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1.
Eur J Endocrinol ; 182(3): 343-350, 2020 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31958313

RESUMO

Background: To investigate the association between fasting serum insulin and glucose levels with atherosclerotic plaque composition in the carotid artery. Impaired insulin and glucose levels are implicated in the etiology of cardiovascular disease; however, their influence on the formation and composition of atherosclerotic plaque remains unclear. Methods: In 1740 participants (mean age 72.9 years, 46% women, 14.4% diabetes mellitus) from the population-based Rotterdam Study, we performed carotid MRI to evaluate the presence of calcification, lipid core, and intraplaque hemorrhage in carotid atherosclerosis. All participants also underwent blood sampling to obtain information on serum insulin and glucose levels. Using logistic regression models, we assessed the association of serum insulin and glucose levels (per s.d. and in tertiles) with the different plaque components, while adjusting for sex, age, intima-media thickness, and cardiovascular risk factors. Results: Serum insulin levels were associated with the presence of intraplaque hemorrhage (adjusted odds ratio (OR): 1.42 (95% CI: 1.12-1.7)) We found no association with the presence of calcification or lipid core. Sensitivity analyses restricted to individuals without diabetes mellitus yielded similar results. No associations were found between serum glucose levels and any of the plaque components. Conclusions: Serum insulin levels are associated with the presence of vulnerable components of carotid plaque, specifically with intraplaque hemorrhage. These findings suggest a complex role for serum insulin in the pathophysiology of carotid atherosclerosis and in plaque vulnerability.


Assuntos
Glicemia/metabolismo , Doenças das Artérias Carótidas/diagnóstico por imagem , Insulina/sangue , Placa Aterosclerótica/diagnóstico por imagem , Calcificação Vascular/diagnóstico por imagem , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Doenças das Artérias Carótidas/sangue , Doenças das Artérias Carótidas/metabolismo , Espessura Intima-Media Carotídea , Feminino , Hemorragia/sangue , Hemorragia/diagnóstico por imagem , Hemorragia/metabolismo , Humanos , Modelos Logísticos , Imagem por Ressonância Magnética , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Países Baixos , Placa Aterosclerótica/sangue , Placa Aterosclerótica/metabolismo , Calcificação Vascular/sangue , Calcificação Vascular/metabolismo
2.
Blood Coagul Fibrinolysis ; 30(1S Suppl 1): S4-S6, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31517708

RESUMO

: In persons with hemophilia, the severity and spontaneity of bleeding episodes depends on the degree of factor deficiency present in the patients. Severe hemophilia is classically characterized by a factor VIII (FVIII) or factor IX (FIX) coagulant activity below 1% of normal (spontaneous and severe bleeds). Moderate hemophilia is associated with factor activity between 1 and 5% of normal (milder spontaneous and traumatic bleeds). Finally, mild hemophilia has factor activity in excess of 5% of normal (traumatic bleeds in general). Nonetheless, this classification is rather simplistic. It is a known fact that there are subjects with identical clotting factor levels who have different bleeding phenotypes. We will analyze different factors to justify this.


Assuntos
Fator IX/análise , Fator VIII/análise , Hemofilia A/sangue , Coagulação Sanguínea , Fator IX/metabolismo , Fator VIII/metabolismo , Hemofilia A/metabolismo , Hemorragia/sangue , Hemorragia/metabolismo , Humanos
3.
Toxicol Lett ; 316: 35-48, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31509773

RESUMO

Snake envenomation globally is attributed to an ever-increasing human population encroaching into snake territories. Responsible for many bites in Asia is the widespread genus Trimeresurus. While bites lead to haemorrhage, only a few species have had their venoms examined in detail. We found that Trimeresurus venom causes haemorrhaging by cleaving fibrinogen in a pseudo-procoagulation manner to produce weak, unstable, short-lived fibrin clots ultimately resulting in an overall anticoagulant effect due to fibrinogen depletion. The monovalent antivenom 'Thai Red Cross Green Pit Viper antivenin', varied in efficacy ranging from excellent neutralisation of T. albolabris venom through to T. gumprechti and T. mcgregori being poorly neutralised and T. hageni being unrecognised by the antivenom. While the results showing excellent neutralisation of some non-T. albolabris venoms (such as T. flavomaculaturs, T. fucatus, and T. macrops) needs to be confirmed with in vivo tests, conversely the antivenom failure T. hageni, and the very poor results against T. gumprechti and T. mcgregori, despite being conducted in the ideal scenario of preincubation of antivenom:venom, indicates that the likelihood of clinically relevant cross-reactivity for these species is low (T. gumprechti and T. mcgregori) to non-existent (T. hageni). These same latter three species were also not inhibited by the serine protease inhibitor AEBSF, suggesting that the toxins leading to a coagulotoxic effect in these species are non-serine proteases while in contrast T. albolabris coagulotoxicity was completely impeded by AEBSF, and thus driven by kallikrein-type serine proteases. There was a conspicuous lack of phylogenetic pattern in venom variation, with the most potent venoms (T. albolabris and T. hageni) being distant to each other on the organismal tree, and with the three most divergent and poorly neutralised venoms (T. gumprechti, T. hageni, and T. mcgregori) were also not each others closest relatives. This reinforces the paradigm that the fundamental dynamic evolution of venom results in organismal phylogeny being a poor predictor of venom potency or antivenom efficacy. This study provides a robust investigation on the differential venom effects from a wide range of Trimeresurus species on coagulation, highlighting differential fibrinogenolytic effects, while also investigating the relative antivenom neutralisation capabilities of the widely available Thai Red Cross Green Pit Viper antivenom. These results therefore have immediate, real-world implications for patients envenomed by Trimeresurus species.


Assuntos
Antídotos/farmacologia , Antivenenos/farmacologia , Coagulação Sanguínea/efeitos dos fármacos , Venenos de Crotalídeos/antagonistas & inibidores , Hemorragia/tratamento farmacológico , Mordeduras de Serpentes/tratamento farmacológico , Trimeresurus , Animais , Testes de Coagulação Sanguínea , Reações Cruzadas , Venenos de Crotalídeos/classificação , Venenos de Crotalídeos/imunologia , Venenos de Crotalídeos/metabolismo , Fibrinólise/efeitos dos fármacos , Hemorragia/sangue , Hemorragia/imunologia , Filogenia , Mordeduras de Serpentes/sangue , Mordeduras de Serpentes/imunologia , Trimeresurus/classificação
4.
Mar Drugs ; 17(9)2019 Sep 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31533230

RESUMO

Protamine sulfate (PS) is a polycationic protein drug obtained from the sperm of fish, and is used to reverse the anticoagulant effect of unfractionated heparin (UFH). However, the interactions between PS, UFH, and platelets are still not clear. We measured the platelet numbers and collagen-induced aggregation, P-selectin, platelet factor 4, ß-thromboglobulin, prostacyclin metabolite, D-dimers, activated partial thromboplastin time, prothrombin time, anti-factor Xa, fibrinogen, thrombus weight and megakaryocytopoiesis in blood collected from mice and rats in different time points.. All of the groups were treated intravenously with vehicle, UFH, PS, or UFH with PS. We found a short-term antiplatelet activity of PS in mice and rats, and long-term platelet-independent antithrombotic activity in rats with electrically-induced thrombosis. The antiplatelet and antithrombotic potential of PS may contribute to bleeding risk in PS-overdosed patients. The inhibitory effect of PS on the platelets was attenuated by UFH without inducing thrombocytopenia. Treatment with UFH and PS did not affect the formation, number, or activation of platelets, or the thrombosis development in rodents.


Assuntos
Anticoagulantes/efeitos adversos , Antagonistas de Heparina/efeitos adversos , Heparina/efeitos adversos , Protaminas/efeitos adversos , Trombocitopenia/diagnóstico , Animais , Anticoagulantes/administração & dosagem , Plaquetas/efeitos dos fármacos , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Hemorragia/sangue , Hemorragia/induzido quimicamente , Hemorragia/prevenção & controle , Heparina/administração & dosagem , Antagonistas de Heparina/administração & dosagem , Humanos , Masculino , Camundongos , Tempo de Tromboplastina Parcial , Agregação Plaquetária/efeitos dos fármacos , Protaminas/administração & dosagem , Ratos , Trombocitopenia/sangue , Trombocitopenia/induzido quimicamente , Fatores de Tempo
5.
Am J Health Syst Pharm ; 76(1): 9-12, 2019 Jan 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31381100

RESUMO

PURPOSE: A case report of dabigatran-associated coagulopathy that lasted for about 1 week after drug discontinuation despite use of several treatment measures is presented. SUMMARY: Life-threatening hemorrhage can occur in patients receiving dabigatran, a direct-acting oral anticoagulant. Idarucizumab is a newly approved dabigatran antidote that neutralizes the drug's anticoagulant activity. An 80-year-old Caucasian man with a medical history of hypertension, coronary artery disease, congestive heart failure, gout, and atrial fibrillation was hospitalized with acute kidney injury (AKI) caused by bilateral hydronephrosis secondary to distal urethral stricture. The patient had prolonged coagulation parameters and major bleeding. Initial laboratory values revealed anemia, with a hemoglobin concentration of 8.9 g/dL; a serum creatinine concentration of 3.9 mg/dL; a prothrombin time of 15 seconds; an International Normalized Ratio of 1.1; and a platelet count of 142,000 platelets/mm3. Three hemodialysis sessions and administration of fresh frozen plasma (FFP), packed red blood cells, and 2 doses of idarucizumab were required in order to achieve hemostasis 8 days after dabigatran was discontinued. CONCLUSION: A patient with AKI who had been taking dabigatran and developed major bleeding needed 2 doses of idarucizumab in addition to FFP and 3 sessions of hemodialysis in order for hemostasis to be restored. This case suggests that idarucizumab might not produce hemostasis in a timely manner in patients with poor renal function.


Assuntos
Lesão Renal Aguda/terapia , Anticorpos Monoclonais Humanizados/administração & dosagem , Anticoagulantes/efeitos adversos , Dabigatrana/efeitos adversos , Hemorragia/terapia , Lesão Renal Aguda/sangue , Lesão Renal Aguda/complicações , Idoso , Coagulação Sanguínea/efeitos dos fármacos , Testes de Coagulação Sanguínea , Dabigatrana/antagonistas & inibidores , Hemorragia/sangue , Hemorragia/etiologia , Humanos , Masculino , Plasma , Diálise Renal , Resultado do Tratamento
7.
Clin Adv Hematol Oncol ; 17(6): 344-351, 2019 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31437138

RESUMO

Hemophilia A and B are inherited bleeding disorders characterized by deficiency or dysfunction of coagulation protein factors VIII and IX, respectively. Recurrent joint and muscle bleeds are the major clinical manifestations. Replacement therapy with clotting factors, either at the time of bleeding or as part of a prophylactic regimen, is adapted to individual patient needs. The major complication of therapy is the development of neutralizing antibodies. In response, researchers have developed novel agents to both reduce the treatment burden and prevent bleeding regardless of the presence of inhibitors. Another new development, gene therapy, has the potential for a definitive cure. This review summarizes the pathophysiology, clinical presentation, diagnosis, and treatment of hemophilia, as well as information regarding neutralizing antibodies, immune tolerance induction, novel agents, and gene therapy.


Assuntos
Hemofilia A , Hemofilia B , Hemorragia , Hemofilia A/sangue , Hemofilia A/diagnóstico , Hemofilia A/imunologia , Hemofilia A/terapia , Hemofilia B/sangue , Hemofilia B/diagnóstico , Hemofilia B/imunologia , Hemofilia B/terapia , Hemorragia/sangue , Hemorragia/diagnóstico , Hemorragia/imunologia , Hemorragia/terapia , Humanos
8.
Int J Lab Hematol ; 41(5): 671-678, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31403249

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: This study aimed to ascertain the associations of thromboelastography (TEG® ) and standard laboratory test (SLTs) values with the presence of bleeding in critically ill patients with known coagulopathy. METHODS: Three groups of coagulopathic patients with (a) hepatic failure, (b) postoperative period after prolonged cardiac surgery, and (c) complex abdominal surgery with sepsis were prospectively included in this study. On intensive care unit (ICU) admission, patients were stratified into two groups according to whether they had major bleeding (MB) (evident overt bleeding, important bleeding apparent on imaging studies, and/or need for moderate-massive blood transfusion and hemodynamic instability). Blood samples were drawn for the SLTs (international normalized ratio [INR], activated partial thromboplastin time [aPTT], platelet count, and fibrinogen level [Clauss]) and TEG whole blood coagulation assays. Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves were generated to determine the efficiency of TEG and SLTs for detecting bleeding. The correlations between SLTs and TEG parameters with similar coagulation profiles were evaluated by Spearman rank-order analysis. RESULTS: Eighty-three patients were included, and bleeding was confirmed in 45 (54%). The fibrinogen level demonstrated the best accuracy for detecting bleeding with an area under the curve and 95% confidence intervals [AUC (95% CI)] of 0.74 (0.63-0.85) with the best cutoff value of ≤ 2 g/L. Regarding TEG-MA, the AUC (CI) obtained with the optimal cutoff value of ≤ 51 mm was 0.68 (0.56-0.80). CONCLUSIONS: Both conventional clotting tests and TEG values were poorly associated with bleeding in this critically ill cohort of patients with coagulopathy.


Assuntos
Transtornos da Coagulação Sanguínea/complicações , Testes de Coagulação Sanguínea/métodos , Estado Terminal , Hemorragia/diagnóstico , Falência Hepática/complicações , Tromboelastografia/métodos , Adulto , Idoso , Procedimentos Cirúrgicos Cardíacos , Feminino , Fibrinogênio/análise , Hemorragia/sangue , Hemorragia/complicações , Humanos , Unidades de Terapia Intensiva/estatística & dados numéricos , Coeficiente Internacional Normatizado , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Tempo de Tromboplastina Parcial , Estudos Prospectivos , Sensibilidade e Especificidade
9.
Am J Health Syst Pharm ; 76(6): 387-397, 2019 02 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31415684

RESUMO

PURPOSE: As a preliminary evaluation of the outcomes of implementing pharmacogenetic testing within a large rural healthcare system, patients who received pre-emptive pharmacogenetic testing and warfarin dosing were monitored until June 2017. SUMMARY: Over a 20-month period, 749 patients were genotyped for VKORC1 and CYP2C9 as part of the electronic Medical Records and Genomics Pharmacogenetics (eMERGE PGx) study. Of these, 27 were prescribed warfarin and received an alert for pharmacogenetic testing pertinent to warfarin; 20 patients achieved their target international normalized ratio (INR) of 2.0-3.0, and 65% of these patients achieved target dosing within the recommended pharmacogenetic alert dose (± 0.5 mg/day). Of these, 10 patients had never been on warfarin prior to the alert and were further evaluated with regard to time to first stable target INR, bleeds and thromboembolic events, hospitalizations, and mortality. There was a general trend of faster time to first stable target INR when the patient was initiated at a warfarin dose within the alert recommendation versus a dose outside of the alert recommendation with a mean (± SD) of 34 (± 28) days versus 129 (± 117) days, respectively. No trends regarding bleeds, thromboembolic events, hospitalization, or mortality were identified with respect to the pharmacogenetic alert. The pharmacogenetic alert provided pharmacogenetic dosing information to prescribing clinicians and appeared to deploy appropriately with the correct recommendation based upon patient genotype. CONCLUSION: Implementing pharmacogenetic testing as a standard of care service in anticoagulation monitoring programs may improve dosage regimens for patients on anticoagulation therapy.


Assuntos
Anticoagulantes/administração & dosagem , Monitoramento de Medicamentos/métodos , Testes Farmacogenômicos , Serviços de Saúde Rural/organização & administração , Varfarina/administração & dosagem , Idoso , Anticoagulantes/efeitos adversos , Fibrilação Atrial/tratamento farmacológico , Coagulação Sanguínea/efeitos dos fármacos , Relação Dose-Resposta a Droga , Feminino , Genótipo , Implementação de Plano de Saúde , Hemorragia/sangue , Hemorragia/induzido quimicamente , Humanos , Coeficiente Internacional Normatizado , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Variantes Farmacogenômicos , Avaliação de Programas e Projetos de Saúde , Estudos Retrospectivos , Padrão de Cuidado , Tromboembolia/sangue , Tromboembolia/prevenção & controle , Varfarina/efeitos adversos
10.
Am J Health Syst Pharm ; 76(16): 1248-1253, 2019 Aug 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31369117

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Results of a study to determine the proportion of anticoagulation clinic workload that could be performed by clinical pharmacy technicians (CPTs) and the potential impact on operational efficiency of pharmacist-managed anticoagulation clinics (ACCs) are reported. METHODS: In a quality improvement project involving 11 Veterans Affairs (VA) medical centers, investigators conducted a 3-day time study in pharmacist-managed ACCs followed by scoring of task appropriateness for CPTs via the RAND/UCLA appropriateness method by the VA Anticoagulation Subject Matter Expert (SME) Workgroup. The primary outcome was the percentage of tasks deemed appropriate for a CPT to perform. RESULTS: The Anticoagulation SME Workgroup determined that a wide variety of mainly administrative ACC tasks could be completed by a CPT. At the 11 VA ACCs, an average of 53.4% (range, 39.9-76.1%) of tasks being performed by pharmacists were deemed appropriate for CPTs. The average percentage of total clinic time associated with performing tasks appropriate for a CPT equated to an estimated 1,111 hours per year. Shifting that portion of the annual work hours to a CPT could potentially result in cost avoidance of $55,302. CONCLUSION: At the ACCs evaluated, a significant proportion of tasks (53.4% on average) may be appropriate to assign to CPTs to improve the operational efficiency of these clinics. This finding supports development of business plans for the addition of CPTs in ACCs along with elements to inform crafting of an effective template for ACC structure, including clearly defined CPT roles.


Assuntos
Anticoagulantes/uso terapêutico , Transtornos da Coagulação Sanguínea/prevenção & controle , Hemorragia/prevenção & controle , Ambulatório Hospitalar/organização & administração , Técnicos em Farmácia/organização & administração , Transtornos da Coagulação Sanguínea/sangue , Monitoramento de Medicamentos/métodos , Monitoramento de Medicamentos/estatística & dados numéricos , Eficiência Organizacional , Hemorragia/sangue , Hemorragia/induzido quimicamente , Hospitais de Veteranos/organização & administração , Hospitais de Veteranos/estatística & dados numéricos , Humanos , Coeficiente Internacional Normatizado , Ambulatório Hospitalar/estatística & dados numéricos , Serviço de Farmácia Hospitalar/organização & administração , Serviço de Farmácia Hospitalar/estatística & dados numéricos , Técnicos em Farmácia/estatística & dados numéricos , Papel Profissional , Avaliação de Programas e Projetos de Saúde , Varfarina/uso terapêutico , Carga de Trabalho/estatística & dados numéricos
11.
Zhonghua Wai Ke Za Zhi ; 57(7): 534-539, 2019 Jul 01.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31269617

RESUMO

Objective: To investigate the prognostic factors of hyperamylasemia following pancreaticoduodenectomy (PD) . Methods: Clinical data of 359 patients were collected prospectively who underwent PD by the same group at Changhai Hospital of Navy Medical University from January 2017 to June 2018.There were 212 males and 147 females.The median age was 63 years old (range: 23 to 82 years old) .According to whether the patient's serum amylase was greater than 120 U/L at 0 or 1 day after surgery,the patients were divided into hyperamylasemia group and non-hyperamylasemia group. Univariate analysis and multivariate analysis were used to find out the prognostic factors of hyperamylasemia after PD. Results: Of the 359 patients, 238 cases (66.3%) developed hyperamylasemia.The incidence rate of clinically related pancreatic fistula (15.1% vs.2.5%, P<0.01) , grade B/C post pancreatectomy hemorrhage (8.8% vs. 2.5%, P<0.01) , and surgical site infection (9.2% vs. 3.3%, P=0.04) was significantly higher in the hyperamylasemia group.The severity of complications (CD grade≥Ⅲ: 11.3% vs.4.1%, P=0.023) and postoperative hospital stay (11 days vs. 9 days, P=0.001) were higher in the hyperamylasemia group.In the multivariate analysis, the main pancreatic duct diameter (MPD) ≤3 mm (OR=4.469, 95% CI: 2.563-7.793, P<0.01) , pathological type of disease (pancreatic cancer or pancreatitis) (OR=0.230, 95% CI: 0.122-0.436, P<0.01) and soft texture of pancreas (OR=3.297, 95%CI: 1.930-5.635, P<0.01) were independent prognostic factors for hyperamylasemia. Conclusions: Post-PD hyperamylasemia increased the incidence and severity of postoperative complications after PD.MPD≤3 mm, soft texture of pancreas and pathological type of disease were independent prognostic factors of hyperamylasemia.


Assuntos
Hiperamilassemia/etiologia , Pancreatopatias/cirurgia , Pancreaticoduodenectomia/efeitos adversos , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Amilases/sangue , Feminino , Hemorragia/sangue , Hemorragia/etiologia , Humanos , Hiperamilassemia/sangue , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Pancreatopatias/sangue , Pancreatopatias/etiologia , Fístula Pancreática/sangue , Fístula Pancreática/etiologia , Pancreaticoduodenectomia/métodos , Prognóstico , Fatores de Risco , Infecção da Ferida Cirúrgica/sangue , Infecção da Ferida Cirúrgica/etiologia , Adulto Jovem
12.
Transfus Med ; 29(4): 268-274, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31347218

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the effectiveness and safety of prothrombin complex concentrates (PCCs) in approved and off-label indications. BACKGROUND: PCCs are approved for the urgent reversal of vitamin K antagonists (VKAs). Data concerning the efficacy, safety and dosing for off-label indications are limited, but they are included in massive bleeding protocols. METHODS: This was a retrospective review of cases treated with four-factor PCCs (4F-PCCs) between January 2009 and 2016. Efficacy end-points include: (i) VKA reversal efficacy assessed by international normalised ratio (INR) normalisation (<1·5) and (ii) clinical efficacy as bleeding cessation and/or decreased number of transfused blood components and 24-h mortality in bleeding coagulopathy. The safety end-point is the incidence of thromboembolic events. RESULTS: A total of 328 patients were included (51·8% male, median age 78 years old). Indications were as follows: VKA reversal (66·6%), bleeding coagulopathy (30·5%) and direct anticoagulant (DOAC) reversal due to bleeding (2·5%). VKA reversal was effective in 97·1% of patients, and 76·5% demonstrated complete reversal (INR < 1·5); only 34·3% patients needed hemoderivatives. Prior to emergency procedures, PCCs achieved global responses in 83% of patients, with no bleeding complication during intervention. DOAC reversal was effective in 88·9% of patients. Bleeding cessation was associated with the dose administered (P = 0·002). In coagulopathy bleeding, haemorrhage cessation, established by the International Society of Thrombosis and Haemostais (ISTH) definition, occurred in 56·7% of massive bleeding events and in 42·5% of other coagulopathies; 24-h mortality was 30%, mainly related to active bleeding. Ten thrombotic episodes were observed (3·1%). CONCLUSION: 4F-PCC was effective as adjuvant treatment with an acceptable safety profile, not only for the emergent reversal of VKAs but also for refractory coagulopathy associated with major bleeding.


Assuntos
Anticoagulantes/efeitos adversos , Fatores de Coagulação Sanguínea/administração & dosagem , Coagulação Intravascular Disseminada , Hemorragia , Uso Off-Label , Segurança , Vitamina K/antagonistas & inibidores , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Anticoagulantes/administração & dosagem , Fatores de Coagulação Sanguínea/efeitos adversos , Coagulação Intravascular Disseminada/sangue , Coagulação Intravascular Disseminada/tratamento farmacológico , Coagulação Intravascular Disseminada/mortalidade , Feminino , Hemorragia/sangue , Hemorragia/induzido quimicamente , Hemorragia/tratamento farmacológico , Hemorragia/mortalidade , Humanos , Incidência , Coeficiente Internacional Normatizado , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Retrospectivos , Tromboembolia/sangue , Tromboembolia/induzido quimicamente , Tromboembolia/mortalidade
13.
J Trauma Acute Care Surg ; 87(2): 342-349, 2019 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31349348

RESUMO

BACKDROP: Clinicians intuitively recognize that faster time to hemostasis is important in bleeding trauma patients, but these times are rarely reported. METHODS: Prospectively collected data from the Pragmatic Randomized Optimal Platelet and Plasma Ratios trial were analyzed. Hemostasis was predefined as no intraoperative bleeding requiring intervention in the surgical field or resolution of contrast blush on interventional radiology (IR). Patients who underwent an emergent (within 90 minutes) operating room (OR) or IR procedure were included. Mixed-effects Poisson regression with robust error variance (controlling for age, Injury Severity Score, treatment arm, injury mechanism, base excess on admission [missing values estimated by multiple imputation], and time to OR/IR as fixed effects and study site as a random effect) with modified Bonferroni corrections tested the hypothesis that decreased time to hemostasis was associated with decreased mortality and decreased incidence of acute kidney injury (AKI), acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS), multiple-organ failure (MOF), sepsis, and venous thromboembolism. RESULTS: Of 680 enrolled patients, 468 (69%) underwent an emergent procedure. Patients with decreased time to hemostasis were less severely injured, had less deranged base excess on admission, and lower incidence of blunt trauma (all p < 0.05). In 408 (87%) patients in whom hemostasis was achieved, every 15-minute decrease in time to hemostasis was associated with decreased 30-day mortality (RR, 0.97; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.94-0.99), AKI (RR, 0.97; 95% CI, 0.96-0.98), ARDS (RR, 0.98; 95% CI, 0.97-0.99), MOF (RR, 0.94; 95% CI, 0.91-0.97), and sepsis (RR, 0.98; 95% CI, 0.96-0.99), but not venous thromboembolism (RR, 0.99; 95% CI, 0.96-1.03). CONCLUSION: Earlier time to hemostasis was independently associated with decreased incidence of 30-day mortality, AKI, ARDS, MOF, and sepsis in bleeding trauma patients. Time to hemostasis should be considered as an endpoint in trauma studies and as a potential quality indicator. LEVEL OF EVIDENCE: Therapeutic/care management, level III.


Assuntos
Hemorragia/terapia , Técnicas Hemostáticas/mortalidade , Ferimentos e Lesões/terapia , Adulto , Hemorragia/sangue , Hemorragia/mortalidade , Humanos , Escala de Gravidade do Ferimento , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Transfusão de Plaquetas/métodos , Distribuição de Poisson , Indicadores de Qualidade em Assistência à Saúde , Ressuscitação/métodos , Fatores de Tempo , Ferimentos e Lesões/sangue , Ferimentos e Lesões/mortalidade , Adulto Jovem
14.
Sud Med Ekspert ; 62(3): 17-20, 2019.
Artigo em Russo | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31198199

RESUMO

The aim of this study was the morphological analysis of traces of arterial bleeding, depending on the size of the blood vessel damage. A total of 21 archived medical-criminalistic expert reports related to the establishment of the types and mechanisms of blood trace formations were analysed. In all cases, there was damage to the arteries with external bleeding. The relationship between the size of arterial damage and the morphological characteristics of blood traces was established.


Assuntos
Artérias/lesões , Hemorragia/diagnóstico , Medicina Legal , Hemorragia/sangue , Humanos
15.
Eur J Haematol ; 103(2): 137-139, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31102471

RESUMO

We report a very high factor V inhibitor affecting the measurement of all coagulation factors besides fibrinogen, all these factors being dramatically decreased. This inhibitor could be linked to antibiotic use. The patient died of massive hemorrhage before a plasma exchange could be initiated.


Assuntos
Inibidores dos Fatores de Coagulação Sanguínea/sangue , Coagulação Sanguínea , Fator V/antagonistas & inibidores , Hemorragia/sangue , Hemorragia/etiologia , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Biomarcadores , Testes de Coagulação Sanguínea , Suscetibilidade a Doenças , Evolução Fatal , Feminino , Hemorragia/diagnóstico , Humanos
16.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 98(18): e15454, 2019 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31045818

RESUMO

This study compared the corrective effects of storage of platelets at 4°C and at 22°C in an in vitro model of massive blood loss and thrombocytopenia to provide an experimental basis for the storage of platelets for clinical applications.In vitro model of massive blood loss and thrombocytopenia were constructed by the in vitro hemodilution method and cell washing method. Using storage of platelets at 4°C (1, 3, 5, 7, 10, 14 days) and at 22°C (1, 3, 5 days) to correct the coagulation condition of the different models, by thromboelastography and by routine blood indices.①Platelets stored at 4°C (1, 3, 5,7, 10, 14 days) and at 22°C (1, 3, 5 days) to correct the in vitro model of massive blood loss. Platelet count results improved from 17 to 27 × 10/L to greater than 120 × 10/L for 4°C storage, and 20 to 27 × 10/L to greater than 120 × 10/L for 22°C storage. Thromboelastography maximum amplitude (TEG-MA) results improved from 8.8 to 15.4 mm to greater than 43 mm for 4°C storage, and 12.2 to 14.4 mm to greater than 44.8 mm for 22°C storage. Thromboelastography reaction time values decreased from 9.9-24.9 minutes to 3.8-5.5 minutes for 4°C storage, and 9.9-22.7 minutes to 4.3-4.5 minutes for 22°C storage. ②Platelets stored at 4°C (1, 3, 5,7, 10, 14 days) and at 22°C (1, 3, 5 days) to correct the in vitro model of thrombocytopenia. Platelet count results improved from 12 to 34 × 10/L to greater than 99 × 10/L for 4°C storage, and 12 to 34 × 10/L to greater than 120 × 10/L for 22°C storage. TEG-MA results improved from 21.4 to 32.1 mm to greater than 49.1 mm for 4°C storage, and 21.4 to 31.6 mm to greater than 50.5 mm for 22°C storage.Platelets stored at 4°C and 22°C have the same correcting effect for 1, 3, and 5 days. Platelets stored at 4°C for 7 to 14 days have similarly hemostatic effect on the in vitro model of massive blood loss and thrombocytopenia.


Assuntos
Plaquetas , Hemorragia/sangue , Temperatura Ambiente , Tromboelastografia/métodos , Trombocitopenia/sangue , Hemostasia/fisiologia , Humanos , Agregação Plaquetária , Contagem de Plaquetas
17.
Int J Lab Hematol ; 41 Suppl 1: 26-32, 2019 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31069975

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Platelet function disorders (PFD) are an important group of bleeding disorders that require validated and practical laboratory strategies for diagnosis. METHODS: This review summarizes the authors' experiences, current literature, and an international survey to evaluate the practices of diagnostic laboratories that offer tests for PFD. RESULTS: Blood counts, blood film review, and aggregation tests are the most commonly performed investigations for PFD and help determine whether there is thrombocytopenia and/or defective platelet function due to a variety of causes. The performance characteristics of tests for PFD, and the level of evidence that these tests detect bleeding problems, are important issues to determine where tests are useful for diagnostic or correlative purposes, or research only uses. Platelet aggregation assays, and quantitative analysis of platelet dense granule numbers, are tests with good performance characteristics that detect abnormalities associated with increased bleeding in a significant proportion of individuals referred for PFD investigations. Lumiaggregometry estimates of platelet adenosine triphosphate release show greater variability which limits the diagnostic usefulness. Diagnostic laboratories report that fiscal and other constraints, including a lack of high-quality evidence, limit their ability to offer an expanded test menu for PFD. CONCLUSION: PFD are clinically important bleeding disorders that remain challenging for diagnostic laboratories to investigate. While some PFD tests are well validated for diagnostic purposes, gaps in scientific evidence and resource limitations influence diagnostic laboratory decisions on which PFD tests to offer.


Assuntos
Transtornos da Coagulação Sanguínea/diagnóstico , Transtornos Plaquetários/diagnóstico , Hemorragia/diagnóstico , Transtornos da Coagulação Sanguínea/sangue , Transtornos Plaquetários/sangue , Hemorragia/sangue , Humanos , Testes de Função Plaquetária/métodos
18.
Int J Lab Hematol ; 41 Suppl 1: 40-48, 2019 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31069986

RESUMO

Vitamin K antagonists (VKAs) cannot be administered without regular monitoring in order to assure their efficacy and safety. Indeed, if well managed, the VKAs appear to be no less efficacious or safe than the newer direct oral anticoagulants (DOACs). Although it is claimed that no regular monitoring of the DOACs is needed, their levels are increasingly being measured under a variety of circumstances, for example, prior to surgery, in suspected overdose, to confirm effective reversal, in patients with malabsorption and to assess patient compliance. Although no therapeutic range has been identified for the DOACs, it has been demonstrated for dabigatran and edoxaban that their antithrombotic effect increases gradually with increasing concentrations and that the risk of major bleeding also gradually increases. Furthermore, it has been determined that almost all dabigatran-related thrombotic events occur in patients with the lowest quartile concentration of the drug. This suggests that to assure an ideal effect of DOACs in all patients taking them, some form of regular monitoring and dose tailoring should be performed. For the vitamin K antagonists, the best outcome is obtained using formal algorithms and centralized management. Furthermore, data suggest that replacing the standard prothrombin time as a monitoring test may increase the stability of VKA anticoagulation with consequent reduction in thromboembolism without an increase in bleeding. Thus, it is likely that the outcome of all current oral anticoagulants can be improved in the coming years by improving monitoring and tailoring their effect.


Assuntos
Anticoagulantes/farmacocinética , Fibrilação Atrial , Monitoramento de Medicamentos/métodos , Hemorragia , Tromboembolia Venosa , Vitamina K/antagonistas & inibidores , Administração Oral , Anticoagulantes/uso terapêutico , Fibrilação Atrial/sangue , Fibrilação Atrial/tratamento farmacológico , Hemorragia/sangue , Hemorragia/tratamento farmacológico , Humanos , Tromboembolia Venosa/sangue , Tromboembolia Venosa/tratamento farmacológico
19.
Pediatr Blood Cancer ; 66(7): e27714, 2019 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30945453

RESUMO

Von Willebrand disease (VWD) is an inherited bleeding disorder that is caused by a quantitative or qualitative deficiency of von Willebrand factor (VWF). The National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute (NHLBI) guidelines for the diagnosis of VWD state that a VWF activity (VWF:RCo) of <30 IU/dL or <50 IU/dL with symptoms of clinical bleeding are consistent with the diagnosis of VWD. However, current gold-standard diagnostic testing takes days to have complete results. Thromboelastography (TEG) is a testing method that provides a graphical trace that represents the viscoelastic changes seen with fibrin polymerization in whole blood, therefore providing information on all phases of the coagulation process. This study describes the TEG characteristics in 160 patients who presented for workup of a bleeding disorder and a subset of those were subsequently diagnosed with VWD. The TEG parameters, K-time (representing the dynamics of clot formation) and the maximal rate of thrombus generation (MRTG), were found to be sensitive in detecting patients with VWF:RCo <30 IU/dL. The TEG, unlike VWF:RCo, can be done in real time, and results are available to the clinician within an hour. This will definitely be beneficial in acute situations such as evaluation of and management of acute bleeding in patients with acquired deficiencies of VWF and may play an important role in the surgical management of patients with VWD.


Assuntos
Tromboelastografia , Doenças de von Willebrand , Fator de von Willebrand/metabolismo , Adolescente , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Feminino , Hemorragia/sangue , Hemorragia/diagnóstico , Humanos , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Masculino , Trombose/sangue , Trombose/diagnóstico , Doenças de von Willebrand/sangue , Doenças de von Willebrand/diagnóstico
20.
Transfusion ; 59(S2): 1467-1473, 2019 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30980736

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Platelet (PLT) transfusion is a widely used therapy in treating or preventing bleeding and hemorrhage in patients with thrombocytopenia or trauma. Compared to the relative ease of PLT transfusion, current practice for PLT storage at room temperature (RT) for up to 5 to 7 days is inefficient, costly, wasteful, and relatively unsafe. STUDY DESIGN AND METHODS: This study was a review of major advances in PLT derivative products with improved hemostatic potential and safety feature. RESULTS: Recent progress in understanding the PLT activation and host clearance mechanisms has led to reassessments of current and new storage conditions that employ refrigeration and/or cryopreservation to overcome storage lesions and significantly extend shelf life of PLTs with reduced risk of pathogen contamination. DISCUSSION: It is anticipated that future PLT preservation involving cold, frozen, and/or pathogen reduction strategies in proper PLT additive solutions will enable longer term and safer PLT storage.


Assuntos
Plaquetas , Preservação de Sangue , Segurança do Sangue , Criopreservação , Transfusão de Plaquetas , Coagulação Sanguínea , Preservação de Sangue/métodos , Preservação de Sangue/tendências , Segurança do Sangue/métodos , Segurança do Sangue/tendências , Criopreservação/métodos , Criopreservação/tendências , Hemorragia/sangue , Hemorragia/terapia , Humanos , Transfusão de Plaquetas/métodos , Transfusão de Plaquetas/tendências , Trombocitopenia/sangue , Trombocitopenia/terapia , Ferimentos e Lesões/sangue , Ferimentos e Lesões/terapia
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