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1.
Adv Exp Med Biol ; 1179: 71-107, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31741334

RESUMO

More than 95% of adult infected with HBV show acute self-limited infection and eventually eliminate the virus. In contrast, about 90% of people exposed to HBV in early childhood develop chronic infection. The specificity of the virus and the host's antiviral immune responses together determine the outcome of HBV infection. It is generally believed that viral genome variation, viral titers, and inhibition of viral components against the host immune system are associated with persistent infection and liver damage. The dysfunction of innate immune cells (NK cells, monocyte/macrophages, NKT cells, etc.) and adaptive immune cells (antigen-presenting cells, T cells, B cells) is a key factor leading to virus clearance failure and liver inflammation. In this chapter, we summarize these viral factors and host factors in acute and chronic hepatitis B and update recent understanding of the immune-tolerant phase and pathological mechanisms associated with age and vertical transmission. This will help us to understand more fully the mechanisms of chronic HBV infection and liver injury and to develop combined treatment strategies of direct antiviral drugs for HBV life cycle and immunomodulators.


Assuntos
Vírus da Hepatite B , Hepatite B , Antivirais/uso terapêutico , Hepatite B/tratamento farmacológico , Hepatite B/imunologia , Hepatite B/patologia , Hepatite B/virologia , Vírus da Hepatite B/genética , Vírus da Hepatite B/imunologia , Hepatite B Crônica/imunologia , Hepatite B Crônica/patologia , Hepatite B Crônica/virologia , Humanos , Carga Viral
2.
An Bras Dermatol ; 94(4): 446-448, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31644618

RESUMO

Necrolytic acral erythema is a distinct erythema that has been described as an extrahepatic manifestation of hepatitis C virus infection. Most reported cases have been in Africa, especially Egypt. We report the first case (to the best of our knowledge) of necrolytic acral erythema in a Chinese patient with HCV and HBV coinfection. We aim to increase awareness for recognizing this condition in the Chinese population.


Assuntos
Coinfecção/complicações , Eritema/patologia , Eritema/virologia , Hepatite B/complicações , Hepatite C/complicações , Adulto , China , Coinfecção/patologia , Extremidades/patologia , Hepatite B/patologia , Hepatite C/patologia , Humanos , Masculino , Necrose/virologia
3.
Int J Mol Sci ; 20(18)2019 Sep 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31546975

RESUMO

With respect to their genome and their structure, the human hepatitis B virus (HBV) and hepatitis C virus (HCV) are complete different viruses. However, both viruses can cause an acute and chronic infection of the liver that is associated with liver inflammation (hepatitis). For both viruses chronic infection can lead to fibrosis, cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). Reactive oxygen species (ROS) play a central role in a variety of chronic inflammatory diseases. In light of this, this review summarizes the impact of both viruses on ROS-generating and ROS-inactivating mechanisms. The focus is on the effect of both viruses on the transcription factor Nrf2 (nuclear factor erythroid 2 (NF-E2)-related factor 2). By binding to its target sequence, the antioxidant response element (ARE), Nrf2 triggers the expression of a variety of cytoprotective genes including ROS-detoxifying enzymes. The review summarizes the literature about the pathways for the modulation of Nrf2 that are deregulated by HBV and HCV and describes the impact of Nrf2 deregulation on the viral life cycle of the respective viruses and the virus-associated pathogenesis.


Assuntos
Hepacivirus , Vírus da Hepatite B , Hepatite B/metabolismo , Hepatite C/metabolismo , Proteína 1 Associada a ECH Semelhante a Kelch/metabolismo , Fator 2 Relacionado a NF-E2/metabolismo , Transdução de Sinais , Replicação Viral/fisiologia , Animais , Hepacivirus/patogenicidade , Hepacivirus/fisiologia , Hepatite B/patologia , Vírus da Hepatite B/patogenicidade , Vírus da Hepatite B/fisiologia , Hepatite C/patologia , Humanos
4.
Emerg Microbes Infect ; 8(1): 1337-1346, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31516090

RESUMO

Occult hepatitis B virus infection (OBI) is a low-level asymptomatic phase of HBV infection. Evidence of OBI clinical relevance is emerging but the mechanisms of its occurrence remain unclear. In this study, the molecular characteristics of 97 confirmed OBI from Chinese blood donors were analyzed and relevant mutations were identified. Recombinant HBsAg bearing these mutations were expressed in vitro and the antigenicity and HBsAg secretion properties were analyzed. Results showed that 45 (46.4%) genotype B, 50 (51.5%) genotype C, and 2 (2.1%) genotype D sequences were identified. Two groups of mutations in the S gene were significantly associated with OBI. The first group included mutations creating new N-linked glycosylation sites at positions s116, s123, s130, and s131 + s133 or removing the existing one at s146. Mutations TCT123-125NCT/NFT were associated with reduced antigenicity, while TST116-118NST, GTS130-132NTS, and TSM131-133NSS/NYT/NST were associated with varying levels of impaired HBsAg secretion. N146 mutations had no effect on HBsAg production pattern. The second group included substitutions within the S transmembrane domains TMD1-3. Only mutations C85R, L87R, L88R, and C90R within TMD2 were associated with defective HBsAg production. These mutations appear to be rare and mostly strain specific but they may contribute to the multifactorial occurrence of OBI.


Assuntos
Doenças Assintomáticas/epidemiologia , Doadores de Sangue , Antígenos de Superfície da Hepatite B/metabolismo , Hepatite B/epidemiologia , Proteínas Mutantes/metabolismo , Mutação de Sentido Incorreto , Processamento de Proteína Pós-Traducional , Substituição de Aminoácidos , Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Asiático , Genótipo , Glicosilação , Hepatite B/patologia , Hepatite B/virologia , Antígenos de Superfície da Hepatite B/genética , Humanos , Proteínas Mutantes/genética
5.
BMC Med Genet ; 20(1): 142, 2019 08 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31419949

RESUMO

BACKGROUND & AIMS: Various studies have investigated the relationship between the polymorphism, rs2596542, in the promoter of the major histocompatibility complex class I-related gene A (MICA) gene with susceptibility to hepatitis B virus (HBV)/ hepatitis C virus (HCV)-induced hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC); however, the results are inconclusive. This meta-analysis was conducted to investigate the relationship between rs2596542 and HCV/HBV-induced HCC. METHODS: Three electronic scientific publication databases (MEDLINE, Web of Science, and Embase) were screened using specific search terms and relevant literature identified using literature traceability methods. Selected publications were evaluated according to the inclusion and exclusion criteria, and 11 articles were included in the study. Effect size information (odds ratio [OR] and corresponding 95% confidence interval [CI]) were obtained following quality assessment and data extraction from the included publications, and a meta-analysis conducted. RESULTS: A total of 11 publications were included in the study, including 4582 patients with HCC and 21,095 non-HCC patients. TT genotype at rs2596542 was a risk factor for the development of HCC in patients with HCV/HBV infection (OR = 1.248, 95% CI: 1.040-1.499, P = 0.017), particularly those with HCV infection (OR = 1.326, 95% CI: 1.101-1.599, P = 0.003) and Asians (OR = 1.273, 95% CI: 1.002-1.618, P = 0.048), or when the control group was patients with chronic hepatitis C (CHC) (OR = 1.506, 95% CI: 1.172-1.936, P = 0.001). CONCLUSION: The findings of this meta-analysis suggest that the rs2596542 variant in the MICA promoter region may affect MICA and soluble MICA (sMICA) protein expression, thereby influencing physiological vulnerability to HCC cells and the development of HCC. These data provide a theoretical basis for the diagnosis and treatment of patients with HCC and viral hepatitis infection.


Assuntos
Carcinoma Hepatocelular/genética , Carcinoma Hepatocelular/virologia , Hepatite B/genética , Hepatite C/genética , Antígenos de Histocompatibilidade Classe I/genética , Neoplasias Hepáticas/genética , Neoplasias Hepáticas/virologia , Bases de Dados Factuais , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Variação Genética , Hepacivirus , Hepatite B/patologia , Vírus da Hepatite B , Hepatite C/patologia , Humanos , Razão de Chances , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Regiões Promotoras Genéticas
6.
An. bras. dermatol ; 94(4): 446-448, July-Aug. 2019. graf
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS | ID: biblio-1038296

RESUMO

Abstract: Necrolytic acral erythema is a distinct erythema that has been described as an extrahepatic manifestation of hepatitis C virus infection. Most reported cases have been in Africa, especially Egypt. We report the first case (to the best of our knowledge) of necrolytic acral erythema in a Chinese patient with HCV and HBV coinfection. We aim to increase awareness for recognizing this condition in the Chinese population.


Assuntos
Humanos , Masculino , Adulto , Hepatite C/complicações , Eritema/patologia , Eritema/virologia , Coinfecção/complicações , Hepatite B/complicações , China , Hepatite C/patologia , Extremidades/patologia , Coinfecção/patologia , Hepatite B/patologia , Necrose/virologia
7.
Cancer Control ; 26(1): 1073274819862793, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31290350

RESUMO

Epidemiological characteristics of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) in Southern Vietnam has been well reported as in Globocan 2018 while data from the North has still not been fully presented. Therefore, we conducted this retrospective descriptive study on 198 advanced HCC patients treated at 3 major hospitals in Northern Vietnam to describe demographic features, HCC risk factors, and correlation among them in patients with advanced HCC. This information will lead to prevention efforts and provide information for allocating funds for treatment. The median age at diagnosis was 57 years (range: 19-86) and the male/female ratio was 8.9/1. The proportions of hepatitis B virus (HBV) and hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection were 81.3% and 5.6%, respectively. Hepatitis C virus infection rate was significantly higher in patients <50 years old (12.5% vs 3.3%, P = .016). There was no significant difference in age or viral hepatitis infection status by gender. Only 7.6% of patients diagnosed with advanced HCC were asymptomatic. In conclusion, with the high rate of HBV infection among patients with advanced HCC, it is necessary for increasing prevention efforts in HBV screening. Furthermore, HCV infection should be noticed in patients with advanced HCC younger than 50 years old.


Assuntos
Carcinoma Hepatocelular/epidemiologia , Hepatite B/epidemiologia , Hepatite C/epidemiologia , Neoplasias Hepáticas/epidemiologia , Adulto , Fatores Etários , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Carcinoma Hepatocelular/virologia , Feminino , Hepatite B/patologia , Hepatite B/virologia , Hepatite C/patologia , Hepatite C/virologia , Humanos , Incidência , Neoplasias Hepáticas/patologia , Neoplasias Hepáticas/virologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estadiamento de Neoplasias , Estudos Retrospectivos , Fatores de Risco , Fatores Sexuais , Vietnã/epidemiologia , Adulto Jovem
9.
Virol J ; 16(1): 73, 2019 05 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31146743

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The ubiquitin proteasome system (UPS) regulates the expression levels of cellular proteins by ubiquitination of protein substrates followed by their degradation via the proteasome. As a highly conserved cellular degradation mechanism, the UPS affects a variety of biological processes and participates in viral propagation. MAIN BODY: During hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection, the UPS is shown to act as a double-edged sword in viral pathogenesis. On the one hand, the UPS acts as a host defense mechanism to selectively recognize HBV proteins as well as special cellular proteins that favor the viral life cycle and induces their ubiquitin-dependent proteasomal degradation to limit HBV infection. On the other hand, the HBV has evolved to subvert the UPS function for its own advantage. Moreover, in the infected hepatocytes, certain cellular proteins that are dependent on the UPS are involved in abnormal biological processes which are mediated by HBV. CONCLUSION: The molecular interaction of HBV with the UPS to modulate viral propagation and pathogenesis is summarized in the review. Considering the important role of the UPS in HBV infection, a better understanding of the HBV-UPS interaction could provide novel insight into the mechanisms that are involved in viral replication and pathogenesis and help to develop potential treatment strategies targeting the UPS.


Assuntos
Vírus da Hepatite B/patogenicidade , Interações Hospedeiro-Patógeno , Complexo de Endopeptidases do Proteassoma/metabolismo , Replicação Viral , Animais , Hepatite B/patologia , Vírus da Hepatite B/fisiologia , Hepatócitos/virologia , Humanos , Camundongos , Ubiquitinação
10.
Ann Transplant ; 24: 312-318, 2019 May 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31147531

RESUMO

BACKGROUND Hepatitis B and C viruses have been recognized as undoubtedly carcinogenic to humans. In the Polish population, where most people are protected by HBV vaccinations, hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) and its main cause, persistent HCV infection, significantly affect the demand for liver transplantations. MATERIAL AND METHODS The purpose of this study was to categorize the number of primary liver transplantations in Poland in the years 2001-2017 by cause and to analyze changes in LTx indications during this period. Data were sourced from POLTRANSPLANT, the Organization and Coordination Center for Transplantation in Poland. Additionally, we compared the numbers of HCC cases and hepatitis B and C cases during this period. RESULTS In the analyzed period, in Poland, 3332 primary liver transplantations were performed. Overall, 44% (1456) of LTx cases were combined with HBV and/or HCV and/or HCC. In this group, transplants in patients with only 1 specific factor - HCV - formed the largest cohort, accounting for about 40% (581) of cases. Transplants in patients who only had HBV and in those who only had HCC accounted for 12% (185) and 5% (69), respectively. CONCLUSIONS The analyzed data suggest that HCV infections are a significant public health problem in Poland, as is also reflected by the growing number of LTx performed due to HCC. To limit the numbers of HCV and HCC cases, immediate implementation of a Polish National Program against HCV should be considered.


Assuntos
Carcinoma Hepatocelular/cirurgia , Hepatite B/cirurgia , Hepatite C/cirurgia , Neoplasias Hepáticas/cirurgia , Transplante de Fígado , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Carcinoma Hepatocelular/etiologia , Carcinoma Hepatocelular/patologia , Feminino , Hepatite B/complicações , Hepatite B/patologia , Hepatite C/complicações , Hepatite C/patologia , Humanos , Neoplasias Hepáticas/etiologia , Neoplasias Hepáticas/patologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Polônia , Fatores de Risco , Adulto Jovem
11.
An Acad Bras Cienc ; 91(2): e20180941, 2019 May 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31141015

RESUMO

The aim of this study was to investigate the inhibitory effect of regulation of miR-122-MAP3K2 signal pathway on the hepatitis B cells. We detected the content of MAP3K2 from patients with HBV blood serum samples and analyzed the correlation between content of MAP3K2 and copies of HBV-DNA. Wound healing and Transwell assays were used to detect the function of cells from control group (wild type) and observer group (overexpresses miR-122). Secretion levels of HBsAg and MAP3K2 in the supernatant and level of MAP3K2 in cells were detected by ELISA and western blot, respectively. The results showed that there was a positive correlation between the copies of HBV-DNA and MAP3K2 in serum. In the assays involving detection of the number of HBV-DNA copies, the supernatant levels of HBsAg and MAP3K2, and the level of MAP3K2 in the cells, the rate of increase of these indicators significantly slowed as culture time. In conclusion, overexpression of miR-122 could inhibit the migration of hepatoblastoma cells; however, following transfection with miR-122, DNA synthesis and the secretion of HBsAg were inhibited. Overexpression of miR-122 can also downregulate MAP3K2. Consequently, we concluded that regulating the miR-122-MAP3K2 signaling pathway exerts an inhibitory effect in hepatitis B cells.


Assuntos
Linfócitos B/metabolismo , Vírus da Hepatite B/genética , Hepatite B/metabolismo , MAP Quinase Quinase Quinases/metabolismo , MicroRNAs/metabolismo , Transdução de Sinais/genética , Western Blotting , DNA Viral/genética , Ensaio de Imunoadsorção Enzimática , Hepatite B/patologia , Humanos , MAP Quinase Quinase Quinases/genética , MicroRNAs/genética , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase Via Transcriptase Reversa
12.
Cell Mol Life Sci ; 76(18): 3497-3514, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31089747

RESUMO

Accurate determination of microRNA expression levels is a prerequisite in using these small non-coding RNA molecules as novel biomarkers in disease diagnosis and prognosis. Quantitative PCR is the method of choice for measuring the expression levels of microRNAs. However, a major obstacle that affects the reliability of results is the lack of validated reference controls for data normalization. Various non-coding RNAs have previously been used as reference controls, but their use may lead to variations and lack of comparability of microRNA data among the studies. Despite the growing number of studies investigating microRNA profiles to discriminate between healthy and disease stages, robust reference controls for data normalization have so far not been established. In the present article, we provide an overview of different reference controls used in various diseases, and highlight the urgent need for the identification of suitable reference controls to produce reliable data. Our analysis shows, among others, that RNU6 is not an ideal normalizer in studies using patient material from different diseases. Finally, our article tries to disclose the challenges to find a reference control which is uniformly and stably expressed across all body tissues, fluids, and diseases.


Assuntos
MicroRNAs/metabolismo , Biomarcadores/metabolismo , Doenças Cardiovasculares/genética , Doenças Cardiovasculares/patologia , Doenças do Sistema Nervoso Central/genética , Doenças do Sistema Nervoso Central/patologia , Hepatite B/genética , Hepatite B/patologia , Humanos , MicroRNAs/sangue , Neoplasias/genética , Neoplasias/patologia , Prognóstico , RNA Nuclear Pequeno/sangue , RNA Nuclear Pequeno/metabolismo , Tuberculose/genética , Tuberculose/patologia
13.
Virologie (Montrouge) ; 23(1): 23-34, 2019 Feb 01.
Artigo em Francês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31131827

RESUMO

Hepatitis B virus (HBV) infects approximately 257 million individuals worldwide. Recent advances in the virology and diagnosis of HBV infection are summarized in this review article. A novel classification of the different phases of chronic HBV infection, proposed by the European Association for the Study of the Liver (EASL), is presented. New diagnostic and monitoring tools are now available, including rapid diagnostic tests for hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg) detection, HBsAg quantification assays, an HBV core-related antigen (HBcrAg) quantification test, and HBV RNA quantification testing. Their clinical utility under study is discussed in this review.


Assuntos
Técnicas e Procedimentos Diagnósticos/tendências , Vírus da Hepatite B/fisiologia , Hepatite B/diagnóstico , Monitorização Fisiológica/tendências , Virologia/tendências , Biomarcadores/análise , Biomarcadores/sangue , DNA Viral/análise , DNA Viral/sangue , Hepatite B/complicações , Hepatite B/patologia , Hepatite B/virologia , Antígenos do Núcleo do Vírus da Hepatite B/análise , Antígenos do Núcleo do Vírus da Hepatite B/sangue , Antígenos do Núcleo do Vírus da Hepatite B/genética , Antígenos de Superfície da Hepatite B/análise , Antígenos de Superfície da Hepatite B/sangue , Antígenos de Superfície da Hepatite B/genética , Antígenos E da Hepatite B/análise , Antígenos E da Hepatite B/sangue , Antígenos E da Hepatite B/genética , Vírus da Hepatite B/genética , Hepatite B Crônica/diagnóstico , Hepatite B Crônica/patologia , Hepatite B Crônica/virologia , Humanos , Monitorização Fisiológica/métodos , Virologia/legislação & jurisprudência , Virologia/métodos
14.
Korean J Gastroenterol ; 73(5): 303-307, 2019 May 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31132829

RESUMO

Spontaneous regression of tumors is an extremely rare event in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) with only a few reports available. With the accumulation of clinical information and tumor immunogenetics, several mechanisms for the cystic changes of HCC have been suggested, including arterial thrombosis, inflammation, and rapid tumor growth. This paper reports an uncommon case of the partial regression of HCC, which was initially misdiagnosed as a mucinous cystic neoplasm of the liver due to the unusual radiologic findings. A 78-year-old female with the hepatitis B virus and liver cirrhosis presented with an approximately 5 cm-sized cystic mass of the liver. From the radiologic evidence of a papillary-like projection from the cyst wall toward the inner side, the initial impression was a mucinous cystic neoplasm of the liver. The patient underwent a surgical resection and finally, cystic degeneration of HCC, in which approximately 80% necrosis was noted. This case suggests that if a cystic neoplasm of liver appears in a patient with a high risk of HCC on a hepatobiliary imaging study, it is prudent to consider the cystic degeneration of HCC in a differential diagnosis.


Assuntos
Carcinoma Hepatocelular/diagnóstico , Neoplasias Hepáticas/diagnóstico , Adenocarcinoma Mucinoso/diagnóstico , Adenocarcinoma Mucinoso/cirurgia , Idoso , Carcinoma Hepatocelular/cirurgia , Diagnóstico Diferencial , Feminino , Hepatite B/complicações , Hepatite B/patologia , Humanos , Neoplasias Hepáticas/cirurgia , Imagem por Ressonância Magnética , Tomografia Computadorizada por Raios X
15.
Mol Med Rep ; 20(1): 573-583, 2019 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31115573

RESUMO

Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is the most common type of primary liver cancer, and can be induced by hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection. The aim of the present study was to screen prognosis­associated long noncoding RNAs (lncRNAs) and construct a risk score system for the disease. The RNA­sequencing data of patients with HCC (including 100 HCC samples and 26 normal samples) were extracted from The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) database. In addition, GSE55092, GSE19665 and GSE10186 datasets were downloaded from the Gene Expression Omnibus database. Combined with weighted gene co­expression network analysis, the identification and functional annotation of stable modules was performed. Using the MetaDE package, the consensus differentially expressed RNAs (DE­RNAs) were analyzed. To construct a risk score system, prognosis­associated lncRNAs and the optimal lncRNA combination were separately analyzed by survival and penalized packages. Finally, pathway enrichment analysis for the nodes in an lncRNA­mRNA network was conducted via Gene Set Enrichment Analysis. A total of four stable modules and 3,051 consensus DE­RNAs were identified. The stable modules were significantly associated with the histological grades of HCC, tumor, node and metastasis stage, pathological stage, recurrence and exposure to radiation therapy. A 9­lncRNA optimal combination [DiGeorge syndrome critical region gene 9, glucosidase, ß, acid 3 (GBA3), HLA complex group 4, N­acetyltransferase 8B, neighbor of breast cancer 1 gene 2, prostate androgen­regulated transcript 1, ret finger protein like 1 antisense RNA 1, solute carrier family 22 member 18 antisense and T­cell leukemia/lymphoma 6] was selected from the 14 prognosis­associated lncRNAs, and was further supported by the validation dataset, GSE10186. The lncRNA­mRNA co­expression network revealed lncRNA GBA3 as a positive regulator of phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase 2, an important enzyme in the metabolic pathway of gluconeogenesis. A risk score system was established based on the optimal 9 lncRNAs, which may be valuable for predicting the prognosis of patients with HBV­positive HCC and improving understanding of mechanisms associated with the pathogenesis of this disease. On the contrary, a larger, independent cohort of patients is required to further validate the risk­score system.


Assuntos
Carcinoma Hepatocelular/genética , Hepatite B/genética , Neoplasias Hepáticas/genética , RNA Longo não Codificante/genética , Idoso , Biomarcadores Tumorais , Carcinoma Hepatocelular/epidemiologia , Carcinoma Hepatocelular/patologia , Intervalo Livre de Doença , Feminino , Regulação Neoplásica da Expressão Gênica , Hepatite B/epidemiologia , Hepatite B/patologia , Vírus da Hepatite B/genética , Vírus da Hepatite B/patogenicidade , Humanos , Estimativa de Kaplan-Meier , Neoplasias Hepáticas/epidemiologia , Neoplasias Hepáticas/patologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Prognóstico , Fatores de Risco , Transcriptoma/genética
16.
World J Gastroenterol ; 25(13): 1550-1559, 2019 Apr 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30983815

RESUMO

Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) makes up 75%-85% of all primary liver cancers and is the fourth most common cause of cancer related death worldwide. Chronic liver disease is the most significant risk factor for HCC with 80%-90% of new cases occurring in the background of cirrhosis. Studies have shown that early diagnosis of HCC through surveillance programs improve prognosis and availability of curative therapies. All patients with cirrhosis and high-risk hepatitis B patients are at risk for HCC and should undergo surveillance. The recommended surveillance modality is abdominal ultrasound (US) given that it is cost effective and noninvasive with good sensitivity. However, US is limited in obese patients and those with non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). With the current obesity epidemic and rise in the prevalence of NAFLD, abdominal computed tomography or magnetic resonance imaging may be indicated as the primary screening modality in these patients. The addition of alpha-fetoprotein to a surveillance regimen is thought to improve the sensitivity of HCC detection. Further investigation of serum biomarkers is needed. Semiannual screening is the suggested surveillance interval. Surveillance for HCC is underutilized and low adherence disproportionately affects certain demographics such as non-Caucasian race and low socioeconomic status.


Assuntos
Carcinoma Hepatocelular/diagnóstico , Detecção Precoce de Câncer/métodos , Medicina Baseada em Evidências/métodos , Hepatite B/patologia , Cirrose Hepática/patologia , Neoplasias Hepáticas/diagnóstico , Biomarcadores Tumorais/sangue , Carcinoma Hepatocelular/sangue , Carcinoma Hepatocelular/patologia , Carcinoma Hepatocelular/virologia , Progressão da Doença , Detecção Precoce de Câncer/normas , Medicina Baseada em Evidências/normas , Fidelidade a Diretrizes , Hepatite B/virologia , Humanos , Fígado/diagnóstico por imagem , Fígado/patologia , Cirrose Hepática/virologia , Neoplasias Hepáticas/sangue , Neoplasias Hepáticas/patologia , Neoplasias Hepáticas/virologia , Imagem por Ressonância Magnética , Guias de Prática Clínica como Assunto , Fatores de Risco , Sensibilidade e Especificidade , Fatores Socioeconômicos , Tomografia Computadorizada por Raios X , Ultrassonografia
17.
Infez Med ; 27(1): 3-10, 2019 Mar 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30882372

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Many geographical areas are highly endemic for infectious tropical diseases, although in disproportional fashion. Various infections often overlap in terms of presentation of various epidemiological and clinical manifestations that are linked to the mutual influence of pathogens. The epidemiological and clinical aspects of hepatitis B virus and malaria co-infection remain little known because there have not been many studies until recently. METHODS: We performed a systematic search of the epidemiology of HBV/malaria co-infection, in particular, their overlapping clinical and histological features and their reciprocal conditioning. We examined published data regarding HBV and malaria. RESULTS: The data we obtained varied substantially. The interaction between malarial parasites and HBV viruses, both in chronic HBV hepatitis patients and in carriers, did not vary or change the clinical evolution of either infection. The diversity of epidemiological and clinical results depended both on the geographical areas in which the studies were carried out and on the various stages of the infections at the time of the study. CONCLUSION: Strategies to improve currently available diagnostic techniques, and studies dealing with vector control procedures and other operational tools and approaches are needed for better understanding of this health problem.


Assuntos
Coinfecção/epidemiologia , Saúde Global/estatística & dados numéricos , Hepatite B/epidemiologia , Malária/epidemiologia , Anticorpos Antiprotozoários/sangue , Coinfecção/parasitologia , Coinfecção/virologia , Hepatite B/patologia , Hepatite B/virologia , Antígenos de Superfície da Hepatite B/sangue , Vírus da Hepatite B , Humanos , Hepatopatias Parasitárias/patologia , Malária/parasitologia , Malária/patologia , Plasmodium/imunologia
18.
J Clin Neurosci ; 63: 155-159, 2019 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30850179

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The mechanism responsible for cerebral aneurysm (CA) formation and rupture remains unclear. Some studies showed vascular involvement could be observed in systemic vasculitis caused by Hepatitis B. Therefore, it is necessary to determine the possibility by which hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection might be associated with CA. METHODS AND RESULTS: We retrospectively studied patient details and serological markers of HBV infection among 229 patients presenting with CA on admission to the Neurosurgery Department at Beijing Tiantan Hospital between March 2016 and February 2017. Clinical data, radiologic findings and clinical features of HBV infection were analyzed by SPSS. The results showed a significant association between HBsAg positive (p = 0.014), anti-HBc positive (p = 0.045) and CA rupture. Univariate analysis revealed patients that were HBsAg positive (OR: 4.828; 95% CI: 1.363-17.099; p = 0.015) and anti-HBc positive (OR: 1.804; 95% CI: 1.010-3.223; p = 0.046) were associated with CA rupture. Compared with other confounding risk factors for rupture in the statistical analysis, HBsAg positive status (OR: 4.085; 95% CI: 1.011-16.513; p = 0.048) remained positively associated with CA rupture. CONCLUSIONS: Observation showed that HBsAg positivity was associated with CA rupture.


Assuntos
Vírus da Hepatite B/isolamento & purificação , Hepatite B/patologia , Hepatite B/virologia , Aneurisma Intracraniano/virologia , Adulto , Idoso , Feminino , Humanos , Aneurisma Intracraniano/patologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Retrospectivos , Fatores de Risco
19.
J Immunol ; 202(8): 2266-2275, 2019 04 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30842274

RESUMO

It is not clear how hepatitis B virus (HBV) modulates host immunity during chronic infection. In addition to the key mediators of inflammatory response in viral infection, monocytes also express a high-level IFN-stimulated gene, CH25H, upon response to IFN-α exerting an antiviral effect. In this study, the mechanism by which HBV manipulates IFN signaling in human monocytes was investigated. We observed that monocytes from chronic hepatitis B patients express lower levels of IFN signaling/stimulated genes and higher levels of inflammatory cytokines compared with healthy donors. HBV induces monocyte production of inflammatory cytokines via TLR2/MyD88/NF-κB signaling and STAT1-Ser727 phosphorylation and inhibits IFN-α-induced stat1, stat2, and ch25h expression through the inhibition of STAT1-Tyr701 phosphorylation and in an IL-10-dependent, partially autocrine manner. Further, we found that enhancement of STAT1 activity with a small molecule (2-NP) rescued HBV-mediated inhibition of IFN signaling and counteracted the induction of inflammatory cytokines. In conclusion, HBV contributes to the monocyte inflammatory response but inhibits their IFN-α/ß responsiveness to impair antiviral innate immunity. These effects are mediated via differential phosphorylation of Tyr701 and Ser727 of STAT1.


Assuntos
Vírus da Hepatite B/imunologia , Hepatite B/imunologia , Imunidade Inata , Monócitos/imunologia , Fator de Transcrição STAT1/imunologia , Transdução de Sinais/imunologia , Células Hep G2 , Hepatite B/patologia , Humanos , Interleucina-10/imunologia , Monócitos/patologia , Fator 88 de Diferenciação Mieloide/imunologia , NF-kappa B/imunologia , Fosforilação/imunologia , Fator de Transcrição STAT2/imunologia , Receptor 2 Toll-Like/imunologia
20.
World J Gastroenterol ; 25(4): 398-410, 2019 Jan 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30700937

RESUMO

Hepatotropic viruses induced hepatitis progresses much faster and causes more liver- related health problems in people co-infected with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). Although treatment with antiretroviral therapy has extended the life expectancy of people with HIV, liver disease induced by hepatitis B virus (HBV) and hepatitis C virus (HCV) causes significant numbers of non-acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS)-related deaths in co-infected patients. In recent years, new insights into the mechanisms of accelerated fibrosis and liver disease progression in HIV/HCV and HIV/HBV co-infections have been reported. In this paper, we review recent studies examining the natural history and pathogenesis of liver disease in HIV-HCV/HBV co-infection in the era of direct acting antivirals (DAA) and antiretroviral therapy (ART). We also review the novel therapeutics for management of HIV/HCV and HIV/HBV co-infected individuals.


Assuntos
Antivirais/uso terapêutico , Coinfecção/epidemiologia , Infecções por HIV/epidemiologia , Hepatite B/epidemiologia , Hepatite C/epidemiologia , Coinfecção/tratamento farmacológico , Coinfecção/patologia , Coinfecção/virologia , Comorbidade , Progressão da Doença , Quimioterapia Combinada , HIV/imunologia , Infecções por HIV/tratamento farmacológico , Infecções por HIV/patologia , Infecções por HIV/virologia , Hepacivirus/imunologia , Hepatite B/tratamento farmacológico , Hepatite B/patologia , Hepatite B/virologia , Vírus da Hepatite B/imunologia , Hepatite C/tratamento farmacológico , Hepatite C/patologia , Hepatite C/virologia , Humanos , Fígado/patologia , Fígado/virologia
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