Your browser doesn't support javascript.
loading
Mostrar: 20 | 50 | 100
Resultados 1 - 20 de 7.445
Filtrar
1.
Blood ; 139(12): 1903-1907, 2022 03 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35113987

RESUMO

Vaccine-induced thrombotic thrombocytopenia (VITT) is triggered by vaccination against COVID-19 with adenovirus vector vaccines (ChAdOx1 nCoV-19; Ad26.COV2-S). In this observational study, we followed VITT patients for changes in their reactivity of platelet-activating antiplatelet factor 4 (PF4) immunoglobulin G (IgG) antibodies by an anti-PF4/heparin IgG enzyme immunoassay (EIA) and a functional test for PF4-dependent, platelet-activating antibodies, and new thrombotic complications. Sixty-five VITT patients (41 females; median, 51 years; range, 18-80 years) were followed for a median of 25 weeks (range, 3-36 weeks). In 48/65 patients (73.8%; CI, 62.0% to 83.0%) the functional assay became negative. The median time to negative functional test result was 15.5 weeks (range, 5-28 weeks). In parallel, EIA optical density (OD) values decreased from median 3.12 to 1.52 (P < .0001), but seroreversion to a negative result was seen in only 14 (21.5%) patients. Five (7.5%) patients showed persistent platelet-activating antibodies and high EIA ODs for >11 weeks. None of the 29 VITT patients who received a second vaccination dose with an mRNA COVID-19 vaccine developed new thromboses or relevant increase in anti-PF4/heparin IgG EIA OD, regardless of whether PF4-dependent platelet-activating antibodies were still present. PF4-dependent platelet-activating antibodies are transient in most patients with VITT. VITT patients can safely receive a second COVID-19 mRNA-vaccine shot.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Trombocitopenia , Trombose , Vacinas , COVID-19/prevenção & controle , Vacinas contra COVID-19/efeitos adversos , Feminino , Heparina/efeitos adversos , Humanos , Imunoglobulina G , Fator Plaquetário 4 , Trombocitopenia/induzido quimicamente , Vacinas/efeitos adversos
2.
Semin Hematol ; 59(2): 59-71, 2022 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35512902

RESUMO

Platelet factor 4 (PF4) is a highly cationic tetrameric protein that can be targeted by platelet-activating anti-PF4 antibodies of immunoglobulin G (IgG) class. Certain features of PF4, including its multivalent nature (duplicate antigen sites per tetramer), the ability of many PF4 tetramers to undergo close approximation through charge neutralization, and the dimeric binding of IgG molecules, results in formation of IgG-containing immune complexes in situ on platelets, neutrophils, and monocytes, resulting in Fcγ receptor-mediated pancellular activation that also activates hemostasis (potential for disseminated intravascular coagulation). This review discusses 4 anti-PF4 disorders: classic heparin-induced thrombocytopenia ([HIT]; triggered by heparin and certain other polyanionic pharmaceuticals, featuring predominantly heparin-dependent antibodies), autoimmune HIT (aHIT; severe subtype of HIT that features both heparin-dependent and heparin-independent platelet-activating antibodies), and spontaneous HIT (non-heparin triggers such as knee replacement surgery and infection; predominantly heparin-independent platelet-activating antibodies). Most recently, a novel fourth anti-PF4 disorder, vaccine-induced immune thrombotic thrombocytopenia (VITT), was identified as an ultrarare complication of adenovirus vector vaccines. VITT is characterized by thrombocytopenia, disseminated intravascular coagulation, a high frequency of thrombosis-including in unusual sites (cerebral veins, splanchnic veins)-and highly pathogenic anti-PF4 antibodies with heparin-independent platelet-activating properties.


Assuntos
Coagulação Intravascular Disseminada , Heparina , Púrpura Trombocitopênica Idiopática , Trombocitopenia , Trombose , Vacinas , Coagulação Intravascular Disseminada/complicações , Heparina/efeitos adversos , Humanos , Imunoglobulina G/efeitos adversos , Fatores Imunológicos , Fator Plaquetário 4 , Púrpura Trombocitopênica Idiopática/induzido quimicamente , Trombocitopenia/induzido quimicamente , Trombose/induzido quimicamente , Vacinas/efeitos adversos
3.
Semin Hematol ; 59(2): 80-88, 2022 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35512905

RESUMO

Vaccine-induced immune thrombotic thrombocytopenia (VITT) is a highly prothrombotic disorder that like heparin-induced thrombocytopenia (HIT) is caused by platelet-activating antibodies that recognize platelet factor 4 (PF4). However, unlike HIT-where heparin at low concentrations (0.1-0.5 U/mL) typically enhances antibody-induced platelet activation, platelet activation by VITT sera is usually inhibited by heparin. Further, conventional platelet activation assays for HIT, such as the serotonin-release assay (SRA) and heparin-induced platelet activation (HIPA) test, often yield negative or atypical results when testing VITT sera. Nevertheless, VITT (like HIT) is a "clinical-pathological" disorder whereby laboratory detectability of platelet-activating anti-PF4 antibodies is crucial for diagnosis. VITT antibodies follow 2 fundamental principles of HIT laboratory testing: (1) high probability of a positive PF4-dependent enzyme-immunoassay (EIA), and (2) high probability of a positive platelet activation assay. However, optimal detection of VITT in platelet activation assays requires the addition of PF4, for example, PF4-enhanced SRA (PF4-SRA) and PF4-enhanced HIPA (PIPA). A novel whole blood assay, called the PF4-induced flow cytometry-based platelet activation (PIFPA) assay, exhibits high sensitivity and specificity for VITT. HIT and VITT sera/plasmas differ in their reactivity in rapid HIT immunoassays (90-97% sensitivity for HIT, <25% sensitivity for VITT), consistent with distinct antigen sites on PF4 recognized by HIT and VITT antibodies.


Assuntos
Anticorpos , Púrpura Trombocitopênica Idiopática , Vacinas , Anticorpos/análise , Heparina/efeitos adversos , Humanos , Fator Plaquetário 4 , Púrpura Trombocitopênica Idiopática/induzido quimicamente , Vacinas/efeitos adversos
4.
Semin Hematol ; 59(2): 89-96, 2022 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35512906

RESUMO

Vaccine-induced immune thrombotic thrombocytopenia (VITT) is a novel prothrombotic disorder characterized by thrombosis, thrombocytopenia, and disseminated intravascular coagulation identified in hundreds of recipients of ChAdOx1 nCoV-19 (Oxford/AstraZeneca), an adenovirus vector coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) vaccine. VITT resembles heparin-induced thrombocytopenia (HIT) in that patients have platelet-activating anti-platelet factor 4 antibodies; however, whereas heparin typically enhances platelet activation by HIT antibodies, VITT antibody-induced platelet activation is often inhibited in vitro by pharmacological concentrations of heparin. Further, the thrombotic complications in VITT feature much higher frequencies of atypical thrombosis, most notably cerebral vein thrombosis and splanchnic vein thrombosis, compared with HIT. In this review, we outline the treatments that have been used to manage this novel condition since its recognition in March 2021, including anticoagulation, high-dose intravenous immune globulin, therapeutic plasma exchange, corticosteroids, rituximab, and eculizumab. We discuss the controversial issue of whether heparin, which often inhibits VITT antibody-induced platelet activation, is harmful in the treatment of VITT. We also describe a case of "long VITT," describing the treatment challenges resulting from platelet-activating anti-PF4 antibodies that persisted for more than 9 months.


Assuntos
Vacinas contra COVID-19 , COVID-19 , Púrpura Trombocitopênica Idiopática , Trombose , COVID-19/prevenção & controle , Vacinas contra COVID-19/efeitos adversos , Heparina/efeitos adversos , Humanos , Fator Plaquetário 4 , Púrpura Trombocitopênica Idiopática/induzido quimicamente , Trombose/induzido quimicamente
5.
BMC Cardiovasc Disord ; 22(1): 207, 2022 May 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35538419

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Compared to simple percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI), complex PCI is associated with higher bleeding and thrombotic risk. No previous study has evaluated the use of protamine after PCI with contemporary technologies. This study aimed to evaluate the safety and efficacy of manual compression with and without protamine after transfemoral complex PCI. METHODS: We retrospectively analyzed 160 patients (protamine group, n = 92; non-protamine group, n = 68) who underwent complex PCI via the femoral artery. The primary outcome was a composite of in-hospital death, myocardial infarction, stent thrombosis, stroke/systemic embolism, bleeding requiring blood transfusion, and vascular access complications. RESULTS: The primary outcome was significantly lower in the protamine group than in the non-protamine group (4.3% vs. 17.6%; p = 0.006). This was driven mainly by the lower incidences of hematoma in the protamine group (3.3% vs. 13.2%, p = 0.020). Furthermore, the protamine group had a significantly shorter hospital stay than the non-protamine group (4.8 ± 3.7 days vs. 8.4 ± 8.3 days, p = 0.001). While > 90% of the patients had acute coronary syndrome, there were no incidences of myocardial infarction or stent thrombosis in either group. CONCLUSIONS: Among patients who underwent complex PCI via transfemoral access, immediate protamine administration was associated with a significantly lower rate of vascular access complications, especially hematoma, and shorter hospital stay than no protamine administration.


Assuntos
Infarto do Miocárdio , Intervenção Coronária Percutânea , Trombose , Anticoagulantes/efeitos adversos , Hematoma/complicações , Hemorragia/etiologia , Heparina/efeitos adversos , Mortalidade Hospitalar , Humanos , Infarto do Miocárdio/complicações , Intervenção Coronária Percutânea/efeitos adversos , Protaminas/efeitos adversos , Estudos Retrospectivos , Trombose/complicações , Resultado do Tratamento
7.
Clin Lab ; 68(4)2022 Apr 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35443580

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Heparin-induced thrombocytopenia (HIT) is a severe complication caused by heparin. It is characterized by occult onset and missed diagnosis. Misdiagnosis easily occurs. METHODS: This paper reported an 85-year-old woman with an intertrochanteric fracture of the femur which was treated with low molecular weight heparin (LMWH) and fondaparinux sodium to prevent venous thrombosis. Then, the patient developed HIT. This is the first case report of HIT induced by LMWH and fondaparinux in a patient with a hip fracture. This case highlights the severity of HIT in elderly patients with hip fractures using LMWH and fondaparinux and the need for platelet monitoring in these patients. RESULTS: LMWH was ceased in this HIT-confirmed patient, and non-heparin treatment was begun instead. Apixaban was given twice daily for therapeutic anticoagulation therapy. In the end, the platelet levels gradually returned to normal. CONCLUSIONS: We should pay more attention to HIT and platelets during the perioperative period of orthopedic surgery, especially in elderly patients. Once the disease is confirmed, it is necessary to stop heparin-related drugs immediately and administer oral anticoagulants instead.


Assuntos
Fraturas do Quadril , Trombocitopenia , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Anticoagulantes/efeitos adversos , Feminino , Fêmur , Fondaparinux/efeitos adversos , Heparina/efeitos adversos , Heparina de Baixo Peso Molecular/efeitos adversos , Fraturas do Quadril/complicações , Fraturas do Quadril/tratamento farmacológico , Fraturas do Quadril/cirurgia , Humanos , Trombocitopenia/induzido quimicamente , Trombocitopenia/diagnóstico
8.
Viruses ; 14(4)2022 Mar 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35458467

RESUMO

Background: Therapeutic/intermediate-dose heparin reduces the risk of thromboembolic events but increases the risk of major bleeding in patients hospitalized for acute COVID-19 pneumonia. Objectives: To prospectively assess the incidence of objectively proven venous thromboembolism (VTE) and identify predisposing risk factors in a cohort of hospitalized patients with acute COVID-19 pneumonia undergoing prophylactic-dose heparin. Patients and methods: All consecutive patients admitted for acute COVID-19 pneumonia to the General Internal Medicine Unit of Padova University Hospital, Italy between November 2020 and April 2021, and undergoing prophylactic-dose heparin, were enrolled. Demographic and clinical characteristics and laboratory and radiological findings were recorded on admission. Cases were patients who developed VTE during their hospital stay. Univariable and multivariable logistic regression analyses were used to ascertain the risk factors associated with developing in-hospital VTE. Results: 208 patients (median age: 77 years; M/F 98/110) were included; 37 (18%) developed in-hospital VTE during a median follow-up of 10 days (IQR, 4-18). VTE patients were significantly younger (p = 0.004), more obese (p = 0.002), and had a lower Padua prediction score (p < 0.03) and reduced PaO2/FIO2 ratio (p < 0.03) vs. controls. Radiological findings of bilateral pulmonary infiltrates were significantly more frequent in VTE patients than controls (p = 0.003). Multivariable regression showed that obesity (1.75, 95% CI 1.02-3.36; p = 0.04) and bilateral pulmonary infiltrates on X-rays (2.39, 95% CI 1.22-5.69; p = 0.04) were correlated with increased risk of in-hospital VTE. Conclusions: Obesity and bilateral pulmonary infiltrates on imaging may help clinicians to identify patients admitted to medical wards for acute COVID-19 pneumonia at risk of developing VTE despite prophylactic-dose heparin. Further studies are needed to evaluate whether the administration of therapeutic/intermediate-dose heparin may help prevent VTE episodes without further increasing the bleeding risk.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Tromboembolia Venosa , Idoso , Anticoagulantes/uso terapêutico , COVID-19/epidemiologia , Heparina/efeitos adversos , Humanos , Obesidade/complicações , Estudos Retrospectivos , Fatores de Risco , Tromboembolia Venosa/tratamento farmacológico , Tromboembolia Venosa/epidemiologia , Tromboembolia Venosa/prevenção & controle
9.
JACC Cardiovasc Interv ; 15(8): 810-819, 2022 04 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35450681

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: The aim of this trial was to test whether the potassium ferrate hemostatic patch (PFHP) as an adjunct to the TR Band (TRB) facilitated an early deflation protocol. BACKGROUND: Shorter TRB compression times may reduce the rate of radial artery occlusion (RAO) and reduce observation time after transradial access. METHODS: A total of 443 patients were randomized to the TRB or PFHP + TRB, with complete TRB deflation attempted 60 minutes postprocedure. The primary outcome was the time to successful full deflation of the TRB without bleeding, with secondary outcomes of time to discharge and complications including hematoma, RAO, or bleeding requiring intervention beyond TRB reinflation. RESULTS: Time to complete TRB deflation was 66 ± 14 minutes with the PFHP vs 113 ± 56 minutes for the TRB alone (P < 0.001). Minor rebleeding requiring TRB reinflation was much more frequent without the PFHP (0% vs 67.7%; P < 0.001) with 2.3 ± 1.3 additional reinflation and deflation attempts needed for hemostasis. Hematomas developed in 4.0% of the PFHP group and 6.8% of the TRB group (P = 0.20). RAO was rare (<1%), although 41% of patients received <5,000 U heparin. Among percutaneous coronary intervention patients, time to TRB deflation (68 ± 15 minutes vs 138 ± 62 minutes; P < 0.001) and composite complications (10.0% vs 24.2%; P = 0.04) were reduced with the PFHP. CONCLUSIONS: Compared with the TRB alone, the PFHP facilitated early 60-minute TRB deflation following transradial catheterization, with a numeric reduction in vascular complications. RAO occurs rarely with early deflation regardless of heparin dose. (Comparing TR Band to StatSeal in Conjunction With TR Band II [StatSeal II]; NCT04046952).


Assuntos
Arteriopatias Oclusivas , Cateterismo Periférico , Hemostáticos , Arteriopatias Oclusivas/etiologia , Cateterismo Cardíaco/efeitos adversos , Cateterismo Periférico/efeitos adversos , Hemostasia , Técnicas Hemostáticas , Hemostáticos/efeitos adversos , Heparina/efeitos adversos , Humanos , Compostos de Ferro , Compostos de Potássio , Artéria Radial/diagnóstico por imagem , Fator de Transcrição STAT2 , Resultado do Tratamento
10.
Catheter Cardiovasc Interv ; 99(5): 1714-1722, 2022 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35253348

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: The aim of the study was to analyze available data on patients treated for chronic limb-threatening ischemia (CLTI) with the heparin-bonded Viabahn endoprosthesis. BACKGROUND: The patency of self-expanding covered stents in patients with complex femoropopliteal lesions is encouraging. However, data were mostly derived in patients with intermittent claudication. Patients with CLTI often have more advanced disease and worse outcome. METHODS: After the abstract screening, full-text papers were checked. Authors were approached to consider joining the consortium. Data were sent anonymously, databases were merged and an individual patient data meta-analysis was performed. Kaplan-Meier curves were used to calculate the freedom from amputations, the amputation-free survival, and patency rates. RESULTS: Seven studies were enrolled, representing 161 limbs that were treated for CLTI. Median lesion length was 28.0 cm (interquartile range 25.0-33.0 cm) and 82.7% were chronic total occlusions. The technical success rate was 98.1% and the 30-day mortality 1.9%. Through 2-year follow-up, the freedom-from-major-amputations was 99.3%, with an amputation-free survival of 78.8%. The freedom-from-loss-of primary, primary-assisted, and secondary patency was 70.4%, 71.8%, and 88.2%, respectively, at 1-year and 59.5%, 62.7%, and 86.1% at 2-year follow-up, respectively. The reintervention-free survival was 62.2% at a 2-year follow-up. CONCLUSIONS: Treatment of femoropopliteal disease in CLTI patients with the use of the heparin-bonded Viabahn is safe and effective with favorable clinical outcomes and low amputation rates. Reinterventions are needed in a subset of the population to maintain endoprosthesis patency. Close follow-up using duplex is recommended to detect potential edge stenosis, allowing treatment before device occlusion.


Assuntos
Implante de Prótese Vascular , Doença Arterial Periférica , Amputação , Prótese Vascular , Artéria Femoral , Heparina/efeitos adversos , Humanos , Isquemia/diagnóstico por imagem , Isquemia/etiologia , Isquemia/terapia , Salvamento de Membro , Doença Arterial Periférica/diagnóstico por imagem , Doença Arterial Periférica/terapia , Artéria Poplítea , Desenho de Prótese , Resultado do Tratamento , Grau de Desobstrução Vascular
11.
Hematology ; 27(1): 318-321, 2022 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35231200

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Heparin-induced thrombocytopenia (HIT) is an immune-mediated adverse drug reaction associated with thrombosis. Clinical scoring systems and the presence of anti-platelet factor 4 (anti-PF4)/heparin antibodies determine the diagnosis. CASE PRESENTATION: A 57-year-old man who was treated with acenocoumarol due to a chronic left ventricular thrombus was admitted to the hospital for severe SARS-CoV-2 pneumonia and pulmonary embolism. The patient was started on bemiparin and discharged. Left lower limb acute arterial ischemia and thrombocytopenia were diagnosed 18 days later. Computed tomography angiography revealed a large left ventricular thrombus and multiple arterial thrombi. Left femoral-popliteal thromboembolectomy was performed. Anti-PF4/heparin antibodies confirmed an HIT diagnosis. Fondaparinux (7.5 mg/24 h) was initiated, but cardiac surgery was necessary. Bivalirudin was used during surgery, with an initial load (1.25 mg/kg) and maintenance infusion (2.5 mg/kg/h). The cardiac thrombus was extracted, but the patient experienced a postsurgical myocardial infarction. Percutaneous cardiovascular intervention (PCI) required a bivalirudin load (0.75 mg/kg) and maintenance infusion (1.75 mg/kg/h). No coronary lesions were detected, and argatroban was started afterwards (0.5 µg/kg/min). When the platelet count exceeded 100 × 109/L, acenocoumarol was initiated. Thereupon, acetylsalicylic acid (100 mg/24 h) was added. No other complications have been reported to date. CONCLUSION: The clinical presentation of intraventricular and multiple arterial thrombi is remarkable. SARS-CoV-2 infection likely contributed to a hypercoagulable state. The management of patients with HIT undergoing cardiac surgery is challenging. If surgery cannot be delayed, then treatment with bivalirudin is recommended. Additionally, this drug is recommended for PCI. Bivalirudin is safe and well-tolerated in both procedures.


Assuntos
Acenocumarol/administração & dosagem , Anticoagulantes/administração & dosagem , Arginina/análogos & derivados , COVID-19/tratamento farmacológico , Heparina , Hirudinas/administração & dosagem , Fragmentos de Peptídeos/administração & dosagem , Intervenção Coronária Percutânea , Ácidos Pipecólicos/administração & dosagem , SARS-CoV-2 , Sulfonamidas/administração & dosagem , Trombocitopenia , Trombose , Arginina/administração & dosagem , COVID-19/complicações , Heparina/administração & dosagem , Heparina/efeitos adversos , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Proteínas Recombinantes/administração & dosagem , Trombocitopenia/induzido quimicamente , Trombocitopenia/terapia , Trombose/induzido quimicamente , Trombose/terapia
12.
Blood ; 139(16): 2553-2560, 2022 Apr 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35263420

RESUMO

The COVID-19 pandemic has resulted in the rapid development of a range of vaccines against SARS-CoV-2. Vaccine-induced immune thrombocytopenia and thrombosis (VITT) is a rare but life-threatening complication of primarily adenoviral-based vaccines associated with the presence of antibodies to a PF4/polyanion neoepitope and measured by using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays. Presented are serial anti-PF4/polyanion antibody, platelet, and D-dimer measurements in a large cohort of patients and their relation to relapse. Overall, 51% of patients using the Stago assay had persistently positive anti-PF4/polyanion levels 100 days' postdiagnosis, whereas 94% of patients monitored by using the Immucor assay remain positive. The median duration of positivity of the PF4 assay is 87 days, with 72% of patients remaining positive after a median follow-up of 105 days. The use of plasma exchange seemed to reduce anti-PF4/polyanion levels and increase platelet counts in the acute setting more rapidly than other therapies. The rate of relapse in this study was 12.6%, with all relapsed cases exhibiting persistently positive PF4 antibodies and falling platelet counts. Only one patient had extension of their thrombosis. Overall, despite the persistence of PF4 antibodies in 72% of patients, the rate of relapse was low and did not seem to result in recrudescence of the aggressive clinical picture seen at index presentation. Monitoring of these patients in the UK cohort is ongoing and will aid in definition of the natural history of this novel condition.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Púrpura Trombocitopênica Idiopática , Trombocitopenia , Trombose , Vacinas , Anticorpos/efeitos adversos , Vacinas contra COVID-19/efeitos adversos , Heparina/efeitos adversos , Humanos , Pandemias , Fator Plaquetário 4 , Recidiva , SARS-CoV-2 , Trombocitopenia/induzido quimicamente , Trombocitopenia/complicações , Vacinas/efeitos adversos
13.
Front Endocrinol (Lausanne) ; 13: 749368, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35282468

RESUMO

Background: Diabetic foot ulcers are a major complication of diabetes mellitus (DM), when heparin and heparin related substances may be potentially used as an adjuvant treatment. We aimed to evaluate the efficacy and safety of heparin and heparin related substances for the treatment of diabetic foot ulcers. Methods: We searched up to March 2021 in the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL); Ovid MEDLINE; Ovid Embase; EBSCO CINAHL; VIP Chinese Science and Technique Journals Database; China National Knowledge Infrastructure (CNKI) Database and Wan Fang Database investigating heparin or heparin-related substances in patients with diabetic foot ulcers. The primary outcomes included proportion of ulcers completely healed and time to complete ulcer healing. We assessed each included study with the Cochrane 'Risk of bias' tool and used the GRADE approach to assess the overall quality of the evidence. Results: We included nine randomized studies involving 620 participants in the meta-analysis, involving two different heparin and heparin-related substances, low molecular weight heparin (LMWH) and hyaluronic acid. Our study did not show the benefits from LMWH on increasing chance of the ulcer healing (RR: 1.26; 95% CI: 0.78 to 2.04; P=0.35; very low) or shortening the time to complete ulcer healing (SMD: 0.13 d; 95% CI: -0.29 to 0.56; P=0.54; very low). Hyaluronic acid may improve the complete ulcer healing (RR: 1.57; 95% CI: 1.29 to 1.91; P˂0.00001; very low) and shorten the time to complete ulcer healing (SMD -0.84, 95% CI -1.15 to -0.53; P<0.00001; low). Hyaluronic acid and LMWH were generally well tolerated for treating diabetic foot ulcers in this review. Conclusion: Hyaluronic acid may improve diabetic foot ulcer with very low quality evidence but not LMWH. However, the benefits and harms need further validation in larger trials with different population. Systematic Review Registration: [https://www.crd.york.ac.uk/prospero/], identifier [PROSPERO, CRD42021269212].


Assuntos
Diabetes Mellitus , Pé Diabético , Pé Diabético/tratamento farmacológico , Heparina/efeitos adversos , Heparina de Baixo Peso Molecular/uso terapêutico , Humanos , Ácido Hialurônico , Cicatrização
14.
Paediatr Anaesth ; 32(6): 764-771, 2022 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35304932

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Maintaining the patency of peripheral arterial lines in pediatric patients during surgery can be challenging due to multiple factors, and catheter-related arterial vasospasm is a potentially modifiable cause. Papaverine, a potent vasodilator, improves arterial line patency when used as a continuous infusion in the pediatric intensive care setting, but this method is not convenient during surgery. AIM: Extrapolating from the benefit seen in the intensive care unit, the authors hypothesize that a small-volume intraarterial bolus of papaverine immediately after arterial line placement will reduce vasospasm-related arterial line malfunction. METHODS: This was a prospective, randomized, double-blind study. Patients less than 17 years of age undergoing cardiac surgery were enrolled. Patients were randomized into the heparin or papaverine groups. Immediately after arterial line insertion, an intraarterial bolus of heparin (2 units/ml, 1 ml) or papaverine (0.12 mg/ml, 1 ml) was administered (T1, Figure 1). An optimal waveform was defined as the ease of aspirating a standardized blood sample within 30 s, absence of cavitation when sampling, absence of color change at the catheter site during injection, and presence of a dicrotic notch. The primary outcome evaluated was the presence of an optimal arterial waveform at 5 min after the first randomized dose (T1 + 5 min). The secondary outcomes were the presence of optimal arterial waveform an hour after the first dose and the ability of papaverine to rescue suboptimal waveforms. RESULTS: A total of 100 patients were enrolled in the study. Twelve patients were excluded from the analysis. Complete datasets after randomization were available in 88 patients (heparin group, n = 46; papaverine group, n = 42). At baseline, groups were similar for age, weight, arterial vessel size, and arterial line patency. At T1 + 5 min, an improvement in the waveform characteristics was observed in the papaverine group (heparin,39% [8/46] vs. papaverine, 64% [27/42]; p = .02; odds ratio, 2.8; 95% CI, 1.2 to 6.6, Figure 3, Table 2). At the end of 1 h, both groups showed continued improvement in arterial line patency. After the second dose, a higher number of patients in the heparin group had suboptimal waveforms and were treated with papaverine (heparin,37% [17/46] vs. papaverine,17% [7/42], p = .05). Patients in the heparin group treated with papaverine showed significant improvement in patency (13/17 vs. 3/7, p = .01). No serious adverse events were reported. CONCLUSIONS: In pediatric patients, papaverine injection immediately after peripheral arterial catheter placement was associated with relief of vasospasm and improved initial arterial line patency. Further, papaverine can be used as a rescue to improve and maintain arterial line patency.


Assuntos
Procedimentos Cirúrgicos Cardíacos , Papaverina , Cateteres , Criança , Método Duplo-Cego , Heparina/efeitos adversos , Heparina/uso terapêutico , Humanos , Papaverina/farmacologia , Papaverina/uso terapêutico , Estudos Prospectivos
15.
J Korean Med Sci ; 37(10): e75, 2022 Mar 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35289136

RESUMO

Vaccine-induced immune thrombotic thrombocytopenia (VITT) is a rare but life-threatening complication. VITT strongly mimics heparin-induced thrombocytopenia (HIT) and shares clinical features. Heparin is commonly used to prevent coagulation during hemodialysis. Therefore, nephrologists might encounter patients needing dialysis with a history of heparin exposure who developed thrombotic thrombocytopenia after vaccination. A 70-year-old male presented with acute kidney injury and altered mental status due to lithium intoxication. He needed consecutive hemodialysis using heparin. Deep vein thrombosis of left lower extremity and accompanying severe thrombocytopenia of 15,000/µL on 24 days after vaccination and at the same time, nine days after heparin use. Anti-platelet factor 4 antibody test was positive. Anticoagulation with apixaban and intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIG) infusion resolved swelling of his left calf and thrombocytopenia. There were no definitive diagnostic tools capable of differentiating between VITT and HIT in this patient. Although VITT and HIT share treatment with IVIG and non-heparin anticoagulation, distinguishing between VITT and HIT will make it possible to establish a follow-up vaccination plan in a person who has had a thrombocytopenic thrombotic event. Further research is needed to develop the tools to make a clear distinction between the clinical syndromes.


Assuntos
/efeitos adversos , Heparina/efeitos adversos , Púrpura Trombocitopênica Idiopática/etiologia , Diálise Renal/efeitos adversos , Trombocitopenia/etiologia , Idoso , Anticoagulantes/efeitos adversos , Autoanticorpos/sangue , Diagnóstico Diferencial , Humanos , Imunoglobulina G/sangue , Lítio/toxicidade , Masculino , Contagem de Plaquetas , Fator Plaquetário 4/imunologia , Púrpura Trombocitopênica Idiopática/sangue , Púrpura Trombocitopênica Idiopática/diagnóstico , Diálise Renal/métodos , Trombocitopenia/sangue , Trombocitopenia/diagnóstico
16.
Cochrane Database Syst Rev ; 3: CD013739, 2022 03 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35244208

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The primary manifestation of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is respiratory insufficiency that can also be related to diffuse pulmonary microthrombosis and thromboembolic events, such as pulmonary embolism, deep vein thrombosis, or arterial thrombosis. People with COVID-19 who develop thromboembolism have a worse prognosis. Anticoagulants such as heparinoids (heparins or pentasaccharides), vitamin K antagonists and direct anticoagulants are used for the prevention and treatment of venous or arterial thromboembolism. Besides their anticoagulant properties, heparinoids have an additional anti-inflammatory potential. However, the benefit of anticoagulants for people with COVID-19 is still under debate. OBJECTIVES: To assess the benefits and harms of anticoagulants versus active comparator, placebo or no intervention in people hospitalised with COVID-19. SEARCH METHODS: We searched the CENTRAL, MEDLINE, Embase, LILACS and IBECS databases, the Cochrane COVID-19 Study Register and medRxiv preprint database from their inception to 14 April 2021. We also checked the reference lists of any relevant systematic reviews identified, and contacted specialists in the field for additional references to trials. SELECTION CRITERIA: Eligible studies were randomised controlled trials (RCTs), quasi-RCTs, cluster-RCTs and cohort studies that compared prophylactic anticoagulants versus active comparator, placebo or no intervention for the management of people hospitalised with COVID-19. We excluded studies without a comparator group and with a retrospective design (all previously included studies) as we were able to include better study designs. Primary outcomes were all-cause mortality and necessity for additional respiratory support. Secondary outcomes were mortality related to COVID-19, deep vein thrombosis, pulmonary embolism, major bleeding, adverse events, length of hospital stay and quality of life. DATA COLLECTION AND ANALYSIS: We used standard Cochrane methodological procedures. We used Cochrane RoB 1 to assess the risk of bias for RCTs, ROBINS-I to assess risk of bias for non-randomised studies (NRS) and GRADE to assess the certainty of evidence. We meta-analysed data when appropriate. MAIN RESULTS: We included seven studies (16,185 participants) with participants hospitalised with COVID-19, in either intensive care units, hospital wards or emergency departments. Studies were from Brazil (2), Iran (1), Italy (1), and the USA (1), and two involved more than country. The mean age of participants was 55 to 68 years and the follow-up period ranged from 15 to 90 days. The studies assessed the effects of heparinoids, direct anticoagulants or vitamin K antagonists, and reported sparse data or did not report some of our outcomes of interest: necessity for additional respiratory support, mortality related to COVID-19, and quality of life. Higher-dose versus lower-dose anticoagulants (4 RCTs, 4647 participants) Higher-dose anticoagulants result in little or no difference in all-cause mortality (risk ratio (RR) 1.03, 95% CI 0.92 to 1.16, 4489 participants; 4 RCTs) and increase minor bleeding (RR 3.28, 95% CI 1.75 to 6.14, 1196 participants; 3 RCTs) compared to lower-dose anticoagulants up to 30 days (high-certainty evidence). Higher-dose anticoagulants probably reduce pulmonary embolism (RR 0.46, 95% CI 0.31 to 0.70, 4360 participants; 4 RCTs), and slightly increase major bleeding (RR 1.78, 95% CI 1.13 to 2.80, 4400 participants; 4 RCTs) compared to lower-dose anticoagulants up to 30 days (moderate-certainty evidence). Higher-dose anticoagulants may result in little or no difference in deep vein thrombosis (RR 1.08, 95% CI 0.57 to 2.03, 3422 participants; 4 RCTs), stroke (RR 0.91, 95% CI 0.40 to 2.03, 4349 participants; 3 RCTs), major adverse limb events (RR 0.33, 95% CI 0.01 to 7.99, 1176 participants; 2 RCTs), myocardial infarction (RR 0.86, 95% CI 0.48 to 1.55, 4349 participants; 3 RCTs), atrial fibrillation (RR 0.35, 95% CI 0.07 to 1.70, 562 participants; 1 study), or thrombocytopenia (RR 0.94, 95% CI 0.71 to 1.24, 2789 participants; 2 RCTs) compared to lower-dose anticoagulants up to 30 days (low-certainty evidence). It is unclear whether higher-dose anticoagulants have any effect on necessity for additional respiratory support, mortality related to COVID-19, and quality of life (very low-certainty evidence or no data). Anticoagulants versus no treatment (3 prospective NRS, 11,538 participants) Anticoagulants may reduce all-cause mortality but the evidence is very uncertain due to two study results being at critical and serious risk of bias (RR 0.64, 95% CI 0.55 to 0.74, 8395 participants; 3 NRS; very low-certainty evidence). It is uncertain if anticoagulants have any effect on necessity for additional respiratory support, mortality related to COVID-19, deep vein thrombosis, pulmonary embolism, major bleeding, stroke, myocardial infarction and quality of life (very low-certainty evidence or no data). Ongoing studies We found 62 ongoing studies in hospital settings (60 RCTs, 35,470 participants; 2 prospective NRS, 120 participants) in 20 different countries. Thirty-five ongoing studies plan to report mortality and 26 plan to report necessity for additional respiratory support. We expect 58 studies to be completed in December 2021, and four in July 2022. From 60 RCTs, 28 are comparing different doses of anticoagulants, 24 are comparing anticoagulants versus no anticoagulants, seven are comparing different types of anticoagulants, and one did not report detail of the comparator group. AUTHORS' CONCLUSIONS: When compared to a lower-dose regimen, higher-dose anticoagulants result in little to no difference in all-cause mortality and increase minor bleeding in people hospitalised with COVID-19 up to 30 days. Higher-dose anticoagulants possibly reduce pulmonary embolism, slightly increase major bleeding, may result in little to no difference in hospitalisation time, and may result in little to no difference in deep vein thrombosis, stroke, major adverse limb events, myocardial infarction, atrial fibrillation, or thrombocytopenia.  Compared with no treatment, anticoagulants may reduce all-cause mortality but the evidence comes from non-randomised studies and is very uncertain. It is unclear whether anticoagulants have any effect on the remaining outcomes compared to no anticoagulants (very low-certainty evidence or no data). Although we are very confident that new RCTs will not change the effects of different doses of anticoagulants on mortality and minor bleeding, high-quality RCTs are still needed, mainly for the other primary outcome (necessity for additional respiratory support), the comparison with no anticoagulation, when comparing the types of anticoagulants and giving anticoagulants for a prolonged period of time.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Tromboembolia , Idoso , Anticoagulantes/efeitos adversos , COVID-19/complicações , Heparina/efeitos adversos , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , SARS-CoV-2
17.
Lancet ; 399(10329): 1059-1069, 2022 03 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35240044

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Aspirin and unfractionated heparin are often used during endovascular stroke treatment to improve reperfusion and outcomes. However, the effects and risks of anti-thrombotics for this indication are unknown. We therefore aimed to assess the safety and efficacy of intravenous aspirin, unfractionated heparin, both, or neither started during endovascular treatment in patients with ischaemic stroke. METHODS: We did an open-label, multicentre, randomised controlled trial with a 2 × 3 factorial design in 15 centres in the Netherlands. We enrolled adult patients (ie, ≥18 years) with ischaemic stroke due to an intracranial large-vessel occlusion in the anterior circulation in whom endovascular treatment could be initiated within 6 h of symptom onset. Eligible patients had a score of 2 or more on the National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale, and a CT or MRI ruling out intracranial haemorrhage. Randomisation was done using a web-based procedure with permuted blocks and stratified by centre. Patients were randomly assigned (1:1) to receive either periprocedural intravenous aspirin (300 mg bolus) or no aspirin, and randomly assigned (1:1:1) to receive moderate-dose unfractionated heparin (5000 IU bolus followed by 1250 IU/h for 6 h), low-dose unfractionated heparin (5000 IU bolus followed by 500 IU/h for 6 h), or no unfractionated heparin. The primary outcome was the score on the modified Rankin Scale at 90 days. Symptomatic intracranial haemorrhage was the main safety outcome. Analyses were based on intention to treat, and treatment effects were expressed as odds ratios (ORs) or common ORs, with adjustment for baseline prognostic factors. This trial is registered with the International Standard Randomised Controlled Trial Number, ISRCTN76741621. FINDINGS: Between Jan 22, 2018, and Jan 27, 2021, we randomly assigned 663 patients; of whom, 628 (95%) provided deferred consent or died before consent could be asked and were included in the modified intention-to-treat population. On Feb 4, 2021, after unblinding and analysis of the data, the trial steering committee permanently stopped patient recruitment and the trial was stopped for safety concerns. The risk of symptomatic intracranial haemorrhage was higher in patients allocated to receive aspirin than in those not receiving aspirin (43 [14%] of 310 vs 23 [7%] of 318; adjusted OR 1·95 [95% CI 1·13-3·35]) as well as in patients allocated to receive unfractionated heparin than in those not receiving unfractionated heparin (44 [13%] of 332 vs 22 [7%] of 296; 1·98 [1·14-3·46]). Both aspirin (adjusted common OR 0·91 [95% CI 0·69-1·21]) and unfractionated heparin (0·81 [0·61-1·08]) led to a non-significant shift towards worse modified Rankin Scale scores. INTERPRETATION: Periprocedural intravenous aspirin and unfractionated heparin during endovascular stroke treatment are both associated with an increased risk of symptomatic intracranial haemorrhage without evidence for a beneficial effect on functional outcome. FUNDING: The Collaboration for New Treatments of Acute Stroke consortium, the Brain Foundation Netherlands, the Ministry of Economic Affairs, Stryker, Medtronic, Cerenovus, and the Dutch Heart Foundation.


Assuntos
Isquemia Encefálica , Acidente Vascular Cerebral , Adulto , Aspirina/uso terapêutico , Isquemia Encefálica/terapia , Heparina/efeitos adversos , Humanos , Imageamento por Ressonância Magnética , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/etiologia , Resultado do Tratamento
18.
Internist (Berl) ; 63(4): 453-460, 2022 Apr.
Artigo em Alemão | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35290499

RESUMO

Infection with severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) is associated with a high risk of microvascular immunothrombosis as well as symptomatic and incidental thromboembolisms, predominantly in the venous system but also in the arterial system. This explains among other things the high cardiovascular morbidity and mortality of the patients. The present state of knowledge on the pathophysiology of immunothrombosis and the strategies of anticoagulation in patients with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) are summarized and illuminated in this article. According to the current guidelines moderately to severely ill patients who are being treated in hospital should receive thrombosis prophylaxis with low molecular weight or unfractionated heparin or alternatively with fondaparinux, as long as there is no clearly increased risk of bleeding. Apart from the established indications for treatment, an intensified or therapeutic dose prophylaxis should be considered very cautiously in these critically ill patients, also due to the increased bleeding complications. The routine continuation of prophylactic anticoagulation after discharge from hospital is currently not recommended.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Heparina , Anticoagulantes/uso terapêutico , Coagulação Sanguínea , Heparina/efeitos adversos , Humanos , SARS-CoV-2
19.
BMJ Case Rep ; 15(2)2022 Feb 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35228213

RESUMO

We present a case study of a 38-year-old man who developed arterial and venous thrombi, resulting in multiterritorial strokes, a pulmonary embolus and a cerebral venous sinus thrombosis in the setting of spontaneous heparin-induced thrombocytopaenia syndrome.


Assuntos
Acidente Vascular Cerebral , Trombocitopenia , Trombose , Adulto , Heparina/efeitos adversos , Humanos , Masculino , Trombocitopenia/induzido quimicamente
20.
J Healthc Eng ; 2022: 9334113, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35299687

RESUMO

In this study, we have evaluated and examined various nursing effects of improved administration of protamine sulfate neutralizing heparin after cardiopulmonary bypass. For this purpose, retrospective analysis was made about the nursing records and clinical data of 216 patients who underwent cardiac operation under cardiopulmonary bypass in our hospital from January 2018 to December 2020. Among the enrolled patients, 118 patients were given subinterval administration of protamine sulfate neutralizing heparin via aortic root with the assistance of the scrub nurse at the end of cardiac surgery (improved group). A total of 98 patients were administered by the circulating nurse via the central vein (regular group). The changes of body temperature, blood pressure, oxygen saturation before and after heparin neutralization, and the total volume of thoracic drainage within 24 hours after operation were observed in the two groups, so as to evaluate the application effect of the improved administration of protamine sulfate neutralizing heparin from the perspective of nursing. There was no significant difference in age, gender, and other basic characteristics between the two groups (P > 0.05). The volume of drainage in the improved group and the regular group within 24 hours after surgery was 234 ± 26.3 ml and 307 ± 31.8 ml, respectively, P < 0.01, and the difference was statistically significant. The incidence of adverse reactions in the improved group was much lower than that in the regular group, P < 0.01. The administration route of the improved group was beneficial to maintain the stability of hemodynamics when using the protamine sulfate to neutralize heparin, which is worthy of clinical nursing promotion.


Assuntos
Procedimentos Cirúrgicos Cardíacos , Heparina , Procedimentos Cirúrgicos Cardíacos/efeitos adversos , Ponte Cardiopulmonar/efeitos adversos , Heparina/efeitos adversos , Humanos , Protaminas/efeitos adversos , Estudos Retrospectivos
SELEÇÃO DE REFERÊNCIAS
DETALHE DA PESQUISA
...