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1.
Artigo em Alemão | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33326051

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: In 2016, the World Health Organization (WHO) released a strategy to eliminate hepatitis B, C, and D and defined indicators to monitor the progress. The Robert Koch Institute organized an interdisciplinary working meeting in 2019 to identify data sources and gaps. OBJECTIVES: The objectives were to network, to create an overview of the data sources available in Germany on hepatitis B and C, and to discuss how to construct indicators. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We extracted the WHO indicators relevant for Germany and determined how they can be constructed on the basis of available data. Stakeholders from public health services, clinics, laboratories, health insurance companies, research institutes, data holders, and registries attended a workshop and discussed methods of constructing the indicators for which data are lacking. Data sources and data were evaluated and prioritized with regard to their quality and completeness. RESULTS: Indicators on prevalence, incidence, prevention, testing and diagnosis, treatment, cure, burden of sequelae, and mortality for the general population can be constructed using secondary data such as diagnosis, health service, and registry data, data from laboratories and hospitals as well as population-based studies. Data sources for vulnerable groups are limited to studies among drug users, men who have sex with men, and about HIV coinfected patients. Data for migrants, prisoners, and sex workers are largely lacking as well as data on burden of disease from chronic viral hepatitis in the general population. CONCLUSIONS: We identified data sources, their limitations, and methods for construction for all selected indicators. The next step is to convert the ideas developed into concrete projects with individual stakeholders.


Assuntos
Hepatite B , Hepatite C , Hepatite Viral Humana , Minorias Sexuais e de Gênero , Alemanha/epidemiologia , Hepatite B/diagnóstico , Hepatite B/epidemiologia , Hepatite B/prevenção & controle , Hepatite C/diagnóstico , Hepatite C/epidemiologia , Hepatite C/prevenção & controle , Homossexualidade Masculina , Humanos , Masculino
2.
Support Care Cancer ; 29(1): 97-105, 2021 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32314052

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Optimal hepatitis C virus (HCV) screening strategies for cancer patients have not been established. We compared the performance of selective HCV screening strategies. METHODS: We surveyed patients presenting for first systemic anticancer therapy during 2013-2014 for HCV risk factors. We estimated the prevalence of positivity for HCV antibody (anti-HCV) and examined factors associated with anti-HCV status using Fisher's exact test or Student's t test. Sensitivity was calculated for screening patients born during 1945-1965, patients with ≥ 1 other risk factor, or both cohorts ("combined screening"). RESULTS: We enrolled 2122 participants. Median age was 59 years (range, 18-91); 1138 participants were women. Race/ethnicity distribution was white non-Hispanic, 76% (n = 1616); Hispanic, 11% (n = 233); black non-Hispanic, 8% (n = 160); Asian, 4% (n = 78); and other, 2% (n = 35). Primary cancer distribution was non-liver solid tumor, 78% (n = 1664); hematologic cancer, 20% (n = 422); and liver cancer, 1% (n = 28). Prevalence of anti-HCV was 1.93% (95% CI, 1.39%-2.61%). Over 28% of patients with detectable HCV RNA were unaware of infection. Factors significantly associated with anti-HCV positivity included less than a bachelor's degree, birth in 1945-1965, chronic liver disease, injection drug use, and blood transfusion or organ transplant before 1992. A total of 1315 participants (62%), including 39 of 41 with anti-HCV, reported ≥ 1 risk factor. Sensitivity was 80% (95% CI, 65-91%) for birth-cohort-based, 68% (95% CI, 52-82%) for other-risk-factor-based, and 95% (95% 83-99%) for combined screening. CONCLUSION: Combined screening still missed 5% of patients with anti-HCV. These findings favor universal HCV screening to identify all HCV-infected cancer patients.


Assuntos
Hepacivirus/imunologia , Anticorpos Anti-Hepatite C/sangue , Hepatite C/diagnóstico , Neoplasias Hepáticas/tratamento farmacológico , Programas de Rastreamento/métodos , Adolescente , Adulto , Afro-Americanos/estatística & dados numéricos , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Estudos Transversais , Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Europeu/estatística & dados numéricos , Feminino , Hepatite C/etnologia , Hispano-Americanos/estatística & dados numéricos , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Prevalência , RNA Viral/sangue , Fatores de Risco , Adulto Jovem
3.
Cas Lek Cesk ; 159(6): 213-216, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33297696

RESUMO

The global elimination of viral hepatitis C (HCV) infection according to WHO plan 2016 is conditioned by controlling the HCV epidemic among people who inject drug (PWID). This high-risk subpopulation has no interest in prevention, diagnostic or treatment of HCV infection. The problem is not only the lack of interest in changing their behaviour pattern, but also inability of health care professionals to conduct efficient assistance to PWID. The key to any successful intervention or treatment is to master the communication with problem patients. Providing efficient care of PWID with HCV is the most important step to successful HCV elimination.


Assuntos
Hepatite C , Hepatite C/diagnóstico , Hepatite C/epidemiologia , Hepatite C/prevenção & controle , Humanos
4.
Euro Surveill ; 25(47)2020 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33243354

RESUMO

We present preliminary results of a coronavirus disease (COVID-19) impact assessment on testing for HIV, viral hepatitis and sexually transmitted infections in the WHO European Region. We analyse 98 responses from secondary care (n = 36), community testing sites (n = 52) and national level (n = 10). Compared to pre-COVID-19, 95% of respondents report decreased testing volumes during March-May and 58% during June-August 2020. Reasons for decreases and mitigation measures were analysed.


Assuntos
Serviços de Laboratório Clínico/estatística & dados numéricos , Infecções por Coronavirus , Coronavirus , Assistência à Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Avaliação do Impacto na Saúde , Programas de Rastreamento/estatística & dados numéricos , Serviços de Laboratório Clínico/tendências , Assistência à Saúde/tendências , Europa (Continente) , Infecções por HIV/diagnóstico , Hepatite C/diagnóstico , Hepatite Viral Humana/diagnóstico , Humanos , Masculino , Programas de Rastreamento/tendências , Pandemias , Organização Mundial da Saúde
5.
Aust N Z J Public Health ; 44(6): 514-516, 2020 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33252814

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study was to assess the prevalence of hepatitis C virus (HCV) in regional Victoria and assess amenability to treatment. METHODS: Households were randomly selected and one adult from each was invited to a 'clinic', which included HCV, liver function and liver stiffness/fibrosis tests. Participants reactive to HCV were asked about their amenability to treatment. RESULTS: The study identified eight cases of HCV (antibody and PCR reactive, 1.1%) among 748 participants, half of which were new diagnoses. Most of the HCV-reactive participants were male (89%). Liver function and fibrosis were not significantly different between HCV-reactive and non-reactive participants. Most participants notified of their HCV were amenable to treatment. CONCLUSIONS: The prevalence of HCV in this regional Victorian study (1.1%) was similar to the Australian modelled prevalence estimates. Most participants were amenable to treatment. Implications for public health: The unique opportunity to eliminate HCV requires a reorientation of the public health response toward systematic implementation of treatment to address barriers and reduce stigma and discrimination for marginalised populations. This should include targeting regional areas where the HCV prevalence of undiagnosed cases may be higher than metropolitan areas.


Assuntos
Hepacivirus/isolamento & purificação , Hepatite C/prevenção & controle , Adulto , Idoso , Austrália/epidemiologia , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Hepacivirus/genética , Hepatite C/diagnóstico , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase , Prevalência , Testes Sorológicos
6.
N Z Med J ; 133(1525): 74-83, 2020 11 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33223550

RESUMO

AIMS: To ascertain the feasibility and outcomes of point-of-care testing for hepatitis C virus (HCV) antibodies in people with risk factors screened in community pharmacies. METHODS: Ten pharmacies in the Waitemata District Health Board piloted point-of-care antibody HCV screening with consenting participants. Individuals with a positive HCV antibody result had a confirmatory HCV RNA test performed at a local laboratory, with pharmacist follow-up to discuss the result. RNA positive individuals were referred to their general practitioner for further follow-up including antiviral therapy. Number of tests, number of positives and number treated were collected. Pharmacists completed a survey about their experiences. RESULTS: Of 192 participants, seven (3.6%) had positive tests on screening, four of whom had a positive RNA assay and received HCV medication, and one of whom had a positive RNA assay but has not yet received treatment. Two had negative RNA results. Pharmacist feedback was very positive with most wishing to continue the point-of-care testing service. Most wanted to be able to treat HCV in order to improve linkage to care. CONCLUSIONS: Pharmacy point-of-care testing with immediate results and pharmacist follow-up of positive results can aid diagnosis of HCV in at-risk populations and help treatment uptake.


Assuntos
Serviços Comunitários de Farmácia/estatística & dados numéricos , Hepatite C/diagnóstico , Programas de Rastreamento/métodos , Testes Imediatos , Estudos de Viabilidade , Feminino , Hepacivirus , Hepatite C/virologia , Humanos , Masculino , Nova Zelândia , Farmacêuticos , Inquéritos e Questionários
7.
N Z Med J ; 133(1525): 84-95, 2020 11 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33223551

RESUMO

AIM: The study's principal aim was to ascertain the viability of point-of-care rapid testing for hepatitis C (HCV) antibodies by non-clinician frontline peer needle exchange staff. Secondary aims included identifying HCV-exposed clients, improving their access to treatment, assessing their knowledge of HCV and strengthening client-staff relationships. METHOD: Peer staff at three South Island needle exchange services (two urban, one mobile) were trained to administer point-of-care rapid HCV antibody tests, to clients, with finger-stick blood sampling, along with a short self-report questionnaire. Clients testing HCV antibody positive were offered on-site venepuncture by clinical staff, to confirm reactive rapid test results. RESULTS: Two hundred and four people were tested across the three sites. Of these, 131 (64.2%) tested HCV antibody positive (reactive) and by the study's conclusion confirmatory venepuncture testing (n=55) had produced 14 new diagnoses and seven people had commenced treatment. Additionally, the study successfully assessed clients' previous HCV testing rates and their knowledge of test results. Through the interactions involved in testing participants, needle exchange staff reported strengthened relationships with clients. CONCLUSION: This study demonstrated the viability of administering rapid point-of-care HCV antibody tests to needle exchange clients by non-clinician frontline peer staff. The efficacy of point-of-care testing and its appropriateness for use in this context to identify HCV-exposed needle exchange clients was demonstrated by the high proportion of participants receiving a reactive result, the identification of viremic clients and their support into treatment.


Assuntos
Serviços de Saúde Comunitária/métodos , Anticorpos Anti-Hepatite C/sangue , Hepatite C/diagnóstico , Testes Imediatos , Abuso de Substâncias por Via Intravenosa/complicações , Adolescente , Adulto , Feminino , Acesso aos Serviços de Saúde , Hepatite C/sangue , Hepatite C/epidemiologia , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Programas de Troca de Agulhas , Nova Zelândia , Projetos Piloto , Inquéritos e Questionários , Adulto Jovem
8.
J Prim Care Community Health ; 11: 2150132720969554, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33225792

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) has led to unprecedented modifications to healthcare delivery in the U.S. To preserve resources in preparation for a COVID-19 surge, Boston Medical Center (BMC) implemented workflows to decrease ambulatory in-person visits effective March 16th, 2020. Telemedicine was incorporated into clinical workflows and much preventive care, including Hepatitis C (HCV) testing, was not routinely performed. OBJECTIVE: To explore the impact that the COVID-19 rapid restructuring response has had on HCV testing and identification hospital-wide and in ambulatory settings. METHODS: BMC utilizes reflex confirmatory testing for HCV. When a sample is HCV Ab positive, it is automatically reflexed for confirmatory RNA and genotype testing. HCV test results for patients were collected daily. We compared unique patient tests for 3.5 month periods before and after March 16th, 2020. Descriptive statistics showed total tests and total new HCV RNA+ before versus after, both hospital-wide and in ambulatory clinics alone. Mean daily tests completed were compared. RESULTS: Hospital-wide, total HCV testing decreased by 49.6%, and new HCV+ patient identification decreased by 42.1%. In ambulatory clinics, testing decreased by 71.9%, and new HCV+ identification decreased by 63.3%. Hospital-wide, mean daily tests decreased by 22.9 tests per day (95% CI: 17.9-28.0, P < .001), and mean daily new HCV+ identification decreased by 0.36 (95% CI: 0.20-0.53, P < .001). In ambulatory clinics, mean daily tests decreased by 22.1 tests per day (95% CI: 17.5-26.7, P < .001) and mean daily HCV+ decreased by 1.40 (95% CI: 1.03-1.76, P < .001). CONCLUSION: The COVID-19 systematic emergency response led to decreased HCV testing and identification, and in this regard telemedicine acts as a barrier to HCV care. Other public health initiatives must be monitored in the context of telemedicine workflows. Continued monitoring of HCV screening trends is vital, and adaptive approaches to work toward the goal of HCV elimination are needed.


Assuntos
Instituições de Assistência Ambulatorial , Assistência à Saúde , Hepatite C/diagnóstico , Programas de Rastreamento , Pandemias , Telemedicina , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Anticorpos Antivirais/sangue , Boston , Coronavirus , Assistência à Saúde/métodos , Assistência à Saúde/organização & administração , Emergências , Feminino , Acesso aos Serviços de Saúde , Hepacivirus/genética , Hepacivirus/imunologia , Hepatite C/virologia , Hospitais , Humanos , Masculino , Programas de Rastreamento/métodos , Programas de Rastreamento/estatística & dados numéricos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , RNA Viral , Adulto Jovem
9.
Zhonghua Gan Zang Bing Za Zhi ; 28(10): 809-811, 2020 Oct 20.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33105921

RESUMO

Hepatitis C infection is a serious public health threat, and the World Health Organization has recommended the elimination of public health threats from viral hepatitis, including hepatitis C, by 2030. Many countries and regions are actively exploring strategies and models to eliminate the public health threat of hepatitis C. It is estimated that there are at least 7.6 million cases of chronic hepatitis C in China, with both diagnosis and treatment rates far away to 2030 target. China's government, social organizations and doctors at different levels are also actively exploring the mode of eliminating the public health threat of hepatitis C in China, including the main mode supported by national standards, government-led mode, social institution undertaking and government-supported mode, medical alliance mode, screening in high-prevalence areas and services contracted with family doctors. China can have a lessons learning from international and ourselves experience, particularly as "Test and treat all based on needs and demand" strategy in Covid-19 control, finally achieve eliminate the public health threat of hepatitis C as soon as possible.


Assuntos
Hepatite C , China/epidemiologia , Hepatite C/diagnóstico , Hepatite C/tratamento farmacológico , Hepatite C/epidemiologia , Humanos
10.
Zhonghua Gan Zang Bing Za Zhi ; 28(10): 812-816, 2020 Oct 20.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33105922

RESUMO

Recently, global hepatitis C testing and treatment have made some progress with the popularization of direct-acting antiviral drugs (DAAs), application of new detection technologies and service models. By 2017, 5 million hepatitis C patients had received DAA treatment, which has surpassed the 2020 treatment target set by the World Health Organization's hepatitis strategy. However, on a global scale, the scope of hepatitis C testing and treatment remains severely inadequate, especially in countries with a high burden of hepatitis C and low-and middle-income countries. In addition, the coverage of harm reduction interventions for injecting drug users is low and the progress is slow. Therefore, achieving the goal of eliminating hepatitis C by 2030 is a huge challenge. Overcoming barriers to prevention and treatment, thereby accelerating progress in eliminating hepatitis C, depends on the strong political will, increasing fund, epidemic and prevention analysis based on the deeper implementation of existing effective measures and rapid use and promotion of new detection and treatment tools. Importantly, Universal Health Coverage (UHC) provides an opportunity to countermeasures the challenges and expands effective prevention and control measures.


Assuntos
Antivirais , Erradicação de Doenças , Hepatite C , Antivirais/uso terapêutico , Saúde Global , Hepacivirus , Hepatite C/diagnóstico , Hepatite C/tratamento farmacológico , Hepatite C/epidemiologia , Humanos
11.
Zhonghua Gan Zang Bing Za Zhi ; 28(10): 820-823, 2020 Oct 20.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33105924

RESUMO

Discovering and treating potential hepatitis C infections has become an important strategy to eliminate hepatitis C in China. Currently, the rate of screening and misdiagnosis of hepatitis C antibodies in Chinese hospitals is high, but the rate of physician consultation is low. Therefore, with the cooperation of multiple departments of the hospital, the establishment and implementation of hepatitis C screening and referral channels can effectively improve the diagnosis, referral and treatment rate of hepatitis C patients. This article summarizes the recent research progress of hepatitis C screening and referral in the hospitals.


Assuntos
Hepatite C , Encaminhamento e Consulta , China/epidemiologia , Hepatite C/diagnóstico , Hepatite C/epidemiologia , Anticorpos Anti-Hepatite C , Humanos , Programas de Rastreamento
12.
Zhonghua Gan Zang Bing Za Zhi ; 28(10): 850-854, 2020 Oct 20.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33105930

RESUMO

Objective: To understand the cognition, willingness to test and influencing factors of hepatitis C (HCV) based on social software for men who have sex with men (MSM). Methods: An online questionnaire was used to investigate the target population of Blued platform users, including general demographic characteristics, sexual behavior, drug abuse behavior, cognition of hepatitis C prevention and treatment, past hepatitis C testing status and future testing willingness. There were 14 questions in the cognition part, and answering 10 or more questions were defined as "knowing" . Cognition rate, willingness to test and related influencing factors of hepatitis C were analyzed in different characteristics population. Data were analyzed by univariate and multivariate logistic regression. Results: A total of 1800 valid questionnaires were completed, of which 58.9% (1 061/1 800) had heard of hepatitis C, and the overall cognition rate of hepatitis C was 33.5% (603/1 800). The cognition rate of hepatitis C among those aged 30 years old, monthly income among RMB 5 000~10 000, high school education or above, and previous HIV testing [42.5% (371/873), 36.7% (191/520), 35.1% (584/1 663) and 37.4% (544/1453)] was considerably higher than those of the corresponding low-age, low-income, low-educated, not having HIV testing and not insisting on condom use, and the differences were statistically significant (P < 0.05). The proportion of respondents who were willing to undergo hepatitis C testing in the next 3 months was 82.5% (851/1 031). The proportion of respondents who were tested for HIV in the past, had anal sex in the past 6 months and had high-risk behaviors [85.2% (766/899), 86.1% (609/707) and 86.6% (610/704)] was considerably higher than those who had not been tested for HIV, had no anal sex and had no high-risk behaviors in the past 6 months, and the differences were statistically significant (P < 0.05). Conclusion: The survey respondents have a low cognition rate of hepatitis C, but have a higher willingness to test. Targeted publicity and education should be strengthened for this population, and convenient conditions should be provided to promote regular testing.


Assuntos
Cognição , Hepatite C , Minorias Sexuais e de Gênero , Adulto , Infecções por HIV/diagnóstico , Hepatite C/diagnóstico , Hepatite C/epidemiologia , Hepatite C/psicologia , Homossexualidade Masculina , Humanos , Masculino , Assunção de Riscos , Comportamento Sexual , Software , Inquéritos e Questionários
13.
BMC Infect Dis ; 20(1): 736, 2020 Oct 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33028232

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Blood transfusion is associated with potential risks of transfusion-transmitted infections (TTIs). Different strategies are needed to monitor blood safety and screen the donors' efficacy, such as evaluation of the prevalence and trends of TTIs. This study was conducted to evaluate the prevalence and trends of TTIs, including hepatitis B virus (HBV), hepatitis C virus (HCV), human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), and human T-cell lymphotropic virus (HTLV 1/2), and the impact of the donors' characteristics such as age, sex, and donor status on the prevalence of TTIs in blood donors in seven large provinces of Iran from 2010 to 2018. METHODS: This study was conducted on the data collected from all blood donations in seven Iranian Blood Transfusion Centers including Ardabil, Alborz, Guilan, West Azarbaijan, North, Razavi, and South Khorasan from April 2010 to March 2018. Demographic characteristics, number of donations, donor status, and screening and confirmatory serological results of all blood donations were collected from Iranian Blood Transfusion Organizations (IBTO) national database. The prevalence and trend of HBV, HCV, HIV, and HTLV 1/2 infections were reported according to the donation year and donor's characteristics. RESULTS: The analysis of the prevalence and trend of TTIs in 3,622,860 blood donors showed a significant decreasing trend in first-time and regular donors. Additionally, compared to first- time donors, regular donors made safer blood donations with lower risks of HBV, HIV, HCV and HTLV 1/2 (P < 0.0001). Although the prevalence of HTLV 1/2 and HBV was higher in females, TTIs had a significant decreasing trend in males and females. Finally, it was found that the prevalence of HBV and HTLV 1/2 increased with age up to 40-49 years and then decreased thereafter. CONCLUSIONS: The decreasing trends of TTIs in Iranian donors during 9 years may indicate that the various strategies implemented by IBTO have been effective in recent years. Other factors such as a decrease in the prevalence of specific TTIs in the general population might have also contributed to these declines.


Assuntos
Segurança do Sangue , Infecções por HIV/diagnóstico , Infecções por HTLV-I/diagnóstico , Hepatite B/diagnóstico , Hepatite C/diagnóstico , Adolescente , Adulto , Doadores de Sangue/estatística & dados numéricos , Feminino , Infecções por HIV/epidemiologia , Infecções por HTLV-I/epidemiologia , Hepatite B/epidemiologia , Hepatite C/epidemiologia , Humanos , Irã (Geográfico)/epidemiologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Prevalência , Reação Transfusional/diagnóstico , Reação Transfusional/epidemiologia , Reação Transfusional/virologia , Adulto Jovem
15.
Pan Afr Med J ; 36: 182, 2020.
Artigo em Francês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32952826

RESUMO

Introduction: hepatitis C is an infection which can be passed from mother to child. The purpose of this study was to investigate the prevalence of colonization by anti-HCV antibodies in pregnant women living in Cotonou and to identify factors associated with it. Methods: we conducted a cross-sectional study of 253 pregnant women admitted for prenatal care in four major maternity hospitals in Cotonou (Benin) from 01/06/2018 to 01/09/2018. Anti-HCV antibodies were detected using rapid diagnostic tests. A venous blood sample was collected from pregnant women tested positive for anti-HCV before confirmatory serological tests and screening tests for gestational diabetes. Results: the prevalence of anti-HCV antibodies was 1.2% (3/253 pregnant women). Factors associated with HCV carriage couldn't be identified given the low number of positive cases. However, pregnant women who were carriers of hepatitis C antibodies had higher mean age (32 ± 3) compared to the remainder of the population (29.58 ± 5.5). Potential risk factors for HCV infection were scarifications, piercing, tattooing, sharing of manicure equipment, a history of surgery and blood transfusions. The prevalence of gestational diabetes in our study population was 7.9% (20/253). No association was found between gestational diabetes and hepatitis C. Conclusion: the prevalence of anti-HCV antibodies in pregnant women living in Cotonou was low. A national-level study is needed to identify factors associated with this infection.


Assuntos
Portador Sadio/diagnóstico , Anticorpos Anti-Hepatite C/sangue , Hepatite C/diagnóstico , Complicações Infecciosas na Gravidez/diagnóstico , Adolescente , Adulto , Benin , Portador Sadio/virologia , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Hepatite C/epidemiologia , Humanos , Transmissão Vertical de Doença Infecciosa/prevenção & controle , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Gravidez , Complicações Infecciosas na Gravidez/virologia , Cuidado Pré-Natal/métodos , Prevalência , Fatores de Risco , Adulto Jovem
16.
Public Health Rep ; 135(6): 823-830, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32886566

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection is a serious health problem in New York City. Although curative treatments are available, many people are out of care. The New York City Department of Health and Mental Hygiene (DOHMH) used surveillance data and various outreach methods to attempt to link to care people diagnosed with HCV infection from 2010 through 2015. METHODS: We randomly assigned people out of care (ie, no HCV test >6 months after first report) to 4 outreach groups: no outreach (control group); letter only; letter and telephone call; and letter, text message, and telephone call. Three months after outreach ended, we analyzed surveillance data to identify people with a subsequent HCV RNA or genotype test suggesting linkage to care. RESULTS: Of 2626 selected people, 199 (7.6%) had a subsequent HCV test. People in all 3 outreach groups had higher odds of a subsequent test than people in the control group (letter only: adjusted odds ratio [aOR] = 1.81 [95% CI, 1.18-2.91]; letter and telephone: aOR = 3.11 [95% CI, 1.67-5.79]; letter, text, and telephone: aOR = 3.17 [95% CI, 1.48-6.51]). People in the letter and telephone group had higher odds of a subsequent test than people in the letter-only group (aOR = 1.72; 95% CI, 1.04-2.74). Most people in the letter and telephone (136/200, 68.0%) and the letter, text, and telephone (71/99, 71.7%) groups could not be reached, primarily because telephone numbers were incorrect or out of service. CONCLUSION: Reaching out to people soon after first report or prioritizing groups in which more recent contact information can be found might improve outcomes of future outreach.


Assuntos
Promoção da Saúde/organização & administração , Hepatite C/diagnóstico , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Feminino , Hepacivirus/genética , Hepatite C/genética , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Cidade de Nova Iorque/epidemiologia , Serviços Postais , RNA Viral , Telefone , Envio de Mensagens de Texto , Adulto Jovem
17.
Artigo em Alemão | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32930821

RESUMO

In February 2019, the fourth expert meeting on rapid diagnostic tests (RDTs) for sexually transmitted infections (STI) was held at the Robert Koch Institute (RKI) in Berlin. Novel technical developments and new aspects of RDT applications were discussed by representatives from the German STI Society (DSTIG); RKI; the Paul Ehrlich Institute; national reference centers for HIV, HBV, and HCV; and reference laboratories for Chlamydia, gonococci, and Treponema pallidum.As a result of this meeting, we present a revision of the joint statement on STI diagnostics with RDTs from 2017. The Regulation (EU) 2017/746 of the European Parliament and of the Council on in vitro diagnostic medical devices became effective in May 2017 and includes more stringent regulatory requirements for RDTs, mainly concerning conformity of manufacturing processes and performance characteristics of class D in vitro diagnostics (detection of HIV, HBV, HCV, and T. pallidum). Some RDTs for HIV, HCV, and T. pallidum have been evaluated in clinical studies and/or were WHO prequalified and may be used in low-threshold services. Among them are some HIV RDTs available and approved for self-testing. In addition, some HBV RDTs based on detection of HBs antigen (HBsAg) received WHO prequalification. However, false negative results may occur in samples with low HBsAg levels, as for instance in HIV-coinfected patients receiving antiretroviral therapy. For Chlamydia trachomatis (CT) and Neisseria gonorrhoeae (NG), antigen-based RDTs still do not allow reliable detection of infection. Only PCR-based CT/NG RDTs possess sufficient diagnostic accuracy to be used as point-of-care tests. Rapid PCR tests for NG, however, do not provide any information about antimicrobial resistance.


Assuntos
Chlamydia , Infecções por HIV/diagnóstico , Hepatite C/diagnóstico , Doenças Sexualmente Transmissíveis/diagnóstico , Berlim , Alemanha , Vírus da Hepatite B , Humanos , Neisseria gonorrhoeae , Treponema pallidum
18.
Ann Intern Med ; 173(5): ITC33-ITC48, 2020 09 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32866406

RESUMO

Hepatitis C virus (HCV) is the most common bloodborne pathogen in the United States, chronically affecting approximately 2.4 million Americans, most of whom are unaware of the infection. Highly effective, well-tolerated therapies are now available with markedly simplified treatment algorithms. Eradication of HCV is a national goal. Increased efforts to extend access to treatment to populations that traditionally are difficult to treat, such as persons who inject drugs, are critical to achieving eradication. Given the magnitude of the disease burden, an increased role of primary care providers in screening, patient stratification, and treatment will be needed.


Assuntos
Hepacivirus , Hepatite C/prevenção & controle , Antivirais/uso terapêutico , Hepatite C/diagnóstico , Hepatite C/tratamento farmacológico , Hepatite C/transmissão , Humanos , Programas de Rastreamento
19.
Brasília; CONITEC; ago. 2020.
Não convencional em Português | BRISA/RedTESA | ID: biblio-1122912

RESUMO

INTRODUÇÃO: Estima-se que a prevalencia de hepatite C entre gestantes no Brasil varie entre 0,2 e 1,4%, entretanto, a partir de 2014 a taxa de deteccao da doenca entre mulheres em idade fertil dobrou no pais, apos a incorporacao pelo Sistema Unico de Saude de antivirais de acao direta com alta efetividade e seguranca. O risco de transmissao vertical e variavel e depende de fatores como o correto planejamento de procedimentos obstetricos, da viremia materna, de coinfeccao por HIV, entre outros. A hepatite C na gravidez esta relacionada a desfechos em saude desfavoraveis para a gestante e os recem-nascidos e, em longo prazo, a aumento de incidencia de carcinoma hepatocelular, cirrose, necessidade de transplante de figado, utilizacao de servicos de saude e mortalidade. Atualmente a conduta para a deteccao de hepatite C em gestantes depende da prospeccao de fatores de risco pre-existentes, a qual postula-se ser ineficaz na identificação do numero real de casos. O rastreamento e proposto como alternativa a testagem baseada em risco com a finalidade de aumentar a taxa de deteccao de casos, diminuir a transmissao vertical e aumentar a cobertura de tratamentos atendendo a politicas publicas de eliminacao da doenca implementadas pelo Sistema de Saude Publica brasileiro. PERGUNTA: A estrategia de rastreamento para hepatite C em gestantes no primeiro trimestre de gravidez durante o prenatal e eficaz, segura e custo-efetiva quando comparada a testagem baseada em fatores de risco de acordo com a conduta em vigencia preconizada no Protocolo Clinico e Diretrizes Terapeuticas (PCDT) de Hepatite C e Coinfeccoes do Ministerio da Saude? TECNOLOGIA: Testagem universal para hepatite C em gestantes no primeiro trimestre de gravidez durante o pre-natal. EVIDÊNCIAS CLÍNICAS: Identificou-se pela avaliacao de estudos observacionais e transversais descritivos que a estrategia de testagem baseada em risco esta associada a baixos rendimentos diagnostico e sensibilidade, ou a uma baixa deteccao de casos efetivamente diagnosticados de hepatite C em gestantes durante o pre-natal. Em estudo realizado no Canada, pais em que a prevalencia estimada de hepatite C em gestantes e de 0,6%, identificou-se que uma resposta positiva (a questionario estruturado) a pelo menos um dos fatores de risco foi relacionada com uma sensibilidade de 67%, uma especificidade de 28%, um valor preditivo positivo de 0,4% e um valor preditivo negativo de 99% para identificacao de gestantes com HCV. Alem disso, identificou-se que o valor preditivo positivo para essa estrategia e dependente dos fatores de risco avaliados. E possivel que essa variabilidade se traduza em diferentes taxas de deteccao da doenca por meio da estrategia de abordagem por risco, com numero de casos verdadeiramente positivos nao identificaveis variando amplamente entre 2,5% e 27%, mas podendo chegar a 50%. De fato, na maioria dos estudos nao se identificou associação estatisticamente significativa entre a presenca de fatores de risco e ter um diagnostico positivo para hepatite C em gestantes. Em relacao aos criterios de Wilson e Jungner, utilizados na avaliacao de estrategias de rastreamento, identificasse que a maioria deles seriam atendidos, entretanto, ainda nao ha estudos em que se avaliem desfechos em saúde relevantes de curto (de importancia obstetrica e transmissao vertical) e longo prazos (evolucao da doenca e transmissibilidade) associados a implementacao de programa de rastreamento para hepatite C em gestantes. Outro criterio nao atendido e a inexistencia atualmente de tratamento antiviral aprovado para o uso em gestantes. AVALIAÇÃO ECONÔMICA: Foi conduzida uma analise de custo-efetividade na perspectiva do Sistema Unico de Saude para comparar as duas estrategias utilizando-se um modelo estatico de arvore de decisao em combinacao com cadeias de Markov. O rastreamento foi associado a custos incrementais de R$ 288,78 e aumento incremental em anos de vida ajustados pela qualidade (AVAQ-QALY) de 0,18 por gestante rastreada em comparacao com a triagem baseada em risco, com uma razao de custo-efetividade incremental de R$1.617,95 por QALY para rastreamento versus estrategia baseada em risco. Análise de impacto orçamentário: O impacto orcamentario anual associado a implementacao de um programa de rastreamento para hepatite C em gestantes na perspectiva do Sistema Unico de Saude foi de R$ 49 milhoes, com estimativa de gastos de 250 milhoes em cinco anos. Foram considerados os gastos diretos com diagnosticos, exames e procedimentos medicos complementares e tratamento. A variacao de parametros como a taxa de cobertura de gestantes testadas no sistema publico de saude em relacao as testadas no sistema suplementar, a taxa de gestantes testadas no primeiro trimestre de gravidez, o numero de gestantes coinfectadas com HIV e a taxa de oferta de tratamento causam reducoes no impacto orcamentario que variam entre 41 e 55%. RECOMENDAÇÕES INTERNACIONAIS: As Agencias inglesa National Institute for Health and Care Excellence (NICE), a canadense Canadian Agency for Drugs and Technologies in Health (CADTH) e a European Association for the Study of the Liver recomendam a testagem baseada na deteccao de fatores de risco. Nos Estados Unidos o Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), o U.S. Preventive Services Task Force (USPSTF) e a American Association for the Study of Liver Diseases e a Infectious Diseases Society of America recomendam o rastreamento para hepatite C em gestantes. O American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists (ACOG) esta atualmente revisando as recomendacoes publicadas em 2017. Na Australia e Nova Zelandia, em documento de 2020, o The Royal Australian and New Zealand College of Obstetricians and Gynaecologists (RANZCOG) recomenda o rastreamento para hepatite C em gestantes. CONSIDERAÇÕES FINAIS: Ha evidencia de moderada qualidade que a estrategia de selecao para testagem de gestantes baseada na identificacao de risco e ineficaz, com baixo valor preditivo positivo e baixa sensibilidade. Apesar de não existem estudos controlados randomizados ou estudos observacionais com braco comparador em que se avaliem as consequencias em saude e os riscos associados a ambas as estrategias, e possivel que o numero de mulheres não detectadas pela estrategia baseada em risco seja significativo com consequencias deleterias para a saude das gestantes e recem-nascidos. Na perspectiva do Sistema Unico de Saude a estrategia de rastreamento se demonstrou mais efetiva que a deteccao baseada em risco com um acrescimo de R$ 288 por gestante testada. Algumas autoridades de saude mundiais vem reformulando as recomendacoes a respeito do diagnostico da hepatite C em gestantes para indicar o rastreamento, principalmente frente ao aumento da taxa de deteccao dos casos mundiais em mulheres, como ocorre no Brasil. A implementacao do programa de rastreamento atende a maioria dos criterios de Wilson e Jungner, exceto a possibilidade de tratamento, que ainda nao e possivel em gestantes. A adocao do rastreamento estaria associada a um incremento de 49 milhoes por ano no orcamento do Ministerio da Saude, principalmente em funcao do alto custo dos tratamentos. RECOMENDAÇÃO INICIAL DA CONITEC: Os membros presentes na 87a reuniao ordinaria da Conitec, que ocorreu no dia 03/06/2020, decidiram, por unanimidade, recomendar a incorporacao da testagem universal para hepatite C em gestantes no pre-natal. CONSULTA PÚBLICA: A consulta publica n° 19/2020, publicada no Diario Oficial da Uniao de 15/06/2020, foi realizada entre os dias 16/06/2020 e 06/07/2020. Foram recebidas 50 contribuicoes, sendo 8 pelo formulario para contribuicoes tecnicocientificas e 42 pelo formulario para contribuicoes sobre experiencia ou opiniao. Entre as 8 contribuicoes recebidas e avaliadas de cunho tecnico-cientifico, 4 foram consideradas para inclusao nesse parecer, todas concordantes com a recomendacao inicial da Conitec. Houve duas contribuicoes de pessoa juridica, da Iniciativa Medicamentos Doenças Negligenciadas (DNDi America Latina) e da Sociedade Brasileira de Infectologia. Os estudos submetidos reforcam a importancia da deteccao acurada de gestantes infectadas pela hepatite C em funcao dos piores desfechos relacionados a gestação nesse contexto e clinico e da possibilidade de encaminhamento das mulheres para acompanhamento para gestação de alto risco, do melhor planejamento de procedimentos obstetricos, de tratamento das mulheres e crianças em momento oportuno apos o parto e do alinhamento com as metas para a eliminacao da doenca no pais, diminuindo a transmissao vertical. Considerou-se a abordagem de testagem por risco como ineficaz. Todas as 42 contribuições recebidas sobre experiencia com a tecnologia ou opiniao sobre a incorporacao traziam contribuicoes em algum dos campos do formulario disponivel para submissao e foram concordantes com a recomendacao inicial da Conitec, incluindo as submetidas pelo Grupo Otimismo de Apoio ao Portador de Hepatite e da Sociedade Brasileira de Hepatologia observando-se grande convergencia entre o conteudo dessas contribuicoes e as de cunho tecnico-cientifico. Apos avaliacao das contribuicoes a Conitec manteve a recomendacao inicial favoravel a incorporacao da testagem universal para hepatite C em gestantes no pre-natal. DECISÃO: Incorporar a testagem universal para hepatite viral C em gestantes no prenatal, conforme protocolo do Ministerio da Saude, no ambito do Sistema Unico de Saude - SUS, conforme Portaria no 32, publicada no Diario Oficial da Uniao no 160, secao 1, pagina 118, em 20 de agosto de 2020.


Assuntos
Humanos , Cuidado Pré-Natal/métodos , Testes Sorológicos/instrumentação , Hepatite C/diagnóstico , Patologia Molecular/instrumentação , Avaliação da Tecnologia Biomédica , Sistema Único de Saúde , Brasil , Análise Custo-Benefício/economia
20.
BMC Infect Dis ; 20(1): 588, 2020 Aug 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32770955

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Scale-up of hepatitis C virus (HCV) treatment for HIV/HCV coinfected individuals is occurring in Spain, the vast majority (> 85%) with a reported history of injecting drug use and a smaller population of co-infected men who have sex with men (MSM). We assess impact of recent treatment scale-up to people living with HIV (PLWH) and implications for achieving the WHO HCV incidence elimination target (80% reduction 2015-2030) among PLWH and overall in Andalusia, Spain, using dynamic modeling. METHODS: A dynamic transmission model of HCV/HIV coinfection was developed. The model was stratified by people who inject drugs (PWID) and MSM. The PWID component included dynamic HCV transmission from the HCV-monoinfected population. The model was calibrated to Andalusia based on published data and the HERACLES cohort (prospective cohort of HIV/HCV coinfected individuals representing > 99% coinfected individuals in care in Andalusia). From HERACLES, we incorporated HCV treatment among diagnosed PLWH of 10.5%/year from 2004 to 2014, and DAAs at 33%/year from 2015 with 94.8% SVR. We project the impact of current and scaled-up HCV treatment for PLWH on HCV prevalence and incidence among PLWH and overall. RESULTS: Current treatment rates among PLWH (scaled-up since 2015) could substantially reduce the number of diagnosed coinfected individuals (mean 76% relative reduction from 2015 to 2030), but have little impact on new diagnosed coinfections (12% relative reduction). However, DAA scale-up to PWLH in 2015 would have minimal future impact on new diagnosed coinfections (mean 9% relative decrease from 2015 to 2030). Similarly, new cases of HCV would only reduce by a mean relative 29% among all PWID and MSM due to ongoing infection/reinfection. Diagnosing/treating all PLWH annually from 2020 would increase the number of new HCV infections among PWLH by 28% and reduce the number of new HCV infections by 39% among the broader population by 2030. CONCLUSION: Targeted scale-up of HCV treatment to PLWH can dramatically reduce prevalence among this group but will likely have little impact on the annual number of newly diagnosed HIV/HCV coinfections. HCV microelimination efforts among PWLH in Andalusia and settings where a large proportion of PLWH have a history of injecting drug use will require scaled-up HCV diagnosis and treatment among PLWH and the broader population at risk.


Assuntos
Infecções por HIV/patologia , Hepatite C/diagnóstico , Modelos Teóricos , Antivirais/uso terapêutico , Estudos de Coortes , Coinfecção/epidemiologia , Coinfecção/patologia , Hepatite C/tratamento farmacológico , Hepatite C/epidemiologia , Homossexualidade Masculina , Humanos , Masculino , Prevalência , Estudos Prospectivos , Espanha/epidemiologia , Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Substâncias/patologia , Resposta Viral Sustentada
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