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1.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 99(43): e22900, 2020 Oct 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33120840

RESUMO

RATIONALE: Spinal cord infarction (SCI) accounts for only 1% to 2% of all ischemic strokes and 5% to 8% of acute myelopathies. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) holds a role in ruling out non-ischemic etiologies, but the diagnostic accuracy of this procedure may be low in confirming the diagnosis, even when extensive cord lesions are present. Indeed, T2 changes on MRI can develop over hours to days, thus accounting for the low sensitivity in the hyperacute setting (ie, within 6 hours from symptom onset). For these reasons, SCI remains a clinical diagnosis. Despite extensive diagnostic work-up, up to 20% to 40% of SCI cases are classified as cryptogenic. Here, we describe a case of cryptogenic longitudinally extensive transverse myelopathy due to SCI, with negative MRI and diffusion-weighted imaging at 9 hours after symptom onset. PATIENT CONCERNS: A 51-year-old woman presented to our Emergency Department with acute severe abdominal pain, nausea, vomiting, sudden-onset of bilateral leg weakness with diffuse sensory loss, and paresthesias on the trunk and legs. DIAGNOSES: On neurological examination, she showed severe paraparesis and a D6 sensory level. A 3T spinal cord MRI with gadolinium performed at 9 hours after symptom onset did not detect spinal cord alterations. Due to the persistence of a clinical picture suggestive of an acute myelopathy, a 3T MRI of the spine was repeated after 72 hours showing a hyperintense "pencil-like" signal mainly involving the grey matter from T1 to T6 on T2 sequence, mildly hypointense on T1 and with restricted diffusion. INTERVENTIONS: The patient was given salicylic acid (100 mg/d), prophylactic low-molecular-weight heparin, and began neuromotor rehabilitation. OUTCOMES: Two months later, a follow-up neurological examination revealed a severe spastic paraparesis, no evident sensory level, and poor sphincteric control with distended bladder. LESSONS: Regardless of its relatively low frequency in the general population, SCI should be suspected in every patient presenting with acute and progressive myelopathic symptoms, even in the absence of vascular risk factors. Thus, a clinical presentation consistent with a potential vascular syndrome involving the spinal cord overrides an initially negative MRI and should not delay timely and appropriate management.


Assuntos
Imagem de Difusão por Ressonância Magnética/métodos , Doenças da Medula Espinal/diagnóstico , Isquemia do Cordão Espinal/diagnóstico por imagem , Assistência ao Convalescente , Anti-Infecciosos/administração & dosagem , Anti-Infecciosos/uso terapêutico , Anticoagulantes/administração & dosagem , Anticoagulantes/uso terapêutico , Serviço Hospitalar de Emergência , Feminino , Heparina de Baixo Peso Molecular/administração & dosagem , Heparina de Baixo Peso Molecular/uso terapêutico , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Debilidade Muscular/diagnóstico , Debilidade Muscular/etiologia , Exame Neurológico/métodos , Paraparesia/etiologia , Parestesia/diagnóstico , Parestesia/etiologia , Ácido Salicílico/administração & dosagem , Ácido Salicílico/uso terapêutico , Doenças da Medula Espinal/etiologia , Isquemia do Cordão Espinal/tratamento farmacológico , Isquemia do Cordão Espinal/patologia , Isquemia do Cordão Espinal/reabilitação
2.
Khirurgiia (Mosk) ; (10): 73-78, 2020.
Artigo em Russo | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33047589

RESUMO

The need for thromboprophylaxis in traumatological and orthopedic operations is determined by a constant increase in the level of injuries of the population, and as a result, fluctuating coagulation indicators. Risk factors inherent in modern society that correlate primarily with reduced physical activity and excessive consumption of unbalanced (carbohydrate) nutrition, bad habits (nicotinism, alcoholism and other toxic dependencies), increased life expectancy and comorbidity - these and other causes can lead to an increase in the incidence of vascular accidents in patients with large limb bone fractures. The goal is to compare the effectiveness and clinical safety of using parnaparin sodium (Fluxum) and enoxaparin sodium as the prevention of thrombosis in the treatment of lower limb bone fractures. MATERIAL AND METHODS: A comparative assessment of the effectiveness and clinical safety of thrombosis prevention in the treatment of lower limb bone fractures using low-molecular weight heparins: parnaparin sodium (Fluxum) and enoxaparin sodium. RESULTS: Taking into account the literature data on the significant risk of venous thromboembolic complications, we successfully conduct the thromboprophylaxis in patients with the traumatological and orthopedic profile, including in 2019 using the drug parnaparin sodium (Fluxum, «Alfasigma¼). Our own comparative clinical experience has shown that with the convenience of taking enoxaparin sodium and the completeness of the scheme, the prevention of thrombosis with the use of parnaparin sodium shows the tendency to better clinical effectiveness and safety. CONCLUSION: The choice of anticoagulants in traumatological and orthopedic practice, with obvious ease of use, provides the complete scheme for the prevention of thrombosis. Further research is needed on the routine use of sodium parnaparin in order to prevent thronbosis in the treatment of fractures of various localization.


Assuntos
Anticoagulantes/administração & dosagem , Enoxaparina/administração & dosagem , Fixação de Fratura/efeitos adversos , Fraturas Ósseas/cirurgia , Heparina de Baixo Peso Molecular/administração & dosagem , Trombose/prevenção & controle , Tromboembolia Venosa/prevenção & controle , Fraturas Ósseas/complicações , Humanos , Trombose/etiologia , Tromboembolia Venosa/etiologia
3.
Transfus Clin Biol ; 27(4): 203-206, 2020 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33022374

RESUMO

Since December 2019, an outbreak of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) in Wuhan, China, has spread throughout the world. Coagulation dysfunction is one of the major causes of death in patients with severe COVID-19. Several recent observations in Algeria and elsewhere maintain that a pulmonary embolism is frequent in patients with COVID-19 with a high incidence in intensive care. In addition, other studies have shown that many deceased patients have diagnostic criteria for disseminated intravascular coagulation (DIC) set by the International society of hemostasis and thrombosis (ISTH). The office of the Algerian society of transfusion and hemobiology composed of hemostasis and blood transfusion experts from Algerian hospitals on the epidemic front line have established a consensus on the issue through 4 axes: Indication of thromboprophylaxis, monitoring of hemostasis, indications of transfusion in the event of disseminated intravascular coagulation (DIC) and anticoagulant treatment after discharge.


Assuntos
Anticoagulantes/uso terapêutico , Betacoronavirus , Infecções por Coronavirus/sangue , Pneumonia Viral/sangue , Trombofilia/etiologia , Anticoagulantes/administração & dosagem , Biomarcadores , Testes de Coagulação Sanguínea , Transfusão de Sangue , Infecções por Coronavirus/complicações , Coagulação Intravascular Disseminada/etiologia , Coagulação Intravascular Disseminada/terapia , Produtos de Degradação da Fibrina e do Fibrinogênio/análise , Heparina/administração & dosagem , Heparina/uso terapêutico , Heparina de Baixo Peso Molecular/administração & dosagem , Heparina de Baixo Peso Molecular/uso terapêutico , Humanos , Dispositivos de Compressão Pneumática Intermitente , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral/complicações , Trombofilia/tratamento farmacológico , Trombofilia/prevenção & controle
4.
J Med Vasc ; 45(5): 288-293, 2020 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32862987

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The incidence of upper extremity deep vein thrombosis (UEDVT) is increasing. Its management is sometimes complex and difficult due to its complications and the lack of strong recommendations. The aim was to describe the practice of vascular physicians in Occitanie region in the management of upper extremity deep vein thrombosis. MATERIAL AND METHODS: We used a descriptive observational study in the form of a declarative survey by means of a questionnaire from April to May 2019 among vascular physicians. RESULTS: Of the 142 physicians contacted, 84 responded, with a reply rate of 59.1%. The majority of physicians introduced low-molecular-weight heparin treatment (60.71%) and 29.76% direct oral anticoagulation after a diagnosis of UEDVT. Three months of anticoagulation was chosen by 69% of physicians against 27.4% for a duration of 6 months. Diagnostic work-up included biological risk factors, chest and/or cervical radiography and ultrasonography with dynamic maneuvers. Three quarters of doctors recommended venous compression. A control ultrasonography was performed for 67.86% of patients at one month and at the end of treatment. After the acute phase, 63% of physicians introduced direct oral anticoagulation and 11% recommended venous revascularization. DISCUSSION AND CONCLUSIONS: The mobilization of vascular physicians reflects their interest for this pathology. The management of UEDVT requires specific studies to address therapeutic modalities, the duration of anticoagulation or the place of venous compression in the acute phase.


Assuntos
Anticoagulantes/administração & dosagem , Bandagens Compressivas/tendências , Heparina de Baixo Peso Molecular/administração & dosagem , Padrões de Prática Médica/tendências , Trombose Venosa Profunda de Membros Superiores/terapia , Procedimentos Cirúrgicos Vasculares/tendências , Administração Oral , Adulto , Esquema de Medicação , Inibidores do Fator Xa/administração & dosagem , França/epidemiologia , Pesquisas sobre Serviços de Saúde , Disparidades em Assistência à Saúde/tendências , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Fatores de Tempo , Resultado do Tratamento , Trombose Venosa Profunda de Membros Superiores/diagnóstico por imagem , Trombose Venosa Profunda de Membros Superiores/epidemiologia
5.
Rev. esp. anestesiol. reanim ; 67(7): 391-399, ago.-sept. 2020. tab, graf
Artigo em Espanhol | IBECS | ID: ibc-192472

RESUMO

La infección por el coronavirus SARS-CoV-2, causante de la enfermedad denominada COVID-19, provoca alteraciones fundamentalmente en el sistema respiratorio. En los pacientes graves, con frecuencia la enfermedad evoluciona a un síndrome de distrés respiratorio agudo que puede predisponer a los pacientes a un estado de hipercoagulabilidad, con trombosis tanto a nivel venoso como arterial. Esta predisposición presenta una fisiopatología multifactorial, relacionada tanto con la hipoxia como con el grave proceso inflamatorio ligado a esta patología, además de los factores trombóticos adicionales presentes en muchos de los pacientes.Ante la necesidad de optimizar el manejo de la hipercoagulabilidad, los grupos de trabajo de las sociedades científicas de Anestesiología-Reanimación y Terapéutica del Dolor (SEDAR) y de Medicina Intensiva, Crítica y de Unidades Coronarias (SEMICYUC) han desarrollado un consenso para establecer unas pautas de actuación frente a las alteraciones de la hemostasia observadas en los pacientes graves COVID-19. Estas recomendaciones incluyen la profilaxis de la enfermedad tromboembólica venosa en pacientes graves y en el periparto, el manejo de los pacientes en tratamiento crónico con fármacos antiagregantes o anticoagulantes, de las complicaciones hemorrágicas en la evolución de la enfermedad y de la interpretación de las alteraciones generales de la hemostasia


The infection by the coronavirus SARS-CoV-2, which causes the disease called COVID-19, mainly causes alterations in the respiratory system. In severely ill patients, the disease often evolves into an acute respiratory distress syndrome that can predispose patients to a state of hypercoagulability, with thrombosis at both venous and arterial levels. This predisposition presents a multifactorial physiopathology, related to hypoxia as well as to the severe inflammatory process linked to this pathology, including the additional thrombotic factors present in many of the patients. In view of the need to optimise the management of hypercoagulability, the working groups of the Scientific Societies of Anaesthesiology-Resuscitation and Pain Therapy (SEDAR) and of Intensive, Critical Care Medicine and Coronary Units (SEMICYUC) have developed a consensus to establish guidelines for actions to be taken against alterations in haemostasis observed in severely ill patients with COVID-19. These recommendations include prophylaxis of venous thromboembolic disease in these patients, and in the peripartum, management of patients on long-term antiplatelet or anticoagulant treatment, bleeding complications in the course of the disease, and the interpretation of general alterations in haemostasis


Assuntos
Humanos , Infecções por Coronavirus/terapia , Síndrome Respiratória Aguda Grave/terapia , Transtornos Hemostáticos/terapia , Vírus da SARS/patogenicidade , Anticoagulantes/administração & dosagem , Fibrinolíticos/administração & dosagem , Inibidores da Agregação de Plaquetas/administração & dosagem , Infecções por Coronavirus/fisiopatologia , Trombofilia/terapia , Doença Catastrófica/terapia , Pandemias , Heparina de Baixo Peso Molecular/administração & dosagem , Complicações Infecciosas na Gravidez/terapia
6.
Rev. esp. cardiol. (Ed. impr.) ; 73(9): 749-757, sept. 2020. tab, graf
Artigo em Espanhol | IBECS | ID: ibc-187648

RESUMO

La pandemia producida por la infección del nuevo coronavirus SARS-CoV-2, que da lugar a una enfermedad altamente contagiosa (COVID-19), ha producido un colapso de los sistemas sanitarios de todo el mundo. Se ha descrito que estos pacientes sufren un estado inflamatorio que condiciona un alto riesgo trombótico. Sin embargo, apenas hay información sobre cómo abordar el riesgo trombótico, la coagulopatía y el tratamiento anticoagulante de estos pacientes. Por otra parte, incluso los pacientes no infectados por COVID-19 sufren una tremenda influencia en su abordaje habitual por la situación sanitaria actual. El objetivo del presente documento, elaborado por el Grupo de Trabajo de Trombosis Cardiovascular de la Sociedad Española de Cardiología, es presentar la información disponible y dar unas pautas sencillas de tratamiento con fármacos antitrombóticos


The new coronavirus SARS-CoV-2, which gives rise to the highly contagious COVID-19 disease, has caused a pandemic that is overwhelming health care systems worldwide. Affected patients have been reported to have a heightened inflammatory state that increases their thrombotic risk. However, there is very scarce information on the management of thrombotic risk, coagulation disorders, and anticoagulant therapy. In addition, the situation has also greatly influenced usual care in patients not infected with COVID-19. This article by the Working Group on Cardiovascular Thrombosis of the Spanish Society of Cardiology aims to summarize the available information and to provide a practical approach to the management of antithrombotic therapy


Assuntos
Humanos , Fibrinolíticos/administração & dosagem , Infecções por Coronavirus/tratamento farmacológico , Vírus da SARS/patogenicidade , Trombose/tratamento farmacológico , Síndrome Respiratória Aguda Grave/tratamento farmacológico , Tromboembolia Venosa/tratamento farmacológico , Transtornos da Coagulação Sanguínea/tratamento farmacológico , Inibidores da Agregação de Plaquetas/administração & dosagem , Trombose/prevenção & controle , Anticoagulantes/administração & dosagem , Heparina de Baixo Peso Molecular/administração & dosagem , Vitamina K/antagonistas & inibidores , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral/tratamento farmacológico , Transtornos da Coagulação Sanguínea/fisiopatologia , Interações Medicamentosas
8.
J Clin Ultrasound ; 48(9): 522-526, 2020 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32757278

RESUMO

PURPOSE: The aim of this study was to evaluate the applicability of bedside ultrasonography for the diagnosis of deep venous thrombosis (DVT) in patients infected with corona virus disease 2019 (COVID-19) with and without treatment with low molecular weight heparin (LMWH). METHODS: We retrospectively analyzed the records of deceased and surviving patients in whom ultrasonography detected or not a DVT, and in whom LMWH was or not prescribed. RESULTS: The incidence of DVT is higher in the deceased (33/35) than in the surviving (22/46) patients. LMWH was administered in a larger proportion of surviving (18/22) than of deceased (18/33) patients. D-dimer concentrations decreased in patients who received LMWH in both groups. CONCLUSIONS: There was a high incidence of DVT in patients who succumbed to COVID-19. Bedside ultrasonography can detect the presence of DVT as early as possible and help assessing the risk of venous thromboembolism, allowing early and reasonable use of LMWH.


Assuntos
Infecções por Coronavirus/diagnóstico por imagem , Infecções por Coronavirus/patologia , Heparina de Baixo Peso Molecular/administração & dosagem , Pneumonia Viral/diagnóstico por imagem , Pneumonia Viral/patologia , Trombose Venosa/diagnóstico por imagem , Trombose Venosa/virologia , Adulto , Anticoagulantes/administração & dosagem , Anticoagulantes/efeitos adversos , Betacoronavirus/isolamento & purificação , Técnicas de Laboratório Clínico/métodos , Infecções por Coronavirus/sangue , Infecções por Coronavirus/diagnóstico , Esquema de Medicação , Feminino , Heparina de Baixo Peso Molecular/efeitos adversos , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral/sangue , Testes Imediatos , Estudos Retrospectivos , Ultrassonografia/métodos , Trombose Venosa/tratamento farmacológico
9.
Reprod Biomed Online ; 41(3): 361-364, 2020 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32660814

RESUMO

The COVID-19 pandemic has significantly increased mortality in many countries, with the number of infected cases increasing exponentially worldwide. One of the main determining factors of the poor prognosis in these patients is the development of coagulopathy. Moreover, it is well known that assisted reproductive technology procedures confer a risk of thromboembolic complications. This commentary analyses specific aspects coexisting between the thrombotic risk described during virus infection and that reported in the context of assisted reproduction treatments. Based on known pathophysiological aspects of virus infection and of ovarian stimulation, there are common elements that deserve to be taken into account. In the present context, any risk of hyperstimulation should be avoided. Gonadotrophin-releasing hormone agonist triggering should be mandatory in high-responder patients and/or those with COVID-19 infection. In both cases, the cycle should be segmented. A proposal is made for the use of prophylactic low molecular weight heparin not only in those cases in which oocyte retrieval has been performed, but also in those in which cancellation has been decided. In addition, endometrial preparation for frozen-thawed embryo transfers should use the transdermal route in order to minimize the higher thrombotic risk associated with the oral route.


Assuntos
Betacoronavirus , Infecções por Coronavirus/complicações , Pneumonia Viral/complicações , Técnicas de Reprodução Assistida/efeitos adversos , Tromboembolia/epidemiologia , Tromboembolia/virologia , Transferência Embrionária/métodos , Feminino , Heparina de Baixo Peso Molecular/administração & dosagem , Humanos , Recuperação de Oócitos , Síndrome de Hiperestimulação Ovariana/complicações , Síndrome de Hiperestimulação Ovariana/prevenção & controle , Síndrome de Hiperestimulação Ovariana/virologia , Indução da Ovulação/efeitos adversos , Pandemias , Gravidez , Fatores de Risco , Tromboembolia/prevenção & controle
10.
Infez Med ; 28(suppl 1): 52-56, 2020 06 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32532939

RESUMO

In spite of many ongoing attempts to repurpose existing antivirals, no drugs have emerged yet with the desirable activity against SARS-CoV-2. Hydroxychloroquine, lopinavir/ritonavir, remdesivir, umifenovir, favipiravir, ribavirin and beta-interferon-1 gave rise to variable but still inconsistent proof of clinical efficacy in the treatment of COVID-19. Pathogenetic studies have shown significant differences between commonly defined viral pneumonia and COVID-19 pulmonary disease. In severe forms, immune/inflammatory alterations reminiscent of disease forms like Macrophage Activation Syndrome (MAS) have been described, and therapeutic options other than anti-infective have been proposed and implemented, such as anti-inflammatory and anticoagulative agents. The thrombotic phenomena described in the pulmonary vascular bed of patients with severe COVID-19 suggest the administration of low-molecular weight heparin (LMWH) as standard measure in hospitalized patients with COVID-19.


Assuntos
Anticoagulantes/uso terapêutico , Infecções por Coronavirus/complicações , Cuidados Críticos/métodos , Heparina de Baixo Peso Molecular/uso terapêutico , Pneumonia Viral/complicações , Trombofilia/tratamento farmacológico , Monofosfato de Adenosina/análogos & derivados , Monofosfato de Adenosina/uso terapêutico , Alanina/análogos & derivados , Alanina/uso terapêutico , Anticoagulantes/administração & dosagem , Antivirais/administração & dosagem , Antivirais/uso terapêutico , Biomarcadores , Infecções por Coronavirus/sangue , Infecções por Coronavirus/tratamento farmacológico , Infecções por Coronavirus/fisiopatologia , Gerenciamento Clínico , Método Duplo-Cego , Combinação de Medicamentos , Quimioterapia Combinada , Embolia/epidemiologia , Embolia/prevenção & controle , Endotélio Vascular/fisiopatologia , Heparina de Baixo Peso Molecular/administração & dosagem , Humanos , Hidroxicloroquina/uso terapêutico , Interferon beta-1b/uso terapêutico , Lopinavir/uso terapêutico , Ativação de Macrófagos , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral/sangue , Pneumonia Viral/tratamento farmacológico , Pneumonia Viral/fisiopatologia , Fibrose Pulmonar/etiologia , Fibrose Pulmonar/prevenção & controle , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto , Ritonavir/uso terapêutico , Tromboembolia/epidemiologia , Tromboembolia/prevenção & controle , Trombofilia/sangue , Trombofilia/etiologia , Trombose/epidemiologia , Trombose/prevenção & controle
11.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 99(25): e20928, 2020 Jun 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32569239

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: In this study, we investigate the incidence of venous thrombosis (VT), and evaluate the effectiveness and safety of 3 major thromboprophylaxes and the potential risk factors for VT in women undergoing surgery for a gynecological malignancy. METHODS: We performed a randomized controlled trial of 307 patients undergoing laparoscopic surgery for gynecological malignancies at a single institution from January 2016 to October 2017. Patients were divided into 3 groups: one receiving a half dose of low-molecular-weight heparin sodium injection (FLUXUM, Alfa Wassermann, Italy) delivered by injection, one receiving a full dose of FLUXUM, and a third group receiving an Argatroban injection. RESULTS: None of the patients in our study developed a pulmonary embolism, bleeding, or infectious complications. There were no statistical differences in the rate of deep venous thrombosis (DVT) (0%, 0%, and 2.38%) and the superficial venous thromboembolism (SVT) (15.66%, 8.97%, and 18.6%) among the 3 groups. None of the patients developed symptomatic VT. The effect of treatment on alanine aminotransferase and aspartate aminotransferase differed between the groups, with a minimal effect in the Argatroban group, and all 3 methods resulted in minimal impairment of renal function. Decreased hemoglobin, elevated levels of D-dimer, and prothrombin time were closely related to thrombogenesis. CONCLUSION: In conclusion, the incidence of postoperative thrombosis in gynecological malignancy among these Chinese people is not as low as we had originally presumed. Argatroban is not more effective than Parnaparin as a direct thrombin inhibitor, but it has less influence on liver function, which is beneficial for patients undergoing chemotherapy. Hemoglobin, D-dimer, and prothrombin time may be used to predict or detect thrombogenesis.


Assuntos
Anticoagulantes/uso terapêutico , Procedimentos Cirúrgicos em Ginecologia/efeitos adversos , Heparina de Baixo Peso Molecular/uso terapêutico , Ácidos Pipecólicos/uso terapêutico , Complicações Pós-Operatórias/prevenção & controle , Trombose Venosa/prevenção & controle , Anticoagulantes/administração & dosagem , Neoplasias do Endométrio/cirurgia , Feminino , Procedimentos Cirúrgicos em Ginecologia/métodos , Heparina de Baixo Peso Molecular/administração & dosagem , Humanos , Injeções Intravenosas , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Neoplasias Ovarianas/cirurgia , Ácidos Pipecólicos/administração & dosagem , Complicações Pós-Operatórias/etiologia , Fatores de Risco , Neoplasias do Colo do Útero/cirurgia , Trombose Venosa/etiologia
12.
Paediatr Drugs ; 22(4): 385-397, 2020 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32519267

RESUMO

Venous thromboembolism (VTE) is an important but historically under-recognized problem in pediatrics, with an incidence concentrated in hospitalized children. A number of specific VTE diseases with discrete triggers have been described, but the most common pediatric trigger is the presence of central venous access devices. VTE diseases, though heterogenous in etiology, are linked by the common therapeutic strategies shared by their management. Historically, the most commonly used drug therapies have been unfractionated heparin, low-molecular-weight heparins, and vitamin K antagonists, based on extrapolation from adult data rather than any specific pediatric trials. Although these widely used drugs appear safe and effective in expert hands, the historical lack of pediatric data is problematic in view of the recognized significant differences between children and adults with regards to hemostatic physiology, VTE etiology, and drug pharmacokinetics. The increasing adult usage of novel VTE pharmacotherapies such as direct oral anticoagulants (DOACs) has led to considerable interest in exploring the pediatric applications of these newer drugs. This review summarizes the advantages and disadvantages of existing VTE pharmacotherapies and outlines emerging novel pediatric VTE therapies, particularly DOACs, within the context of the current pediatric trial landscape.


Assuntos
Anticoagulantes/administração & dosagem , Tromboembolia Venosa/tratamento farmacológico , Adulto , Criança , Heparina/administração & dosagem , Heparina de Baixo Peso Molecular/administração & dosagem , Humanos , Tromboembolia Venosa/epidemiologia
16.
Thromb Haemost ; 120(5): 832-846, 2020 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32369854

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Low molecular weight heparins (LMWH) are often used as a first-line therapy for the prevention of thrombosis in cancer patients. Preclinical evidence from animal models suggests that LMWH may have antimetastatic properties. Clinical evidence of this effect is inconclusive. The objective of this systematic review is to evaluate the effect of LMWH on overall survival in patients with solid tumor malignancies. METHODS: MEDLINE, Embase, and The Cochrane Central Register of Controlled trials were searched from inception to November 26, 2018. We included randomized controlled trials that compared LMWH to placebo, a no-treatment arm, or a short-term prophylactic course of LMWH in adult patients with solid tumors. The primary outcome was overall survival. Secondary outcomes included progression-free survival, the occurrence of venous thromboembolism, and major bleeding events. The risk of bias was assessed in duplicate using the Cochrane Risk-of-Bias tool. RESULTS: Forty-five articles were included in the review. Overall, no difference in overall survival was observed between groups (risk ratio: 1.00; 95% confidence interval: 0.98-1.02; I2 = 36.5%). In our a priori defined subgroup analyses, the effect was not shown to vary by the type of LMWH, duration of LMWH use, length of study follow-up, comparator used in the study, or the setting in which the LMWH was administered. The majority of studies had an unclear risk of bias for at least one methodological criterion. CONCLUSION: Although LMWH is thought to possess antimetastatic properties and thus have the potential to improve survival in cancer patients, existing data do not support this hypothesis.


Assuntos
Anticoagulantes/administração & dosagem , Heparina de Baixo Peso Molecular/administração & dosagem , Neoplasias/tratamento farmacológico , Trombose/prevenção & controle , Anticoagulantes/efeitos adversos , Heparina de Baixo Peso Molecular/efeitos adversos , Humanos , Neoplasias/sangue , Neoplasias/diagnóstico , Neoplasias/mortalidade , Intervalo Livre de Progressão , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto , Medição de Risco , Fatores de Risco , Trombose/sangue , Trombose/diagnóstico , Trombose/mortalidade , Fatores de Tempo
18.
Anaesth Crit Care Pain Med ; 39(3): 351-353, 2020 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32437961
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