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1.
Cardiol Rev ; 29(1): 39-42, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33136582

RESUMO

Patients older than 65 years hospitalized with COVID-19 have higher rates of intensive care unit admission and death when compared with younger patients. Cardiovascular conditions associated with COVID-19 include myocardial injury, acute myocarditis, cardiac arrhythmias, cardiomyopathies, cardiogenic shock, thromboembolic disease, and cardiac arrest. Few studies have described the clinical course of those at the upper extreme of age. We characterize the clinical course and outcomes of 73 patients with 80 years of age or older hospitalized at an academic center between March 15 and May 13, 2020. These patients had multiple comorbidities and often presented with atypical clinical findings such as altered sensorium, generalized weakness and falls. Cardiovascular manifestations observed at the time of presentation included new arrhythmia in 7/73 (10%), stroke/intracranial hemorrhage in 5/73 (7%), and elevated troponin in 27/58 (47%). During hospitalization, 38% of all patients required intensive care, 13% developed a need for renal replacement therapy, and 32% required vasopressor support. All-cause mortality was 47% and was highest in patients who were ever in intensive care (71%), required mechanical ventilation (83%), or vasopressors (91%), or developed a need for renal replacement therapy (100%). Patients older than 80 years old with COVID-19 have multiple unique risk factors which can be associated with increased cardiovascular involvement and death.


Assuntos
Lesão Renal Aguda/terapia , Mortalidade Hospitalar , Terapia de Substituição Renal/estatística & dados numéricos , Respiração Artificial/estatística & dados numéricos , Vasoconstritores/uso terapêutico , Centros Médicos Acadêmicos , Acidentes por Quedas , Lesão Renal Aguda/etiologia , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Arritmias Cardíacas/etiologia , Arritmias Cardíacas/fisiopatologia , Aspartato Aminotransferases/metabolismo , Proteína C-Reativa/metabolismo , /metabolismo , Doenças Cardiovasculares/etiologia , Doenças Cardiovasculares/metabolismo , Doenças Cardiovasculares/fisiopatologia , Causas de Morte , Transtornos da Consciência/fisiopatologia , Dispneia/fisiopatologia , Feminino , Ferritinas/metabolismo , Febre/fisiopatologia , Produtos de Degradação da Fibrina e do Fibrinogênio/metabolismo , Hospitalização , Humanos , Hipóxia/fisiopatologia , Hipóxia/terapia , Vida Independente , Unidades de Terapia Intensiva/estatística & dados numéricos , Hemorragias Intracranianas/etiologia , Hemorragias Intracranianas/fisiopatologia , Contagem de Leucócitos , Hepatopatias/etiologia , Hepatopatias/metabolismo , Contagem de Linfócitos , Masculino , Debilidade Muscular/fisiopatologia , Peptídeo Natriurético Encefálico/metabolismo , Casas de Saúde , Oxigenoterapia , Pró-Calcitonina/metabolismo , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/etiologia , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/fisiopatologia , Troponina I/metabolismo
2.
J Vasc Interv Radiol ; 31(12): 1978-1983, 2020 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33187862

RESUMO

PURPOSE: To describe interventionalist and workflow characteristics of an acute stroke endovascular thrombectomy (EVT) center without a dedicated interventional neuroradiology service and report clinical and radiologic outcomes. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Retrospective review was performed of all patients receiving EVT at Christchurch Hospital, New Zealand, from June 2014 to the end of December 2019 from a prospective reperfusion registry. During the study period, 5 peripheral vascular interventional radiologists, 2 of whom had experience in other neuroendovascular procedures, performed 210 EVT procedures. Median age of patients was 76 years (interquartile range: 64-83 y), and 107 (51%) were men. RESULTS: The most commonly occluded vessel was the M1 middle cerebral artery (n = 114; 54%). Successful reperfusion (Modified Treatment In Cerebral Ischemia score 2b-3) was achieved in 180 (86%) procedures. Favorable 90-day outcome (modified Rankin Scale score 0-2) was achieved in 102 (54%) patients with no disability before stroke. Symptomatic intracranial hemorrhage occurred in 3 (1.4%) patients. Treatment rates in the local catchment area increased from 6 per 100,000 population in 2017 to 15 per 100,000 in 2019. CONCLUSIONS: The results of this study suggest peripheral vascular interventional radiologists with specific training can successfully perform EVT resulting in a significant increase in EVT provision.


Assuntos
Isquemia Encefálica/terapia , Procedimentos Endovasculares , Radiologistas , Especialização , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/terapia , Trombectomia , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Isquemia Encefálica/diagnóstico por imagem , Competência Clínica , Procedimentos Endovasculares/efeitos adversos , Feminino , Humanos , Hemorragias Intracranianas/etiologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Nova Zelândia , Recuperação de Função Fisiológica , Sistema de Registros , Estudos Retrospectivos , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/diagnóstico por imagem , Trombectomia/efeitos adversos , Resultado do Tratamento , Fluxo de Trabalho
3.
Br J Anaesth ; 125(6): 1045-1055, 2020 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33039123

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Accidental dural puncture is an uncommon complication of epidural analgesia and can cause postdural puncture headache (PDPH). We aimed to describe management practices and outcomes after PDPH treated by epidural blood patch (EBP) or no EBP. METHODS: Following ethics committee approval, patients who developed PDPH after accidental dural puncture were recruited from participating countries and divided into two groups, those receiving EBP or no EBP. Data registered included patient and procedure characteristics, headache symptoms and intensity, management practices, and complications. Follow-up was at 3 months. RESULTS: A total of 1001 patients from 24 countries were included, of which 647 (64.6%) received an EBP and 354 (35.4%) did not receive an EBP (no-EBP). Higher initial headache intensity was associated with greater use of EBP, odds ratio 1.29 (95% confidence interval 1.19-1.41) per pain intensity unit increase. Headache intensity declined sharply at 4 h after EBP and 127 (19.3%) patients received a second EBP. On average, no or mild headache (numeric rating score≤3) was observed 7 days after diagnosis. Intracranial bleeding was diagnosed in three patients (0.46%), and backache, headache, and analgesic use were more common at 3 months in the EBP group. CONCLUSIONS: Management practices vary between countries, but EBP was more often used in patients with greater initial headache intensity. EBP reduced headache intensity quickly, but about 20% of patients needed a second EBP. After 7 days, most patients had no or mild headache. Backache, headache, and analgesic use were more common at 3 months in patients receiving an EBP.


Assuntos
Placa de Sangue Epidural/métodos , Obstetrícia/métodos , Cefaleia Pós-Punção Dural/terapia , Adolescente , Adulto , Analgesia Epidural/efeitos adversos , Estudos de Coortes , Gerenciamento Clínico , Feminino , Seguimentos , Humanos , Hemorragias Intracranianas/etiologia , Hemorragias Intracranianas/terapia , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Medição da Dor , Gravidez , Estudos Prospectivos , Adulto Jovem
4.
J Stroke Cerebrovasc Dis ; 29(12): 105397, 2020 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33096499

RESUMO

SARS-CoV-2 infection has been associated with ischemic stroke as well as systemic complications such as acute respiratory failure; cytotoxic edema is a well-known sequelae of acute ischemic stroke and can be worsened by the presence of hypercarbia induced by respiratory failure. We present the case of a very rapid neurologic and radiographic decline of a patient with an acute ischemic stroke who developed rapid fulminant cerebral edema leading to herniation in the setting of hypercarbic respiratory failure attributed to SARS-CoV-2 infection. Given the elevated incidence of cerebrovascular complications in patients with COVID-19, it is imperative for clinicians to be aware of the risk of rapidly progressive cerebral edema in patients who develop COVID-19 associated acute respiratory distress syndrome.


Assuntos
Edema Encefálico/etiologia , Neoplasias da Mama/complicações , Encefalocele/etiologia , Hemorragias Intracranianas/etiologia , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/etiologia , Idoso , Edema Encefálico/diagnóstico por imagem , Neoplasias da Mama/diagnóstico , Neoplasias da Mama/tratamento farmacológico , Progressão da Doença , Encefalocele/diagnóstico por imagem , Feminino , Humanos , Hemorragias Intracranianas/diagnóstico por imagem , Fatores de Risco , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/diagnóstico por imagem
5.
J Stroke Cerebrovasc Dis ; 29(12): 105335, 2020 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33007680

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Modified Thrombolysis in Cerebral Infarction (mTICI)2b/3 has been considered the criterion for successful reperfusion in endovascular treatment. This study aimed to compare the therapeutic safety and efficacy of mTICI2b and mTICI3 recanalization, and to analyze the factors related to outcomes in everyday clinical practice. MATERIALS AND METHODS: This is a single-center retrospective analysis of 224 patients who underwent successful thrombectomy (achieving a mTICI score ≥2b). The primary outcomes included a modified Rankin score (mRS) of 0-2 at 90-day, mortality, and symptomatic intracranial hemorrhage. RESULTS: A total of 111 patients achieved mTICI2b status (49.6%), and 113 achieved mTICI3 status (50.4%). The comparison between mTICI2b and 3 reperfusions showed no differences in short-term outcomes, 90-day mRS, complications, and mortality. There was a trend toward more passes in mTICI2b patients, although the difference was not significant. The univariate analysis showed that poor outcomes after endovascular treatment were associated with older age, previous history of coronary heart disease, atrial fibrillation, diabetes, tandem occlusions, high National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale (NIHSS) score on admission, and general anesthesia. A previous history of coronary heart disease, a high NIHSS score on admission, and the use of general anesthesia were independent factors that affected the therapeutic effects. CONCLUSION: The superiority (efficacy and safety) of mTICI3 reperfusion was not significant compared with that of mTICI2b reperfusion. Prolonged efforts to achieve mTICI3 after achieving mTICI2b should be considered prudently for those with difficulty achieving 100% reperfusion.


Assuntos
Procedimentos Endovasculares , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/terapia , Trombectomia , Idoso , Circulação Cerebrovascular , China , Avaliação da Deficiência , Procedimentos Endovasculares/efeitos adversos , Procedimentos Endovasculares/mortalidade , Feminino , Humanos , Hemorragias Intracranianas/etiologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Recuperação de Função Fisiológica , Estudos Retrospectivos , Fatores de Risco , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/diagnóstico , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/mortalidade , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/fisiopatologia , Trombectomia/efeitos adversos , Trombectomia/mortalidade , Fatores de Tempo , Resultado do Tratamento
6.
PLoS One ; 15(10): e0240161, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33057407

RESUMO

BACKGROUNDS: We investigated the prognostic impact of antithrombotic regimens at 1-year after percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) among patients with atrial fibrillation (AF). METHOD AND RESULTS: A total of 13,278 AF patients who underwent PCI from 2009 to 2013 were selected from Korean National Health Insurance Service database. Patients were categorized by antithrombotic regimens at 1-year after PCI: (1) OAC with or without single antiplatelet (OAC±SAPT); (2) triple therapy (TT) and (3) antiplatelets (APT) only. After propensity score matching, composite ischaemia (death, myocardial infarction, and stroke), composite bleeding (intracranial hemorrhage and gastrointestinal bleeding), and a composite clinical outcome (composite ischaemia and bleeding) were compared. Of total population, 1,100 (8.3%), 746 (5.6%), and 11,432 (86.1%) were treated with OAC±SAPT, TT, and APT only, respectively. Compared to OAC±SAPT group, the TT group had significantly higher risk of the composite clinical outcome (hazard ratio [HR] 1.46, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.00-2.13) attributed to a higher trend in both ischaemia (HR 1.63, 95% CI 0.99-2.67) and bleeding (HR 1.22, 95% CI 0.69-2.13). The APT only group showed a higher risk of ischaemia (HR 1.85, 95% CI 1.25-2.74), despite a lower risk of bleeding (HR 0.55, 95% CI 0.32-0.94) compared to OAC±SAPT group. CONCLUSIONS: OAC±SAPT was associated with better clinical outcomes compared to TT or APT only treatments, beyond 1-year after PCI among Asians with AF.


Assuntos
Anticoagulantes/administração & dosagem , Fibrilação Atrial/cirurgia , Doença da Artéria Coronariana/cirurgia , Intervenção Coronária Percutânea/efeitos adversos , Inibidores da Agregação de Plaquetas/administração & dosagem , Complicações Pós-Operatórias/epidemiologia , Idoso , Anticoagulantes/efeitos adversos , Fibrilação Atrial/etiologia , Fibrilação Atrial/mortalidade , Doença da Artéria Coronariana/complicações , Doença da Artéria Coronariana/mortalidade , Quimioterapia Combinada/métodos , Feminino , Hemorragia Gastrointestinal/epidemiologia , Hemorragia Gastrointestinal/etiologia , Hemorragia Gastrointestinal/prevenção & controle , Humanos , Hemorragias Intracranianas/epidemiologia , Hemorragias Intracranianas/etiologia , Hemorragias Intracranianas/prevenção & controle , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Infarto do Miocárdio/epidemiologia , Infarto do Miocárdio/etiologia , Infarto do Miocárdio/prevenção & controle , Inibidores da Agregação de Plaquetas/efeitos adversos , Complicações Pós-Operatórias/etiologia , Complicações Pós-Operatórias/prevenção & controle , Prevalência , Prognóstico , República da Coreia/epidemiologia , Fatores de Risco , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/epidemiologia , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/etiologia , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/prevenção & controle , Resultado do Tratamento
7.
J Stroke Cerebrovasc Dis ; 29(11): 105248, 2020 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33066888

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Acute ischemic stroke is the most common neurological complication of infective endocarditis. Intravenous thrombolysis is contraindicated in these patients due to a higher risk of hemorrhagic complications. Whether mechanical thrombectomy has some benefit in these patients remains unanswered although some favorable results can be found in literature. METHODS: We report twelve cases of acute ischemic stroke due to septic emboli treated with mechanical thrombectomy in two comprehensive stroke centers. RESULTS: Median age was 63 years (IQR 58.8-77.5 years). Diagnosis of infective endocarditis was previous to the diagnosis of stroke in three of the patients. There were five cases of prosthetic-valve endocarditis and eight cases of native-valve endocarditis. Two patients were treated with intravenous thrombolysis with an extensive subarachnoid hemorrhage in 24 h follow-up CT in one of them. Another patient suffered an arterial perforation during the endovascular procedure without successful recanalization. 6 of the patients (50%) developed some type of hemorrhagic complications with three cases of symptomatic intracerebral hemorrhage. Early neurological recovery was achieved in 3 (25%) patients. Functional independence at 3 months in patients with successful revascularization was reached in 50% of the cases. CONCLUSIONS: In patients with large vessel acute ischemic stroke related to infective endocarditis, mechanical thrombectomy might be considered with some potential benefit reported. There may be a high risk of hemorrhagic complications, as known for intravenous thrombolysis in this condition, suggesting that this procedure should be carefully evaluated in these patients.


Assuntos
Isquemia Encefálica/terapia , Endocardite Bacteriana/microbiologia , Procedimentos Endovasculares , Embolia Intracraniana/terapia , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/terapia , Trombectomia , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Isquemia Encefálica/diagnóstico por imagem , Isquemia Encefálica/microbiologia , Tomada de Decisão Clínica , Endocardite Bacteriana/complicações , Endocardite Bacteriana/diagnóstico , Procedimentos Endovasculares/efeitos adversos , Feminino , Humanos , Embolia Intracraniana/diagnóstico por imagem , Embolia Intracraniana/microbiologia , Hemorragias Intracranianas/etiologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Recuperação de Função Fisiológica , Medição de Risco , Fatores de Risco , Espanha , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/diagnóstico por imagem , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/microbiologia , Trombectomia/efeitos adversos , Resultado do Tratamento
8.
Stroke ; 51(10): 2997-3006, 2020 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32951540

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Symptomatic hemorrhage contributes to an increased risk of repeated bleeding and morbidity in cerebral cavernous malformation (CCM). A better understanding of morbidity after CCM hemorrhage would be helpful to identify patients of higher risk for unfavorable outcome and tailor individualized management. METHODS: We identified 282 consecutive patients who referred to our institute from 2014 to 2018 for CCM with symptomatic hemorrhage and had an untreated follow-up period over 6 months after the first hemorrhage. The morbidity after hemorrhage was described in CCM of different features. Nomogram to predict morbidity was formulated based on the multivariable model of risk factors. The predictive accuracy and discriminative ability of nomogram were determined with concordance index (C-index) and calibration curve, and further validated in an independent CCM cohort of a prospective multicenter study from 2019 to 2020. RESULTS: The overall morbidity of CCM was 26.2% after a mean follow-up of 1.9 years (range 0.5-3.5 years) since the first hemorrhage. The morbidity during untreated follow-up was associated with hemorrhage ictus (adjusted odds ratio per ictus increase, 4.17 [95% CI, 1.86-9.33]), modified Rankin Scale score at initial hemorrhage (adjusted odds ratio per point increase, 2.57 [95% CI, 1.82-3.63]), brainstem location (adjusted odds ratio, 2.93 [95% CI, 1.28-6.68]), and associated developmental venous anomaly (adjusted odds ratio, 2.21 [95% CI, 1.01-4.83]). Subgroup analysis revealed similar findings in brainstem and non-brainstem CCM. Nomogram was contracted based on these features. The calibration curve showed good agreement between nomogram prediction and actual observation. The C-index of nomogram predicting morbidity was 0.83 (95% CI, 0.77-0.88). In validation cohort, the nomogram maintained the discriminative ability (C-index, 0.87 [95% CI, 0.78-0.96]). CONCLUSIONS: Multiple symptomatic hemorrhages, initial neurological function after hemorrhage, brainstem location, and associated developmental venous anomaly were associated with morbidity of CCM hemorrhage. The nomogram represented a practical approach to provide individualized risk assessment for CCM patients. Registration: URL: https://www.clinicaltrials.gov. Unique identifier: NCT04076449.


Assuntos
Hemangioma Cavernoso do Sistema Nervoso Central/complicações , Hemorragias Intracranianas/etiologia , Adulto , Feminino , Seguimentos , Hemangioma Cavernoso do Sistema Nervoso Central/diagnóstico por imagem , Humanos , Hemorragias Intracranianas/diagnóstico por imagem , Imagem por Ressonância Magnética , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Nomogramas , Recidiva , Medição de Risco , Fatores de Risco , Adulto Jovem
9.
PLoS One ; 15(9): e0238387, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32870937

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Anticoagulation (AC) is a critical topic in perioperative and post-bleeding management. Nevertheless, there is a lack of data about the safe, judicious use of prophylactic and therapeutic anticoagulation with regard to risk factors and the cause and modality of brain tissue damage as well as unfavorable outcomes such as postoperative hemorrhage (PH) and thromboembolic events (TE) in neurosurgical patients. We therefore present retrospective data on perioperative anticoagulation in meningioma surgery. METHODS: Data of 286 patients undergoing meningioma surgery between 2006 and 2018 were analyzed. We followed up on anticoagulation management, doses and time points of first application, laboratory values, and adverse events such as PH and TE. Pre-existing medication and hemostatic conditions were evaluated. The time course of patients was measured as overall survival, readmission within 30 days after surgery, as well as Glasgow Outcome Scale (GOS) and modified Rankin Scale (mRS). Statistical analysis was performed using multivariate regression. RESULTS: We carried out AC with Fraxiparin and, starting in 2015, Tinzaparin in weight-adapted recommended prophylactic doses. Delayed (216 ± 228h) AC was associated with a significantly increased rate of TE (p = 0.026). Early (29 ± 21.9h) prophylactic AC, on the other hand, did not increase the risk of PH. We identified additional risk factors for PH, such as blood pressure maxima, steroid treatment, and increased white blood cell count. Patients' outcome was affected more adversely by TE than PH (+3 points in modified Rankin Scale in TE vs. +1 point in PH, p = 0.001). CONCLUSION: Early prophylactic AC is not associated with an increased rate of PH. The risks of TE seem to outweigh those of PH. Early postoperative prophylactic AC in patients undergoing intracranial meningioma resection should be considered.


Assuntos
Anticoagulantes/efeitos adversos , Hemorragias Intracranianas/etiologia , Neoplasias Meníngeas/cirurgia , Meningioma/cirurgia , Idoso , Anticoagulantes/administração & dosagem , Esquema de Medicação , Feminino , Alemanha/epidemiologia , Humanos , Hemorragias Intracranianas/epidemiologia , Modelos Logísticos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Assistência Perioperatória/efeitos adversos , Hemorragia Pós-Operatória/epidemiologia , Hemorragia Pós-Operatória/etiologia , Estudos Retrospectivos , Fatores de Risco , Tromboembolia/epidemiologia , Tromboembolia/etiologia
10.
J Stroke Cerebrovasc Dis ; 29(9): 105016, 2020 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32807431

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To highlight the increased risk of hemorrhagic stroke secondary to postulated COVID-19 mediated vasculopathy with concomitant ECMO related bleeding complications. BACKGROUND: COVID-19 has shown to be a systemic illness, not localized to the respiratory tract and lung parenchyma. Stroke is a common neurological complication. In particular, critically ill patients on ECMO are likely at higher risk of developing hemorrhagic stroke. CASE PRESENTATION: 38-year-old man presented with fever, cough, and shortness of breath. Due to severe respiratory failure, he required ECMO support. Subsequently, he was found to have left temporal intraparenchymal hemorrhage. Overall, his clinical course improved, and he was discharged with minimal neurological deficits. CONCLUSION: Although intracranial hemorrhage is a known complication of ECMO, patients with COVID-19 infection may be at a higher risk of cerebrovascular complications due to vasculopathy.


Assuntos
Betacoronavirus/patogenicidade , Infecções por Coronavirus/terapia , Oxigenação por Membrana Extracorpórea , Hemorragias Intracranianas/etiologia , Pulmão/virologia , Pneumonia Viral/terapia , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/etiologia , Adulto , Infecções por Coronavirus/complicações , Infecções por Coronavirus/fisiopatologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/virologia , Oxigenação por Membrana Extracorpórea/efeitos adversos , Interações Hospedeiro-Patógeno , Humanos , Hemorragias Intracranianas/diagnóstico por imagem , Hemorragias Intracranianas/virologia , Pulmão/fisiopatologia , Masculino , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral/complicações , Pneumonia Viral/fisiopatologia , Pneumonia Viral/virologia , Fatores de Risco , Índice de Gravidade de Doença , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/diagnóstico por imagem , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/virologia , Resultado do Tratamento
11.
AJNR Am J Neuroradiol ; 41(10): 1800-1803, 2020 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32732268

RESUMO

Since December 2019, a novel Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome coronavirus 2 from China has rapidly spread worldwide. Although respiratory involvement is the mainstay of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), systemic involvement has recently drawn more attention. In particular, a number of recent articles have shed light on the nervous system as one of the possible targets. At our institution, we observed 15 patients with acute brain vascular manifestations; most interesting, we had a higher prevalence of the posterior circulation acute impairment. In our series, 7 patients had acute posterior cerebral injury: 1, hemorrhagic posterior reversible encephalopathy syndrome; 5, posterior circulation ischemic stroke; and 1, parieto-occipital hemorrhagic stroke. On the basis of our evidence and previous basic science reports, we believe a common etiopathogenetic thread may connect ischemic/hemorrhagic events of the posterior circulation and posterior reversible encephalopathy syndrome in the setting of COVID-19.


Assuntos
Betacoronavirus , Infecções por Coronavirus/complicações , Pneumonia Viral/complicações , Síndrome da Leucoencefalopatia Posterior/etiologia , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/etiologia , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Feminino , Humanos , Hemorragias Intracranianas/etiologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Pandemias , Síndrome da Leucoencefalopatia Posterior/diagnóstico por imagem , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/diagnóstico por imagem , Tomografia Computadorizada por Raios X , Adulto Jovem
12.
AJNR Am J Neuroradiol ; 41(11): 2009-2011, 2020 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32855187

RESUMO

In this clinical case series, we report our experience to date with neurologic complications of extracorporeal membrane oxygenation therapy for COVID-19 Acute Respiratory Distress Syndrome. We have found an unexpectedly increased rate of complications as demonstrated by neuroimaging compared with meta-analysis data in extracorporeal membrane oxygenation therapy for all Acute Respiratory Distress Syndrome etiologies over the past few decades and compared with the most recent baseline data describing the incidence of neurologic complication in all patients with COVID-19. For our 12-patient cohort, there was a rate of intracranial hemorrhage of 41.7%. Representative cases and images of devastating intracranial hemorrhage are presented. We hypothesize that the interplay between hematologic changes inherent to extracorporeal membrane oxygenation and inflammatory and coagulopathic changes that have begun to be elucidated as part of the COVID-19 disease process are responsible. Continued analysis of extracorporeal membrane oxygenation therapy in this disease paradigm is warranted.


Assuntos
Infecções por Coronavirus/complicações , Oxigenação por Membrana Extracorpórea/efeitos adversos , Pneumonia Viral/complicações , /virologia , Idoso , Betacoronavirus , Estudos de Coortes , Feminino , Humanos , Hemorragias Intracranianas/epidemiologia , Hemorragias Intracranianas/etiologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Pandemias , Estudos Retrospectivos , Centros de Atenção Terciária
13.
J Cardiothorac Vasc Anesth ; 34(11): 3006-3012, 2020 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32828653

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Anticoagulation may be a challenge in coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) extracorporeal membrane oxygenation due to endothelial injury and dysregulation of coagulation, which may increase the risk of thrombotic and bleeding complications. This report was created to describe the authors' single institutional experience, with emphasis on the high rate of intracranial hemorrhage for the first 10 patients with COVID-19 placed on venovenous extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (VV ECMO). DESIGN: Case series, retrospective analysis. SETTING: Single institution. PARTICIPANTS: Ten patients. INTERVENTIONS: None. MEASUREMENTS AND MAIN RESULTS: Patient characteristics, mortality, stroke rate, and length of stay data were collected in all patients. In addition, laboratory values of D-dimer and C-reactive protein and standard measurements of prothrombin and activated partial thromboplastin time were collected on all patients. Ten patients, each confirmed with COVID-19 via reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction, were supported on VV ECMO for acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) for a mean duration of 9.4 ± 7 days. Four of 10 patients had hemorrhagic strokes, 3 of which resulted in death. At 30 days after initiation of VV ECMO, a total of 7 survivors included 6 patients discharged from the hospital and 1 patient who remained in the intensive care unit. CONCLUSIONS: In this small study of 10 patients, intracranial hemorrhage was a common complication, resulting in a high rate of death. The authors urge caution in the anticoagulation management of VV ECMO for patients with severe ARDS and COVID-19 patients. Close monitoring of all hematologic parameters is recommended during ECMO support while awaiting larger, multicenter studies to examine the best practice.


Assuntos
Anticoagulantes/administração & dosagem , Betacoronavirus , Infecções por Coronavirus/terapia , Oxigenação por Membrana Extracorpórea/efeitos adversos , Hemorragias Intracranianas/etiologia , Pneumonia Viral/terapia , Anticoagulantes/efeitos adversos , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Oxigenação por Membrana Extracorpórea/métodos , Feminino , Seguimentos , Humanos , Hemorragias Intracranianas/diagnóstico , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Estudos Retrospectivos
14.
Stroke ; 51(9): 2742-2751, 2020 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32811382

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: We aimed to evaluate the impact of cortical microinfarcts (CMIs) on functional outcome after endovascular treatment in patients with acute ischemic stroke. METHODS: In a multicenter registration study for RESCUE-RE (a registration study for Critical Care of Acute Ischemic Stroke After Recanalization), eligible patients with large vessel occlusion stroke receiving endovascular treatment, who had undergone 3T magnetic resonance imaging on admission or within 24 hours after endovascular treatment were analyzed. We evaluated the presence and numbers of CMIs with assessment of axial T1, T2-weighted images, and fluid-attenuated inversion recovery images. The primary outcome was functional dependence or death defined as modified Rankin Scale scores of 3 to 6 at 90 days. Secondary outcomes included early neurological improvement, any intracranial hemorrhage, symptomatic intracranial hemorrhage, and mortality. We investigated the independent associations of CMIs with the outcomes using multivariable logistic regression in overall patients and in subgroups. RESULTS: Among 414 patients (enrolled from July 2018 to May 2019) included in the analyses, 96 (23.2%) patients had at least one CMI (maximum 6). Patients with CMI(s) were more likely to be functionally dependent or dead at 90 days, compared with those without (55.2% versus 37.4%; P<0.01). In multivariable logistic regression analyses, presence of CMI(s) (adjusted odds ratio, 1.78 [95% CI, 1.04-3.07]; P=0.04) and multiple CMIs (CMIs ≥2; adjusted odds ratio, 7.41 [95% CI, 2.48-22.17]; P<0.001) were independently, significantly associated with the primary outcome. There was no significant difference between subgroups in the associations between CMI presence and the primary outcome. CONCLUSIONS: Acute large vessel occlusion stroke patients receiving endovascular treatment with CMI(s) were more likely to have a poor functional outcome at 90 days, independent of patients' characteristics. Such associations may be dose-dependent. Registration: URL: http://www.chictr.org.cn; Unique identifier: ChiCTR1900022154.


Assuntos
Isquemia Encefálica/complicações , Isquemia Encefálica/cirurgia , Córtex Cerebral , Infarto Cerebral/complicações , Procedimentos Endovasculares/métodos , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/complicações , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/cirurgia , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Arteriopatias Oclusivas/complicações , Arteriopatias Oclusivas/cirurgia , Isquemia Encefálica/diagnóstico por imagem , Córtex Cerebral/diagnóstico por imagem , Infarto Cerebral/diagnóstico por imagem , Infarto Cerebral/mortalidade , Feminino , Humanos , Hemorragias Intracranianas/etiologia , Angiografia por Ressonância Magnética , Imagem por Ressonância Magnética , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Prospectivos , Sistema de Registros , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/diagnóstico por imagem , Resultado do Tratamento
15.
Stroke ; 51(9): 2690-2696, 2020 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32811387

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Symptomatic intracranial hemorrhage (sICH), potentially associated with poor prognosis, is a major complication of endovascular thrombectomy (EVT) for ischemic stroke patients. We aimed to develop and validate a risk model for predicting sICH after EVT in Chinese patients due to large-artery occlusions in the anterior circulation. METHODS: The derivation cohort recruited patients with EVT from the Endovascular Treatment for Acute Anterior Circulation Ischemic Stroke Registry in China. sICH was diagnosed according to the Heidelberg Bleeding Classification within 24 hours of EVT. Stepwise logistic regression was performed to derive the predictive model. The discrimination and calibration of the risk model were assessed using the C index and the calibration plot. An additional cohort of 503 patients from 2 stroke centers was prospectively enrolled to validate the new model. RESULTS: We enrolled 629 patients who underwent EVT as the derivation cohort, among whom 87 developed sICH (13.8%). In the multivariate adjustment, Alberta Stroke Program Early CT Score (odds ratio [OR], 0.85; P=0.005), baseline glucose (OR, 1.13; P=0.001), poor collateral circulation (OR, 3.06; P=0.001), passes with retriever (OR, 1.52; P=0.001), and onset-to-groin puncture time (OR, 1.79; P=0.024) were independent factors of sICH and were incorporated as the Alberta Stroke Program Early CT Score, Baseline Glucose, Poor Collateral Circulation, Passes With Retriever, and Onset-to-Groin Puncture Time (ASIAN) score. The ASIAN score demonstrated good discrimination in the derivation cohort (C index, 0.771 [95% CI, 0.716-0.826]), as well as the validation cohort (C index, 0.758 [95% CI, 0.691-0.825]). CONCLUSIONS: The ASIAN score reliably predicts the risk of sICH in Chinese ischemic stroke patients treated by EVT.


Assuntos
Isquemia Encefálica/complicações , Isquemia Encefálica/cirurgia , Hemorragias Intracranianas/etiologia , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/complicações , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/cirurgia , Trombectomia/efeitos adversos , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Arteriopatias Oclusivas/complicações , Glicemia , China , Estudos de Coortes , Circulação Colateral , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Valor Preditivo dos Testes , Prognóstico , Estudos Prospectivos , Sistema de Registros , Medição de Risco , Tomografia Computadorizada por Raios X , Resultado do Tratamento
16.
Cerebrovasc Dis ; 49(4): 382-387, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32756062

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Safety of carotid artery stenting (CAS) in patients having carotid stenosis with coexistent unruptured intracranial aneurysms (UIAs) is rarely reported. Thus, we studied the 3-month outcome of CAS in the presence of coexistent UIAs in our institution. METHODS: A retrospective analysis of patients receiving CAS at our institution from September 2011 to December 2019 was carried out. Patients were stratified into 2 groups: group of CAS with UIAs (CAS-UIA) and group of CAS without UIAs (CAS). The main complications within 3 months after stenting were TIA, ischemic stroke, symptomatic intracranial hemorrhage (sICH), rupture of UIAs, and death. The baseline characteristics and complications of the 2 groups were compared. RESULTS: Five hundred fifty-six patients (CAS, n = 468; CAS-UIA, n = 88) were included and 604 stenting procedures were performed. More patients had hypertension in the CAS-UIA group (87.5 vs. 73.7%, p = 0.006). There was no significant difference in TIAs, ischemic stroke, sICH, and death within 3 months after stenting between the CAS and CAS-UIA groups. None of the 113 coexistent UIAs detected in 88 patients had aneurysm rupture within 3 months after CAS. CONCLUSIONS: In our large cohort of CAS patients, coexistent UIAs are not uncommon. Stenting of a carotid artery in the presence of coexistent UIAs could be conducted safely. Together with 3-month dual antiplatelet therapy, CAS did not increase the rupture risk of the coexistent UIAs within 3 months.


Assuntos
Estenose das Carótidas/terapia , Procedimentos Endovasculares/instrumentação , Aneurisma Intracraniano/complicações , Stents , Idoso , Aneurisma Roto/etiologia , Estenose das Carótidas/complicações , Estenose das Carótidas/diagnóstico por imagem , Estenose das Carótidas/mortalidade , Terapia Antiplaquetária Dupla , Procedimentos Endovasculares/efeitos adversos , Procedimentos Endovasculares/mortalidade , Feminino , Humanos , Aneurisma Intracraniano/diagnóstico por imagem , Aneurisma Intracraniano/mortalidade , Hemorragias Intracranianas/etiologia , Ataque Isquêmico Transitório/etiologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Retrospectivos , Medição de Risco , Fatores de Risco , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/etiologia , Fatores de Tempo , Resultado do Tratamento
17.
Stroke ; 51(9): 2724-2732, 2020 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32757753

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: In patients with acute ischemic stroke and atrial fibrillation, treatment with low molecular weight heparin increases early hemorrhagic risk without reducing early recurrence, and there is limited data comparing warfarin to direct oral anticoagulant (DOAC) therapy. We aim to compare the effects of the treatments above on the risk of 90-day recurrent ischemic events and delayed symptomatic intracranial hemorrhage. METHODS: We included consecutive patients with acute ischemic stroke and atrial fibrillation from the IAC (Initiation of Anticoagulation after Cardioembolic) stroke study pooling data from stroke registries of 8 comprehensive stroke centers across the United States. We compared recurrent ischemic events and delayed symptomatic intracranial hemorrhage between each of the following groups in separate Cox-regression analyses: (1) DOAC versus warfarin and (2) bridging with heparin/low molecular weight heparin versus no bridging, adjusting for pertinent confounders to test these associations. RESULTS: We identified 1289 patients who met the bridging versus no bridging analysis inclusion criteria and 1251 patients who met the DOAC versus warfarin analysis inclusion criteria. In adjusted Cox-regression models, bridging (versus no bridging) treatment was associated with a high risk of delayed symptomatic intracranial hemorrhage (hazard ratio, 2.74 [95% CI, 1.01-7.42]) but a similar rate of recurrent ischemic events (hazard ratio, 1.23 [95% CI, 0.63-2.40]). Furthermore, DOAC (versus warfarin) treatment was associated with a lower risk of recurrent ischemic events (hazard ratio, 0.51 [95% CI, 0.29-0.87]) but not delayed symptomatic intracranial hemorrhage (hazard ratio, 0.57 [95% CI, 0.22-1.48]). CONCLUSIONS: Our study suggests that patients with ischemic stroke and atrial fibrillation would benefit from the initiation of a DOAC without bridging therapy. Due to our study limitations, these findings should be interpreted with caution pending confirmation from large prospective studies.


Assuntos
Anticoagulantes/uso terapêutico , Isquemia Encefálica/tratamento farmacológico , Isquemia Encefálica/etiologia , Embolia/complicações , Embolia/tratamento farmacológico , Cardiopatias/complicações , Cardiopatias/tratamento farmacológico , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/tratamento farmacológico , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/etiologia , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Fibrilação Atrial/complicações , Isquemia Encefálica/epidemiologia , Embolia/epidemiologia , Feminino , Cardiopatias/epidemiologia , Heparina de Baixo Peso Molecular/uso terapêutico , Humanos , Incidência , Hemorragias Intracranianas/epidemiologia , Hemorragias Intracranianas/etiologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Neuroimagem , Recidiva , Sistema de Registros , Estudos Retrospectivos , Medição de Risco , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/epidemiologia , Resultado do Tratamento , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia , Varfarina/uso terapêutico
18.
Int J Hematol ; 112(5): 746-750, 2020 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32613314

RESUMO

COVID-19 is a new disease with many undescribed clinical manifestations. We report herein a case of severe immune thrombocytopenic purpura (ITP) in a critical COVID-19 patient. A patient presented a severe episode of immune thrombocytopenia (< 10 × 109/L) 20 days after admission for a critical COVID-19. This thrombocytopenia was associated with a life-threatening bleeding. Response to first-line therapies was delayed as it took up to 13 days after initiation of intravenous immunoglobulin and high-dose dexamethasone to observe an increase in platelet count. COVID-19 may be associated with late presenting severe ITP. Such ITP may also be relatively resistant to first-line agents. Hematological manifestations of COVID-19, such as the ones associated with life-threatening bleeding, must be recognized.


Assuntos
Infecções por Coronavirus/complicações , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral/complicações , Púrpura Trombocitopênica Idiopática/etiologia , Betacoronavirus , Terapia Combinada , Infecções por Coronavirus/tratamento farmacológico , Dexametasona/uso terapêutico , Hemorragia/etiologia , Humanos , Imunoglobulinas Intravenosas , Hemorragias Intracranianas/etiologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Pneumonia Estafilocócica/etiologia , Pneumonia Associada à Ventilação Mecânica/etiologia , Atelectasia Pulmonar/etiologia , Púrpura Trombocitopênica Idiopática/tratamento farmacológico , Púrpura Trombocitopênica Idiopática/terapia , /terapia
19.
Neurol India ; 68(3): 560-572, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32643664

RESUMO

COVID-19, in most patients, presents with mild flu-like illness. Elderly patients with comorbidities, like hypertension, diabetes, or lung and cardiac disease, are more likely to have severe disease and deaths. Neurological complications are frequently reported in severely or critically ill patients with comorbidities. In COVID-19, both central and peripheral nervous systems can be affected. The SARS-CoV-2 virus causes the disease COVID-19 and has the potential to invade the brain. The SARS-CoV-2 virus enters the brain either via a hematogenous route or olfactory system. Angiotensin-converting enzyme two receptors, present on endothelial cells of cerebral vessels, are a possible viral entry point. The most severe neurological manifestations, altered sensorium (agitation, delirium, and coma), are because of hypoxic and metabolic abnormalities. Characteristic cytokine storm incites severe metabolic changes and multiple organ failure. Profound coagulopathies may manifest with ischemic or hemorrhagic stroke. Rarely, SARS-CoV-2 virus encephalitis or pictures like acute disseminated encephalomyelitis or acute necrotizing encephalopathy have been reported. Nonspecific headache is a commonly experienced neurological symptom. A new type of headache "personal protection equipment-related headache" has been described. Complete or partial anosmia and ageusia are common peripheral nervous system manifestations. Recently, many cases of Guillain-Barré syndrome in COVID-19 patients have been observed, and a postinfectious immune-mediated inflammatory process was held responsible for this. Guillain-Barré syndrome does respond to intravenous immunoglobulin. Myalgia/fatigue is also common, and elevated creatine kinase levels indicate muscle injury. Most of the reports about neurological complications are currently from China. COVID-19 pandemic is spreading to other parts of the world; the spectrum of neurological complications is likely to widen further.


Assuntos
Ageusia/fisiopatologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/fisiopatologia , Síndrome da Liberação de Citocina/imunologia , Encefalite/fisiopatologia , Síndrome de Guillain-Barré/fisiopatologia , Cefaleia/fisiopatologia , Transtornos do Olfato/fisiopatologia , Pneumonia Viral/fisiopatologia , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/fisiopatologia , Ageusia/etiologia , Betacoronavirus , Transtornos da Coagulação Sanguínea/sangue , Transtornos da Coagulação Sanguínea/etiologia , Barreira Hematoencefálica , Isquemia Encefálica/sangue , Isquemia Encefálica/etiologia , Isquemia Encefálica/imunologia , Isquemia Encefálica/fisiopatologia , Coma/etiologia , Coma/fisiopatologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/sangue , Infecções por Coronavirus/complicações , Infecções por Coronavirus/imunologia , Delírio/etiologia , Delírio/fisiopatologia , Encefalite/etiologia , Encefalite/imunologia , Encefalomielite Aguda Disseminada/etiologia , Encefalomielite Aguda Disseminada/imunologia , Encefalomielite Aguda Disseminada/fisiopatologia , Fadiga/etiologia , Fadiga/fisiopatologia , Síndrome de Guillain-Barré/etiologia , Cefaleia/etiologia , Humanos , Hemorragias Intracranianas/sangue , Hemorragias Intracranianas/etiologia , Hemorragias Intracranianas/fisiopatologia , Leucoencefalite Hemorrágica Aguda/etiologia , Leucoencefalite Hemorrágica Aguda/imunologia , Leucoencefalite Hemorrágica Aguda/fisiopatologia , Mialgia/etiologia , Mialgia/fisiopatologia , Transtornos do Olfato/etiologia , Pandemias , Equipamento de Proteção Individual/efeitos adversos , Pneumonia Viral/sangue , Pneumonia Viral/complicações , Pneumonia Viral/imunologia , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/sangue , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/etiologia , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/imunologia
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