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1.
Infectio ; 25(4): 241-249, oct.-dic. 2021. tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS, COLNAL | ID: biblio-1286717

RESUMO

Abstract Infection through the Hepatitis C virus does not have a vaccine and treatment with pegylated interferon and ribavirin can fail; which is why it may cause chronic infection and, consequently, could develop liver failure or hepatocellular carcinoma. It has been described that virus-cell recognition occurs between the E2 viral envelope protein and diverse cell receptors, with this interaction being critical in viral infection. which is why the study sought to identify inhibitory peptides of the interaction between viral E2 protein and the CD81 and CD209 receptors. Methodology: Through the RCSB protein database, crystals from the CD81 and CD209 receptors were selected, CD81/E2-HCV, CD209/E2-HCV complexes were carried out by SWISS-MODEL to generate inhibitory peptides of protein interaction through the Rosetta web server, this interaction was validated through ClusPro and finally, determined the theoretical physicochemical and cytotoxic properties of these peptides. Results: two peptides were obtained, without predicted toxicity, with a theoretical capacity of blocking the protein interaction between the E2 protein of the virus and CD81 and CD209.


Resumen La infección por el virus de la hepatitis C, no cuenta con vacuna y el tratamiento con interferón pegilado y ribavirina puede fallar; por lo que puede causar infec ción crónica y como consecuencia podría desarrollarse falla hepática o carcinoma hepatocelular. Se ha descrito que el reconocimiento virus-célula, se da entre la proteína de envoltura viral E2 y diversos receptores celulares, siendo esta interacción crítica en la infección viral. Razón por la cual este estudio buscó identificar péptidos inhibidores de la interacción entre la proteína E2 viral y los receptores CD81 y CD209. Metodología: A través de la base de datos de proteínas RCSB, se seleccionaron cristales de los receptores CD81 y CD209, se realizaron complejos CD81/E2-HCV, CD209/E2-HCV para generar péptidos inhibidores de interacción proteica a través del servidor web Rosetta, esta interacción fue validada a través de ClusPro y finalmente se evaluaron las propiedades fisicoquímicas y citotóxicas teóricas para estos péptidos. Resultados: se obtuvo dos péptidos, sin toxicidad predicha, con capacidad teórica de bloquear la interacción proteica entre la proteína E2 del virus y CD81 y CD209.


Assuntos
Humanos , Vírus de Hepatite , Peptídeos , Vacinas , Proteínas , Hepatite C , Falência Hepática , Hepacivirus , Infecções
2.
AIDS Patient Care STDS ; 35(10): 392-400, 2021 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34623891

RESUMO

Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and hepatitis C virus (HCV) coinfection carries substantial risk for all-cause mortality and liver-related morbidity and mortality, yet many persons coinfected with HIV/HCV remain untreated for HCV. We explored demographic, clinical, and sociodemographic factors among participants in routine HIV care associated with prescription of direct-acting antivirals (DAAs). The HIV Outpatient Study (HOPS) is an ongoing longitudinal cohort study of persons with HIV in care at participating clinics since 1993. There are currently eight study sites in six US cities. We analyzed medical records data of HOPS participants diagnosed with HCV since June 2010. Sustained virological response (SVR) was documented with first undetectable HCV viral load (VL). We assessed factors associated with being prescribed DAAs by multi-variable logistic regression and described the cumulative rate of SVR. Among 306 eligible participants, 131 (43%) were prescribed DAA therapy. Factors associated with greater odds of being prescribed DAA were older age, private health insurance, higher CD4 cell count, being a person who injects drugs, and receiving care at publicly funded sites (p < 0.05). Of 127 (97%) participants with at least 1 follow-up HCV VL, 110 (87%) achieved SVR at 12 weeks. Of the total 131 participants, 123 (94%) eventually achieved SVR. Less than half of HIV/HCV coinfected patients in HOPS have been prescribed DAAs. Interventions are needed to address deficits in DAA prescription, including among patients with public or no health insurance, younger age, and lower CD4 cell count.


Assuntos
Coinfecção , Infecções por HIV , Hepatite C Crônica , Hepatite C , Preparações Farmacêuticas , Adulto , Idoso , Antivirais/uso terapêutico , Coinfecção/tratamento farmacológico , Infecções por HIV/complicações , Infecções por HIV/tratamento farmacológico , Hepacivirus , Hepatite C/complicações , Hepatite C/tratamento farmacológico , Hepatite C Crônica/complicações , Hepatite C Crônica/tratamento farmacológico , Humanos , Estudos Longitudinais , Resultado do Tratamento
3.
Klin Mikrobiol Infekc Lek ; 27(1): 13-17, 2021 Mar.
Artigo em Tcheco | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34648645

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Analysis of changes in a group of patients with chronic hepatitis C (CHC) treated with direct-acting antivirals (DAAs) with a special focus on risk factors for transmission. Evaluation of cooperation with organizations working with people who inject drugs (PWID) including the impact of outreach testing. METHODS: A retrospective analysis and interannual comparison of CHC patients treated with DAAs at the Department of Infectious Diseases, University Hospital Brno, Czech Republic between 2018 and 2020. RESULTS: A total of 291 (101 in the year 2018, 111 in 2019 and 79 in 2020) patients with CHC have been treated. Comparison of results from the years 2018, 2019 and 2020 demonstrated a significant rise in the proportion of PWID (46.5 %, 64.9 % and 65.8 %, respectively). Also the proportion of genotype 3a infection (23.8 %, 30.6 % and 35.4 %) increased at the expense of genotype 1b infection (52.5 %, 46.9 % and 38.0 %). By contrast, the median age (43, 40 and 38 years) and the proportion of patients with liver cirrhosis decreased (20.8 %, 15.3 % and 12.7 %). The percentage of patients started on DAA therapy within one year of diagnosis increased (47.5 %, 53.2 % and 62.0 %). And so did the proportion of patients receiving therapy as a result of cooperation with organizations and facilities working with PWID (5.9 %, 25.2 % and 25.3 %). The downside was high numbers of patients lost to follow-up (19.8 %, 23.4 % and 22.3 %). Those were mostly patients who completed their therapy as planned and were only lost to after receiving the final dose of DAAs. CONCLUSIONS: The fact that PWID have gradually become the dominant group of CHC patients is accompanied by a younger age of treated patients, a higher proportion of those with genotype 3a and less advanced liver damage. The changing spectrum of CHC patients makes medical professionals change their approach. Outreach testing and cooperation with organizations working with PWID have proved an effective way of improving the diagnosis and treatment of CHC.


Assuntos
Hepatite C Crônica , Hepatite C , Abuso de Substâncias por Via Intravenosa , Antivirais/uso terapêutico , Hepacivirus , Hepatite C Crônica/tratamento farmacológico , Hepatite C Crônica/epidemiologia , Humanos , Estudos Retrospectivos , Abuso de Substâncias por Via Intravenosa/tratamento farmacológico
4.
World J Gastroenterol ; 27(31): 5181-5188, 2021 Aug 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34497443

RESUMO

Hepatitis C virus (HCV) reactivation occurs in 23% of HCV-infected cancer patients receiving chemotherapy. Forty-three percent of the patients with reactivation of HCV during chemotherapy develop a hepatitis flare. Most of the cancer patients with HCV reactivation have an unremarkable clinical course following an HCV-related hepatitis flare during chemotherapy. However, 26%-57% of the cancer patients developing an acute flare of chronic hepatitis C during chemotherapy require unanticipated discontinuation or dose reduction of chemotherapy, which results in deleterious changes in the cancer treatment plan. Although an optimal strategy for HCV screening in cancer patients receiving chemotherapy has not been established, universal pre-chemotherapy HCV testing for patients with hematological malignancies is recommended by current guidelines. All the currently approved direct-acting antivirals (DAAs) can be used in cancer patients, but the use of DAAs during chemotherapy should avoid drug-drug interactions between chemotherapy and antiviral agents. If there are no contraindications or anticipated drug-drug interactions, DAAs treatment can be administered before, during, or after chemotherapy. In conclusion, HCV reactivation occurs in approximately one-fourth of HCV-infected cancer patients receiving chemotherapy. An HCV-related hepatitis flare during chemotherapy may lead to the discontinuation of potentially life-saving chemotherapy. Currently, universal HCV screening is recommended in hematological malignancy patients before chemotherapy, but there is no evidence-based guideline for other cancer patients. DAAs treatment can cure HCV infection and prevent HCV reactivation during chemotherapy.


Assuntos
Hepatite B Crônica , Hepatite C Crônica , Hepatite C , Antivirais/efeitos adversos , Hepacivirus , Hepatite B Crônica/tratamento farmacológico , Hepatite C/diagnóstico , Hepatite C/tratamento farmacológico , Hepatite C Crônica/tratamento farmacológico , Humanos , Exacerbação dos Sintomas , Ativação Viral
5.
World J Gastroenterol ; 27(31): 5219-5231, 2021 Aug 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34497446

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection is a major global public health problem. In the Republic of Cyprus, the estimated prevalence of chronic hepatitis C (CHC) among the general population is 0.6%, while the CHC prevalence among people who inject drugs (PWID) is estimated at 46%. Direct-acting antivirals that can eliminate HCV are not yet widely available in the Republic of Cyprus. However, when direct-acting antivirals become available, a long-term strategic plan to guide elimination efforts will be needed to maximize the effect of treatment. AIM: To determine the programmatic targets to eliminate HCV in the Republic of Cyprus. METHODS: A dynamic, stochastic, individual-based model of HCV transmission, disease progression, and cascade of care was calibrated to data from Cyprus. The model stratifies the population into the infected general population and the PWID population. A variety of test, prevention, and treatment strategies concerning the general population, PWID, or both were examined. The time horizon of the analysis was until 2034. RESULTS: Under the status quo scenario, the model predicted that 75 (95% confidence interval (CI): 60, 91) and 575 (95%CI: 535, 615) liver-related deaths and new infections would occur by 2034, respectively. Launching an expanded treatment program, without screening interventions, would cause modest outcomes regarding CHC prevalence (16.6% reduction in 2034 compared to 2020) and liver-related deaths (10 deaths would be prevented compared to the status quo scenario by 2034). Implementing a test and treat strategy among the general population but without any intervention in the PWID population would suffice to meet the mortality target but not the incidence target. To achieve HCV elimination in Cyprus, 3080 (95%CI: 3000, 3200) HCV patients need to be diagnosed and treated by 2034 (2680 from the general population and 400 from PWID), and harm reduction coverage among PWID should be increased by 3% per year (from 25% in 2020 to 67% in 2034). CONCLUSION: Elimination of HCV is a demanding public health strategy, which requires significant interventions both among the general population and high-risk groups.


Assuntos
Hepatite C Crônica , Hepatite C , Abuso de Substâncias por Via Intravenosa , Antivirais/uso terapêutico , Chipre/epidemiologia , Hepacivirus , Hepatite C/diagnóstico , Hepatite C/tratamento farmacológico , Hepatite C/epidemiologia , Hepatite C Crônica/diagnóstico , Hepatite C Crônica/tratamento farmacológico , Hepatite C Crônica/epidemiologia , Humanos , Prevalência , Abuso de Substâncias por Via Intravenosa/epidemiologia
6.
Rev Med Suisse ; 17(748): 1453-1456, 2021 Sep 01.
Artigo em Francês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34468096

RESUMO

Treatment of hepatitis C has known major progress thanks to direct-acting antivirals resulting in the healing, defined by a viral clearance (sustained virological response [SVR]), in the vast majority of patients. However, there is a residual risk of progressive liver damage in a minority of patients, potentially leading to complications such as liver decompensation, hepatocellular carcinoma and/or death. This article discusses the current knowledge of residual liver disease after treatment, the impact of comorbidities and the factors potentially predicting patients at risk of complications and warranting surveillance.


Assuntos
Carcinoma Hepatocelular , Hepatite C Crônica , Hepatite C , Neoplasias Hepáticas , Antivirais/uso terapêutico , Carcinoma Hepatocelular/epidemiologia , Carcinoma Hepatocelular/etiologia , Hepacivirus , Hepatite C/complicações , Hepatite C/tratamento farmacológico , Hepatite C/epidemiologia , Hepatite C Crônica/complicações , Hepatite C Crônica/tratamento farmacológico , Hepatite C Crônica/epidemiologia , Humanos , Cirrose Hepática/tratamento farmacológico , Neoplasias Hepáticas/epidemiologia , Neoplasias Hepáticas/etiologia
9.
Zhonghua Gan Zang Bing Za Zhi ; 29(8): 776-780, 2021 Aug 20.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34517460

RESUMO

Objective: To investigate the long-term characteristic changes of virus, immune status, and liver fibrosis markers in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)/hepatitis C virus (HCV) co-infected patients after receiving direct-antiviral agents (DAAs). Methods: HIV/HCV co-infected patients who visited the Guangzhou Eighth People's Hospital, Guangzhou Medical University from May 2014 to December 2019 were selected as the research subjects. The changes of virological response rate, peripheral blood CD4(+)T lymphocyte level and serological markers of liver fibrosis (APRI score and FIB-4 index) were observed during 144 weeks of follow-up course after the end of DAAs treatment. Kruskal-Wallis test was used for statistical approach. Results: A total of 103 cases were included in the study. There were 87 males (87.5%), with a median age of 44 years. Sustained virological response rate at 12 weeks (SVR12) after DAAs treatment was 97.6%, and the SVR during the entire follow-up period was at least 95.9%. Compared with baseline, CD4(+)T lymphocyte count were significantly increased equally at 12 weeks (Z = -2.283, P = 0.022), 24 weeks (Z = -3.538, P < 0.001), 48 weeks (Z = -3.297, P = 0.001), 96 weeks (Z = -3.562, P < 0.001), and 144 weeks (Z = -2.842, P = 0.004). APRI score (Z = -6.394, P < 0.001) and FIB-4 index (Z = -2.528, P = 0.011) were significantly lower than baseline at week 4 of DAAs treatment, and thereafter remained at a low level, without further declination. Conclusion: HIV/HCV co-infected patients can maintain high SVR for a long time, acquire good immune reconstitution, and significantly improve liver fibrosis after DAAs treatment.


Assuntos
Coinfecção , Infecções por HIV , Hepatite C Crônica , Hepatite C , Adulto , Antivirais/uso terapêutico , Coinfecção/tratamento farmacológico , Infecções por HIV/complicações , Infecções por HIV/tratamento farmacológico , Hepacivirus , Hepatite C/tratamento farmacológico , Hepatite C Crônica/tratamento farmacológico , Humanos , Cirrose Hepática/tratamento farmacológico , Masculino , Resultado do Tratamento
10.
Zhonghua Gan Zang Bing Za Zhi ; 29(8): 803-806, 2021 Aug 20.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34517465

RESUMO

Nucleic acid testing is the gold standard for diagnosing HCV infection, and it is of great significance to guide the treatment of HCV patients and change the follow-up strategy. In recent years, its detection technology has become increasingly mature. This article summarizes the necessity and current status of nucleic acid testing for hepatitis C through the analysis of domestic and foreign literature, in order to provide reference for the formulation of relevant policies to eliminate hepatitis C in China.


Assuntos
Hepatite C , RNA Viral , China , Hepacivirus/genética , Hepatite C/diagnóstico , Humanos , Técnicas de Amplificação de Ácido Nucleico , RNA Viral/genética
11.
J Coll Physicians Surg Pak ; 31(9): 1040-1045, 2021 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34500518

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To determine patient and dialysis services-related factors associated with seroconversion of hepatitis C virus (HCV) in hemodialysis (HD) patients. STUDY DESIGN: Cross-sectional study. PLACE AND DURATION OF STUDY: Department of Nephrology, Mayo Hospital, King Edward Medical University (KEMU), Lahore, from January to December, 2018. METHODOLOGY: All patients on regular HD for more than three months were enrolled. All patients who seroconverted from HCV-negative to positive status three months after starting HD, were included. Patient-related factors (age, gender, blood transfusion, duration and frequency of dialysis, history of dental treatment and surgical intervention) and dialysis services-related parameters (dedicated staff, isolated room, hemodialysis machine, reverse osmosis plant, compliance of universal infection control measure) were noted. RESULTS: Out of 990 patients, 492 (49.7%) were reported as seroconverted for HCV during HD. Factors determined statistically significant for seroconversion were surgical intervention (p<0.001), history of dental procedure (p <0.001), blood transfusions (p <0.001), multiple sexual partner (p <0.001), age (p=0.035) and duration of hemodialysis (p <0.001). Factors not affecting seroconversion included frequency of dialysis (p=0.062), history of renal transplant (p =0.097) and family history of hepatitis (p=0.941). A significant negative correlation was observed between the rate of seroconversion of HCV and the score of universal infection control measures (r=-0.665, p=0.018). CONCLUSION: There was a high rate of seroconversion of HCV in HD patients. Factors responsible for seroconversion were history of surgical intervention, dental treatment, blood transfusion, multiple sexual partners, age and duration of dialysis. The dialysis centres non-compliant with universal infection control measures were having high rate of seroconversion. Key Words: Hemodialysis, Seroconversion, HCV, Blood transfusion, Dental treatment, Surgical intervention, Infection, Isolation.


Assuntos
Hepatite C , Falência Renal Crônica , Estudos Transversais , Hepacivirus , Hepatite C/epidemiologia , Humanos , Falência Renal Crônica/terapia , Prevalência , Diálise Renal , Fatores de Risco , Soroconversão
12.
BMC Infect Dis ; 21(1): 974, 2021 Sep 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34536999

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Shanghai, as a pilot city of China to achieve the goal of eliminating hepatitis C, its strategy of allocating medical resources is a pressing problem to be solved. This study aims to infer the time-spatial clustering patterns of HCV-infected cases, and grasp the dynamic genotype distribution of HCV, thereby inform elimination strategies of HCV with efficacy and efficiency. METHODS: Reported HCV cases including their demographic information in Shanghai city from 2005 to 2018 were released from the National Infectious Disease Reporting Information System, population data at community scale, geographical layers of hospitals, communities and districts were gathered from former research. Blood samples of HCV-infected individuals were collected during 2014-2018 from 24 sentinel hospitals, HCV-antibody test, qualitative nucleic acid test and NS5B/5'UTR gene amplification were performed accordingly to determine the genotypes of the specimen. Furthermore, global and local spatial self-correlation analysis of both acute and chronic HCV infections were conducted at community scale year by year, then time-spatial clusters of acute and chronic HCV infections and HCV genotype distribution of specimen collected from sentinel hospitals by districts were mapped by using Arcmap10.1. RESULTS: A total of 2631 acute HCV cases and 15,063 chronic HCV cases were reported in Shanghai from 2005 to 2018, with a peak in 2010 and 2017, respectively. The mean age of chronic HCV patients was 49.70 ± 14.55 years, 3.34 ± 0.32 years older than the acute (t = 10.55, P-value < 0.01). The spatial distribution of acute HCV infection formed one primary cluster (Relative Risk = 2.71), and the chronic formed one primary cluster and three secondary clusters with Relative Risk ranged from 1.94 to 14.42, meanwhile, an overlap of 34 communities between acute and chronic HCV clusters were found with time period spans varied from 6 to 12 years. Genotype 1 (N = 257, 49.71%) was the most prevalent HCV genotype in Shanghai, genotype 3 infections have increased in recent years. Baoshan district presented cluster of acute HCV and the highest proportion of genotype 2, Pudong new area was the cluster of chronic HCV and occupied the highest proportion of genotype 3. CONCLUSIONS: Despite the low prevalence of HCV infection, it is still needed to push forward the elimination process in Shanghai, as there is a certain amount of HCV infected people waiting to be treated. The time-spatial clustering patterns and the dynamic of HCV genotype distribution together indicated a changing constitution of different transmission routes of HCV infection, thus, a focused strategy may be needed for high-risk population related to genotype 3 infection like drug users, in addition to an enforcement of the existing measures of preventing the iatrogenic and hematogenic transmission of HCV.


Assuntos
Hepatite C Crônica , Hepatite C , Adulto , China/epidemiologia , Genótipo , Hepacivirus/genética , Hepatite C/epidemiologia , Anticorpos Anti-Hepatite C , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Prevalência
13.
BMC Infect Dis ; 21(1): 984, 2021 Sep 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34548026

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Previous studies reported worsened lipid profiles in patients infected with hepatitis C virus (HCV) during direct-acting antivirals (DAAs) treatment. This study aimed to investigate the effect of sofosbuvir (SOF)-based DAAs on changes in low-density lipoprotein (LDL) in HCV patients. METHODS: A systematic review of articles published before 31 May 2021 was conducted by searching MEDLINE, Cochrane Library, EMBASE, and CINAHL Plus. Eligible studies were those comparing SOF-based DAAs and non-SOF DAAs for HCV patients and providing numerical data for changes in LDL. Risk of Bias in Non-randomized Studies- of Interventions was used for assessing risk of bias, and meta-analysis was performed for changes in LDL. RESULTS: Six studies comprising 1248 patients were included, 848 patients treated with SOF-based DAAs and 400 patients with non-SOF DAAs vs. SOF-based DAAs group had significantly greater increases in LDL from baseline to week 4 than non-SOF DAAs group (P = 0.001). However, changes in LDL from baseline to the end of treatment (P = 0.060), to post-treatment week 12 (P = 0.263), and to post-treatment week 24 (P = 0.319) did not significantly differ between the two groups. Further comparison of SOF/ledipasvir with asunaprevir/daclatasvir revealed a similar trend in changes in LDL. CONCLUSIONS: For HCV patients, SOF-based DAA regimens were associated with rapid and significant increases in LDL during the initial 4 weeks of treatment, and the changes did not sustain after the end of treatment. Potential mechanism might be related to the phosphoramidate side chain of SOF.


Assuntos
Hepatite C Crônica , Hepatite C , Antivirais/uso terapêutico , Quimioterapia Combinada , Genótipo , Hepacivirus , Hepatite C/tratamento farmacológico , Hepatite C Crônica/tratamento farmacológico , Humanos , Lipoproteínas LDL , Ribavirina/uso terapêutico , Sofosbuvir/uso terapêutico , Resposta Viral Sustentada , Resultado do Tratamento
14.
Euro Surveill ; 26(38)2021 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34558403

RESUMO

BackgroundDespite the availability of highly effective direct-acting antivirals (DAAs) and the expected treatment as prevention (TasP) effect, transmission of hepatitis C virus (HCV) persists in men who have sex with men (MSM) who engage in high-risk sexual behaviours.AimWe aimed to estimate the incidence of primary HCV infection among MSM living with HIV in France when DAA was readily available.MethodsWe used data from a large French hospital cohort of persons living with HIV (ANRS CO4-FHDH) prospectively collected between 2014 and 2017. HCV incidence rates were calculated using person-time methods for HCV-negative MSM at inclusion who had serological follow-up from 1 January 2014 to 31 December 2017. Sensitivity analyses were performed by varying the main assumptions to assess their impact on the results.ResultsOf 14,273 MSM living with HIV who were initially HCV-seronegative, 330 acquired HCV during follow-up over 45,866 person-years (py), resulting in an overall estimated incidence rate of 0.72/100 py (95% CI: 0.65-0.80). HCV incidence significantly decreased from 0.98/100 py (95% CI: 0.81-1.19) in 2014 to 0.45/100 py (95% CI: 0.35-0.59) in 2017 (54% decrease; 95% CI: 36-67). This trend was confirmed by most of the sensitivity analyses.ConclusionThe primary incidence of HCV was halved for MSM living with HIV between 2014 and 2017. This decrease may be related to unrestricted DAA availability in France for individuals living with HIV. Further interventions, including risk reduction, are needed to reach HCV micro-elimination in MSM living with HIV.


Assuntos
Infecções por HIV , Hepatite C Crônica , Hepatite C , Minorias Sexuais e de Gênero , Antivirais/uso terapêutico , Estudos de Coortes , Infecções por HIV/tratamento farmacológico , Infecções por HIV/epidemiologia , Hepacivirus , Hepatite C/tratamento farmacológico , Hepatite C/epidemiologia , Homossexualidade Masculina , Hospitais , Humanos , Incidência , Masculino
15.
BMC Infect Dis ; 21(1): 1001, 2021 Sep 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34563139

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: As the transmission routes of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) and hepatitis C virus (HCV) are similar, previous studies based on separate research on HIV-1 and HCV assumed a similar transmission pattern. However, few studies have focused on the possible correlation of the spatial dynamics of HIV-1 and HCV among HIV-1/HCV coinfected patients. METHODS: A total of 310 HIV-1/HCV coinfected drug users were recruited in Yingjiang and Kaiyuan prefectures, Yunnan Province, China. HIV-1 env, p17, pol and HCV C/E2, NS5B fragments were amplified and sequenced from serum samples. The genetic characteristics and spatial dynamics of HIV-1 and HCV were explored by phylogenetic, bootscanning, and phylogeographic analyses. RESULTS: Among HIV-1/HCV coinfected drug users, eight HCV subtypes (1a, 1b, 3a, 3b, 6a, 6n, 6v, and 6u) and two HIV-1 subtypes (subtype B and subtype C), three HIV-1 circulating recombinant forms (CRF01_AE, CRF07_BC and CRF08_BC), and four unique recombinant forms (URF_BC, URF_01B, URF_01C and URF_01BC) were identified. HCV subtype 3b was the most predominant subtype in both Yingjiang and Kaiyuan prefectures. The dominant circulating HIV-1 subtypes for drug users among the two areas were CRF08_BC and URF_BC. Maximum clade credibility trees revealed that both HIV-1 and HCV were transmitted from Yingjiang to Kaiyuan. CONCLUSIONS: The spatial dynamics of HIV-1 and HCV among HIV-1/HCV coinfected drug users seem to have high consistency, providing theoretical evidence for the prevention of HIV-1 and HCV simultaneously.


Assuntos
Coinfecção , Usuários de Drogas , Infecções por HIV , HIV-1 , Hepatite C , China/epidemiologia , Coinfecção/epidemiologia , Genótipo , Infecções por HIV/complicações , Infecções por HIV/epidemiologia , HIV-1/genética , Hepacivirus/genética , Hepatite C/complicações , Hepatite C/epidemiologia , Humanos , Filogenia
16.
Rev Chilena Infectol ; 38(3): 344-348, 2021 Jun.
Artigo em Espanhol | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34479290

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The measurement of viral load (VL) of hepatitis B (HBV) and C (HCV) viruses is essential in the follow-up of patients with antiviral therapy. The most widely used methodology for this determination is COBAS®-TaqMan®. Recently, the Xpert® technology was developed and needs to be evaluated. AIM: To compare the measurement of the VL of HBV and HCV by Xpert® methodology with COBAS®-TaqMan® as a reference method. MATERIAL AND METHODS: 39 serum samples from patients with HBV and 39 with HCV, previously quantified by COBAS®-TaqMan®, were analyzed using Xpert® and the results were compared using Deming regression and Bland-Altman plot. RESULTS: There was a high correlation between Xpert® and COBAS®-TaqMan®. For HBV, the Deming equation was XpertHBV = 0.44 + 0.99xCOBASTaqManHBV, with a correlation coefficient of 0.94 and a difference between means of -0.401 log (95% CI: -1.985 to 1.183). For HCV, the Deming equation was XpertHCV = 0.36 + 0.87x COBASTaqManHCV, with a correlation coefficient of 0.98 and a difference between means of0.328 log10 (95% CI: -0.449 to 1.105). CONCLUSION: The new Xpert® system shows a good correlation with COBAS®-TaqMan® for the measurement of the VL of HBV and HCV, being a good alternative for the follow-up of patients under treatment.


Assuntos
Hepatite B , Hepacivirus/genética , Hepatite B/diagnóstico , Vírus da Hepatite B/genética , Humanos , RNA Viral , Sensibilidade e Especificidade , Carga Viral
17.
BMC Genomics ; 22(Suppl 3): 700, 2021 Sep 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34583643

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Biology has entered the era of big data with the advent of high-throughput omics technologies. Biological databases provide public access to petabytes of data and information facilitating knowledge discovery. Over the years, sequence data of pathogens has seen a large increase in the number of records, given the relatively small genome size and their important role as infectious and symbiotic agents. Humans are host to numerous pathogenic diseases, such as that by viruses, many of which are responsible for high mortality and morbidity. The interaction between pathogens and humans over the evolutionary history has resulted in sharing of sequences, with important biological and evolutionary implications. RESULTS: This study describes a large-scale, systematic bioinformatics approach for identification and characterization of shared sequences between the host and pathogen. An application of the approach is demonstrated through identification and characterization of the Flaviviridae-human share-ome. A total of 2430 nonamers represented the Flaviviridae-human share-ome with 100% identity. Although the share-ome represented a small fraction of the repertoire of Flaviviridae (~ 0.12%) and human (~ 0.013%) non-redundant nonamers, the 2430 shared nonamers mapped to 16,946 Flaviviridae and 7506 human non-redundant protein sequences. The shared nonamer sequences mapped to 125 species of Flaviviridae, including several with unclassified genus. The majority (~ 68%) of the shared sequences mapped to Hepacivirus C species; West Nile, dengue and Zika viruses of the Flavivirus genus accounted for ~ 11%, ~ 7%, and ~ 3%, respectively, of the Flaviviridae protein sequences (16,946) mapped by the share-ome. Further characterization of the share-ome provided important structural-functional insights to Flaviviridae-human interactions. CONCLUSION: Mapping of the host-pathogen share-ome has important implications for the design of vaccines and drugs, diagnostics, disease surveillance and the discovery of unknown, potential host-pathogen interactions. The generic workflow presented herein is potentially applicable to a variety of pathogens, such as of viral, bacterial or parasitic origin.


Assuntos
Flaviviridae , Infecção por Zika virus , Zika virus , Biologia Computacional , Hepacivirus , Humanos , Filogenia , Zika virus/genética
18.
An Acad Bras Cienc ; 93(4): e20200632, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34586319

RESUMO

Direct-acting antivirals have revolutionized the treatment of chronic hepatitis C. Sofosbuvir and simeprevir are prescribed worldwide. However, there is a scarcity of information regarding their genotoxicity. Therefore, the present study assessed the cytotoxic and genotoxic effects of sofosbuvir and simeprevir, alone and combined with ribavirin. HepG2 cells were analyzed using the in vitro cytokinesis-block micronucleus cytome assay. Cells were treated for 24 h with sofosbuvir (0.011-1.511 mM), simeprevir (0.156-5.0 µM), and their combinations with ribavirin (0.250-4.0 mM). No significant differences were observed in the nuclear division cytotoxicity index, reflecting the absence of cytotoxic effects associated to sofosbuvir. However, the highest concentration of simeprevir showed a significant difference for the nuclear division cytotoxicity index. Moreover, significant results were observed for nuclear division cytotoxicity index in two combinations of sofosbuvir plus ribavirin and only in the highest combination of simeprevir plus ribavirin. Additionally, our results showed that sofosbuvir did not increase the frequency of chromosomal damage, but simeprevir significantly increased the frequency of micronuclei at the highest concentrations. The combination index demonstrated that both sofosbuvir and simeprevir produced antagonism to the genotoxic effects of ribavirin. In conclusion, our results showed that simeprevir, but not sofosbuvir, has genotoxic effects in HepG2 cells.


Assuntos
Hepatite C Crônica , Simeprevir , Antivirais/toxicidade , Linhagem Celular , Quimioterapia Combinada , Genótipo , Hepacivirus/genética , Hepatite C Crônica/tratamento farmacológico , Humanos , Ribavirina/uso terapêutico , Ribavirina/toxicidade , Simeprevir/uso terapêutico , Simeprevir/toxicidade , Sofosbuvir/uso terapêutico , Sofosbuvir/toxicidade
19.
BMC Womens Health ; 21(1): 330, 2021 09 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34511082

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Women living with hepatitis C virus (HCV) are rarely addressed in research and may be overrepresented within key populations requiring additional support to access HCV care and treatment. We constructed the HCV care cascade among people diagnosed with HCV in British Columbia, Canada, as of 2019 to compare progress in care and treatment and to assess sex/gender gaps in HCV treatment access. METHODS: The BC Hepatitis Testers Cohort includes 1.7 million people who tested for HCV, HIV, reported cases of hepatitis B, and active tuberculosis in BC from 2000 to 2019. Test results were linked to medical visits, hospitalizations, cancers, prescription drugs, and mortality data. Six HCV care cascade stages were identified: (1) antibody diagnosed; (2) RNA tested; (3) RNA positive; (4) genotyped; (5) initiated treatment; and (6) achieved sustained virologic response (SVR). HCV care cascade results were assessed for women, and an 'inverse' cascade was created to assess gaps, including not being RNA tested, genotyped, or treatment initiated, stratified by sex. RESULTS: In 2019, 52,638 people with known sex were anti-HCV positive in BC; 37% (19,522) were women. Confirmatory RNA tests were received by 86% (16,797/19,522) of anti-HCV positive women and 83% (27,353/33,116) of men. Among people who had been genotyped, 68% (6756/10,008) of women and 67% (12,640/18,828) of men initiated treatment, with 94% (5023/5364) of women and 92% (9147/9897) of men achieving SVR. Among the 3252 women and 6188 men not yet treated, higher proportions of women compared to men were born after 1975 (30% vs. 21%), had a mental health diagnosis (42% vs. 34%) and had used injection drugs (50% vs. 45%). Among 1619 women and 2780 men who had used injection drugs and were not yet treated, higher proportions of women than men used stimulants (64% vs. 57%), and opiates (67% vs. 60%). CONCLUSIONS: Women and men appear to be equally engaged into the HCV care cascade; however, women with concurrent social and health conditions are being left behind. Treatment access may be improved with approaches that meet the needs of younger women, those with mental health diagnoses, and women who use drugs.


Assuntos
Hepacivirus , Hepatite C , Colúmbia Britânica/epidemiologia , Estudos de Coortes , Feminino , Genótipo , Hepacivirus/genética , Hepatite C/diagnóstico , Hepatite C/tratamento farmacológico , Hepatite C/epidemiologia , Humanos , Masculino
20.
Acta Virol ; 65(3): 279-287, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34565156

RESUMO

The current limited understanding of HCV entry mechanisms hinders the development of specific antiviral drug screening techniques and vaccine assessment. HCV subtypes and cellular surface proteins both can affect virus tropism. Human factors such as low-density lipoprotein receptor (hLDLR), CD81 (hCD81), scavenger receptor class B type I (hSR-BI), claudin 1 (hCLDN1), and occludin (hOCLN) assist HCV entry into hepatocytes. Here, we studied the importance of five human proteins in the process of cell culture-derived (HCVcc) and serum-derived (HCV-sd) HCV entry using constructed humanized mouse hepatocytes and mouse models. We determined that unlike hLDLR, hSR-BI was an indispensable factor for 1b genotype HCV adsorption. Furthermore, this attachment can be completely prevented by treatment with a monoclonal antibody targeting hSR-BI. Our data support the idea that SR-BI is an essential factor in HCV infection, particularly during the initial HCV particle-binding step. This novel finding will facilitate the development of antiviral drugs and vaccines. Keywords: hepatitis C virus; virus internalization; model construction; hSR-BI.


Assuntos
Hepacivirus , Hepatite C , Animais , Genótipo , Hepacivirus/genética , Hepatite C/genética , Lipoproteínas LDL , Camundongos , Receptores Depuradores Classe B/genética , Tetraspanina 28/genética , Internalização do Vírus
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