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1.
Ann Agric Environ Med ; 27(3): 481-484, 2020 Sep 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32955233

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION AND OBJECTIVE: Hepatitis A Virus (HAV), reportedly the most common cause of acute viral hepatitis in developing countries, infects millions of people worldwide each year. The aim of the study is to investigate the seropositivity of anti-hepatitis A virus (HAV) IgG and IgM in all age groups in Erzurum, and to determine the effect of various factors such as age, gender, climatic conditions and HAV vaccination (included in 2012 in the National Immunization Schedule on seroprevalence) on the seropositivity. MATERIAL AND METHODS: The serological results of 25,007 individuals referred to Erzurum Public Health Microbiology Laboratory between January 2015 - December 2018 were retrospectively reviewed to test for the presence of anti-HAV IgG and IgM. The patient ages were 0-93 years. Serum samples were analyzed by ELISA. S/CO values of ≥1.00 and >1.21 were considered positive for anti-HAV IgG and IgM, respectively; results below this value were considered negative. RESULTS: Anti-HAV IgG and IgM seropositivities were 87.3% and 0.2%, respectively. Anti-HAV IgG prevalence - 88.5% and 86.4%, anti-HAV IgM positivity - 0.1% and 0.3% in men and women. Anti-HAV IgG seroprevalence - 87%, 73.2%, 58.7%, 75.2%, 86.1%, 89.8%, 96.1%, 99.1%, 99.1% and 99.3%, respectively, at 0-4, 5-9 10-14, 15-19, 20-24, 25-29, 30-39, 40-49, 50-59 and >60 age groups. Anti-HAV IgM seropositivity - 0, 0.1%, 0.7%, 0.7%, 0.3%, 0, 0.1%, 0.2%, 0.1%, and 0.2%, respectively, in the same age groups. Anti-HAV IgM positivity was the highest in November - 36(0.97%. CONCLUSIONS: In Erzurum, anti-HAV IgG prevalence is tremendously high, whereas prevalence of anti-HAV IgM is exceptionally low, especially in the paediatric age group. Therefore, HAV vaccine is provided free of charge in Turkey, including Erzurum, since 2012.


Assuntos
Vírus da Hepatite A/isolamento & purificação , Hepatite A/epidemiologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Feminino , Anticorpos Anti-Hepatite A/sangue , Humanos , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Prevalência , Estudos Retrospectivos , Estudos Soroepidemiológicos , Turquia/epidemiologia , Adulto Jovem
2.
Zhonghua Liu Xing Bing Xue Za Zhi ; 41(8): 1319-1323, 2020 Aug 10.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32867443

RESUMO

Objective: To understand the characteristics of spatiotemporal clustering on hepatitis A in Gansu province and to provide evidence for hepatitis A prevention and control. Methods: Data related to hepatitis A were retrieved from National Notifiable Disease Report System, ArcGIS 10.3 and SaTScan 9.1 in Gansu province from 2004 to 2018. Results: The annual average report incidence rate of hepatitis A was 10.91/100 000, showing a descending trend with no periodic or seasonal features. After the implementation of national expanded immunization program, high annual incidence rates had been seen in Linxia Hui autonomous prefecture and Gannan Tibetan autonomous prefecture. From 2004 to 2012, the lowest RR value appeared in the 0-9 age group (P=0.000) while the highest RR value was in the over 60 age group during 2013-2018 except for the age 0-9 group in 2015. The annual average incidence rate was increasing from south to north and west to east, across the territory. Results from the temporal scanning program revealed that the incidence of hepatitis A was temporally aggregated from 2004 to 2018. For spatio-temporal scanning of 2004-2008, data showed one most likely cluster area (radius: 91.95 km, Time frame: 2004-2005), apparel mainly in Linxia and Longnan cities. Results from the spatio-temporal scanning program of 2009-2018 also showed that the most likely cluster areas (radius: 183.26 km, Time frame: 2009-2012) were in Gannan, Linxia, Dingxi and Longnan areas. Conclusions: The reported incidence rates of hepatitis A were declining, without significant periodic or seasonal pattern in Gansu province from 2004 to 2018. In the 0-9 years-old group, the incidence rate showed the lowest, while the highest was in the 60 year-olds group. Spatio-temporal clustering of hepatitis A was observed in Gansu province from 2004 to 2018. Strategies on prevention and control of the disease should be targeted in the southwest regions of the province.


Assuntos
Hepatite A/epidemiologia , Criança , Pré-Escolar , China/epidemiologia , Cidades/epidemiologia , Análise por Conglomerados , Humanos , Incidência , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Análise Espaço-Temporal
3.
BMC Infect Dis ; 20(1): 627, 2020 Aug 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32842988

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The epidemiological pattern of hepatitis A infection has shown dynamic changes in many parts of the world due to improved socio-economic conditions and the accumulation of seronegative subjects, which leads to possible outbreaks and increased morbidity rate. In Tunisia, the epidemiological status of hepatits A virus is currently unknown. However, over the past years higher numbers of symptomatic hepatitis A virus infection in school attendants and several outbreaks were reported to the Ministry of Health, especially from regions with the lowest socio-economic levels in the country. The aim of this study was to investigate the current seroprevalence of hepatitis A virus antibodies in central-west Tunisia and assess the impact of hepatitis A virus vaccination on hepatitis A epidemiology. METHODS: Serum samples from 1379 individuals, aged 5-75 years, were screened for hepatitis A virus antibodies. Adjusted seroprevalence, incidence and force of infection parameters were estimated by a linear age structured SEIR (Susceptible-Exposed-Infectious-Recovered) compartmental model. A vaccine model was then constructed to assess the impact on hepatitis A virus epidemiology of 3 scenarios of vaccination strategies: one dose at 12-months of age, one dose at 6-years and one dose at 12-months and another at 6-years of age during 6 years. RESULTS: A rapid increase in anti-hepatitis A virus seroprevalence was noted during infancy and adolescence: 47% of subjects under 10-years-old are infected; the prevalence increases to 77% at 15-years and reaches 97% in subjects aged 30-years. The force of infection is highest between 10 and 30-years of age and the incidence declines with increasing age. The vaccine model showed that the 3-scenarios lead to a significant reduction of the fraction of susceptibles. The two doses scenario gives the best results. Single-dose vaccination at 6-years of age provides more rapid decrease of disease burden in school-aged children, as compared to single-dose vaccination at 12-months, but keeps with a non-negligible fraction of susceptibles among children < 6-years. CONCLUSIONS: Our study confirms the epidemiological switch from high to intermediate endemicity of hepatitis A virus in Tunisia and provides models that may help undertake best decisions in terms of vaccinations strategies.


Assuntos
Vírus da Hepatite A/imunologia , Hepatite A/epidemiologia , Hepatite A/transmissão , Modelos Teóricos , Vacinação/métodos , Adolescente , Adulto , Fatores Etários , Idoso , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Feminino , Hepatite A/sangue , Hepatite A/prevenção & controle , Anticorpos Anti-Hepatite A/sangue , Humanos , Incidência , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Prevalência , Estudos Soroepidemiológicos , Tunísia/epidemiologia , Adulto Jovem
4.
Public Health Rep ; 135(5): 691-699, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32791034

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Although many people who use drugs meet criteria for vaccination against hepatitis A virus (HAV) and hepatitis B virus (HBV), estimates of susceptibility (ie, lack of immunity) are not well established. This study sought to identify the prevalence of and characteristics associated with HAV and HBV susceptibility among people who use drugs attending an urban syringe services program. METHODS: We initiated this seroprevalence study in 2018 among 438 clients of a syringe services program who met study criteria, including provision of a blood specimen and a self-reported history of drug use. We assessed HAV and HBV susceptibility and infection via serological testing. We examined associations between participant characteristics and serology status by using descriptive statistics and multivariable logistic regression models. RESULTS: Of the initial 438 clients identified, 353 (80.6%) met study criteria. Of 352 participants with conclusive HAV test results, 48.6% (n = 171) were HAV susceptible; of 337 participants with conclusive HBV test results, 32.6% (n = 110) were HBV susceptible, 24.3% (n = 82) showed evidence of past or present HBV infection, and 43.0% (n = 145) had vaccine-derived immunity. Compared with participants born before 1970, participants born during 1980-1989 had 5.90 (95% CI, 2.42-14.40) times the odds of HAV susceptibility and 0.18 (95% CI, 0.06-0.53) times the odds of HBV susceptibility, and participants born during 1990-1999 had 6.31 (95% CI, 2.34-17.00) times the odds of HAV susceptibility. Decreased odds of HAV susceptibility were associated with homelessness (adjusted odds ratio = 0.48; 95% CI, 0.28-0.82). CONCLUSION: Despite applicable HAV and HBV vaccination recommendations, substantial gaps exist in HAV and HBV susceptibility among a population of people who use drugs. These findings highlight the need for increased HAV and HBV vaccination efforts among people who use drugs.


Assuntos
Suscetibilidade a Doenças , Usuários de Drogas/estatística & dados numéricos , Hepatite A/epidemiologia , Hepatite B/epidemiologia , Programas de Troca de Agulhas/estatística & dados numéricos , Adulto , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Philadelphia/epidemiologia , Fatores de Risco , População Urbana/estatística & dados numéricos , Adulto Jovem
5.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32630063

RESUMO

San Diego, California is consistently ranked among regions with the highest rates of homelessness in the United States. From 2016 to 2018, San Diego experienced an unprecedented outbreak of hepatitis A virus (HAV), largely attributed in media and public health discourse to the region's growing population of people experiencing homelessness. Little attention, however, was devoted to examining the experiences and needs of this population, particularly transitional aged youth (TAY, aged 18-24) experiencing homelessness who may have been uniquely affected by the outbreak. This community-based participatory research study leveraged diverse qualitative methods, principally photovoice, to explore how the social and built environment shapes health among TAY experiencing homelessness in San Diego, how these environments may have contributed to the HAV outbreak, and TAY's perceptions of HAV-related public health interventions. Emergent findings include stigmatization of TAY and other people experiencing homelessness, interventions that failed to address root causes of the outbreak, and interactions with housing-related and other social support resources that limit rather than support economic and social mobility. Findings have implications for understanding how media and public discourse, public health interventions, and availability and delivery of resources can contribute to and perpetuate stigma and health inequities faced by TAY experiencing homelessness.


Assuntos
Surtos de Doenças , Hepatite A , Pessoas em Situação de Rua , Adolescente , Hepatite A/epidemiologia , Habitação , Humanos , Apoio Social , Estados Unidos , Adulto Jovem
6.
Am J Public Health ; 110(9): 1332, 2020 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32673108

RESUMO

Objectives. To describe county-level socioeconomic profiles associated with Kentucky's 2017-2018 hepatitis A outbreak that predominately affected communities affected by the opioid epidemic.Methods. We linked county-level characteristics on socioeconomic and housing variables to counties' hepatitis A rates. Principal component analysis identified county profiles of poverty, education, disability, income inequality, grandparent responsibility, residential instability, and marital status. We used Poisson regression to estimate adjusted relative risks (RRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs).Results. Counties with scores reflecting an extremely disadvantaged profile (RR = 1.21; 95% CI = 0.99, 1.48) and greater percentage of nonmarried men, residential instability, and income inequality (RR = 1.15; 95% CI = 0.94, 1.41) had higher hepatitis A rates. Counties with scores reflecting more married adults, residential stability, and lower income inequality despite disability, poverty, and low education (RR = 0.77; 95% CI = 0.59, 1.00) had lower hepatitis A rates. Counties with a higher percentage of workers in the manufacturing industry had slightly lower rates (RR = 0.97; 95% CI = 0.94, 1.00).Conclusions. As expected, impoverished counties had higher hepatitis A rates. Evaluation across the socioeconomic patterns highlighted community-level factors (e.g., residential instability, income inequality, and social structures) that can be collected to augment hepatitis A data surveillance and used to identify higher-risk communities for targeted immunizations.


Assuntos
Hepatite A/epidemiologia , Epidemia de Opioides , Fatores Socioeconômicos , Pessoas com Deficiência/estatística & dados numéricos , Feminino , Habitação/estatística & dados numéricos , Humanos , Kentucky/epidemiologia , Masculino
7.
MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep ; 69(26): 820-824, 2020 Jul 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32614812

RESUMO

Los Angeles County comprises 4,058 square miles and is home to approximately 10 million residents (1), an estimated 59,000 (0.6%) of whom experience homelessness on a given night (2). In late 2018, Los Angeles County Department of Public Health (LAC DPH) was notified of a case of hepatitis A virus (HAV) infection in a person experiencing homelessness. LAC DPH conducted an investigation to determine the source of infection, identify additional cases, and identify contacts for postexposure prophylaxis (PEP). Over the next week, LAC DPH identified two additional hepatitis A cases in persons experiencing homelessness who knew one another socially and were known to congregate at a specific street intersection. To identify and respond rapidly to additional outbreak-associated cases, LAC DPH implemented enhanced surveillance procedures, including immediately obtaining specimens for molecular testing from all patients with suspected hepatitis A in the same geographic area. Enhanced surveillance identified four additional cases in persons linked to a senior living campus within two blocks of the intersection where the initial three patients reported congregating. These four cases were linked to the cluster in persons experiencing homelessness through HAV genotyping. Overall, DPH identified seven outbreak-associated hepatitis A cases during October 2018-January 2019. The DPH response to this community hepatitis A outbreak included conducting vaccination outreach to persons at risk, conducting environmental health outreach to restaurants in the outbreak area, and issuing health care provider alerts about the increased occurrence of hepatitis A. Implementation of near real-time molecular testing can improve hepatitis A outbreak responses by confirming HAV infections, linking additional cases to the outbreak, and informing the targeting of prevention efforts.


Assuntos
Surtos de Doenças/prevenção & controle , Hepatite A/epidemiologia , Hepatite A/prevenção & controle , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Genótipo , Hepatite A/genética , Pessoas em Situação de Rua/estatística & dados numéricos , Humanos , Los Angeles/epidemiologia , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Epidemiologia Molecular , Vigilância em Saúde Pública , Adulto Jovem
8.
BMC Infect Dis ; 20(1): 529, 2020 Jul 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32698841

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The risk of viral hepatitis among healthcare students (HCSs) is greater than that among the general population. Therefore, this study was conducted to investigate the seroprevalence of the hepatitis A virus (HAV), hepatitis B virus (HBV) and hepatitis C virus (HCV) among first-year HCSs at a university in Turkey and as a secondary objective, to determine the factors associated with HAV and HBV seropositivity. METHODS: This cross-sectional study was performed in first-year HCSs in Izmir, western Turkey. Data were collected using a self-administered questionnaire including items on sociodemographic characteristics, medical history, and hygiene. A total of 650 HCSs were tested for the HAV, HBV and HCV markers. Categorical variables were compared using the chi-square test. The association between independent variables and anti-HAV seropositivity and anti-HBs seropositivity was assessed by multinomial logistic regression analysis. RESULTS: The overall frequency of total anti-HAV seropositivity was 34.9%. HBsAg, total anti-HBc and anti-HBs seropositivity were found in 0.3, 1.2 and 93.7% of samples, respectively. All of the HCSs were negative for anti-HCV. Total anti-HAV seropositivity was found to be 1.73 times higher in those ≥21 years old, and it was 1.61 times higher in those who perceived their economic status to be average and 2.75 times higher in those who perceived their economic status to be low. Total anti-HAV seropositivity was found to be 4.37 times higher in those who lived in provinces with intermediate human development index levels. Total anti-HBs seropositivity was found to be 2.48 times higher in those ≤20 years old, and it was 2.13 times higher in those who perceived their economic status to be average. CONCLUSIONS: Approximately two out of three HCSs were susceptible to HAV infection. Since HCSs are at high risk for HAV infection, they should be vaccinated before medical clerkships begin. Our results indicate that there is a high prevalence of anti-HBs seropositivity among HCSs. This result may be largely attributed to the implementation of a successful vaccination program in Turkey since 1998.


Assuntos
Hepacivirus/imunologia , Vírus da Hepatite A/imunologia , Hepatite A/epidemiologia , Vírus da Hepatite B/imunologia , Hepatite B/epidemiologia , Hepatite C/epidemiologia , Estudantes de Medicina , Adolescente , Adulto , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Hepatite A/sangue , Hepatite A/virologia , Hepatite B/sangue , Hepatite B/virologia , Anticorpos Anti-Hepatite B/sangue , Antígenos de Superfície da Hepatite B/sangue , Hepatite C/sangue , Hepatite C/virologia , Humanos , Programas de Imunização , Masculino , Prevalência , Autorrelato , Estudos Soroepidemiológicos , Turquia/epidemiologia , Adulto Jovem
9.
Rev Bras Epidemiol ; 23: e200073, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês, Português | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32638856

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: In 2014, Brazil introduced a universal immunization program against the hepatitis A virus (HAV) for children in the second year of life, using a single dose of inactivated virus vaccine. The objective of this study was to evaluate the vaccination coverage (VC) against HAV in Brazil, against the incidence of cases reported five years after the implementation of the program. METHODOLOGY: Secondary data were obtained by searching free access electronic sites of the Ministry of Health, Department of Informatics of the Unified Health System (Departamento de Informática do Sistema Único de Saúde - DATASUS), for incidence analysis and VC from 2014 to 2018. RESULTS: VC ranged from 60.13 to 97.07%. The homogeneity of VC against hepatitis A did not reach the established goal throughout all states but for a few exceptions. After 2015, CV decreased in all regions of the country. Despite insufficient coverage, a concomitant reduction in the incidence of Hepatitis A took place throughout the country. The incidence rate fell from 3.29 to 0.80/100,000 between 2014 and 2018. However, there was an interruption in the pace of incidence fall between 2017 and 2018, which may be a consequence of insufficient VC. This phenomenon seems to be part of a widespread downward trend in vaccination effort across the country, also verified for other vaccines, such as poliomyelitis and measles, mumps and rubella vaccine. CONCLUSION: These figures suggest the need for implementing efforts to improve hepatitis A VC rates in the country.


Assuntos
Vacinas contra Hepatite A/administração & dosagem , Hepatite A/epidemiologia , Hepatite A/prevenção & controle , Programas de Imunização/organização & administração , Cobertura Vacinal/estatística & dados numéricos , Brasil/epidemiologia , Pré-Escolar , Humanos , Incidência , Avaliação de Programas e Projetos de Saúde
10.
Nursing ; 50(7): 24-28, 2020 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32558785

RESUMO

In 2016, large outbreaks of hepatitis A virus (HAV) infection began to occur among high-risk individuals, including those with a history of drug use and those experiencing homelessness. This article focusses on HAV infection among high-risk individuals in the community, including those experiencing homelessness.


Assuntos
Surtos de Doenças , Hepatite A/epidemiologia , Hepatite A/enfermagem , Pessoas em Situação de Rua/estatística & dados numéricos , Humanos , Medição de Risco , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia
11.
PLoS One ; 15(6): e0234273, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32542052

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Viral hepatitis (hepatitis A, B, C, D and E) remains a public health problem in Peru, with a high disease burden. There are limited data on the prevalence of viral hepatitis at a national level, and none reported for over two decades. In this study, the prevalence rates of hepatitis A (HAV), B (HBV), C (HCV), D (HDV) and E virus (HEV) infections in the Peruvian population were determined to provide updated baseline data that would help guide the development of strategies aimed at reducing the transmission of viral hepatitis in Peru. METHODS: We conducted a cross-sectional, population-based study in the 25 regions of Peru. The study included participants of both sexes, aged 15-69 years, who had lived for >6 months in a specific region of Peru. Serum samples were analyzed by ELISA for anti-HAV (IgG), anti-HBs ≥10 mUI/ml, anti-HCV, anti-HDV and anti-HEV (IgG) antibodies, and by chemiluminescence for the HBV surface antigen (HBsAg) and antibodies against the core HBV antigen (anti-HBc IgM and IgG). RESULTS: In a total of 5183 study participants, the prevalence rates of anti-HAV (IgG), HBsAg, total anti-HBc IgG, anti-HBs ≥10 mUI/ml, anti-HCV and anti-HEV (IgG) were 98.4% [95% confidence interval (CI) 98.0-98.7), 0.4% (95% CI 0.21-0.55), 10.1% (95% CI 9.4-11.0), 60% (95% CI 58.5-61.2), 0.1% (95% CI 0.02-0.25), and 14% (95% CI 13.1-15.0%), respectively. The prevalence of anti-HDV among HBsAg carriers was 15% (3/20). CONCLUSIONS: The prevalence of HAV and HEV in the population aged 15-69 years in Peru is high, while the prevalence of HBV and HDV has changed from intermediate to low endemicity level and the prevalence of HCV is low. These findings would prove useful in the development of new strategies aimed at reducing the transmission of viral hepatitis in Peru, with a view to ultimately eliminating these infections in the future.


Assuntos
Hepatite Viral Humana/epidemiologia , Estudos Soroepidemiológicos , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Anticorpos Antivirais/imunologia , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Hepatite A/epidemiologia , Hepatite B/epidemiologia , Hepatite C/epidemiologia , Hepatite D/epidemiologia , Hepatite E/epidemiologia , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Peru/epidemiologia , Prevalência , Adulto Jovem
12.
J Appl Microbiol ; 129(5): 1120-1132, 2020 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32471014

RESUMO

Food contaminated by hepatitis A virus (HAV) is responsible of the 2-7% of all HAV outbreaks worldwide. This review provides a description of the HAV characteristics, its infectivity and epidemiological features. In addition, this review compiles existing original papers reporting HAV prevalence, viral titres in foodstuffs and the risk associated with food contamination. The purpose of this revision is to conduct a structured and systematic review of the published molecular procedures for HAV detection in food, including the assessment of its infectivity.


Assuntos
Microbiologia de Alimentos , Doenças Transmitidas por Alimentos/virologia , Vírus da Hepatite A/isolamento & purificação , Vírus da Hepatite A/fisiologia , Hepatite A/transmissão , Surtos de Doenças/estatística & dados numéricos , Contaminação de Alimentos/análise , Doenças Transmitidas por Alimentos/epidemiologia , Hepatite A/epidemiologia , Hepatite A/virologia , Humanos , Prevalência , Medição de Risco
13.
Gastroenterol Clin North Am ; 49(2): 191-199, 2020 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32389358

RESUMO

Hepatitis A virus (HAV) is a positive-strand RNA virus that is transmitted feco-orally through person-to-person contact. Outbreaks are often linked to poor sanitation, overcrowding, or food and water contamination. Infection is often asymptomatic in children, but adults present with jaundice, abdominal pain, hepatitis, and hyperbilirubinemia. Diagnosis is through detection of immunoglobulin M antibodies against HAV, and treatment is supportive. Vaccination is the mainstay of prevention and should be given before exposure whenever possible.


Assuntos
Hepatite A/epidemiologia , Hepatite A/prevenção & controle , Dor Abdominal/etiologia , Alanina Transaminase/sangue , Anorexia/etiologia , Biomarcadores/sangue , Hepatite A/complicações , Hepatite A/diagnóstico , Vacinas contra Hepatite A , Humanos , Icterícia/etiologia , Risco , Testes Sorológicos/métodos , Viagem
14.
Epidemiol Infect ; 148: e121, 2020 05 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32381137

RESUMO

Reduction in seroprevalence of Hepatitis A virus (HAV) is known to be associated with improvements in socioeconomic conditions of the community. National Institute of Virology, Pune has been studying seroprevalence of hepatitis viruses in Pune region over the past four decades. In total, 1438 samples were collected from urban general (UGEN), urban lower socioeconomic stratum (ULSES) and rural (RURAL) populations of the Pune district. Based on estimates in previous studies, subjects were enrolled from age groups '6-10', '15-25' and '40 + ' years. HAV seroprevalence in younger population showed a significant decline. A significant decline in HAV seroprevalence in '15-25' years age group in UGEN (from 85.9% to 73.9%; OR = 0.46, 95% CI: 0.25-0.86) and RURAL (from 98.6% to 91.4%; OR = 0.15, 95% CI: 0.05-0.45) populations suggested that the trend probably started more than a decade ago. Seroprevalence of HAV among ULSES '6-10' children was found to be significantly higher (70.4%) than that among the RURAL children (44.2%; OR = 3.0, 95%CI: 1.7-5.2) and UGEN children (40.4%; OR = 3.5, 95%CI: 1.8-6.7). In view of increasing rates of urbanisation in India, ULSES population needs special consideration while designing future studies and viral hepatitis vaccination/elimination strategies. Our findings call for robust population-based studies that consider heterogeneity within populations and dynamics of socio-economic parameters in various regions of a country.


Assuntos
Hepatite A/epidemiologia , Vigilância da População , Adolescente , Adulto , Criança , Humanos , Índia/epidemiologia , Estudos Retrospectivos , Fatores de Risco , Estudos Soroepidemiológicos , Adulto Jovem
15.
Am J Trop Med Hyg ; 103(1): 485-493, 2020 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32372751

RESUMO

Tropical splenomegaly is often associated with malaria and schistosomiasis. In 2014 and 2015, 145 Congolese refugees in western Uganda diagnosed with splenomegaly during predeparture medical examinations underwent enhanced screening for various etiologies. After anecdotal reports of unresolved splenomegaly and complications after U.S. arrival, patients were reassessed to describe long-term clinical progression after arrival in the United States. Post-arrival medical information was obtained through medical chart abstraction in collaboration with state health partners in nine participating states. We evaluated observed splenomegaly duration and associated clinical sequelae between 130 case patients from eastern Congo and 102 controls through adjusted hierarchical Poisson models, accounting for familial clustering. Of the 130 case patients, 95 (73.1%) had detectable splenomegaly after arrival. Of the 85 patients with records beyond 6 months, 45 (52.9%) had persistent splenomegaly, with a median persistence of 14.7 months (range 6.0-27.9 months). Of the 112 patients with available results, 65 (58.0%) patients had evidence of malaria infection, and the mean splenomegaly duration did not differ by Plasmodium species. Refugees with splenomegaly on arrival were 43% more likely to have anemia (adjusted relative risk [aRR]: 1.43, 95% CI: 1.04-1.97). Those with persistent splenomegaly were 60% more likely (adjusted relative risk [aRR]: 1.60, 95% CI: 1.15-2.23) to have a hematologic abnormality, particularly thrombocytopenia (aRR: 5.53, 95% CI: 1.73-17.62), and elevated alkaline phosphatase (aRR: 1.57, 95% CI: 1.03-2.40). Many patients experienced persistent splenomegaly, contradicting literature describing resolution after treatment and removal from an endemic setting. Other possible etiologies should be investigated and effective treatment, beyond treatment for malaria and schistosomiasis, explored.


Assuntos
Anemia/epidemiologia , Eosinofilia/epidemiologia , Malária/epidemiologia , Refugiados , Esquistossomose/epidemiologia , Esplenomegalia/epidemiologia , Trombocitopenia/epidemiologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Fosfatase Alcalina/sangue , Anemia/sangue , Anti-Helmínticos/uso terapêutico , Antimaláricos/uso terapêutico , Combinação Arteméter e Lumefantrina/uso terapêutico , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Estudos de Coortes , República Democrática do Congo/etnologia , Progressão da Doença , Eosinofilia/sangue , Feminino , Hepatite A/epidemiologia , Hepatite B/epidemiologia , Hepatite C/epidemiologia , Humanos , Imunoglobulina M , Lactente , Malária/complicações , Malária/diagnóstico , Malária/tratamento farmacológico , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase , Praziquantel/uso terapêutico , Esquistossomose/complicações , Esquistossomose/tratamento farmacológico , Esplenomegalia/sangue , Esplenomegalia/etiologia , Trombocitopenia/sangue , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia , Adulto Jovem
16.
PLoS One ; 15(5): e0234010, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32470049

RESUMO

In Europe HAV infection occurs mainly among specific risk groups, such as consumers of specific food. Sexual transmission of HAV has been demonstrated, particularly among Men-Who-Have-Sex-With-Men (MSM), causing MSM-specific outbreaksin Europe. Here we report a molecular epidemiologic and phylodynamic analysis on HAV sequences in Lazio (central Italy)to identify genetic background and the phylogenetic relations, and test the HAV infection dynamics during a large outbreak through phylodynamic model.Among all HAV sequences found during 2013-2018 in Lazio, low genetic diversity was observed in HAV population in 2016 and 2017, along with high frequenciesVRD_521_2016and RIVM-HAV16-090, suggesting a large expansion event of viral population. The initial expansion of both VRD_521_2016 and RIVM-HAV16-090 clusters dated back to 2012 (95% HPD:2006-2015). During the2016-2017outbreak in Lazio region, the Re peaked around mid-2016, with a value of 1.73 (95% HPD: 1.03-2.37), consistent with incidence trend of AHA cases in Lazio between 2016 and mid-2017. This study showed the magnitude of HAV outbreak in Lazio during 2016-2017, demonstrating the epidemic continuity to MSM-specific outbreak in Europe. The HAV dataset is available on interactive phylodynamic platform https://nextstrain.org to real-time update of future outbreaks.


Assuntos
Surtos de Doenças , Vírus da Hepatite A/classificação , Hepatite A/epidemiologia , Hepatite A/virologia , Homossexualidade Masculina , Filogenia , Sequência de Bases , Número Básico de Reprodução , Teorema de Bayes , Variação Genética , Genótipo , Vírus da Hepatite A/genética , Humanos , Itália/epidemiologia , Funções Verossimilhança , Masculino , Dinâmica Populacional
17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32305262

RESUMO

Viral hepatitis can cause significant maternal and neonatal morbidity and mortality. Hepatitis A and E mainly present as acute hepatitis during pregnancy, while hepatitis C and D are usually found as chronic infection in pregnant women. Hepatitis A remains self-limiting during pregnancy while hepatitis E has a higher prevalence and manifests with a rigorous course in pregnant women. Screening of hepatitis C during pregnancy and its subsequent management during pregnancy are still a debatable topic. New treatments of hepatitis C and E require further evaluation for use in pregnancy. This review summarizes the prevalence, clinical manifestations, maternal, foetal and neonatal effects, and the management of hepatitis A, C, D and E viral infection during pregnancy.


Assuntos
Hepatite A/terapia , Hepatite C/terapia , Hepatite D/terapia , Hepatite E/terapia , Complicações Infecciosas na Gravidez/virologia , Feminino , Hepatite A/diagnóstico , Hepatite A/epidemiologia , Hepatite C/diagnóstico , Hepatite C/epidemiologia , Hepatite D/diagnóstico , Hepatite D/epidemiologia , Hepatite E/diagnóstico , Hepatite E/epidemiologia , Humanos , Gravidez , Complicações Infecciosas na Gravidez/diagnóstico , Complicações Infecciosas na Gravidez/epidemiologia , Complicações Infecciosas na Gravidez/terapia , Cuidado Pré-Natal , Prevalência
18.
Am J Trop Med Hyg ; 103(1): 164-168, 2020 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32342836

RESUMO

Despite several recent reports of outbreaks of hepatitis A, little is known about the disease burden in Lao People's Democratic Republic (PDR). We conducted a cross-sectional age-stratified seroprevalence study of anti-hepatitis A virus (HAV) IgG and risk factors in a rural province (Xiengkhouang) and Vientiane capital in Lao PDR. Overall, 62% of participants were anti-HAV positive in Xiengkhouang Province compared with 45.5% in Vientiane capital. In Xiengkhouang, 23.7% of 5- to 10-year-olds were already seropositive compared with 5% in Vientiane. A dramatic increase in seroprevalence occurred between 15- to 20-year and 21- to 30-year age-groups (35.7-62.4%, Xiengkhouang, and 11.5-69.7%, Vientiane) until essentially all older adults were positive in both locations. The main risk factors for HAV antibodies were age, non-Lao-Tai ethnicity, and food-related risk factors. In conclusion, Lao children seem to be exposed very early to HAV, particularly in rural settings, and exposure continues throughout their lives, mostly without being reported. In the older birth cohorts, the high seroprevalence may largely reflect poor sanitation and exposure during childhood. In Vientiane capital, the lower seroprevalence at young ages may reflect better water sanitation since the late 1990s. A comparison with neighboring Thailand indicates that the impact of improved sanitation in Lao PDR began only two decades later. Further improvements in water sanitation, in particular in the rural districts, and better food hygiene are warranted. Our study also suggests that HAV infections are underreported. Improved reporting would provide guidance for targeted interventions to further reduce HAV infections.


Assuntos
Anticorpos Antivirais/sangue , Surtos de Doenças , Vírus da Hepatite A/imunologia , Hepatite A/epidemiologia , Imunoglobulina G/sangue , Adolescente , Adulto , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Estudos Transversais , Notificação de Doenças/estatística & dados numéricos , Feminino , Hepatite A/sangue , Hepatite A/imunologia , Hepatite A/virologia , Humanos , Laos/epidemiologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Fatores de Risco , População Rural , Saneamento/métodos , Estudos Soroepidemiológicos , Abastecimento de Água
19.
Am J Trop Med Hyg ; 102(6): 1249-1252, 2020 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32228778

RESUMO

We investigated an outbreak of hepatitis A infection among children in an urban settlement of Vellore, South India. A total of 58 cases of jaundice were reported between April and August 2019. Sera from children who presented with jaundice were tested for hepatitis A virus (HAV) IgM. HAV IgM was positive in 18 (94.7%) of the 19 cases tested. These children also received a blood culture at the same time, as a part of the ongoing Surveillance for Enteric Fever in India (SEFI). Blood cultures from three children with confirmed hepatitis A infection grew Salmonella sp.: two with Salmonella Typhi and one with Salmonella Poona. Salmonella Poona is being reported for the first time from India. The overall hospitalization rate during the outbreak was 21%. Outbreaks of hepatitis A continue to occur with substantial morbidity in children from endemic settings, with notable emergence of other concurrent enteric infections, thereby warranting continued surveillance.


Assuntos
Hepatite A/complicações , Hepatite A/epidemiologia , Infecções por Salmonella/complicações , Infecções por Salmonella/microbiologia , Salmonella/classificação , População Urbana , Anticorpos Antivirais/sangue , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Coinfecção , Feminino , Humanos , Imunoglobulina M/sangue , Índia/epidemiologia , Masculino , Infecções por Salmonella/epidemiologia
20.
Epidemiol Infect ; 148: e79, 2020 04 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32299522

RESUMO

During the 2017 European hepatitis A (HA) outbreak we assessed HA incidence in our cohort of 2300 HIV-infected patients, implemented preventive measures and evaluated practices and knowledge on sexually transmitted diseases (STD). HA incidence was assessed between 1 January 2017 and 31 December 2017 and included all symptomatic patients with virologically confirmed HA. Preventive measures consisted in identifying at risk and not immunised patients to propose them a free HAV vaccination, and an anonymous survey related to transmission routes of STD and to sexual behaviours. Twenty HA were diagnosed. All were homosexual men recently diagnosed with HIV and another STD. None were vaccinated against hepatitis A virus (HAV). Hospitalisation was required for 52%. We identified 250 patients at risk to acquire HAV and invited them to a free immunisation program. A total of 110 (44%) were vaccinated, of whom 74 responded to our survey. A majority of them (84%) reported recent active anal and oral sexuality with multiple (52%) male partners (81%), and ChemSex consumption (14%). Internet was the meeting link for 58%. Another STD history was found in 69%. One third of these individuals had no idea about STD transmission modes. This HA outbreak pointed the insufficient vaccine coverage against HAV and knowledge on STD, which may be improved by Internet.


Assuntos
Coinfecção/epidemiologia , Surtos de Doenças , Infecções por HIV/complicações , Infecções por HIV/epidemiologia , Hepatite A/complicações , Hepatite A/epidemiologia , Adulto , Bissexualidade , França/epidemiologia , Homossexualidade Masculina , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade
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