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2.
Gynecol Endocrinol ; 40(1): 2362244, 2024 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38946226

RESUMO

Ovulatory disorders are a common cause of abnormal uterine bleeding in women of reproductive age. The International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics currently offers a causal classification system for ovulatory disorders but does not provide clear management recommendations. There remains regional disparity in treatment practices, often influenced by institutional and insurance regulations as well as cultural and religious practices. A panel of experts evaluated current gaps in ovulatory disorder management guidelines and discussed potential strategies for addressing these unmet needs. Key gaps included a lack in consensus about the effectiveness of combined estrogen and progestogen versus progestogen alone, a paucity of evidence regarding the relative effectiveness of distinct hormonal molecules, a lack of data regarding optimal treatment duration, and limited guidance on optimal sequencing of treatment. Recommendations included development of a sequential treatment-line approach and development of a clinical guide addressing treatment scenarios common to all countries, which can then be adapted to local practices. It was also agreed that current guidelines do not address the unique clinical challenges of certain patient groups. The panel discussed how the complexity and variety of patient groups made the development of one single disease management algorithm unlikely; however, a simplified, decision-point hierarchy could potentially help direct therapeutic choices. Overall, the panel highlighted that greater advocacy for a tailored approach to the treatment of ovulatory disorders, including wider consideration of non-estrogen therapies, could help to improve care for people living with abnormal uterine bleeding due to ovarian dysfunction.


Assuntos
Hemorragia Uterina , Humanos , Feminino , Hemorragia Uterina/terapia , Hemorragia Uterina/etiologia , Hemorragia Uterina/diagnóstico , Ovulação , Guias de Prática Clínica como Assunto , Metrorragia/etiologia , Metrorragia/terapia
3.
Curr Opin Obstet Gynecol ; 36(4): 287-295, 2024 Aug 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38837727

RESUMO

PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Adenomyosis is a common cause of abnormal uterine bleeding (AUB), dysmenorrhea, and pelvic pain. Definitive diagnosis and treatment have historically been by uterine histopathology at time of hysterectomy; however, advances in imaging have supported earlier diagnosis and subsequent conservative treatment. This review aims to update the evidence supporting the uterine-sparing, procedural management options with a focus on clinical outcomes. RECENT FINDINGS: Uterine artery embolization (UAE), radiofrequency ablation (RFA), high-intensity focused ultrasound (HIFU), percutaneous microwave ablation (PMWA), and adenomyomectomy are minimally invasive interventions proven to be effective in reducing AUB and dysmenorrhea due to adenomyosis. Symptom improvement is associated with a decrease in uterine volume. Studies support the use of alternative treatment options given the overall low rates of symptom recurrence and reintervention. Combination therapy may be more effective than monotherapy. SUMMARY: This review provides the current evidence for use of alternative treatment options for adenomyosis. Access to ablative therapies in the USA is limited and primarily off label, given lack of FDA approval. High-quality prospective and randomized controlled trials are needed in order to further delineate treatment comparisons, efficacy, safety, and ideal patient selection for these treatments. More data are needed to assess safety and utility in those desiring future fertility.


Assuntos
Adenomiose , Embolização da Artéria Uterina , Humanos , Feminino , Adenomiose/terapia , Resultado do Tratamento , Ablação por Ultrassom Focalizado de Alta Intensidade , Dismenorreia/terapia , Dismenorreia/etiologia , Ablação por Radiofrequência/métodos , Hemorragia Uterina/terapia , Hemorragia Uterina/etiologia , Dor Pélvica/terapia , Dor Pélvica/etiologia
4.
Fertil Steril ; 122(1): 20-30, 2024 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38723935

RESUMO

Uterine fibroids (UFs) are the most common female benign pelvic tumors, affecting >60% of patients aged 30-44 years. Uterine fibroids are asymptomatic in a large percentage of cases and may be identified incidentally using a transvaginal ultrasound or a magnetic resonance imaging scan. However, in approximately 30% of cases, UFs affect the quality of life and women's health, with abnormal uterine bleeding and heavy menstrual bleeding being the most common complaints, along with iron deficiency (ID) and ID anemia. Medical treatments used for UFs-related abnormal uterine bleeding include symptomatic agents, such as nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drugs and tranexamic acid, and hormonal therapies, including combined oral contraceptives, gonadotropin-releasing hormone agonists or antagonists, levonorgestrel intrauterine systems, selective progesterone receptor modulators, and aromatase inhibitors. Nevertheless, few drugs are approved specifically for UF treatment, and most of them manage the symptoms. Surgical options include fertility-sparing treatments, such as myomectomy, or nonconservative options, such as hysterectomy, especially in perimenopausal women who are not responding to any treatment. Radiologic interventions are also available: uterine artery embolization, high-intensity focused ultrasound or magnetic resonance-guided focused ultrasound, and radiofrequency ablation. Furthermore, the management of ID and ID anemia, as a consequence of acute and chronic bleeding, should be taken into account with the use of iron replacement therapy both during medical treatment and before and after a surgical procedure. In the case of symptomatic UFs, the location, size, multiple UFs, or coexistent adenomyosis should guide the choice with a shared decision-making process, considering long- and short-term treatment goals expected by the patient, including pregnancy desire or wish to preserve the uterus independently of reproductive goals.


Assuntos
Leiomioma , Hemorragia Uterina , Neoplasias Uterinas , Humanos , Feminino , Leiomioma/terapia , Leiomioma/complicações , Leiomioma/diagnóstico , Neoplasias Uterinas/terapia , Neoplasias Uterinas/complicações , Neoplasias Uterinas/diagnóstico , Hemorragia Uterina/terapia , Hemorragia Uterina/etiologia , Hemorragia Uterina/diagnóstico , Resultado do Tratamento , Miomectomia Uterina , Embolização da Artéria Uterina , Adulto
5.
J Thromb Haemost ; 22(7): 1819-1825, 2024 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38642705

RESUMO

Bleeding is a well-recognized side effect of anticoagulant therapy, which is used to treat venous thromboembolism (VTE) in individuals of all ages, including those of female sex, who commonly experience VTE as a complication of hormonal therapies and/or pregnancy. Heavy menstrual bleeding (HMB) is also extremely common in reproductive-aged individuals of female sex. Despite these overlapping situations, relatively little attention has been paid to the impact of anticoagulant-associated HMB on treatment strategies and the patient experience. In this review, we summarize incidence and complications of HMB in anticoagulated individuals as well as management strategies for HMB in this population. We also address the patient experience, including the impact of HMB on quality of life and the impact of discontinuing hormonal therapies at the time of VTE diagnosis and anticoagulant initiation. We conclude by highlighting specific gaps related to the patient experience of anticoagulant-associated HMB in both the research and clinical settings.


Assuntos
Anticoagulantes , Menorragia , Qualidade de Vida , Tromboembolia Venosa , Humanos , Feminino , Anticoagulantes/efeitos adversos , Anticoagulantes/uso terapêutico , Tromboembolia Venosa/tratamento farmacológico , Tromboembolia Venosa/diagnóstico , Menorragia/tratamento farmacológico , Fatores de Risco , Coagulação Sanguínea/efeitos dos fármacos , Adulto , Incidência , Gravidez , Hemorragia Uterina/induzido quimicamente , Hemorragia Uterina/terapia , Hemorragia Uterina/diagnóstico
7.
Maturitas ; 184: 107944, 2024 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38412750

RESUMO

Abnormal uterine bleeding is a frequent symptom in the perimenopause. Causes are numerous, ranging from physiological reactions due to decreasing/unstable ovarian function to premalignant and malignant conditions. Benign findings such as endometrial polyps and myomas increase with age, leading to more abnormal uterine bleeding in the perimenopause. Cervical and vaginal causes of abnormal uterine bleeding should be excluded by speculum examination. Sexually transmitted diseases or pregnancy should be ruled out. Measurement of haemoglobin and iron levels, human chorion gonadotropin and thyroid hormones are relevant in selected cases. Transvaginal ultrasound is an ideal first step for the evaluation of perimenopausal abnormal uterine bleeding. Saline or gel contrast sonohysterography improves the diagnostic accuracy. Based on the ultrasound findings, invasive procedures such as endometrial biopsy or hysteroscopy can be planned. Once premalignant and malignant causes are excluded, the necessity for treatment can be evaluated in collaboration with the patient. Heavy menstrual bleeding causing anaemia will need immediate treatment. In less severe cases and in intermenstrual bleeding, expectant management can be considered. Hormonal treatment, such as oral progestogens, combined oral contraceptives or insertion of the levonorgestrel intrauterine system, may be a possibility if anovulatory bleeding is interfering with quality of life. The amount of bleeding can be reduced both by antifibrinolytic and non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, progestogens and the levonorgestrel intrauterine system. Focal intrauterine lesions such as endometrial polyps or submucous myomas may require operative hysteroscopic procedures. Endometrial ablation or endometrial resection are good choices in selected cases, but some women will need a hysterectomy to treat their abnormal uterine bleeding in perimenopause.


Assuntos
Perimenopausa , Hemorragia Uterina , Humanos , Feminino , Hemorragia Uterina/etiologia , Hemorragia Uterina/terapia , Hemorragia Uterina/diagnóstico
8.
BMJ Case Rep ; 16(12)2023 Dec 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38050399

RESUMO

We report a case of uterine arteriovenous malformation in an early adolescent who presented with heavy vaginal bleeding 2 months after termination of pregnancy with copper intrauterine contraceptive device (IUCD) insertion. The patient was admitted and had medical treatment, including blood transfusion and subsequently transcatheter embolisation of the arteriovenous malformation to control her bleeding. The IUCD was left in situ. Her symptoms completely resolved by 4 months post-procedure.


Assuntos
Malformações Arteriovenosas , Dispositivos Intrauterinos de Cobre , Dispositivos Intrauterinos , Gravidez , Feminino , Adolescente , Humanos , Hemorragia Uterina/etiologia , Hemorragia Uterina/terapia , Malformações Arteriovenosas/complicações , Malformações Arteriovenosas/diagnóstico por imagem , Malformações Arteriovenosas/terapia
10.
Int J Gynaecol Obstet ; 162 Suppl 2: 43-57, 2023 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37538018

RESUMO

Just as the investigation of abnormal uterine bleeding (AUB) is approached systematically using the two FIGO systems for AUB in the reproductive years, treatment options can be considered similarly. Therapeutic options fall into two categories-medical and surgical-and while medical management is typically regarded as first-line therapy, there are several exceptions defined by the presenting cause or causes, mainly when infertility is a concurrent issue. In the early 1990s, up to 60% of women underwent a hysterectomy for the symptom of heavy menstrual bleeding (HMB), but this figure has decreased. The number of women undergoing a hysterectomy for benign disorders continues to decline, along with an increase in hysterectomies performed using minimally invasive techniques. Discussions about therapeutic options are tailored to the individual patient, and we include the risks and benefits of each option, including no management, to enable the patient to make an informed choice. The different types of treatment options and the factors affecting decision-making are considered in this article.


Assuntos
Leiomioma , Hemorragia Uterina , Humanos , Feminino , Leiomioma/cirurgia , Hemorragia Uterina/terapia , Esteroides/uso terapêutico , Embolização da Artéria Uterina , Hormônio Liberador de Gonadotropina
11.
Rev Assoc Med Bras (1992) ; 69(suppl 1): e2023S111, 2023.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37556630

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to comparatively evaluate the presence of abnormal uterine bleeding and associated factors among women from the five official Brazilian geographic regions. METHODS: This is a cross-sectional, population-based, multicenter study of reproductive-age women from the five regions of Brazil. All participants answered questionnaires containing personal and socioeconomic data and information on uterine bleeding (self-perception and objective data). RESULTS: A total of 1,761 Brazilian women were included, 724 from the Southeast, 408 from the Northeast, 221 from the South, 213 from the North, and 195 from the Central-West. Considering women's self-perception, the prevalence of abnormal uterine bleeding was 37.56% in the North region, 39.46% in the Northeast, 21.54% in the Central-West, 29.56% in the Southeast, and 25.34% in the South (p<0.001). Abnormal uterine bleeding was more prevalent in the North and Northeast, where women had lower purchasing power, became pregnant more often, and were the only ones financially responsible for supporting the family more often (p<0.001). The menstrual cycle lasted <24 days in less than 20% of the women in all regions (p=NS). Among these, approximately 8 out of 10 women had never undergone treatment in four out of the five regions evaluated. More than half of the evaluated women reported a worsening of their quality of life during bleeding. CONCLUSION: The prevalence of abnormal uterine bleeding in Brazilian women was higher in the North and Northeast, followed by the Southeast, South, and Central-West regions. There was a worsening of quality of life during menstruation regardless of the woman's self-perception of abnormal uterine bleeding. Such results can direct the actions of health managers toward a better approach to abnormal bleeding.


Assuntos
Qualidade de Vida , Hemorragia Uterina , Humanos , Feminino , Brasil/epidemiologia , Estudos Transversais , Hemorragia Uterina/epidemiologia , Hemorragia Uterina/terapia , Inquéritos e Questionários
12.
Eur J Obstet Gynecol Reprod Biol ; 288: 90-107, 2023 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37499278

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To provide French guidelines for the management of women with abnormal uterine bleeding (AUB). DESIGN: A consensus committee of 26 experts was formed. A formal conflict-of-interest policy was developed at the beginning of the process and enforced throughout. The entire guidelines process was conducted independently of any industry funding (i.e. pharmaceutical or medical device companies). The authors were advised to follow the rules of the Grading of Recommendations Assessment, Development and Evaluation (GRADE®) system to guide assessment of quality of evidence. The potential drawbacks of making strong recommendations in the presence of low-quality evidence were emphasized. METHODS: The last guidelines from the Collège National des Gynécologues et Obstétriciens Français on the management of women with AUB were published in 2008. The literature seems now sufficient for an update. The committee studied questions within 7 fields (diagnosis; adolescents; idiopathic AUB; endometrial hyperplasia and polyps; type 0-2 fibroids; type 3 or higher fibroids; and adenomyosis). Each question was formulated in a PICO (Patients, Intervention, Comparison, Outcome) format and evidence profiles were compiled. The GRADE® methodology was applied to the literature review and the formulation of recommendations. RESULTS: The experts' synthesis work and the application of the GRADE method resulted in 36 recommendations. Among the formalized recommendations, 19 are strong and 17 weak. No response was found in the literature for 14 questions. We chose to abstain from recommendations rather than providing advice based solely on expert clinical experience. CONCLUSIONS: The 36 recommendations make it possible to specify the diagnostic and therapeutic strategies for various clinical situations practitioners encounter, from the simplest to the most complex.


Assuntos
Adenomiose , Leiomioma , Adolescente , Feminino , Humanos , Ginecologista , Obstetra , Hemorragia Uterina/diagnóstico , Hemorragia Uterina/terapia
13.
Obstet Gynecol Clin North Am ; 50(3): 473-492, 2023 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37500211

RESUMO

Conditions that often present with vaginal bleeding before 20 weeks are common and can cause morbidity and mortality. Clinically stable patients can choose their management options. Clinically unstable patients require urgent procedural management: uterine aspiration, dilation and evacuation, or surgical removal of an ectopic pregnancy. Septic abortion requires prompt procedural management, intravenous antibiotics, and intravenous fluids. Available data on prognosis with expectant management of pre-viable rupture of membranes in the United States are poor for mothers and fetuses.


Assuntos
Aborto Espontâneo , Gravidez Ectópica , Gravidez , Feminino , Humanos , Hemorragia Uterina/diagnóstico , Hemorragia Uterina/etiologia , Hemorragia Uterina/terapia , Útero , Idade Gestacional , Primeiro Trimestre da Gravidez
14.
Aust N Z J Obstet Gynaecol ; 63(6): 803-810, 2023 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37427911

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Women present to the emergency department (ED) with pregnancy complications including bleeding. They seek investigations, treatment and clear discharge and referral pathways. AIMS: The aim was to identify trends, characteristics, ED care and discharge pathways for women who present to the ED with early pregnancy bleeding. METHODS: Retrospective data (from 2011 to 2020) were extracted from a regional health district's databank. Data were processed, and deterministic linking was used to produce a final data set. Descriptive statistics were used to identify trends and characteristics. Linear and logistic regression models were used to identify factors that influence health service use, outcomes and discharge pathways. RESULTS: Over the 10 years, there have been almost 15 000 presentations to the ED for early pregnancy bleeding, from approximately 10 000 women, 0.97% of all ED presentations. The frequency of presentations increased by 19.6% over the study period. The average age of women who presented to the ED was 29.1 years, which increased from 28.5 years (2011) to 29.3 (2020). The median length of stay was less than 4 h, and most women were treated and discharged from the ED. One-third of presentations received neither ultrasound nor pathology, but health service costs increased by 330% from 2014 to 2020. CONCLUSIONS: Maternal age is increasing, as is the frequency of ED presentations for early pregnancy bleeding, and both factors increase demands on the ED. Findings from this study may inform strategies to improve current care models and improve quality and safety practices within the ED.


Assuntos
Serviço Hospitalar de Emergência , Complicações na Gravidez , Gravidez , Humanos , Feminino , Adulto , Tempo de Internação , Estudos Retrospectivos , Hemorragia Uterina/epidemiologia , Hemorragia Uterina/terapia , Armazenamento e Recuperação da Informação
15.
J Pediatr Adolesc Gynecol ; 36(5): 455-458, 2023 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37182811

RESUMO

STUDY OBJECTIVE: To analyze what factors influence a provider's decision to order a pelvic ultrasound (PUS) in the emergency department (ED) for adolescents with abnormal uterine bleeding (AUB), to determine if endometrial stripe (EMS) measurements are used in treatment decisions, and to evaluate if treatment outcomes differ based on EMS thicknesses. METHODS: Retrospective chart review of patients aged 11-19 presenting to the ED with AUB from 2006 to 2018. Those receiving a PUS were divided into three EMS groups: ≤5 mm, 6-9 mm, and ≥10 mm. Outcomes were evaluated in admitted patients by progress notes indicating resolution of bleeding. Cross-tab, χ2, and logistic and linear regression analysis were performed. RESULTS: Of 258 adolescents meeting study criteria, 113 (43.8%) had a PUS. None had an abnormality. A PUS was more likely to be performed in patients with lower hemoglobin values (P < .003). Provider decision to order a PUS did not differ by age or bleeding duration (P > .1). Among those with a PUS, 67 (59%) received hormonal therapy (pill, progestin-only, IV estrogen). There were no significant differences in treatment choices based on EMS (P < .061) or, among the 44 admitted patients (17%), in the time it took bleeding to stop after initiating treatment (pill: P = .227, progestin-only: P = .211, IV estrogen: P = .229). CONCLUSION: In adolescents with AUB in the ED, performing a PUS was more common in those with low hemoglobin. EMS thickness did not appear to affect treatment decisions or inpatient outcomes. Larger studies are needed to confirm the current findings and determine if PUS is needed in the evaluation of AUB.


Assuntos
Progestinas , Hemorragia Uterina , Feminino , Humanos , Adolescente , Hemorragia Uterina/diagnóstico por imagem , Hemorragia Uterina/etiologia , Hemorragia Uterina/terapia , Estudos Retrospectivos , Serviço Hospitalar de Emergência , Estrogênios
16.
J Obstet Gynaecol Res ; 49(7): 1827-1837, 2023 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37170675

RESUMO

AIM: Abnormal uterine bleeding, as proposed in 2007, is defined as unexpected uterine bleeding in women of reproductive age; the cause of the bleeding is categorized using the PALM-COEIN system. Identifying the diagnostic and treatment modalities for each cause might be intriguing. To summarize the options for abnormal uterine bleeding assessment, we employed text-mining analysis for each of its causes. METHODS: We analyzed abstracts based on PALM-COEIN from PubMed and Web of Science in March 2022. The literature was divided into categories; topics about the disorders were retrieved, and covalent network analysis was conducted to find information for evaluating abnormal uterine bleeding. RESULTS: Diagnostic approaches for PALM included histological and image analysis, including computerized tomography, magnetic resonance imaging, sonography, and hysteroscopy. The therapeutic approaches varied according to the cause. Diagnostic approaches for COEIN were mostly medical history interviews and blood sampling, and the therapeutic approaches for COEIN were ablation, hysteroscopy, and hormonal treatment. The PALM-COEIN classification co-occurrence search revealed each cause's diagnostic procedures, symptoms, and treatment procedures. CONCLUSION: Our text-mining methodology revealed comprehensive insights, important study themes, and clinical trends for abnormal uterine bleeding. A tailored approach to medical realities is required for treating abnormal uterine bleeding properly.


Assuntos
Doenças Uterinas , Feminino , Humanos , Gravidez , Doenças Uterinas/complicações , Hemorragia Uterina/diagnóstico , Hemorragia Uterina/etiologia , Hemorragia Uterina/terapia , Histeroscopia/efeitos adversos , Imageamento por Ressonância Magnética , Ultrassonografia
17.
Abdom Radiol (NY) ; 48(7): 2443-2448, 2023 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37145314

RESUMO

PURPOSE: To evaluate the outcomes of uterine artery embolization (UAE) for patients with urgent or emergent abnormal uterine bleeding (AUB). MATERIALS AND METHODS: Retrospective review of all patients from 1/2009-12/2020 who were treated urgently or emergently with UAE for AUB. Urgent and emergent cases were defined as those requiring inpatient admissions. Demographic data were collected for each patient including hospitalizations related to bleeding and length of stay (LOS) for each hospitalization. Hemostatic interventions other than UAE were collected. Hematologic data were collected before and after UAE including hemoglobin, hematocrit, and transfusion products. Data specific to the UAE procedure included complication rates, 30-day readmission, 30-day mortality, embolic agent, site of embolization, radiation dose, and procedure time. RESULTS: 52 patients (median age: 39) underwent 54 urgent or emergent UAE procedures. The most common indications for UAE were malignancy (28.8%), post-partum hemorrhage (21.2%), fibroids (15.4%), vascular anomalies (15.4%), and post-operative bleeding (9.6%). There were no procedure-related complications. Following UAE, 44 patients (84.6%) achieved clinical success and required no additional intervention. Packed red blood cell transfusion decreased from a mean of 5.7 to 1.7 units (p < 0.0001). Fresh frozen plasma transfusion decreased from a mean of 1.8 to 0.48 units (p = 0.012). 50% of patients received a transfusion prior to UAE, while only 15.4% were transfused post-procedure (p = 0.0001). CONCLUSIONS: Emergent or urgent UAE is a safe and effective procedure to control AUB hemorrhage secondary to a variety of etiologies.


Assuntos
Embolização da Artéria Uterina , Hemorragia Uterina , Embolização da Artéria Uterina/efeitos adversos , Hemorragia Uterina/etiologia , Hemorragia Uterina/terapia , Emergências , Resultado do Tratamento , Neoplasias Uterinas/complicações , Leiomioma/complicações , Hemorragia Pós-Parto/terapia , Hemorragia Pós-Operatória/terapia , Malformações Vasculares/complicações , Humanos , Feminino , Adulto Jovem , Adulto , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais
18.
Am J Case Rep ; 24: e939474, 2023 Apr 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37074991

RESUMO

BACKGROUND Vaginal wall hemangiomas are extremely rare, benign, vascular tumors of the female genitalia. Most cases occur in childhood, but a few cases can be acquired; however, the mechanism of hemangioma formation remains unknown. Most hemangiomas involving female genital organs are small and asymptomatic. However, huge hemangiomas can cause irregular genital bleeding, infertility, and miscarriage. Surgical excision and embolization are the most common treatment options. We reveal that sclerotherapy achieved good outcomes in a patient with an intractable huge vaginal wall hemangioma. CASE REPORT A 71-year-old woman visited a local doctor with concerns of frequent urination. A ring pessary was inserted after a diagnosis of pelvic organ prolapse. However, symptoms did not improve, and the patient consulted another hospital. The previous physician diagnosed vaginal wall tumors and prolapse and performed a colporrhaphy. However, she was referred to our hospital with heavy intraoperative bleeding. Imaging examination revealed a huge hemangioma on the vaginal wall, which was histologically diagnosed as a cavernous hemangioma. Angiography revealed hemorrhage in the right peripheral vaginal artery. Owing to concerns regarding extensive vaginal wall necrosis caused by arterial embolization, sclerotherapy using monoethanolamine oleate was selected. Hemostasis was achieved 1 month after sclerotherapy, and postoperative imaging showed the lesion had shrunk in size. No recurrence of hemangioma was observed 19 months after surgery. CONCLUSIONS We report a case of a large vaginal wall intractable bleeding hemangioma. Sclerotherapy can be a suitable treatment option for large vaginal hemangiomas that are too extensive to be treated using surgery or arterial embolization.


Assuntos
Hemangioma Cavernoso , Hemangioma , Feminino , Humanos , Idoso , Escleroterapia/métodos , Hemangioma Cavernoso/complicações , Hemangioma Cavernoso/terapia , Hemangioma Cavernoso/diagnóstico , Hemangioma/diagnóstico , Vagina , Hemorragia Uterina/etiologia , Hemorragia Uterina/terapia
19.
FP Essent ; 525: 7-12, 2023 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36780553

RESUMO

Vaginal bleeding in the first trimester is a common concern during pregnancy. The amount of bleeding and associated symptoms, such as nausea and vomiting, can be of prognostic value. Timely evaluation with vital signs, physical examination, laboratory tests (eg, Rh factor, hemoglobin and possibly progesterone levels), and pelvic ultrasound (US) can distinguish among viable pregnancy, nonviable pregnancy, intrauterine pregnancy (IUP) of uncertain viability, and pregnancy of unknown location. Serial pelvic US can be obtained in patients with IUP of uncertain viability after 11 to 14 days, and in pregnancy of unknown location in as little as 48 hours. Quantitative human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG) levels are of minimal clinical utility after IUP is visualized on US. Serial quantitative hCG levels should be measured in patients with pregnancy of unknown location. After an early pregnancy loss has been identified, as long as the patient is hemodynamically stable, options include expectant, medical, and surgical management. The treatment plan can be guided by shared decision-making. Ectopic pregnancy can be managed surgically via laparoscopy, medically with methotrexate, or expectantly (in certain circumstances). Progesterone for patients with early pregnancy bleeding and no history of miscarriage likely is of no benefit.


Assuntos
Gravidez Ectópica , Progesterona , Feminino , Gravidez , Humanos , Progesterona/uso terapêutico , Primeiro Trimestre da Gravidez , Cuidado Pré-Natal , Gravidez Ectópica/diagnóstico , Hemorragia Uterina/diagnóstico , Hemorragia Uterina/terapia
20.
Med Clin North Am ; 107(2): 235-246, 2023 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36759094

RESUMO

Abnormal uterine bleeding is a common problem in premenopausal women and refers to uterine bleeding that is abnormal in frequency, duration, volume, and/or regularity. Etiologies can be classified using the PALM-COIEN system. Patients should receive a comprehensive history and physical with special attention to menstrual, sexual, and family history. Physical examination needs to include a pelvic examination with speculum and bimanual components. All patients need to have a pregnancy test and CBC with platelets. Treatments vary by etiology. Medical treatments include levonorgestrel intrauterine devices, oral contraceptive pills, and tranexamic acid. Surgical treatment options include endometrial ablation and hysterectomy.


Assuntos
Menorragia , Gravidez , Humanos , Feminino , Menorragia/diagnóstico , Menorragia/etiologia , Menorragia/terapia , Levanogestrel , Hemorragia Uterina/diagnóstico , Hemorragia Uterina/etiologia , Hemorragia Uterina/terapia , Anticoncepcionais Orais , Histerectomia
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