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1.
Arch Virol ; 165(4): 913-922, 2020 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32078045

RESUMO

Little information is available regarding the prevalence of viral hepatitis in Central West Argentina. This study aims to give new information regarding HBV and HCV prevalence, genotypes, and risk factors in Central West Argentina and the suitability of dried blood spot (DBS) sampling for HBV and HCV screening. METHODS: A total of 622 individuals were included; the mean age was 36.6 ± 14.3 years and 55.4% were females. HBV and HCV markers were detected using serological and molecular analysis, and risk factors were evaluated using statistical analysis. RESULTS: Using serum samples, the HBsAg prevalence was 1.8%, the rate of HBV exposure (anti-HBc positivity) was 5.3%, and the rate of HBV immunity was 34.9%. HBV DNA was found in four out of 11 HBsAg+ samples, and the viruses in three of these samples were classified as genotypes A1, A2 and F2a. Multivariate analysis showed that anti-HBs positivity was associated with the level of schooling and history of HBV vaccination. The anti-HCV prevalence was 2.6%, and HCV RNA was found in 11 samples, seven of which contained viruses of genotypes 1a (n = 2), 1b (n = 3) and 2 (n = 2). The sensitivity of the DBS assay for HBsAg, anti-HBc, and anti-HCV was 100%, 66.6%, and 75%, respectively, and the specificity was above 98% for all markers when compared to serum. CONCLUSION: A low rate of HBV immunity was observed, demonstrating the importance of HBV vaccination. High HCV prevalence was found, and HCV 1b was closely related to other Argentinian isolates. Finally, the performance of DBS testing in this population needs more optimization to increase its sensitivity and specificity.


Assuntos
Hepacivirus/isolamento & purificação , Vírus da Hepatite B/isolamento & purificação , Hepatite B/epidemiologia , Hepatite B/virologia , Hepatite C/epidemiologia , Hepatite C/virologia , Adulto , Argentina/epidemiologia , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Genótipo , Hepacivirus/classificação , Hepacivirus/genética , Hepatite B/sangue , Hepatite B/diagnóstico , Anticorpos Anti-Hepatite B/sangue , Vírus da Hepatite B/classificação , Vírus da Hepatite B/genética , Hepatite C/sangue , Hepatite C/diagnóstico , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Filogenia , Prevalência , Adulto Jovem
2.
PLoS One ; 15(1): e0227776, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31917810

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Coinfections of HIV patients with hepatitis B virus (HBV) and hepatitis C virus (HCV) are mayor public health problems, contributing to the emerging burden of HIV-associated hepatic mortality. Coinfection rates vary geographically, depending on various factors such as predominant transmission modes, HBV vaccination rates, and prevalence of HBV and HCV in the general population. In South America, the epidemiology of coinfections is uncertain, since systematic studies are scarce. Our study aimed to analyze rates of HBV and HCV infection in people living with HIV attending centers of the public and private health system in Chile. METHODS: We performed a cross-sectional study including a public university hospital and a private health center in Santiago, Metropolitan Region in Chile. Serum samples were used to determine serological markers of hepatitis B (HBsAg, anti-HBs, anti-HBc total, HBeAg, anti-HBe) and anti-HCV. Demographic, clinical and laboratory data were obtained from medical records. RESULTS: 399 patients were included (353 from public, 46 from private health center). Most (92.8%) were male, with a median age of 38.3 years; 99.4% acquired HIV through sexual contact (75.0% MSM); 25.7% had AIDS and 90.4% were on ART. In 78.9%, viral loads were <40 cps/mL; the median CD4 cell count was 468 cells/mm3. According to their serological status, 37.6% of patients were HBV naïve (susceptible), 6.5% were vaccinated, 43.6% had resolved HBV infection, and 5.8% were chronically infected. The rate of vaccination was 4.5% in the public and 21.7% in the private system. HCV coinfection was found in 1.0% of all patients. CONCLUSION: HBV coinfection rate was within the range of other South American countries, but lower than in non-industrialized regions in Asia and Africa. A low percentage of patients were HBV vaccinated, especially within the public system. HCV coinfection rate was very low, most probably due to the rareness of injecting drug use.


Assuntos
Infecções por HIV/complicações , Hepatite B/complicações , Hepatite C/complicações , Adulto , Chile/epidemiologia , Coinfecção/sangue , Coinfecção/complicações , Coinfecção/epidemiologia , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , HIV/isolamento & purificação , Infecções por HIV/sangue , Infecções por HIV/epidemiologia , Hepacivirus/isolamento & purificação , Hepatite B/sangue , Hepatite B/epidemiologia , Vírus da Hepatite B/isolamento & purificação , Hepatite C/sangue , Hepatite C/epidemiologia , Hospitais Privados , Hospitais Públicos , Hospitais Universitários , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Adulto Jovem
3.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 99(2): e18752, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31914096

RESUMO

The high prevalence of hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection and intracranial atherosclerotic stenosis (ICAS) in Asia raises the question as to whether HBV infection is associated with ICAS. To answer this question, we tested the association between HBV infection and ICAS. Totally, 3072 in-hospital subjects were retrospectively enrolled. All subjects underwent computed tomography angiography (CTA) and serological testing for HBV infection. Based on the results of CTA, all subjects were categorized into 4 groups including ICAS, extracranial atherosclerotic stenosis (ECAS), ICAS/ECAS (both ICAS and ECAS), and normal. HBV infection was divided into 4 patterns including hepatitis B core antibody (anti-HBc) positive/hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg) positive, anti-HBc-positive/HBsAg-negative, anti-HBc-negative/HBsAg-positive, and anti-HBc-negative/HBsAg-negative. Risk factors for atherosclerosis were collected based on medical records. Multiple logistic regression models were used to determine the association between infection patterns and ICAS. We found that the anti-HBc-positive / HBsAg-negative pattern was associated with the increased risk of ICAS (OR = 1.462) and not associated with ECAS or ICAS / ECAS. The HBc-positive/HBsAg-positive pattern was not associated with ICAS, ECAS or ICAS/ECAS. In conclusions, the anti-HBc-positive/HBsAg-negative pattern was associated with the increased risk of ICAS. Anti-HBc should be employed to investigate the association between HBV infection and cerebrovascular diseases.


Assuntos
Aterosclerose/epidemiologia , Anticorpos Anti-Hepatite B/sangue , Antígenos de Superfície da Hepatite B/sangue , Hepatite B/epidemiologia , Arteriosclerose Intracraniana/epidemiologia , Idoso , Aterosclerose/diagnóstico por imagem , China/epidemiologia , Angiografia por Tomografia Computadorizada , Constrição Patológica , Feminino , Hepatite B/sangue , Hepatite B/imunologia , Humanos , Arteriosclerose Intracraniana/diagnóstico por imagem , Modelos Logísticos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Retrospectivos , Fatores de Risco
4.
BMC Infect Dis ; 19(1): 1022, 2019 Dec 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31791273

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Few countries in sub-Saharan Africa know the magnitude of their HIV epidemic among people who inject drugs (PWID). This was the first study in Mozambique to measure prevalence of HIV, HBV, and HCV, and to assess demographic characteristics and risk behaviors in this key population. METHODS: We used respondent-driven sampling (RDS) to conduct a cross-sectional behavioral surveillance survey of PWID in two cities of Mozambique lasting six months. Participants were persons who had ever injected drugs without a prescription. Participants completed a behavioral questionnaire and provided blood specimens for HIV, hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg) and hepatitis C virus antibody (anti-HCV) testing. We performed RDS-adjusted analysis in R 3.2 using RDSAT 7.1 weights. RESULTS: We enrolled 353 PWID in Maputo and 139 in Nampula/Nacala; approximately 95% of participants were men. Disease prevalence in Maputo and Nampula/Nacala, respectively, was 50.1 and 19.9% for HIV, 32.1 and 36.4% for HBsAg positivity, and 44.6 and 7.0% for anti-HCV positivity. Additionally, 8% (Maputo) and 28.6% (Nampula/Nacala) of PWID reported having a genital sore or ulcer in the 12 months preceding the survey. Among PWID who injected drugs in the last month, 50.3% (Maputo) and 49.6% (Nampula/Nacala) shared a needle at least once that month. Condomless sex in the last 12 months was reported by 52.4% of PWID in Maputo and 29.1% in Nampula/Nacala. Among PWID, 31.6% (Maputo) and 41.0% (Nampula/Nacala) had never tested for HIV. In multivariable analysis, PWID who used heroin had 4.3 (Maputo; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.2, 18.2) and 2.3 (Nampula/Nacala; 95% CI: 1.2, 4.9) greater odds of having HIV. CONCLUSION: Unsafe sexual behaviors and injection practices are frequent among PWID in Mozambique, and likely contribute to the disproportionate burden of disease we found. Intensified efforts in prevention, care, and treatment specific for PWID have the potential to limit disease transmission.


Assuntos
Usuários de Drogas/estatística & dados numéricos , Infecções por HIV/epidemiologia , Hepatite B/epidemiologia , Hepatite C/epidemiologia , Abuso de Substâncias por Via Intravenosa/epidemiologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Cidades/epidemiologia , Estudos Transversais , Epidemias , Feminino , Infecções por HIV/sangue , Soropositividade para HIV/epidemiologia , Hepatite B/sangue , Antígenos de Superfície da Hepatite B/análise , Antígenos de Superfície da Hepatite B/sangue , Antígenos de Superfície da Hepatite B/imunologia , Hepatite C/sangue , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Moçambique/epidemiologia , Vigilância da População/métodos , Prevalência , Assunção de Riscos , Estudos Soroepidemiológicos , Comportamento Sexual/estatística & dados numéricos , Inquéritos e Questionários/estatística & dados numéricos , População Urbana/estatística & dados numéricos , Adulto Jovem
5.
Blood Transfus ; 17(6): 403-408, 2019 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31846605

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: In Cameroon, the prevention of hepatitis B virus (HBV) transmission by blood transfusion is still only based on hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg) screening. However, occult HBV infection (OBI) characterised by the absence of detectable HBsAg and low level of viral DNA remains a potential threat for blood safety. The prevalence of OBI was investigated in blood donors from Yaoundé to provide evidence-based recommendations to improve HBV blood safety. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Blood donations from August 1st, 2016 to March 31st, 2017 were routinely screened for HBV, human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), and hepatitis C virus (HCV) infections (Murex HBsAg Version 3, Murex HIV Ag/Ab Combination, and Murex HCV Ag/Ab Combination [DiaSorin]). Additional HBV investigations were performed, including hepatitis B core antibody ([HBc] Monolisa Anti-HBc PLUS; BIO-RAD) and HBV DNA tested in minipools of two samples using the quantitative Cobas Taqman HBV assay (Roche; LoQ: 6 IU/mL) and HBV DNA genotyping by sequencing. RESULTS: Of 1,162 donations analysed, 91 (7.8%) were reactive for HBsAg. All of them were also anti-HBc positive. Among the 1,071 HBsAg negative samples, 522 (48.7%) were reactive for anti-HBc. Six (0.56% of all donations) samples fulfilled the consensus definition of OBI and showed low HBV DNA loads (all <6 IU/mL). Following nested polymerase chain reaction amplifications, HBV DNA sequences were obtained for 4 of these samples (1 nearly whole genome [3123 nt], 2 Pre-S/S regions [1,356 nt], and 1 S region [445 nt]). Phylogenetic analysis identified genotype E in all samples. DISCUSSION: Around 1 in 100 Cameroonian blood donors screened who resulted HBsAg negative and anti-HBc positive carried occult HBV infection. HBsAg alone for screening prospective donors is not sufficient to eliminate the risk of HBV transfusion transmission in Cameroon, and because anti-HBc screening does not seem to be feasible without compromising blood supply, implementation of HBV nucleic acid testing could be considered when possible.


Assuntos
Doadores de Sangue , Segurança do Sangue , DNA Viral/sangue , Seleção do Doador , Antígenos de Superfície da Hepatite B/sangue , Vírus da Hepatite B , Hepatite B/sangue , Adulto , Camarões/epidemiologia , Feminino , Hepatite B/epidemiologia , Hepatite C/sangue , Hepatite C/epidemiologia , Humanos , Masculino , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase
6.
Blood Transfus ; 17(6): 409-417, 2019 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31846606

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: In Italy, the use of nucleic acid testing for hepatitis B virus (HBV) in donor screening has allowed the detection of infections in the window phase, as well as the presence of occult infections which could potentially be transmitted. The aim of this study was to analyse the trends of epidemiological data focused on HBV infection in blood donors and to estimate the residual risk of transmitting HBV from both the window phase and occult infection over a 10-year period in Italy. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Data were obtained from the Italian Haemovigilance System which includes the results of screening tests for transfusion transmissible infections. During the period of this survey (2009-2018), the molecular methods used for HBV screening were transcription-mediated amplification and polymerase chain reaction tests. Prevalence and incidence were calculated. The residual risk was estimated by applying the incidence-window period model for acute cases and a more recently reported model for estimating the risk due to occult infections. RESULTS: A total of 17,424,535 blood donors and 30,842,794 donations were tested for HBV. Altogether, 6,250 donors tested positive for HBV markers: 4,782 (175.6×105) were first time donors and 1,468 (10.0×105) were repeat donors. The prevalence of HBV markers in first time donors was 275.9×105 in 2009, declining to 143.6×105 in 2018. The incidence of new infections was 3.37×105 in 2009 and 2.17×105 in 2018. The overall residual risk for HBV amounted to 1 in 2,566,854 donations calculated as the sum of risks of both acute infections in the window period (1 in 5,835,306 donations) and occult infections (1 in 4,582,270 blood units). DISCUSSION: In Italy, the residual risk of transfusing a blood unit infected with HBV, both from window phase and occult infections, is currently very low, amounting to levels that can be considered tolerable.


Assuntos
Doadores de Sangue , Segurança do Sangue , Hepatite B , Reação Transfusional , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Feminino , Hepatite B/sangue , Hepatite B/epidemiologia , Hepatite B/transmissão , Humanos , Incidência , Itália/epidemiologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase , Prevalência , Reação Transfusional/sangue , Reação Transfusional/epidemiologia
7.
BMC Infect Dis ; 19(1): 896, 2019 Oct 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31660879

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The advent of effective direct-acting antivirals (DAAs), has prompted an assessment of the French Hepatitis C virus (HCV) screening strategy, which historically targeted high-risk groups. One of the options put forward is the implementation of combined (i.e., simultaneous) HCV, Hepatitis B virus (HBV) and HIV screening for all adults at least once during their lifetime ("universal combined screening"). However, recent national survey-based data are lacking to guide decision-making regarding which new strategy to implement. Accordingly, we aimed to provide updated data for both chronic hepatitis C (CHC) and B (CHB) prevalence and for HCV and HBV screening history, using data from the BaroTest and 2016 Health Barometer (2016-HB) studies, respectively. METHODS: 2016-HB was a national cross-sectional phone based health survey conducted in 2016 among 20,032 randomly selected individuals from the general population in mainland France. BaroTest was a virological sub-study nested in 2016-HB. Data collected for BaroTest were based on home blood self-sampling on dried blood spots (DBS). RESULTS: From 6945 analyzed DBS, chronic hepatitis C (CHC) and B (CHB) prevalence was estimated at 0.30% (95% Confidence Interval (CI): 0.13-0.70) and 0.30% (95% CI: 0.13-0.70), respectively. The proportion of individuals aware of their status was estimated at 80.6% (95% CI: 44.2-95.6) for CHC and 17.5% (95% CI: 4.9-46.4) for CHB. Universal combined screening would involve testing between 32.6 and 85.3% of 15-75 year olds according to whether we consider only individuals not previously tested for any of the three viruses, or also those already tested for one or two of the viruses. CONCLUSIONS: Our data are essential to guide decision-making regarding which new HCV screening recommendation to implement in France. They also highlight that efforts are still needed to achieve the WHO's targets for eliminating these diseases. Home blood self-sampling may prove to be a useful tool for screening and epidemiological studies.


Assuntos
Teste em Amostras de Sangue Seco , Hepatite B/sangue , Hepatite B/epidemiologia , Hepatite C Crônica/sangue , Hepatite C Crônica/epidemiologia , Programas de Rastreamento/métodos , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Anticorpos Antivirais/sangue , Conscientização , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , França/epidemiologia , Infecções por HIV/epidemiologia , Hepacivirus/imunologia , Hepatite B/psicologia , Vírus da Hepatite B/imunologia , Hepatite C Crônica/psicologia , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Prevalência , Adulto Jovem
8.
Zhonghua Yi Xue Za Zhi ; 99(35): 2781-2784, 2019 Sep 17.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31550803

RESUMO

Objective: To explore the risk factors in HBV-associated hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) patients with early recurrence after ablation and to establish predictive model. Methods: A total of 81 patients with HBV-related HCC who underwent ablation from January 2016 to December 2016 were included in Beijing Youan Hospital, including 66 males and 15 females. Standard medical records were collected, which were summarized as follows: demographic data, liver function, the number and size of tumors and the modality of ablation. Univariate and multivariate analysis were performed to identify the independent risk factors.The ROC curve was used to determine prognostic value. Cox proportional hazards model was used to establish predictive model, and the scores of risk factors were assigned according to HR value. Patients were divided into high-risk group and low-risk group in accordance with scores.The analysis of early recurrence rate was performed by the Kaplan-Meier method. Results: Tumor number, fibrinogen (Fib) and platelet-lymphocyte rate (PLR) were independently correlated with recurrence-free survival (RFS). The AUCs of Fib, PLR and Fib-PLR were 72.9%, 71.5% and 81.8%. The recurrence rates of the low-risk group were 4.9%,7.3% and 29.3% at 6 months,12 months and 24 months while 14.6%,43.9% and 78.1% in high-risk group. Two groups revealed statistically significant differences (all P<0.05). Conclusion: Tumor number, Fib, and PLR may be used as a set of predictive indicator of early recurrence in HBV-associated HCC patients after ablation.


Assuntos
Carcinoma Hepatocelular/sangue , Fibrinogênio/análise , Hepatite B/sangue , Neoplasias Hepáticas/sangue , Contagem de Linfócitos , Contagem de Plaquetas , Carcinoma Hepatocelular/virologia , Feminino , Humanos , Neoplasias Hepáticas/virologia , Masculino , Recidiva Local de Neoplasia , Prognóstico , Modelos de Riscos Proporcionais , Estudos Retrospectivos
9.
Molecules ; 24(19)2019 Sep 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31557836

RESUMO

Coumarins are widely present in a variety of plants and have a variety of pharmacological activities. In this study, we isolated a coumarin compound from Microsorium fortunei (Moore) Ching; the compound was identified as esculetin by hydrogen and carbon spectroscopy. Its anti-hepatitis B virus (HBV) activity was investigated in vitro and in vivo. In the human hepatocellular liver carcinoma 2.2.15 cell line (HepG2.2.15) transfected with HBV, esculetin effecting inhibited the expression of the HBV antigens and HBV DNA in vitro. Esculetin inhibited the expression of Hepatitis B virus X (HBx) protein in a dose-dependent manner. In the ducklings infected with duck hepatitis B virus (DHBV), the levels of DHBV DNA, duck hepatitis B surface antigen (DHBsAg), duck hepatitis B e-antigen (DHBeAg), alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and aspartate aminotransferase (AST) decreased significantly after esculetin treatment. Summing up the above, the results suggest that esculetin efficiently inhibits HBV replication both in vitro and in vivo, which provides an opportunity for further development of esculetin as antiviral drug.


Assuntos
Antivirais/farmacologia , Vírus da Hepatite B/efeitos dos fármacos , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Umbeliferonas/farmacologia , Animais , Antivirais/química , Antivirais/uso terapêutico , Biomarcadores , Linhagem Celular , Sobrevivência Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Células Cultivadas , DNA Viral , Patos , Hepatite B/sangue , Hepatite B/tratamento farmacológico , Hepatite B/virologia , Vírus da Hepatite B/genética , Vírus da Hepatite B/fisiologia , Humanos , Espectroscopia de Ressonância Magnética , Extratos Vegetais/química , Umbeliferonas/química , Umbeliferonas/uso terapêutico
10.
Virol J ; 16(1): 115, 2019 09 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31533748

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Hepatitis B virus-related decompensated cirrhosis is difficult to cure but has a high readmission rate due to multiple complications. Our aim was to investigate the diagnostic potential value of plasma diamine oxidase (DAO) for 6-month readmission of patients with HBV-related decompensated cirrhosis. METHODS: A total of 135 patients with HBV-related decompensated cirrhosis were prospectively collected at the onset of discharge of hospital, and then were followed up for at least 6 months with the readmission as the primary outcome. The plasma DAO level was measured using enzyme linked immunosorbent assay. In addition, 120 age and sex matched patients with HBV-related compensated cirrhosis were included as controls. RESULTS: A total of 36 patients (36.7%) with decompensated cirrhosis admitted to hospital during the 6-month follow up. The plasma DAO level of readmission group [21.1 (14.5; 29.0) ng/ml] was significantly higher than that in the non-readmission group [12.7 (9.3; 18.0) ng/mL, P < 0.001]. Multivariate analysis showed that the plasma DAO level (HR = 1.102, P < 0.05) and hepatic encephalopathy (HE) (HR = 5.018, P < 0.05) were independent factors for 6-month readmission of decompensated cirrhosis. DAO level showed higher area under the curve of receiver operating characteristic (AUROC) than HE (0.769 vs. 0.598, P < 0.05) and Child-Pugh-Turcotte (CPT) score (0.769 vs. 0.652, P < 0.05) for predicting 6-month readmission rate, with the best cut-off value as 19.7 ng/mL. Furthermore, plasma DAO level (HR = 1.184, P < 0.05) was an independent factor and has the higher AUROC than CPT score for the onset of recurrent HE (0.905 vs. 0.738, P < 0.05) during the 6-month follow up. CONCLUSIONS: Plasma DAO level > 19.7 ng/mL predicts high rate of 6-month readmission in patients with HBV-related decompensated cirrhosis.


Assuntos
Amina Oxidase (contendo Cobre)/sangue , Hepatite B/complicações , Cirrose Hepática/sangue , Readmissão do Paciente , Adulto , Idoso , Feminino , Hepatite B/sangue , Vírus da Hepatite B , Humanos , Cirrose Hepática/complicações , Cirrose Hepática/virologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Prospectivos
11.
BMC Res Notes ; 12(1): 509, 2019 Aug 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31416477

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to determine the magnitude of serum HBsAg and the risk factors for hepatitis B virus infection among pregnant women in Bahir Dar. An institution based cross sectional study was implemented from February 1 to May 1, 2018 among 338 pregnant women attending antenatal care clinic at Felegehiwot referral hospital, Bahir Dar, 2018. Systematic random sampling technique was implemented. Blood sample was taken from 338 study participants and serum was tested for hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg) using Enzyme Linked ImmunoSorbent Assay. RESULTS: The overall prevalence of hepatitis B virus infection among pregnant women were 16 (4.7%) (95% CI 2.7, 7.7). Having a history of blood transfusion (AOR = 5.2; 95% CI 1.2-22.3), having a history of multiple sexual partners (AOR = 4.6; 95% CI 1.1-19.6) and having a history tonsillectomy (traditional surgical procedure) (AOR = 3.4; 95% CI 1.1-10.1) were the significant risk factors for hepatitis B virus infection.


Assuntos
Instituições de Assistência Ambulatorial/estatística & dados numéricos , Hepatite B/epidemiologia , Complicações Infecciosas na Gravidez/epidemiologia , Cuidado Pré-Natal/estatística & dados numéricos , Encaminhamento e Consulta , Adulto , Estudos Transversais , Etiópia/epidemiologia , Feminino , Hepatite B/sangue , Hepatite B/virologia , Antígenos de Superfície da Hepatite B/sangue , Vírus da Hepatite B/fisiologia , Humanos , Gravidez , Complicações Infecciosas na Gravidez/sangue , Complicações Infecciosas na Gravidez/virologia , Cuidado Pré-Natal/métodos , Prevalência , Fatores de Risco
12.
Indian J Med Res ; 149(5): 633-640, 2019 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31417031

RESUMO

Background & objectives: Individual donation nucleic acid testing (ID-NAT) is considered as sensitive technology to assess blood safety from viral transfusion-transmissible infections (TTIs) in blood donors. The present study was aimed to analyze the results of ID-NAT for three years (2013-2015) with special reference to different types of donors and their age ranges in a tertiary care centre in north India. Methods: The results of ID-NAT for three years were retrospectively analyzed at our centre. A total of 168,433 donations were tested with ID-NAT, of which 10,467 were tested with Procleix® Ultrio® reagents and 157,966 were tested with Procleix®UltrioPlus® reagents, and the results were compared with those of serology to calculate the NAT yield in voluntary, replacement, first-time and repeat donors. Results: A combined NAT yield was observed as one in 1031 out of 167,069 seronegative donations with HBV yield as one in 1465, HCV yield as one in 3885 and HIV-1 as one in 167,069. Yield for co-infection (HCV and HBV) was one in 41,767. A high NAT yield was observed in replacement donors (1 in 498) as compared to voluntary donors (1 in 1320). Interpretation & conclusions: Addition of NAT to serology improved the blood safety in our centre interdicting possibility of 150 TTIs annually. It has also reemphasized the safety of voluntary over replacement donors. The results also highlight the need of proper counselling, notification and referral guidelines of NAT yield donors in our country and other countries which lack them.


Assuntos
Doadores de Sangue , Segurança do Sangue , Reação Transfusional/genética , Infecções por HIV/sangue , Infecções por HIV/transmissão , Infecções por HIV/virologia , HIV-1/isolamento & purificação , HIV-1/patogenicidade , Hepacivirus/isolamento & purificação , Hepacivirus/patogenicidade , Hepatite B/sangue , Hepatite B/transmissão , Hepatite B/virologia , Vírus da Hepatite B/isolamento & purificação , Vírus da Hepatite B/patogenicidade , Hepatite C/sangue , Hepatite C/transmissão , Hepatite C/virologia , Humanos , Índia/epidemiologia , Centros de Atenção Terciária , Reação Transfusional/prevenção & controle , Reação Transfusional/virologia
13.
Zhonghua Yi Xue Yi Chuan Xue Za Zhi ; 36(8): 781-784, 2019 Aug 10.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31400127

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To determine the expression profile of microRNA (miRNA) in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) and immune factors in pregnant women with hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection. METHODS: A total of 182 pregnant women infected with HBV were randomly selected, with 40 healthy pregnant women and 35 non-pregnant women as controls. High-throughput sequencing was used to detect RNA in the PBMC of all subjects. Indirect ELISA method was used to determine the changes of cytokines in peripheral blood samples. RESULTS: Compared with the control group, 18 differentially expressed miRNA were identified in those with HBV infection (P< 0.01). Among these, miR-3607-3p, miR-20a, miR-1296, miR-153-1 and miR-X4 may directly regulate the transcriptional level of target genes including IL-10, IL-18, IL-16, MCP-1, NUP50 and CCR1. Meanwhile, peripheral blood cytokines IL-10, IL-18, IL-16 and MCP-1 were significantly increased in those with HBV infection (P<0.01), with the expression level of IL-16 and MCP-1 being strongly correlated with the viral load. CONCLUSION: The expression profiles of miRNA in PBMC and cytokines in peripheral blood can change significantly during pregnancy, both may be involved in the immune response to HBV infection.


Assuntos
Citocinas/sangue , Hepatite B/sangue , Leucócitos Mononucleares/metabolismo , MicroRNAs/sangue , DNA Viral , Feminino , Vírus da Hepatite B , Humanos , Gravidez
14.
Biosens Bioelectron ; 142: 111556, 2019 Oct 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31377574

RESUMO

Nowadays, nanomaterials with enzymatic properties have aroused wide interest because of their special advantages, such as catalytic activity, simple preparation method and high stability. We introduced new nanoenzymes to a label-free electrochemical immunosensor for Hepatitis B surface antigen (HBs Ag) detection. In this study, PtPd nanocubes@MoS2 nanoenzymes (PtPd NCs@MoS2) were prepared by loading PtPd nanocubes (PtPd NCs) on molybdenum disulfide nano-sheet (MoS2) through in situ redox polymerization. The prepared nanoenzymes exhibited enhanced peroxidase-like activity than separate MoS2 and PtPd NCs. The catalytic process of PtPd NCs@MoS2 is in agreement with the Michaelis-Menten kinetic equation. PtPd NCs@MoS2 were used for sensitive detection of HBs Ag, which is ascribed to their superior peroxidase activity, good conductivity and high specific surface area and synergistic amplification for current signals. Compared with the detection limit of colorimetric method (3.3 pg/mL), the electrochemical method (10.2 fg/mL) shows a lower detection limit and a wider linear range from 32 fg/mL to 100 ng/mL, so it is more suitable for quantitative analysis of Hepatitis B. In summary, the prepared immunosensor provides a better opportunity for early diagnosis of Hepatitis B and also has further applications in biosensing and medical diagnostics.


Assuntos
Dissulfetos/química , Antígenos de Superfície da Hepatite B/sangue , Molibdênio/química , Nanoestruturas/química , Paládio/química , Platina/química , Anticorpos Imobilizados/química , Técnicas Biossensoriais/métodos , Técnicas Eletroquímicas/métodos , Hepatite B/sangue , Hepatite B/diagnóstico , Antígenos de Superfície da Hepatite B/análise , Vírus da Hepatite B/isolamento & purificação , Humanos , Imunoensaio/métodos , Limite de Detecção , Nanoestruturas/ultraestrutura
15.
Acta Gastroenterol Belg ; 82(2): 279-284, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31314189

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND AIM: Hepatitis B Virus (HBV) screening before starting immunosuppressive treatment is of vital importance in order to prevent HBV reactivation and its associated clinical consequences. Despite all recommendations by international organizations, screening rates are far below desired. The aim of this study was to assess the efficacy of a computer alert programme 'HBVision' for increasing HBV screening rates. MATERIAL AND METHODS: 'HBVision' identifies patients at risk of HBV reactivation by specific ICD-10 codes and immunosuppressive medication reports and sends sequential alert messages to screen for HBsAg, anti-HBc IgG and consult a specialist if one of them is positive. The demographic variables, treatment protocols, HBV screening and consultation rates of oncology and hematology patients who started immunosuppressive treatments within one year before (control group) and after "HBVision" (study group) were retrospectively compared. RESULTS: HBsAg and anti-HBc IgG screening rates (68.6% and 13.1%, respectively) were significantly higher in the study group (n=602) compared to control group (n=815) (55% and 4.3%, respectively) (p<0.001, for both). Subgroup analysis revealed significant improvements in the screening rates of HBsAg (65.8%) and anti-HBc IgG (5.1%) in oncology patients (p<0.001), anti-HBc IgG (89.1%) in hematology patients (p<0.001). CONCLUSION: The computer alert programme significantly increased HBV screening rates before starting immunosuppressive treatments, however the results were still below ideal. Additional efforts, such as modifying the computer programme according to feedbacks, are probably needed.


Assuntos
Antígenos de Superfície da Hepatite B/sangue , Vírus da Hepatite B/efeitos dos fármacos , Hepatite B/sangue , Hepatite B/virologia , Imunossupressores/efeitos adversos , Ativação Viral/efeitos dos fármacos , Hepatite B/induzido quimicamente , Hepatite B/tratamento farmacológico , Antígenos do Núcleo do Vírus da Hepatite B/imunologia , Vírus da Hepatite B/isolamento & purificação , Vírus da Hepatite B/patogenicidade , Humanos , Imunossupressores/uso terapêutico , Programas de Rastreamento/métodos , Estudos Retrospectivos , Software
16.
J Pregnancy ; 2019: 7917894, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31316835

RESUMO

Background: Hepatitis B and hepatitis C viruses (HBV and HCV) are life-threatening infections of public health importance due to their association with cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma. Despite HBV being moderately endemic in many low-income countries, there is no routine HBV vaccination among child bearing aged women making them at risk of transmitting infections to the foetus during pregnancy. This study investigated the seroprevalence of antihepatitis B surface antibodies (anti-HBs) and HCV antibodies among pregnant women in Mwanza city to provide data that can be used in devising preventive strategies. Methods: A cross-sectional hospital-based study involving 339 pregnant women was conducted between June and July 2017. Data were collected using structured data collection tool. Detection of anti-HBs was performed using enzyme immunoassay while qualitative rapid immunochromatographic tests were employed to detect HCV antibodies. Data was analyzed by using STATA version 13. Results: The mean age of the study participants was 25.6±5.8 years. The prevalence of anti-HBs was 85/339 (25.1%, 95% CI: 20.4-29.6) while that of HCV antibodies was 1/333 (0.3%, 95% CI: 0.1-0.4). By univariate logistic regression analysis, increase in age (OR: 1.04, 95% CI: 1.00-1.09, P=0.03), unknown HIV status (OR: 0.3, 95% CI: 0.11-0.79, P=0.035), and multigravidity (OR: 2.12, 95% CI: 1.18-3.8, P=0.038) were significantly associated with anti-HBs seropositivity. Conclusion: A significant proportion of pregnant women have anti-HBs while the seroprevalence of HCV is low among pregnant women in the city of Mwanza. Routine screening of HBV among pregnant women coupled with appropriate management should be emphasized in developing countries. Further studies to determine seroprevalence of HCV are recommended across the country.


Assuntos
Hepatite B/epidemiologia , Hepatite C/epidemiologia , Complicações Infecciosas na Gravidez/epidemiologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Hepatite B/sangue , Hepatite B/diagnóstico , Anticorpos Anti-Hepatite B/sangue , Antígenos de Superfície da Hepatite B/imunologia , Hepatite C/sangue , Hepatite C/diagnóstico , Anticorpos Anti-Hepatite C/sangue , Humanos , Modelos Logísticos , Gravidez , Complicações Infecciosas na Gravidez/sangue , Complicações Infecciosas na Gravidez/diagnóstico , Prevalência , Fatores de Risco , Estudos Soroepidemiológicos , Tanzânia/epidemiologia , Adulto Jovem
17.
Georgian Med News ; (290): 73-77, 2019 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31322519

RESUMO

The problem of HBV and HCV infections in addition to the HIV-infection in sub-Saharan African countries remains important due to the high prevalence and mortality after fast progressing fibrogenesis and development of hepatocellular carcinoma. Despite of the large number of investigations on diagnostics and prediction of the disease course, the exact role of the proinflammatory influence of IP-10 and IL-17A on the fibrogenesis during HIV/HBV-co-infection is still unknown. The aim of the study was to investigate IP-10 and IL-17A concentration in blood serum among HIV/HBV patients to consider their potential role in improvement of diagnostics of liver fibrosis progression. 53 HIV/HBV patients of Lewanika General Hospital (West Zambia) and 21 healthy blood donors were checked for serological markers, liver biopsy and IP-10, IL-17A in blood serum. The obtained results were analyzed by statistical package SPSS 12.0. Mean IP-10 was 753,6 pg/ml among HIV/HBV co-infected patients with F3-4 and it was reliably higher than in F1-2 patients and healthy responders (р=0,005). This group had also higher level of IL-17A (37,54 pg/ml) than comparison groups (р=0,032). We found out strong correlation between increasing IP-10 (r=0,6), IL-17A (r=0,52) and fibrotic severity (р<0,05). High IP-10, IL-17A amount increases the risk of F3-4 formation in HIV/HBV patients.


Assuntos
Quimiocina CXCL10/sangue , Coinfecção/epidemiologia , Infecções por HIV/complicações , HIV-1/isolamento & purificação , Hepatite B/complicações , Interleucina-17/sangue , Cirrose Hepática/etiologia , Cirrose Hepática/patologia , Fígado/virologia , Soro/virologia , Adulto , Biomarcadores/sangue , Biópsia , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Quimiocina CXCL10/imunologia , Progressão da Doença , Feminino , Infecções por HIV/sangue , Infecções por HIV/epidemiologia , Hepatite B/sangue , Hepatite B/epidemiologia , Vírus da Hepatite B , Humanos , Interleucina-17/imunologia , Fígado/patologia , Cirrose Hepática/sangue , Cirrose Hepática/metabolismo , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Valor Preditivo dos Testes , Zâmbia/epidemiologia
18.
BMC Infect Dis ; 19(1): 602, 2019 Jul 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31291901

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Hepatitis B virus (HBV) is a hepatotropic deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) virus which causes death. More than 300 million people have chronic liver infections globally and about 600,000 people die annually from acute or chronic complications of hepatitis B infection. Recent studies conducted in Ethiopia showed moderate endemicity (3-7.8%) of HBV among pregnant women. However, there is paucity of information on sero- prevalence of HBV and associated factors among pregnant women at Gambella town. The aim of this study is to assess sero-prevalence of hepatitis surface antigen (HBsAg) and associated factors among pregnant women in Gambella Hospital. METHODS: Hospital based cross-sectional study was conducted in a total of 253 pregnant women from March 10-April 15, 2017. Socio-demographic characteristics and risk factors were collected through face to face interview using structured questionnaire. HBV infection was determined using Eugene strip test. Logistic regression analysis was used to determine association between HBsAg sero-positivity and various factors. Findings were presented using 95% CI of Crude Odds Ratios (COR) and Adjusted Odds Ratios (AOR). RESULT: The overall sero- prevalence of HBV infection was 7.9% (95% CI, 4.7-11.9), which indicates intermediate endemicity. History of abortion (AOR = 3.56:1: 95% CI, 1.24-10.22), occupation (AOR = 8.36:95% CI, 1.67-41.96) and multiple sexual partner (AOR = 17.38: 95% CI, 4.48-67.49) had statistical significant association with HBsAg sero-positivity. CONCLUSION: HBV sero-prevalence in pregnant women shows intermediate endemicity. Hence health education on having single sexual partner and risk factors of abortion should be given. In addition, routine screening and immunization of pregnant women for HBV infection should be strengthen.


Assuntos
Hepatite B/epidemiologia , Complicações Infecciosas na Gravidez/epidemiologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Estudos Transversais , Etiópia/epidemiologia , Feminino , Hepatite B/sangue , Antígenos de Superfície da Hepatite B/sangue , Vírus da Hepatite B/imunologia , Hospitais , Humanos , Gravidez , Complicações Infecciosas na Gravidez/sangue , Fatores de Risco , Estudos Soroepidemiológicos , Inquéritos e Questionários , Adulto Jovem
19.
Niger J Clin Pract ; 22(7): 932-935, 2019 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31293257

RESUMO

Background: Hepatitis B virus infection is endemic in Nigeria, yet few data exist about the extent of infection in rural communities. Objective: To determine seroprevalence of hepatitis B surface antigenemia in two rural communities in Nigeria. Methods: A 330-person survey for seroprevalence of hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg) was carried out in two rural communities in Enugu State, Nigeria, in January, 2017. All study participants were screened for HBsAg using chromatographic immunoassay. Results: The mean age of participants was 57.2 ± 17.4 years, (range = 10-92 years) with 168 (50.9%) aged 60 years and above. The prevalence of HBsAg was found to be 2.1% with the 18-29 years age group having the highest prevalence. Conclusion: There is need to increase hepatitis B surveillance in rural communities to reduce transmission and institute early treatment.


Assuntos
Doenças Endêmicas , Antígenos de Superfície da Hepatite B/sangue , Vírus da Hepatite B/isolamento & purificação , Hepatite B/epidemiologia , População Rural , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Criança , Feminino , Hepatite B/sangue , Antígenos de Superfície da Hepatite B/imunologia , Vírus da Hepatite B/imunologia , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Nigéria/epidemiologia , Prevalência , Estudos Soroepidemiológicos , Inquéritos e Questionários , Adulto Jovem
20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31357451

RESUMO

The origin of the hepatitis B virus is a subject of wide deliberation among researchers. As a result, increasing academic interest has focused on the spread of the virus in different animal species. However, the sources of viral infection for many of these animals are unknown since transmission may occur from animal to animal, human to human, animal to human, and human to animal. The aim of this study was to evaluate hepadnavirus circulation in wild and farm animals (including animals raised under wild or free conditions) from different sites in Brazil and Uruguay using serological and molecular tools. A total of 487 domestic wild and farm animals were screened for hepatitis B virus (HBV) serological markers and tested via quantitative and qualitative polymerase chain reaction (PCR) to detect viral DNA. We report evidence of HBsAg (surface antigen of HBV) and total anti-HBc (HBV core antigen) markers as well as low-copy hepadnavirus DNA among domestic and wild animals. According to our results, which were confirmed by partial genome sequencing, as the proximity between humans and animals increases, the potential for pathogen dispersal also increases. A wider knowledge and understanding of reverse zoonoses should be sought for an effective One Health response.


Assuntos
Animais Domésticos/virologia , Animais Selvagens/virologia , DNA Viral/sangue , Anticorpos Anti-Hepatite B/sangue , Antígenos da Hepatite B/sangue , Hepatite B/veterinária , Animais , Animais Domésticos/sangue , Animais Selvagens/sangue , Biomarcadores/sangue , Brasil/epidemiologia , Hepatite B/sangue , Hepatite B/diagnóstico , Hepatite B/epidemiologia , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase , Uruguai/epidemiologia
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