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1.
BMJ Case Rep ; 14(1)2021 Jan 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33514621

RESUMO

Around the world, with the availability of factor concentrates, patients with haemophilia have undergone major and minor surgeries. Inhibitor development in early postoperative period leading to inadequate factor recovery and ongoing bleeding is a nightmare for both operating surgeon as well as haematologists. We describe a case of an elderly man with mild haemophilia A, who was diagnosed with pancreatic carcinoma and underwent Whipple's procedure. After an uneventful procedure, he developed high-titre inhibitors and bleeding a week after surgery posing major challenges in his management. The case highlights the importance of experienced surgeons, trained haematologists, regular monitoring of factor assay/inhibitors, adequate factor and bypassing-agent support while performing such procedures.


Assuntos
Fatores de Coagulação Sanguínea/antagonistas & inibidores , Hemofilia A/imunologia , Neoplasias Pancreáticas/cirurgia , Hemorragia Pós-Operatória/tratamento farmacológico , Idoso , Formação de Anticorpos/imunologia , Fatores de Coagulação Sanguínea/imunologia , Fator VIII/administração & dosagem , Fator VIII/uso terapêutico , Evolução Fatal , Hematologia/normas , Hemofilia A/complicações , Humanos , Fragmentos Fc das Imunoglobulinas/administração & dosagem , Fragmentos Fc das Imunoglobulinas/uso terapêutico , Hemorragias Intracranianas/complicações , Masculino , Neoplasias Pancreáticas/complicações , Complicações Pós-Operatórias/epidemiologia , Complicações Pós-Operatórias/imunologia , Hemorragia Pós-Operatória/etiologia , Proteínas Recombinantes de Fusão/administração & dosagem , Proteínas Recombinantes de Fusão/uso terapêutico , Fatores de Risco , Cirurgiões/estatística & dados numéricos
2.
Am J Emerg Med ; 41: 70-72, 2021 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33387932

RESUMO

AIM: Intracranial Hemorrhage (ICH) is an important cause of out-of-hospital cardiac arrest (OHCA), yet there are no United States (US), European, or Australian prospective studies examining its incidence in patients who sustained OHCA. This study aims to identify the incidence of ICH in US patients with OHCA who obtain return of spontaneous circulation (ROSC). METHODS: We prospectively analyzed consecutive patients with OHCA who achieved ROSC at a single US hospital over a 15-month period. Before beginning patient enrollment, we implemented a standardized emergency department order-set for the initial management for all patients with ROSC after OHCA. This order-set included a non-contrast head computed-tomography (NCH-CT) scan. Patient and cardiac arrest variables were recorded, as were NCH-CT findings. RESULTS: During the study period, 85 patients sustained an OHCA, achieved ROSC, survived to hospital admission, and underwent a NCH-CT. Three of these 85 patients had ICH (3.5%). Survival to discharge was seen in 23/82 (28.0%) patients without ICH and in 1/3 patients with ICH. Survival with good neurologic outcome was seen in 14/82 (17.1%) patients without ICH and in 0/3 patients with ICH. Patients with ICH tended to be older than patients without ICH. CONCLUSIONS: In our US cohort, ICH was an uncommon finding in patients who sustained OHCA and survived to hospital admission, and no patients with ICH survived to discharge with good neurologic outcome. Additionally, the incidence of ICH was lower than reported in previous studies.


Assuntos
Hemorragias Intracranianas/complicações , Hemorragias Intracranianas/epidemiologia , Parada Cardíaca Extra-Hospitalar/etiologia , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Feminino , Hospitalização , Humanos , Incidência , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Prospectivos , Sobreviventes , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia
3.
J Stroke Cerebrovasc Dis ; 30(3): 105536, 2021 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33338705

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic has had a comprehensive impact on healthcare services worldwide. We sought to determine whether COVID-19 affected the treatment and prognosis of hemorrhagic stroke in a regional medical center in mainland China. METHODS: Patients with hemorrhagic stroke admitted in the Neurosurgery Department of West China Hospital from January 24, 2020, to March 25, 2020 (COVID-19 period), and from January 24, 2019, to March 25, 2019 (pre-COVID-19 period), were identified. Clinical characteristics, hospital arrival to neurosurgery department arrival time (door-to-department time), reporting rate of pneumonia and 3-month mRS (outcome) were compared. RESULTS: A total of 224 patients in the pre-COVID-19 period were compared with 126 patients in the COVID-19 period. Milder stroke severity was observed in the COVID-19 period (NIHSS 6 [2-20] vs. 3 [2-15], p = 0.005). The median door-to-department time in the COVID-19 period was approximately 50 minutes longer than that in the pre-COVID-19 period (96.5 [70.3-193.3] vs. 144.5 [93.8-504.5], p = 0.000). A higher rate of pneumonia complications was reported in the COVID-19 period (40.6% vs. 60.7%, p = 0.000). In patients with moderate hemorrhagic stroke, the percentage of good outcomes (mRS < 3) in the pre-COVID-19 period was much higher than that in the COVID-19 period (53.1% vs. 26.3%, p = 0.047). CONCLUSIONS: COVID-19 may have several impacts on the treatment of hemorrhagic stroke and may influence the clinical outcomes of specific patients. Improvements in the treatment process for patients with moderate stroke may help to improve the overall outcome of hemorrhagic stroke during COVID-19.


Assuntos
Hemorragias Intracranianas/terapia , Pandemias , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/terapia , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , China/epidemiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Hemorragias Intracranianas/complicações , Hemorragias Intracranianas/epidemiologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Procedimentos Neurocirúrgicos , Pneumonia/epidemiologia , Pneumonia/etiologia , Estudos Retrospectivos , Fatores de Risco , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/epidemiologia , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/etiologia , Trombectomia , Terapia Trombolítica , Tempo para o Tratamento , Resultado do Tratamento
4.
BMJ Case Rep ; 13(12)2020 Dec 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33370964

RESUMO

A young third gravida was referred with prenatal diagnosis of factor XIII deficiency at 20 weeks of pregnancy for Medical Termination of Pregnancy (MTP). Her first baby, who was born by emergency Lower Segment Caesarean Section (LSCS) for fetal distress, had intracranial haemorrhage in the early neonatal period and was investigated elsewhere and diagnosed to have factor XIII deficiency. The child currently has global developmental delay and cerebral palsy. The mother had a second-degree consanguineous marriage and the couple were diagnosed to be carriers of factor XIII deficiency. She had lot of barriers to get prenatal diagnosis during the second pregnancy and it ended up in Intra Uterine Fetal Death (IUFD) at 27 weeks. During the current pregnancy, prenatal diagnosis (PND) was done only after the second trimester amniocentesis and the genetic mutation was F13 A1, Ex12, C.1687 G>A. Second trimester MTP in a previous scarred uterus was difficult as it is essential to avoid scar rupture. PND during the first trimester is ideal.


Assuntos
Paralisia Cerebral/etiologia , Deficiências do Desenvolvimento/etiologia , Deficiência do Fator XIII/diagnóstico , Hemorragias Intracranianas/genética , Aborto Induzido , Amniocentese , Deficiência do Fator XIII/complicações , Deficiência do Fator XIII/genética , Deficiência do Fator XIII/prevenção & controle , Fator XIIIa/genética , Feminino , Morte Fetal , Testes Genéticos , Humanos , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Hemorragias Intracranianas/complicações , Gravidez , Recidiva
5.
Zh Nevrol Psikhiatr Im S S Korsakova ; 120(8. Vyp. 2): 24-29, 2020.
Artigo em Russo | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33016673

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To identify the likelihood of developing systemic inflammation (SI) as a general pathological process in severe haemorrhagic intracerebral stroke with and without the phenomenon of ineffective cerebral blood flow. MATERIAL AND METHOD: Three groups were examined: 1) 89 blood donors (controls), 2) 15 patients with severe haemorrhagic stroke without the phenomenon of ineffective brain blood flow; 3) 26 patients with severe haemorrhagic stroke with ineffective cerebral blood flow. Ineffective cerebral blood circulation was recorded on the basis of transcranial Doppler ultrasound data; 87% of patients had clinical signs of brain death. All patients in the groups with haemorrhagic stroke had signs of multiple organ dysfunction according to the Sepsis-related Organ Failure scale, all of them received intensive care. An integrated scale based on the determination of plasma concentrations of cytokines (IL-6, IL-8, IL-10, TNF-α), procalcitonin, cortisol, D-dimers, myoglobin, troponin I was used to verify systemic inflammation. RESULTS AND CONCLUSION: Systemic inflammation or borderline state (pre-SI) was identified in all patients of the second group both on 1-3 days from the onset of haemorrhagic stroke, and on 5-8 days. On the contrary, in the third group, there were no signs of SI on 1-3 days. On 5-8 days, signs of SI and pre-SI were recorded only in 18.2% of patients. Apparently, the reason for these differences is the blockade of the passage of tissue decay products and other pro-inflammatory factors into the bloodstream from the damaged brain in the third group.


Assuntos
Circulação Cerebrovascular , Hemorragias Intracranianas/complicações , Hemorragias Intracranianas/diagnóstico por imagem , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/complicações , Encéfalo/diagnóstico por imagem , Humanos , Inflamação
6.
J Stroke Cerebrovasc Dis ; 29(11): 105219, 2020 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33066899

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Delirium is common after stroke and associated with poor functional outcomes and mortality. It is unknown whether delirium is a modifiable risk factor, or simply an indicator of prognosis, but in order to intervene successfully, those at greatest risk must be identified early. We created a tool to predict the development of delirium in patients admitted to the intensive care unit for stroke, focusing on factors present on hospital admission. METHODS: Charts of 102 patients admitted to the ICU or IMC after ischemic stroke or intracranial hemorrhage with symptom onset within 72 hours were reviewed. Delirium was identified using the Confusion Assessment Method for the ICU (CAM-ICU). Factors significantly associated with delirium were included in a multivariable logistic regression analysis to create a predictive model. The model was validated in a unique inpatient cohort. RESULTS: In regression analyses, the variables present on admission most strongly associated with the development of delirium after stroke included: age greater than 64 years; intraventricular hemorrhage; intubation; presence of either cognitive dysfunction, aphasia, or neglect; and acute kidney injury. Using these variables in our predictive model, an ROC analysis resulted in an area under the curve of 0.90, and 0.82 in our validation cohort. CONCLUSIONS: Factors available on admission can be used to accurately predict risk of delirium following stroke. Our model can be used to implement more rigorous screening paradigms, allowing for earlier detection and timely treatment. Futures studies will focus on determining if prevention can mitigate the poor outcomes with which delirium is associated.


Assuntos
Isquemia Encefálica/complicações , Delírio/diagnóstico , Unidades de Terapia Intensiva , Hemorragias Intracranianas/complicações , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/complicações , Adulto , Fatores Etários , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Isquemia Encefálica/diagnóstico , Isquemia Encefálica/psicologia , Comorbidade , Delírio/etiologia , Delírio/psicologia , Diagnóstico Precoce , Feminino , Humanos , Hemorragias Intracranianas/diagnóstico , Hemorragias Intracranianas/psicologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Valor Preditivo dos Testes , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Medição de Risco , Fatores de Risco , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/diagnóstico , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/psicologia , Fatores de Tempo
7.
Stroke ; 51(9): e227-e231, 2020 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32757751

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) evolved quickly into a global pandemic with myriad systemic complications, including stroke. We report the largest case series to date of cerebrovascular complications of COVID-19 and compare with stroke patients without infection. METHODS: Retrospective case series of COVID-19 patients with imaging-confirmed stroke, treated at 11 hospitals in New York, between March 14 and April 26, 2020. Demographic, clinical, laboratory, imaging, and outcome data were collected, and cases were compared with date-matched controls without COVID-19 from 1 year prior. RESULTS: Eighty-six COVID-19-positive stroke cases were identified (mean age, 67.4 years; 44.2% women). Ischemic stroke (83.7%) and nonfocal neurological presentations (67.4%) predominated, commonly involving multivascular distributions (45.8%) with associated hemorrhage (20.8%). Compared with controls (n=499), COVID-19 was associated with in-hospital stroke onset (47.7% versus 5.0%; P<0.001), mortality (29.1% versus 9.0%; P<0.001), and Black/multiracial race (58.1% versus 36.9%; P=0.001). COVID-19 was the strongest independent risk factor for in-hospital stroke (odds ratio, 20.9 [95% CI, 10.4-42.2]; P<0.001), whereas COVID-19, older age, and intracranial hemorrhage independently predicted mortality. CONCLUSIONS: COVID-19 is an independent risk factor for stroke in hospitalized patients and mortality, and stroke presentations are frequently atypical.


Assuntos
Transtornos Cerebrovasculares/etiologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/complicações , Pneumonia Viral/complicações , Adulto , Fatores Etários , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Isquemia Encefálica/etiologia , Isquemia Encefálica/terapia , Angiografia Cerebral , Transtornos Cerebrovasculares/mortalidade , Transtornos Cerebrovasculares/terapia , Infecções por Coronavirus/mortalidade , Infecções por Coronavirus/terapia , Grupos Étnicos , Feminino , Mortalidade Hospitalar , Humanos , Hemorragias Intracranianas/complicações , Hemorragias Intracranianas/mortalidade , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Neuroimagem , New York/epidemiologia , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral/mortalidade , Pneumonia Viral/terapia , Estudos Retrospectivos , Fatores de Risco , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/etiologia , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/terapia , Resultado do Tratamento
8.
Acta Neuropathol Commun ; 8(1): 147, 2020 08 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32847628

RESUMO

We document the neuropathologic findings of a 73-year old man who died from acute cerebellar hemorrhage in the context of relatively mild SARS-CoV2 infection. The patient developed sudden onset of headache, nausea, and vomiting, immediately followed by loss of consciousness on the day of admission. Emergency medical services found him severely hypoxemic at home, and the patient suffered a cardiac arrest during transport to the emergency department. The emergency team achieved return of spontaneous circulation after over 17 min of resuscitation. A chest radiograph revealed hazy bilateral opacities; and real-time-PCR for SARS-CoV-2 on the nasopharyngeal swab was positive. Computed tomography of the head showed a large right cerebellar hemorrhage, with tonsillar herniation and intraventricular hemorrhage. One day after presentation, he was transitioned to comfort care and died shortly after palliative extubation. Autopsy performed 3 h after death showed cerebellar hemorrhage and acute infarcts in the dorsal pons and medulla. Remarkably, there were microglial nodules and neuronophagia bilaterally in the inferior olives and multifocally in the cerebellar dentate nuclei. This constellation of findings has not been reported thus far in the context of SARS-CoV-2 infection.


Assuntos
Infartos do Tronco Encefálico/patologia , Doenças Cerebelares/patologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/patologia , Hemorragias Intracranianas/patologia , Microglia/patologia , Neurônios/patologia , Fagocitose , Pneumonia Viral/patologia , Idoso , Betacoronavirus , Infartos do Tronco Encefálico/complicações , Infartos do Tronco Encefálico/diagnóstico por imagem , Doenças Cerebelares/complicações , Doenças Cerebelares/diagnóstico por imagem , Núcleos Cerebelares/patologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/complicações , Infecções por Coronavirus/diagnóstico , Cefaleia/etiologia , Parada Cardíaca/etiologia , Humanos , Hipóxia/etiologia , Hemorragias Intracranianas/complicações , Hemorragias Intracranianas/diagnóstico por imagem , Masculino , Bulbo/diagnóstico por imagem , Bulbo/patologia , Núcleo Olivar/patologia , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral/complicações , Pneumonia Viral/diagnóstico , Tegmento Pontino/diagnóstico por imagem , Tegmento Pontino/patologia , Tomografia Computadorizada por Raios X
9.
Stroke ; 51(9): e219-e222, 2020 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32684145

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Initial reports suggest a significant risk of thrombotic events, including stroke, in patients hospitalized with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). However, there is little systematic data on stroke incidence and mechanisms, particularly in racially diverse populations in the United States. METHODS: We performed a retrospective, observational study of stroke incidence and mechanisms in all patients with COVID-19 hospitalized from March 15 to May 3, 2020, at 3 Philadelphia hospitals. RESULTS: We identified 844 hospitalized patients with COVID-19 (mean age 59 years, 52% female, 68% Black); 20 (2.4%) had confirmed ischemic stroke; and 8 (0.9%) had intracranial hemorrhage. Of the ischemic stroke patients, mean age was 64 years, with only one patient (5%) under age 50, and 80% were Black. Conventional vascular risk factors were common, with 95% of patients having a history of hypertension and 60% a history of diabetes mellitus. Median time from onset of COVID symptoms to stroke diagnosis was 21 days. Stroke mechanism was cardioembolism in 40%, small vessel disease in 5%, other determined mechanism in 20%, and cryptogenic in 35%. Of the 11 patients with complete vascular imaging, 3 (27%) had large vessel occlusion. Newly positive antiphospholipid antibodies were present in >75% of tested patients. Of the patients with intracranial hemorrhage, 5/8 (63%) were lobar intraparenchymal hemorrhages, and 3/8 (38%) were subarachnoid hemorrhage; 4/8 (50%) were on extracorporeal membrane oxygenation. CONCLUSIONS: We found a low risk of acute cerebrovascular events in patients hospitalized with COVID-19. Most patients with ischemic stroke had conventional vascular risk factors, and traditional stroke mechanisms were common.


Assuntos
Transtornos Cerebrovasculares/complicações , Transtornos Cerebrovasculares/epidemiologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/complicações , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Pneumonia Viral/complicações , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Africano , Idoso , Isquemia Encefálica/complicações , Isquemia Encefálica/epidemiologia , Complicações do Diabetes/epidemiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Hipertensão/complicações , Incidência , Pacientes Internados , Hemorragias Intracranianas/complicações , Hemorragias Intracranianas/epidemiologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Pandemias , Philadelphia/epidemiologia , Estudos Retrospectivos , Fatores de Risco , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/complicações , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/epidemiologia , Trombose/complicações , Trombose/epidemiologia
11.
BMC Neurol ; 20(1): 222, 2020 Jun 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32493244

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Palato-pharyngo-laryngeal myoclonus, a variant of palatal myoclonus, is characterized by involuntary rhythmic movements of palatal, pharyngeal, and laryngeal muscles. Symptomatic palatal myoclonus is classically associated with hypertrophic olivary degeneration on MRI imaging due to a lesion in the triangle of Guillain-Mollaret. CASE PRESENTATION: We report a case of palato-pharyngo-laryngeal myoclonus in a patient post-cerebellar hemorrhagic stroke who presented with recurrent retrograde migration of his gastrojejunostomy feeding tubes. Treatment with either divalproex sodium or gabapentin resulted in a significant decrease in his gastrointestinal symptoms and no further episodes of gastrojejunostomy tube migration. CONCLUSIONS: This case study indicates that the movement disorder associated with hypertrophic olivary degeneration may involve the gastrointestinal system. Anticonvulsants, such as gabapentin and divalproex sodium, may reduce the severity of gastrointestinal symptoms in cases associated with hypertrophic olivary degeneration. The anatomy of the Guillain-Mollaret triangle and the pathophysiology of hypertrophic olivary degeneration are reviewed.


Assuntos
Hemorragias Intracranianas/complicações , Mioclonia/etiologia , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/complicações , Cerebelo/patologia , Nutrição Enteral , Humanos , Hipertrofia , Imagem por Ressonância Magnética , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Núcleo Olivar/fisiopatologia
12.
J Pediatr ; 223: 148-155.e2, 2020 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32532650

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the incidence of anemia in patients with abusive head trauma (AHT), noninflicted traumatic brain injury (TBI), and physical abuse without AHT and the effect of anemia on outcome. STUDY DESIGN: In a retrospective, single-center cohort study, we included children under the age of 3 years diagnosed with either AHT (n = 75), noninflicted TBI (n = 77), or physical abuse without AHT (n = 60) between January 1, 2014, and December 31, 2016. Neuroimaging was prospectively analyzed by pediatric neuroradiologists. Primary outcome was anemia at hospital presentation. Secondary outcomes included unfavorable outcome at hospital discharge, defined as a Glasgow Outcome Scale between 1 and 3, and intracranial hemorrhage (ICH) volume. RESULTS: Patients with AHT had a higher rate of anemia on presentation (47.3%) vs noninflicted TBI (15.6%) and physical abuse without AHT (10%) (P < .001). Patients with AHT had larger ICH volumes (33.3 mL [10.1-76.4 mL] vs 1.5 mL [0.6-5.2 mL] ; P < .001) and greater ICH/total brain volume percentages than patients with noninflicted TBI (4.6% [1.4-8.2 %] vs 0.2% [0.1-0.7%]; P < .001). Anemia was associated with AHT (OR, 4.7; 95% CI, 2.2-10.2) and larger ICH/total brain volume percentage (OR, 1.1; 95% CI, 1.1-1.2) in univariate analysis. Unfavorable outcome at hospital discharge was associated with anemia (OR, 4.4; 95% CI, 1.6-12.6) in univariate analysis, but not after controlling for covariates. CONCLUSIONS: Patients with AHT were more likely to present to the hospital with anemia and increased traumatic ICH volume than patients with noninflicted TBI or physical abuse without AHT. Children with anemia and AHT may be at increased risk for an unfavorable outcome.


Assuntos
Anemia/epidemiologia , Traumatismos Craniocerebrais/complicações , Hemorragias Intracranianas/complicações , Abuso Físico , Medição de Risco/métodos , Traumatismos Craniocerebrais/diagnóstico , Feminino , Humanos , Incidência , Lactente , Hemorragias Intracranianas/diagnóstico , Masculino , Pennsylvania/epidemiologia , Estudos Retrospectivos , Fatores de Risco
14.
JAMA Netw Open ; 3(6): e206424, 2020 06 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32478848

RESUMO

Importance: Current guidelines recommend the use of non-vitamin K antagonist oral anticoagulants (NOACs) for stroke prevention in patients with atrial fibrillation (AF). Data regarding warfarin sodium use compared with NOAC use in patients with AF with a history of intracranial hemorrhage (ICH) are limited. Objective: To compare the clinical outcomes of warfarin use and NOAC use in patients with AF with a history of ICH using a nationwide cohort with AF. Design, Setting, and Participants: A nationwide cohort study from January 1, 2012, to December 31, 2016, was performed using data from the Taiwan National Health Insurance Research Database. The dates of analysis were July 1 to September 1, 2019. The study population comprised patients with AF with a history of ICH and a CHA2DS2-VASc score (congestive heart failure, hypertension, age ≥75 years [doubled], diabetes, prior stroke/transient ischemic attack/thromboembolism [doubled], vascular disease [prior myocardial infarction, peripheral artery disease], age 65-74 years, sex category [female]) of at least 1 for men or at least 2 for women who had received warfarin or NOACs. The clinical outcomes were examined using Cox proportional hazards regression analyses among the study population before and after propensity score matching. Exposures: Oral anticoagulation with warfarin or NOACs. Main Outcomes and Measures: The clinical outcomes measured were all-cause mortality, ischemic stroke, ICH, major bleeding, and adverse events. Results: The study cohort included 4540 patients (mean [SD] age, 76.0 [10.5] years; 2653 men [58.4%]), with 1047 patients receiving warfarin (mean [SD] age, 75.1 [11.4] years; 571 men [54.5%]) and 3493 patients receiving NOACs (mean [SD] age, 76.3 [10.2] years; 2082 men [59.6%]). Compared with warfarin use, NOAC use was associated with statistically significantly lower risk of all-cause mortality (adjusted hazard ratio [aHR], 0.517; 95% CI, 0.457-0.585), ICH (aHR, 0.556; 95% CI, 0.389-0.796), and major bleeding (aHR, 0.645; 95% CI, 0.525-0.793), whereas the rate of ischemic stroke was similar in the 2 groups (aHR, 0.879; 95% CI, 0.678-1.141). These results were generally consistent after propensity score matching among 973 patients in each group. Conclusions and Relevance: Among patients with AF with prior ICH, NOAC use was associated with lower rates of ICH and major bleeding compared with warfarin use, whereas the rate of ischemic stroke was similar in the 2 groups. Among patients with AF with prior ICH, NOACs could be the preferred choice for stroke prevention.


Assuntos
Anticoagulantes/efeitos adversos , Fibrilação Atrial/tratamento farmacológico , Hemorragia/induzido quimicamente , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/prevenção & controle , Varfarina/efeitos adversos , Administração Oral , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Anticoagulantes/uso terapêutico , Fibrilação Atrial/complicações , Isquemia Encefálica/induzido quimicamente , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Estudos de Coortes , Comorbidade/tendências , Feminino , Humanos , Hemorragias Intracranianas/complicações , Masculino , Fatores de Risco , Taiwan/epidemiologia , Varfarina/uso terapêutico
15.
Stroke ; 51(3): 792-799, 2020 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32078486

RESUMO

Background and Purpose- While combination aspirin and clopidogrel reduces recurrent stroke compared with aspirin alone in patients with transient ischemic attack (TIA) or minor stroke, the effect on disability is uncertain. Methods- The POINT trial (Platelet-Oriented Inhibition in New TIA and Minor Ischemic Stroke) randomized patients with TIA or minor stroke (National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale score ≤3) within 12 hours of onset to dual antiplatelet therapy (DAPT) with aspirin plus clopidogrel versus aspirin alone. The primary outcome measure was a composite of stroke, myocardial infarction, or vascular death. We performed a post hoc exploratory analysis to examine the effect of treatment on overall disability (defined as modified Rankin Scale score >1) at 90 days, as well as disability ascribed by the local investigator to index or recurrent stroke. We also evaluated predictors of disability. Results- At 90 days, 188 of 1964 (9.6%) of patients enrolled with TIA and 471 of 2586 (18.2%) of those enrolled with stroke were disabled. Overall disability was similar between patients assigned DAPT versus aspirin alone (14.7% versus 14.3%; odds ratio, 0.97 [95% CI, 0.82-1.14]; P=0.69). However, there were numerically fewer patients with disability in conjunction with a primary outcome event in the DAPT arm (3.0% versus 4.0%; odds ratio, 0.73 [95% CI, 0.53-1.01]; P=0.06) and significantly fewer patients in the DAPT arm with disability attributed by the investigators to either the index event or recurrent stroke (5.9% versus 7.4%; odds ratio, 0.78 [95% CI, 0.62-0.99]; P=0.04). Notably, disability attributed to the index event accounted for the majority of this difference (4.5% versus 6.0%; odds ratio, 0.74 [95% CI, 0.57-0.96]; P=0.02). In multivariate analysis, age, subsequent ischemic stroke, serious adverse events, and major bleeding were significantly associated with disability in TIA; for those with stroke, female sex, hypertension, or diabetes mellitus, National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale score, recurrent ischemic stroke, subsequent myocardial infarction, and serious adverse events were associated with disability. Conclusions- In addition to reducing recurrent stroke in patients with acute minor stroke and TIA, DAPT might reduce stroke-related disability. Registration- URL: https://www.clinicaltrials.gov. Unique identifier: NCT00991029.


Assuntos
Avaliação da Deficiência , Ataque Isquêmico Transitório/epidemiologia , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/complicações , Idoso , Aspirina/uso terapêutico , Clopidogrel/uso terapêutico , Método Duplo-Cego , Feminino , Humanos , Hemorragias Intracranianas/complicações , Hemorragias Intracranianas/epidemiologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Infarto do Miocárdio/complicações , Infarto do Miocárdio/epidemiologia , Inibidores da Agregação de Plaquetas/uso terapêutico , Valor Preditivo dos Testes , Recidiva , Fatores de Risco , Fatores Sexuais , Resultado do Tratamento
16.
Stroke ; 51(3): STROKEAHA119027198, 2020 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32078785

RESUMO

Background and Purpose- The introduction of stroke units and the implementation of evidence-based interventions have been a breakthrough in the management of patients with stroke over the past decade. Survival following stroke is an important indicator in monitoring stroke burden. Recent data on survival by stroke subtype in the general population is scarce. We assessed (1) recent temporal time trends in survival; (2) age-standardized death rates; (3) survival probabilities at 6 months, 1, 2, and 3 years following first hemorrhagic or ischemic stroke. Methods- Within the population-based Rotterdam Study between 1991 and 2015, we assessed time trends in survival among 162 with first-ever hemorrhagic and 988 patients with first-ever ischemic stroke across 3 time periods (1991-1998; 1999-2007; 2008-2015) using time-varying Cox regression model and calculated age-standardized death rates according to the European 2010 census population. Results- In the hemorrhagic stroke group, a total of 144 deaths occurred during 386 person-years. Following a hemorrhagic stroke, we observed similar mortality rates over the years with 30 per 100 person-years in 2015 compared with 25/100 person-years in 1991. Similarly, compared with the earliest study period (1991-1998), mortality rates remained unchanged in the latest study period (2008-2015; hazard ratio, 0.97 [95% CI, 0.61-1.57]; P=0.93). In the ischemic stroke group, a total of 711 deaths occurred during 4897 person-years. We observed a decline in mortality rates in 2015 (11 per 100 person-years) compared with 1991 (29/100 person-years). This translated to favorable trends in the latest study period 2008 to 2015 (hazard ratio, 0.71 [95% CI, 0.56-0.90]; P<0.01). Conclusions- Survival following ischemic stroke has improved over the past decade, while no change was observed in survival following hemorrhagic stroke.


Assuntos
Isquemia Encefálica/mortalidade , Hemorragias Intracranianas/mortalidade , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/mortalidade , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Isquemia Encefálica/complicações , Efeitos Psicossociais da Doença , Feminino , Humanos , Incidência , Hemorragias Intracranianas/complicações , Masculino , Mortalidade/tendências , Países Baixos/epidemiologia , Probabilidade , Prognóstico , Fatores de Risco , Fumar/epidemiologia , Análise de Sobrevida
17.
J Stroke Cerebrovasc Dis ; 29(4): 104685, 2020 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32057654

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Left atrial appendage (LAA) closure is primarily performed in patients who have contraindications to anticoagulants. However, anticoagulants are recommended for the first few weeks after LAA closure to prevent the device related thrombus. Purpose of this study was to evaluate if short term use of anticoagulant is safe and effective after LAA closure in patients with a history of intracranial hemorrhage. METHODS: It is a retrospective observational study done at a single center. Baseline characteristics, perioperative, and postoperative complications of patients with a history of intracranial hemorrhage and Watchman device implant were analyzed, and patients were followed for a mean follow-up of 27 months. RESULTS: LAA closure was performed in 16 patients using the Watchman device (Boston Scientific, MA). Mean age was 74.6 ± 5.8 years, median CHA2DS2-VASc score was 4.5 (interquartile range of 3), median HAS-BLED score was 4 (interquartile range of 1). Patients received aspirin 81 mg with oral anticoagulant for 45 days, dual antiplatelet therapy for 4.5 months, and thereafter aspirin indefinitely. No perioperative and postoperative complications were noted. CONCLUSION: Based on our single center experience, we conclude that antithrombotic drugs in the short term appear safe and effective in selected patients after LAA closure in patients with previous intracranial hemorrhage.


Assuntos
Anticoagulantes/administração & dosagem , Apêndice Atrial/cirurgia , Fibrilação Atrial/cirurgia , Procedimentos Cirúrgicos Cardíacos , Hemorragias Intracranianas/complicações , Inibidores da Agregação de Plaquetas/administração & dosagem , Administração Oral , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Anticoagulantes/efeitos adversos , Apêndice Atrial/fisiopatologia , Fibrilação Atrial/complicações , Fibrilação Atrial/diagnóstico , Fibrilação Atrial/fisiopatologia , Procedimentos Cirúrgicos Cardíacos/efeitos adversos , Procedimentos Cirúrgicos Cardíacos/instrumentação , Esquema de Medicação , Feminino , Humanos , Hemorragias Intracranianas/diagnóstico , Masculino , Inibidores da Agregação de Plaquetas/efeitos adversos , Estudos Retrospectivos , Medição de Risco , Fatores de Risco , Fatores de Tempo , Resultado do Tratamento
18.
J Trauma Acute Care Surg ; 89(1): 215-221, 2020 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32102043

RESUMO

BACKDROP: The incidence of early cognitive impairment (ECI) after traumatic brain injury (TBI) is unknown. We hypothesized ECI is common and can be predicted based on Glasgow Coma Scale (GCS) and Brain Injury Guideline (BIG) category. METHODS: A single-center, retrospective review of adult trauma patients (2014-2016) with intracranial hemorrhage (ICH) and mild TBI (GCS score, 13-15) was performed. The primary outcome was ECI, defined as a Rancho Los Amigos score less than 8. Routine cognitive evaluation is performed on all ICH patients at our institution. Comparisons between ECI and no-ECI groups regarding demographic, cognitive, and clinical outcomes were evaluated using bivariate statistics. The odds of ECI were evaluated using a multivariable logistic regression. RESULTS: There were 465 patients with mild TBI, 70.3% were male, and the average age was 53 ± 23 years. The most common mechanism of injury was fall (41.1%) followed by motor vehicle collision (15.9%). The incidence of ECI was 51.4% (n = 239). The incidence in patients with a GCS score of 15 was 42.9%, and BIG 1 category was 42.7%. There were no differences in demographics (age, sex, comorbidities), mechanism of injury, or imaging when comparing ECI patients with no-ECI patients. The GCS score was lower in the ECI group (14.4 vs. 14.7, p < 0.001). Patients with ECI were also less likely to be discharged home (58.2% vs. 78.3%, p < 0.001). Lower GCS-verbal, BIG category 3, and presence of pelvic/extremity fractures were strong risk factors for ECI in a logistic regression model adjusted for age, loss of consciousness, anticoagulants, narcotic administration, and Rotterdam score. CONCLUSION: Half of all patients with ICH and mild TBI had ECI. Both lower initial GCS score and BIG category 3 were associated with increased likelihood of ECI. Therefore, we recommend all patients with ICH and mild TBI undergo cognitive evaluation. LEVEL OF EVIDENCE: Prognostic Study, Level III.


Assuntos
Lesões Encefálicas Traumáticas/complicações , Disfunção Cognitiva/etiologia , Hemorragias Intracranianas/complicações , Feminino , Escala de Coma de Glasgow , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Retrospectivos
19.
Neurología (Barc., Ed. impr.) ; 35(1): 10-15, ene.-feb. 2020. tab
Artigo em Espanhol | IBECS | ID: ibc-195388

RESUMO

INTRODUCCIÓN: El uso de anticoagulantes orales es controvertido en pacientes con antecedentes de fibrilación auricular (FA) y hemorragia intracraneal (HIC), por riesgo de recurrencia de ictus hemorrágico. Presentamos la experiencia de nuestro centro en relación con la seguridad y la eficacia del cierre percutáneo de orejuela (CPO), una alternativa a la anticoagulación en dicho contexto. MÉTODOS: Estudio observacional, retrospectivo y unicéntrico. El CPO se realizó en pacientes con antecedentes de HIC y FA no valvular. El riesgo de eventos isquémicos y hemorrágicos se estimó usando las escalas CHA2DS2Vasc y HAS-BLED. Se registraron: complicaciones periprocedimiento, recurrencia de HIC, embolismo cerebral/sistémico, mortalidad tras el cierre y al seguimiento y uso de antitrombóticos tras el procedimiento. RESULTADOS: El CPO se realizó en 9 pacientes (7 hombres, 2 mujeres). Se utilizó en 7 casos el dispositivo Amplatzer Amulet y en 2 el Amplatzer Cardiac Plug. La media de edad fue 72,7 ± 8,2 años. El tiempo entre la HIC y el CPO fue menor de un mes en 5 pacientes y mayor en 4. La mediana y el rango intercuartil para la escala CHA2DS2Vasc fueron de 4 y 2,5, respectivamente, siendo de 3 y 0 para la escala HAS-BLED. No hubo complicaciones periprocedimiento. Todos recibieron antiagregación simple tras el procedimiento (5 clopidogrel y 4 aspirina); en 5 se mantuvo 6 meses, en 4 indefinidamente. Durante el seguimiento (15 meses de promedio) no se registraron eventos isquémicos ni hemorrágicos. CONCLUSIONES: En nuestra serie, el CPO supone una alternativa segura y eficaz en pacientes que han presentado HIC y que precisan ser anticoagulados por FA


INTRODUCTION: The use of oral anticoagulants in patients with a history of atrial fibrillation (AF) and intracranial haemorrhage (ICH) is controversial on account of the risk of haemorrhagic stroke recurrence. This study presents our experience regarding the safety and efficacy of percutaneous left atrial appendage closure (LAAC), an alternative to anticoagulation in these patients. METHODS: We conducted a retrospective, single-centre, observational study. LAAC was performed in patients with a history of ICH and non-valvular AF. Risk of ischaemic and haemorrhagic events was estimated using the CHA2DS2-VASc and HAS-BLED scales. We recorded periprocedural complications, IHC recurrence, cerebral/systemic embolism, mortality and use of antithrombotic drugs following the procedure. RESULTS: LAAC was performed in 9 patients (7 men, 2 women) using the AMPLATZER Amulet device in 7 cases and the AMPLATZER Cardiac Plug device in 2. Mean age was 72.7 ± 8.2 years. Time between ICH and LAAC was less than one month in 5 patients and more than one month in 4 patients. Median CHA2DS2-VASc score was 4 (interquartile range of 2.5). Median HAS-BLED score was 3 (interquartile range of 0). No periprocedural complications were recorded. All patients received single anti-platelet therapy (clopidogrel in 5 patients, aspirin in 4) after the procedure; 5 patients received this treatment for 6 months and 4 received it indefinitely. No ischaemic or haemorrhagic events were recorded during follow-up (mean duration of 15 months). CONCLUSIONS: In our series, LAAC was found to be safe and effective in patients with a history of ICH who required anticoagulation due to AF


Assuntos
Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Idoso , Apêndice Atrial/cirurgia , Fibrilação Atrial/complicações , Hemorragias Intracranianas/complicações , Anticoagulantes/uso terapêutico , Aspirina/uso terapêutico , Clopidogrel/uso terapêutico , Inibidores da Agregação de Plaquetas/uso terapêutico , Estudos Retrospectivos
20.
World Neurosurg ; 136: 205-207, 2020 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31958586

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Although arteriovenous malformation (AVM) has been considered to be a congenital vascular malformation, morphologic differences associated with age have been indicated in the literature. CASE DESCRIPTION: We report a case of infant fistula-type AVM that developed into a nidus-type AVM 15 years later. This is the first report to document morphologic changes of AVM over time in 1 case. CONCLUSIONS: The present case suggests the possibly that AVM morphology may change with age and is an important when considering the history of AVM.


Assuntos
Fístula Arteriovenosa/complicações , Doenças Cerebelares/complicações , Hemorragias Intracranianas/complicações , Adolescente , Fístula Arteriovenosa/diagnóstico por imagem , Fístula Arteriovenosa/terapia , Doenças Cerebelares/diagnóstico por imagem , Doenças Cerebelares/terapia , Progressão da Doença , Humanos , Lactente , Hemorragias Intracranianas/diagnóstico por imagem , Hemorragias Intracranianas/terapia , Masculino
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