area under the curve (AUC) analysis to determine the cut-off values for vital signs to determine the likelihood of postpartum bleeding above the 90th percentile within 24 hours of delivery. Results: A total of 270 women were included. The mean blood loss within 24 hours of vaginal delivery was 570.66 ± 360.04 mL. In the first 40 minutes, 73% of the total blood loss over the 24-hour period had occurred, and within 2 hours, 91% of women had bled 90% of the total blood loss. Changes in SI and heart rate (HR) were statistically significant in predicting postpartum bleeding (P ≤ 0.05). Higher values for likelihood ratio (LR) to identify BBVp loss above the 90th percentile within 2 hours were a SI above 1.04 at 41-60 minutes after birth (LR = +11.84) and a HR above 105.2 bpm at 21-40 minutes after birth (LR = +4.96). Both measures showed high specificity but low sensitivity. Conclusion: Values of SI and HR are statistically significant in predicting postpartum bleeding with high specificity but low sensitivity. The cut-off points were 1.04 for SI and 105 bpm for HR.


Assuntos
Perda Sanguínea Cirúrgica/fisiopatologia , Parto Obstétrico/efeitos adversos , Frequência Cardíaca/fisiologia , Hemorragia Pós-Parto/epidemiologia , Índices de Gravidade do Trauma , Adulto , Volume Sanguíneo , Brasil/epidemiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Incidência , Mortalidade Materna , Valor Preditivo dos Testes , Gravidez , Estudos Prospectivos , Índice de Gravidade de Doença , Sinais Vitais
11.
J Pak Med Assoc ; 69(12): 1790-1793, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31853104

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To compare the duration of 3rd stage of labour and blood-loss in patients with and without placental cord blood drainage following normal vaginal delivery. METHODS: The quasi-experimental study was conducted at the Services Hospital, Lahore, Pakistan, from October4, 2015, to April 4, 2016, and comprised pregnant women aged 18-40 years with any parity having gestation >36 weeks and haemoglobin >7.0gm. The subjects were divided into two groups. In one group, routine active management of third stage of labour was done and placental end of the umbilical cord was left open to drain blood in a kidney tray till flow ceased. In the other group, the placental end of the cord was left clamped and spontaneous expulsion was carried out by controlled cord traction. Data was analysed using SPSS 22. RESULTS: Of the 200 females, 100(50%) were in each of the two groups. The overall mean age was 29.22}6.84 years. The mean baseline haemoglobin in placental cord drainage group was 11.48}0.89 and that in the control group was 11.40 } 0.91 (p>0.05). The mean duration of third stage of labour in placental cord drainage group was 5.67}1.81 hours and in control group it was 8.44}2.50 hours (p<0.001). The mean blood-loss in placental cord drainage group was 174.69}13.69mlcompared to 196.25}15.06ml in the control group (p<0.001). CONCLUSIONS: In the management of the third stage of labour with the cord drainage method, results showed significant reduction in postpartum blood-loss and the duration of the third stage in normal vaginal birth patients.


Assuntos
Parto Obstétrico/métodos , Drenagem/métodos , Sangue Fetal/fisiologia , Terceira Fase do Trabalho de Parto/fisiologia , Placenta , Adulto , Feminino , Humanos , Paquistão , Placenta/irrigação sanguínea , Placenta/fisiologia , Hemorragia Pós-Parto/epidemiologia , Hemorragia Pós-Parto/prevenção & controle , Gravidez , Adulto Jovem
12.
BMC Pregnancy Childbirth ; 19(1): 498, 2019 Dec 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31842795

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The trial of labor after cesarean section (TOLAC) is a relatively new technique in mainland of China, and epidural analgesia is one of the risk factors for uterine rupture. This study aimed to evaluate the effect of epidural analgesia on primary labor outcome [success rate of vaginal birth after cesarean (VBAC)], parturient complications and neonatal outcomes after TOLAC in Chinese multiparas based on a strictly uniform TOLAC indication, management and epidural protocol. METHODS: A total of 423 multiparas undergoing TOLAC were enrolled in this study from January 2017 to February 2018. Multiparas were divided into two groups according to whether they received epidural analgesia (study group, N = 263) or not (control group, N = 160) during labor. Maternal delivery outcomes and neonatal characteristics were recorded and evaluated using univariate analysis, multivariable logistic regression and propensity score matching (PSM). RESULTS: The success rate of VBAC was remarkably higher (85.55% vs. 69.38%, p < 0.01) in study group. Epidural analgesia significantly shortened initiating lactation period and declined Visual Analogue Score (VAS). It also showed more superiority in neonatal umbilical arterial blood pH value. After matching by PSM, multivariable logistic regression revealed that the correction of confounding factors including epidural analgesia, cervical Bishop score at admission and spontaneous onset of labor were still shown as promotion probability in study group (OR = 4.480, 1.360, and 10.188, respectively; 95%CI = 2.025-10.660, 1.113-1.673, and 2.875-48.418, respectively; p < 0.001, p = 0.003, and p < 0.001, respectively). CONCLUSIONS: Epidural analgesia could reduce labor pain, and no increased risk of postpartum bleeding or uterine rupture, as well as adverse effects in newborns were observed. The labor duration of multiparas was increased, but within acceptable range. In summary, epidural analgesia may be safe for both mother and neonate in the three studied hospitals. TRIAL REGISTRATION: Chineses Clinical Trial Register, ChiCTR-ONC-17010654. Registered February 16th, 2017.


Assuntos
Analgesia Epidural/efeitos adversos , Analgesia Obstétrica/efeitos adversos , Dor do Parto/tratamento farmacológico , Complicações do Trabalho de Parto/epidemiologia , Prova de Trabalho de Parto , Adulto , China/epidemiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Recém-Nascido , Modelos Logísticos , Complicações do Trabalho de Parto/induzido quimicamente , Hemorragia Pós-Parto/induzido quimicamente , Hemorragia Pós-Parto/epidemiologia , Gravidez , Resultado da Gravidez , Estudos Prospectivos , Fatores de Risco , Ruptura Uterina/induzido quimicamente , Ruptura Uterina/epidemiologia
13.
PLoS One ; 14(11): e0225334, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31765408

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Obstetric trends show changes in complication rates and maternal characteristics such as caesarean section, induced labour, and maternal age. To what degree such general time trends and changing patterns of antiepileptic drug use influence pregnancies of women with epilepsy (WWE) is unknown. Our aim was to describe changes in maternal characteristics and obstetric complications in WWE over time, and to assess changes in complication risks in WWE relative to women without epilepsy. METHODS: This was a nationwide cohort study of all first births in the Medical Birth Registry of Norway, 1999-2016. We estimated maternal characteristics, complication rates, and risks for WWE compared to women without epilepsy. Main maternal outcome measures were hypertensive disorders, bleeding in pregnancy, induction of labour, caesarean section, postpartum hemorrhage, preterm birth, small for gestational age, and epidural analgesia. Time trends were analyzed by logistic regression and comparisons made with interaction analyses. RESULTS: 426 347 first births were analyzed, and 3077 (0.7%) women had epilepsy. In WWE there was an increase in proportions of induced labour (p<0.005) and use of epidural analgesia (p<0.005), and a reduction in mild preeclampsia (p = 0.006). However, the risk of these outcomes did not change over time. Only the risk of severe preeclampsia increased significantly over time relative to women without epilepsy (p = 0.006). In WWE, folic acid supplementation increased significantly over time (p<0.005), and there was a decrease in smoking during pregnancy (p<0.005), but these changes were less pronounced than for women without epilepsy (p<0.005). CONCLUSIONS: During 1999-2016 there were important changes in maternal characteristics and complication rates among WWE. However, outcome risks for WWE relative to women without epilepsy did not change despite changes in antiepileptic drug use patterns. The relative risk of severe preeclampsia increased in women with epilepsy.


Assuntos
Epilepsia/complicações , Hemorragia Pós-Parto/epidemiologia , Pré-Eclâmpsia/epidemiologia , Nascimento Prematuro/epidemiologia , Adulto , Cesárea/estatística & dados numéricos , Epilepsia/epidemiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Noruega , Parto , Gravidez
14.
Afr J Reprod Health ; 23(3): 30-41, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31782629

RESUMO

Maternal mortality is attracting attention worldwide, but maternal health problems after delivery have received less attention. Most studies focus on prenatal maternal health problems. We aimed to identify factors associated with postpartum health problems among married women of reproductive age in Democratic Republic of the Congo. We employed a cross-sectional study design and randomly enrolled 700 married women of reproductive age in Kenge city. Data collection instrument was developed using the UNICEF Multiple Indicator Cluster Survey. T-test, chi-square test, and binary logistic regression analysis were performed using the SPSS version 24.0. Significant risk factors associated with postpartum health problems were initial postnatal care period; within 24 hours (Odds Ratio [OR]=2.197, 95% confidence interval [CI]: [1.156-4.174], p=.016); within 7 days (OR=1.972, 95% CI: [1.102-3.528, p=.022]; within 14 days (OR=2.124, 95% CI: [1.082-4.172], p=.029) among reproductive health and health service utilization characteristics. Health education by RECO (Relais Cmunataure) was associated with postpartum health problems including PCIME (Prise en Charge Integree des Maladies de l'Enfant; OR=1.845, 95% CI: [1.038- 3.282], p=.037); hand washing (OR=1.897, 95% CI: [1.060-3.396], p=.031); malaria (OR=2.003, 95% CI: [1.192-3.366], p=.009) among Maternal and Child Health intervention characteristics. In conclusion, it is necessary to develop and promote health policies and educational programs focusing on PNC service within 24 hours, PNC services within 7 days, PCIME, hand washing, prevention of malaria.


Assuntos
Serviços de Saúde Materna/estatística & dados numéricos , Cuidado Pós-Natal/estatística & dados numéricos , Adolescente , Adulto , Estudos Transversais , República Democrática do Congo/epidemiologia , Feminino , Febre/epidemiologia , Pesquisas sobre Serviços de Saúde , Humanos , Malária/epidemiologia , Casamento , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Hemorragia Pós-Parto/epidemiologia , Período Pós-Parto , Gravidez , Cuidado Pré-Natal/estatística & dados numéricos , Inquéritos e Questionários , Adulto Jovem
15.
Arch Gynecol Obstet ; 300(6): 1601-1606, 2019 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31691015

RESUMO

PURPOSE: The incidence of placenta accreta spectrum (PAS; pathologic diagnosis of placenta accreta, increta or percreta) continues to rise in the USA. The purpose of this study is to compare the hemorrhagic morbidity associated with PAS with and without a placenta previa. METHODS: This was a retrospective cohort study of 105 deliveries from 1997 to 2017 with histologically confirmed PAS comparing outcomes in women with and without a coexisting placenta previa. We used the Wilcoxon rank sum test to compare continuous data and Chi-square or Fisher's exact test for categorical data. We also performed log-binomial regression to calculate risk ratios adjusted for depth of invasion (aRR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI). RESULTS: We identified 105 pregnancies with PAS. Antenatal diagnosis of PAS was higher in women with coexisting placenta previa (72.3%) than those without (6.9%, p < 0.001). Women with coexisting placenta previa had greater median estimated blood loss and more units of packed red blood cells transfused (both p ≤ 0.03). Women with placenta previa were more likely to undergo a hysterectomy (RR 2.7; 95% CI 1.8-3.8) and be admitted to the intensive care unit (aRR 3.3; 95% CI 1.1-9.6). CONCLUSIONS: Among women with PAS, those with a coexisting placenta previa experienced greater hemorrhagic morbidity compared to those without. In addition, PAS without placenta previa typically was not diagnosed prior to delivery. This study further supports the recommendation for multi-disciplinary planning and assurance of resources for pregnancies complicated by PAS. In addition, our results highlight the need for mobilization of resources for those pregnancies where PAS is not diagnosed until delivery.


Assuntos
Placenta Acreta/epidemiologia , Placenta Prévia/epidemiologia , Hemorragia Pós-Parto/epidemiologia , Adulto , Feminino , Humanos , Histerectomia , Morbidade , Gravidez , Estudos Retrospectivos
16.
PLoS One ; 14(10): e0224579, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31671143

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Primary postpartum hemorrhage is the leading cause of maternal mortality worldwide. Ethiopia has made significant progress in maternal health care services. Despite this, primary postpartum hemorrhage continues to remain the leading cause of maternal mortality in Ethiopia. This study aimed to assess the prevalence and predictors of primary postpartum hemorrhage among mothers who gave birth at selected hospitals in the Southern Ethiopia. METHODS: An institution-based cross-sectional study was employed from March 2-28, 2018. Four hundred and twenty-two study participants were obtained using the consecutive sampling method. A structured interviewer-administered questionnaire and chart review were used to collect data. Data were entered into Epi-data version 3.1 and analyzed using SPSS version 22. Multivariable logistic regression were used to determine the predictors of primary postpartum hemorrhage with 95% CI and p-value < 0.05. RESULTS: The overall prevalence of primary postpartum hemorrhage was 16.6%. Mothers aged 35 and above [AOR = 6.8, 95% CI (3.6, 16.0)], pre-partum anemia [AOR = 5.3, 95% CI (2.2, 12.8)], complications during labor [AOR = 1.8, 95% CI (2.8, 4.2)], history of previous postpartum hemorrhage [AOR = 2.7, 95% CI (1.1, 6.8)] and instrumental delivery [AOR = 5.3, 95% CI (2.2, 12.8)] were significant predictors of primary postpartum hemorrhage. CONCLUSION: Primary postpartum hemorrhage is quite common in the study area. Mothers aged 35 and above, complications during labor, history of previous postpartum hemorrhage, and instrumental delivery were predictors of primary postpartum hemorrhage. Since postpartum hemorrhage being relatively common, all obstetrics unit members should be prepared to manage mothers who experience it.


Assuntos
Mortalidade Materna/tendências , Hemorragia Pós-Parto/epidemiologia , Hemorragia Pós-Parto/etiologia , Adulto , Estudos Transversais , Parto Obstétrico , Etiópia/epidemiologia , Feminino , Previsões/métodos , Instalações de Saúde , Hospitais , Humanos , Trabalho de Parto , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Mães , Obstetrícia , Gravidez , Prevalência
17.
BMC Pregnancy Childbirth ; 19(1): 404, 2019 Nov 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31694580

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Community distribution of misoprostol to pregnant women in advance of labor is one of the compelling strategies for preventing postpartum hemorrhage. Concerns have been reported that misoprostol distribution could reduce facility delivery or lead to misuse of the medication. This scoping review was conducted to synthesize the evidence on the effect of community-based misoprostol distribution on rates of facility delivery, and to assess the frequency of mothers taking distributed misoprostol before delivery, and any harmful outcomes of such misuse. METHODS: We included peer-reviewed articles on misoprostol implementation from PubMed, Cochrane Review Library, Popline, and Google Scholars. Narrative synthesis was used to analyze and interpret the findings, in which quantitative and qualitative syntheses are integrated. RESULTS: Three qualitative studies, seven observational studies, and four experimental or quasi-experimental studies were included in this study. All before-after household surveys reported increased delivery coverage after the intervention: ranging from 4 to 46 percentage points at the end of the intervention when compared to the baseline. The pooled analysis of experimental and quasi-experimental studies involving 7564 women from four studies revealed that there was no significant difference in rates of facility delivery among the misoprostol and control groups [OR 1.011; 95% CI: 0.906-1.129]. A qualitative study among health professionals also indicated that community distribution of misoprostol for the prevention of postpartum hemorrhage is acceptable to community members and stakeholders and it is a feasible interim solution until access to facility birth increases. In the community-based distribution of misoprostol programs, self-administration of misoprostol by pregnant women before delivery was reported in less than 2% of women, among seven studies involving 11,108 mothers. Evidence also shows that most women who used misoprostol pills, used them as instructed. No adverse outcomes from misuse in either of the studies reviewed. CONCLUSIONS: The claim that community-based distribution of misoprostol would divert women who would have otherwise had institutional deliveries to have home deliveries and promote misuse of the medication are not supported with evidence. Therefore, community-based distribution of misoprostol can be an appropriate strategy for reducing maternal deaths which occur due to postpartum hemorrhages, especially in resource-limited settings.


Assuntos
Assistência à Saúde/métodos , Trabalho de Parto/efeitos dos fármacos , Misoprostol/provisão & distribução , Ocitócicos/provisão & distribução , Hemorragia Pós-Parto/prevenção & controle , Feminino , Saúde Global , Humanos , Incidência , Misoprostol/farmacologia , Ocitócicos/farmacologia , Hemorragia Pós-Parto/epidemiologia , Gravidez , Fatores de Risco , Taxa de Sobrevida/tendências
18.
Acta Med Port ; 32(11): 693-696, 2019 Nov 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31703181

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Maternal mortality and morbidity are important indicators of the quality of health-care services. Obstetric admissions to an intensive care unit may be considered a marker of maternal morbidity. The aim of this study was to determine the incidence, maternal morbidity and mortality of pregnant and postpartum women who required admission to the intensive care unit. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Retrospective analysis of all the obstetric patients admitted to the intensive care unit between 2000 and 2017. Results: Ninety-three women required admission to intensive care (0.7 per 1000 deliveries, 0.8% of all adult admissions). Mean age was 30.3 years, mean gestational age was 33.6 weeks, 51 (54.8%) were primiparous, nine (9.7%) were pregnant of twins and five (5.4%) had not been followed during pregnancy. Eighty-four (90.3%) were admitted after immediate delivery. The most common reasons for admission were hypertensive disorders of pregnancy (35.5%) and obstetric haemorrhage (24.7%). Median length of stay was five days. Transfusion of blood products was needed in 23 (57.0%), artificial ventilation in 50 (53.8%) and use of vasopressors in 21 (22.6%). We observed four maternal deaths (4.3%). Most patients (95.7%) successfully recovered and were transferred to other departments. Sequential Organ Failure Assessment score was significantly associated with maternal mortality. DISCUSSION: Our results are comparable to those obtained in other studies. Maternal mortality was comparable to maternal mortality in developed countries. CONCLUSION: The incidence of obstetric admissions to the intensive care unit was 0.8% and 0.7 per 1000 deliveries. Hypertensive disorders of pregnancy were the main causes of admission. Maternal mortality was 4.3%. Studies of maternal morbidity are important and can help to improve the quality of health care services.


Assuntos
Unidades de Terapia Intensiva/estatística & dados numéricos , Obstetrícia/estatística & dados numéricos , Admissão do Paciente/estatística & dados numéricos , Adulto , Transfusão de Sangue/estatística & dados numéricos , Feminino , Humanos , Hipertensão Induzida pela Gravidez/epidemiologia , Incidência , Tempo de Internação/estatística & dados numéricos , Mortalidade Materna , Portugal/epidemiologia , Hemorragia Pós-Parto/epidemiologia , Gravidez , Complicações Cardiovasculares na Gravidez/epidemiologia , Respiração Artificial/estatística & dados numéricos , Estudos Retrospectivos , Centros de Atenção Terciária , Fatores de Tempo , Vasoconstritores/uso terapêutico
19.
Obstet Gynecol ; 134(6): 1317-1325, 2019 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31764745

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To characterize postpartum hemorrhage trends and outcomes using bioinformatics and electronic health record data. METHODS: This retrospective analysis included all women who delivered in a four-hospital system from July 2014 to July 2017 during implementation of a postpartum hemorrhage bundle. Data on billing codes, uterotonics, transfusion, intrauterine tamponade device placement, and hysterectomy were analyzed. A framework of four postpartum hemorrhage levels based on hemorrhage interventions was created using this informatics data. Levels were analyzed in relation to hematocrit drop from the highest predelivery to the lowest postpartum level. Changes in treatment patterns were assessed with risk-adjusted regression models with adjusted odds ratios (aOR) and 95% CI as the measures of effect. Postpartum hemorrhage-associated severe maternal morbidities were analyzed with adjusted models. RESULTS: The cohort included 43,657 deliveries. Four mutually exclusive postpartum hemorrhage levels were created based on informatics and billing criteria. Level 1: receipt of uterotonic other than oxytocin (3.7% of patients); level 2: billing diagnosis code for postpartum hemorrhage (3.0% of patients); level 3: placement of the intrauterine tamponade device, transfusion of 1-3 units red blood cells (RBCs), or both (1.8% of patients); and Level 4: hysterectomy, 4 or more units RBCs, or both (0.6% of patients). Higher postpartum hemorrhage levels were associated with higher hematocrit drops. In postpartum hemorrhage levels 1 through 4, 1.6%, 5.6%, 30.2%, and 30.7% of women had hematocrit drops greater than 40%, compared with 0.4% of women without postpartum hemorrhage. Over the course of the study, hematocrit drops within a given level did not change. Postpartum hemorrhage interventions such as uterotonics increased significantly (aOR 1.16, 95% CI 1.11-1.21, with aOR denoting change in outcome across 1 year). Although severe maternal morbidity did not change significantly, risk of hysterectomy decreased significantly (aOR 0.52, 95% CI 0.40-0.68). CONCLUSION: Postpartum hemorrhage can be characterized in a granular fashion with informatics data. Informatics data are becoming increasingly available and can provide detailed assessment of postpartum hemorrhage incidence, management, and outcomes to facilitate surveillance and quality improvement.


Assuntos
Parto Obstétrico , Hemorragia Pós-Parto/epidemiologia , Diagnóstico Pré-Natal , Garantia da Qualidade dos Cuidados de Saúde , Adulto , Estudos Transversais , Bases de Dados Factuais , Feminino , Humanos , New York/epidemiologia , Hemorragia Pós-Parto/diagnóstico , Hemorragia Pós-Parto/etiologia , Hemorragia Pós-Parto/prevenção & controle , Gravidez , Estudos Retrospectivos , Medição de Risco
20.
Haemophilia ; 25(6): 1051-1058, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31583797

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Postpartum haemorrhage (PPH) is the major cause of maternal death worldwide. Haemostatic abnormalities are independently associated with a significantly increased risk for severe PPH. In this study, the value of haemostatic evaluation in women with severe PPH was explored. AIM: To investigate the occurrence of previously unknown inherited bleeding disorders in women with severe PPH. METHODS: Women with severe PPH (blood loss of ≥2000 mL) between 2011 and 2017, referred to the haematology outpatient clinic for haemostatic evaluation, were retrospectively included. A bleeding disorder was diagnosed based on (inter)national guidelines, or when having a clear bleeding phenotype, not fulfilling any diagnostic criteria or laboratory abnormalities, this being classified as Bleeding of Unknown Cause (BUC). Logistic regression was used to model the association between diagnosis and obstetrical causes and risk factors for PPH. RESULTS: In total, 85 women with PPH were included. In 23% (n = 16), a mild bleeding disorder was diagnosed, including low von Willebrand factor (Low VWF 8/16), platelet function disorders (PFD 5/16), BUC (2/16) and von Willebrand disease type 1 (1/16). No significant associations were found between obstetrical causes or risk factors for PPH and the presence of a bleeding disorder. CONCLUSION: In 23% of women with severe PPH, a mild bleeding disorder was diagnosed, independent of obstetrical causes or risk factors for PPH. This implies that severe PPH can be the first clinical symptom of an inherited bleeding disorder. Therefore, to optimize clinical management, haemostatic evaluation after severe PPH is recommended.


Assuntos
Transtornos da Coagulação Sanguínea/complicações , Transtornos da Coagulação Sanguínea/genética , Hemorragia Pós-Parto/epidemiologia , Adulto , Feminino , Humanos , Estudos Retrospectivos , Fatores de Risco
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