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1.
Med Klin Intensivmed Notfmed ; 115(1): 67-78, 2020 Feb.
Artigo em Alemão | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31950206

RESUMO

Injuries of healthcare workers with sharp instruments are considered among the most frequent occupational accidents in hospitals. In at least half of the cases, the instruments are contaminated with blood and therefore bear an infection risk with bloodborne pathogens, such as hepatitis B, hepatitis C and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). Needlestick injuries require besides immediate medical intervention, such as rinsing and disinfection of the wound or skin contamination, a prompt clarification of the immune status and if necessary a postexposure prophylaxis. Furthermore, follow-up examinations are required for up to 6 months after the accident. Information about the infectious state of the index person considerably facilitates the procedure. All healthcare workers should know the management of needlestick injuries. Preventive measures refer to the reduction of the number of needlestick injuries by improving work organization and usage of needle devices with safety features as well as to the reduction of infection risk by hepatitis B vaccination and wearing safety gloves.


Assuntos
Pessoal de Saúde , Ferimentos Penetrantes Produzidos por Agulha , Exposição Ocupacional , Acidentes de Trabalho , Infecções por HIV/prevenção & controle , Infecções por HIV/terapia , Hepatite B/prevenção & controle , Hepatite B/transmissão , Hepatite C/prevenção & controle , Hepatite C/transmissão , Humanos
2.
Expert Rev Clin Pharmacol ; 13(1): 7-14, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31786966

RESUMO

Introduction: The introduction of direct-acting antiviral therapy has generated tremendous interest in transplanting organs from HCV-infected donors, an option which has the potential to lower waiting times for solid organ transplantation (including kidneys). Safe, effective and pangenotypic direct-acting antiviral agents are currently available.Areas covered: We have identified studies from PubMed, EMBASE, and the Cochrane database to review risks and benefits on solid organ transplantation from HCV-exposed donors in uninfected recipients.Expert opinion: The transmission of HCV with transplantation from anti-HCV positive kidneys without viremia is extremely uncommon whereas recent evidence (five clinical studies, n = 94 patients) shows the absence of HCV infection in HCV-naïve recipients who received kidneys from HCV RNA-positive donors and underwent early DAAs. The evidence regarding non-kidney solid organ transplantation from HCV-infected donors is more limited. One report showed the occurrence of dialysis-dependent kidney failure due to glomerulonephritis induced by acute HCV after liver transplant from a NAT-positive donor into an HCV-naïve recipient. Transplantation of kidneys and other solid organs from HCV-viremic donors into uninfected recipients has the potential to become the standard of care resulting in lower waitlist mortality. Further studies are needed urgently to establish clinical practice guidelines on this topic.


Assuntos
Antivirais/administração & dosagem , Hepatite C/tratamento farmacológico , Doadores de Tecidos , Hepatite C/prevenção & controle , Hepatite C/transmissão , Humanos , Transplante de Órgãos/métodos , Listas de Espera
3.
BMC Infect Dis ; 19(1): 1019, 2019 Dec 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31791253

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Chronic hepatitis C is a major public health burden. With new interferon-free direct-acting agents (showing sustained viral response rates of more than 98%), elimination of HCV seems feasible for the first time. However, as HCV infection often remains undiagnosed, screening is crucial for improving health outcomes of HCV-patients. Our aim was to assess the long-term cost-effectiveness of a nationwide screening strategy in Germany. METHODS: We used a Markov cohort model to simulate disease progression and examine long-term population outcomes, HCV associated costs and cost-effectiveness of HCV screening. The model divides the total population into three subpopulations: general population (GEP), people who inject drugs (PWID) and HIV-infected men who have sex with men (MSM), with total infection numbers being highest in GEP, but new infections occurring only in PWIDs and MSM. The model compares four alternative screening strategies (no/basic/advanced/total screening) differing in participation and treatment rates. RESULTS: Total number of HCV-infected patients declined from 275,000 in 2015 to between 125,000 (no screening) and 14,000 (total screening) in 2040. Similarly, lost quality adjusted life years (QALYs) were 320,000 QALYs lower, while costs were 2.4 billion EUR higher in total screening compared to no screening. While incremental cost-effectiveness ratio (ICER) increased sharply in GEP and MSM with more comprehensive strategies (30,000 EUR per QALY for total vs. advanced screening), ICER decreased in PWIDs (30 EUR per QALY for total vs. advanced screening). CONCLUSIONS: Screening is key to have an efficient decline of the HCV-infected population in Germany. Recommendation for an overall population screening is to screen the total PWID subpopulation, and to apply less comprehensive advanced screening for MSM and GEP.


Assuntos
Erradicação de Doenças , Hepatite C/prevenção & controle , Programas de Rastreamento/economia , Programas de Rastreamento/métodos , Adulto , Antivirais/economia , Antivirais/uso terapêutico , Estudos de Coortes , Análise Custo-Benefício , Testes Diagnósticos de Rotina/economia , Testes Diagnósticos de Rotina/estatística & dados numéricos , Erradicação de Doenças/economia , Erradicação de Doenças/métodos , Erradicação de Doenças/estatística & dados numéricos , Usuários de Drogas/estatística & dados numéricos , Feminino , Alemanha/epidemiologia , Infecções por HIV/diagnóstico , Infecções por HIV/economia , Infecções por HIV/epidemiologia , Custos de Cuidados de Saúde , Hepacivirus/genética , Hepacivirus/isolamento & purificação , Hepatite C/diagnóstico , Hepatite C/economia , Hepatite C/epidemiologia , Hepatite C Crônica/diagnóstico , Hepatite C Crônica/economia , Hepatite C Crônica/epidemiologia , Hepatite C Crônica/prevenção & controle , Homossexualidade Masculina/estatística & dados numéricos , Humanos , Masculino , Programas de Rastreamento/estatística & dados numéricos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Vigilância da População/métodos , Anos de Vida Ajustados por Qualidade de Vida , Minorias Sexuais e de Gênero/estatística & dados numéricos
4.
Nurse Pract ; 44(11): 16-27, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31567700

RESUMO

Chronic hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection is a leading cause of liver disease. The World Health Organization has called for the global elimination of HCV by 2030. NPs can significantly expand the availability of community-based providers and bridge gaps in HCV treatment to assist in eradicating this curable virus.


Assuntos
Prática Avançada de Enfermagem , Erradicação de Doenças , Hepatite C/prevenção & controle , Papel do Profissional de Enfermagem , Humanos
5.
Cent Eur J Public Health ; 27(3): 212-216, 2019 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31580556

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Survey was conducted to assess state of viral hepatitis care in Central and Eastern Europe (CEE). METHODS: Representatives of 16 CEE countries completed on-line survey in April-May 2017 that collected information on basic epidemiology and availability of key services for HCV and HBV infections. Sources of information provided ranged from national surveillance data to expert opinion. RESULTS: The burden of viral hepatitis varied between countries, ranging from 6,500 to 2 million for HCV and from 10,000 to 3 million for HBV. Access to routine HCV RNA testing and genotyping was reported by 11 and 9 countries, respectively. HCV resistance testing was available in 7 countries. Direct acting antivirals (DAAs) were available in 13 countries, most frequently Sofosbuvir and Ledipasvir/Sofosbuvir (12 countries apiece) and Ombitasvir/Paritaprevir/Dasabuvir (9 countries). HBV DNA testing and HBV genotyping were routinely available in 10 and 7 countries, respectively. Eleven countries reported available treatment with Tenofovir. CONCLUSIONS: There are gaps in viral hepatitis care in CEE. Despite the availability of registered modern drugs for HCV and HBV, the access to treatment is limited. Ensuring quality health care is essential to reduce the epidemic and achieve the WHO's goal of eliminating viral hepatitis as a major public health challenge.


Assuntos
Antivirais , Hepatite B/prevenção & controle , Hepatite C , Antivirais/farmacologia , Europa (Continente)/epidemiologia , Europa Oriental , Hepatite B/epidemiologia , Hepatite C/epidemiologia , Hepatite C/prevenção & controle , Humanos
6.
Transplant Proc ; 51(9): 2856-2859, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31606186

RESUMO

In order to bridge the gap between available organs and patients needing transplants, donor selection criteria for donors are increasingly being extended; the possibility of using organs from nonstandard risk donors has been introduced in many countries. This clearly poses considerable ethical issues that should be analyzed and taken into consideration by the competent bodies and institutions. In this article, we illustrate the Italian situation regarding the possibility of using organs from anti-hepatitis C virus (HCV) and HCV RNA-positive donors (anti-HCV+ve) in negative recipients (healthy subjects who have never come into contact with the hepatitis C virus) in light of the availability of new direct-acting antiviral drugs (DAAs) for hepatitis C treatment. We discuss the motivations behind the both favorable opinions of the Ethics Committee of the Italian National Institute of Health (Istituto Superiore di Sanità) and the Italian National Bioethics Committee (Comitato Nazionale per la Bioetica) discussing the main implications from an ethical point of view.


Assuntos
Seleção do Doador/normas , Hepatite C , Doadores de Tecidos/provisão & distribução , Transplantes/provisão & distribução , Transplantes/virologia , Antivirais/uso terapêutico , Hepacivirus/imunologia , Hepatite C/prevenção & controle , Humanos , Itália
7.
BMC Med ; 17(1): 175, 2019 09 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31530275

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The introduction of highly effective direct-acting antiviral (DAA) therapy for hepatitis C has led to calls to eliminate it as a public health threat through treatment-as-prevention. Recent studies suggest it is possible to develop a vaccine to prevent hepatitis C. Using a mathematical model, we examined the potential impact of a hepatitis C vaccine on the feasibility and cost of achieving the global WHO elimination target of an 80% reduction in incidence by 2030 in the era of DAA treatment. METHODS: The model was calibrated to 167 countries and included two population groups (people who inject drugs (PWID) and the general community), features of the care cascade, and the coverage of health systems to deliver services. Projections were made for 2018-2030. RESULTS: The optimal incidence reduction strategy was to implement test and treat programmes among PWID, and in settings with high levels of community transmission undertake screening and treatment of the general population. With a vaccine available, the optimal strategy was to include vaccination within test and treat programmes, in addition to vaccinating adolescents in settings with high levels of community transmission. Of the 167 countries modelled, between 0 and 48 could achieve an 80% reduction in incidence without a vaccine. This increased to 15-113 countries if a 75% efficacious vaccine with a 10-year duration of protection were available. If a vaccination course cost US$200, vaccine use reduced the cost of elimination for 66 countries (40%) by an aggregate of US$7.4 (US$6.6-8.2) billion. For a US$50 per course vaccine, this increased to a US$9.8 (US$8.7-10.8) billion cost reduction across 78 countries (47%). CONCLUSIONS: These findings strongly support the case for hepatitis C vaccine development as an urgent public health need, to ensure hepatitis C elimination is achievable and at substantially reduced costs for a majority of countries.


Assuntos
Erradicação de Doenças , Hepacivirus/imunologia , Hepatite C/prevenção & controle , Modelos Teóricos , Vacinação , Vacinas contra Hepatite Viral/uso terapêutico , Antivirais/economia , Antivirais/uso terapêutico , Erradicação de Doenças/economia , Erradicação de Doenças/organização & administração , Erradicação de Doenças/normas , Erradicação de Doenças/estatística & dados numéricos , Hepatite C/economia , Hepatite C/epidemiologia , Hepatite C Crônica/economia , Hepatite C Crônica/epidemiologia , Hepatite C Crônica/prevenção & controle , Humanos , Incidência , Saúde Pública/economia , Saúde Pública/métodos , Abuso de Substâncias por Via Intravenosa/economia , Abuso de Substâncias por Via Intravenosa/epidemiologia , Abuso de Substâncias por Via Intravenosa/virologia , Vacinação/normas , Cobertura Vacinal/economia , Cobertura Vacinal/organização & administração , Vacinas contra Hepatite Viral/economia
8.
Bull Hosp Jt Dis (2013) ; 77(3): 206-210, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31487487

RESUMO

In 2012, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention issued a recommendation for hepatitis C screening of adults born between 1945-1965. Our institution incorporated birthcohort screening into its pre-admission testing program for elective orthopedic procedures on February 3, 2015. The goal of this study was to report the results and costs of pre-admission birth-cohort hepatitis C screening at our institution from February 3, 2015, to January 27, 2017. A total of 11,659 elective inpatient procedures were scheduled during this time and 97.8% of eligible patients were screened. Nine patients with active infection were identified, and four were successfully treated. Costs were calculated using time-driven activity-based costing. The total screening cost per successfully treated patient was $36,930.02. Since patients were not routinely screened at our institution before this intervention, our 97.8% screening capture rate demonstrates that pre-admission testing for elective procedures is a novel, yet effective and underutilized way, to engage "baby boomers" in screening.


Assuntos
Hepatite C , Controle de Infecções , Programas de Rastreamento , Procedimentos Ortopédicos/métodos , Idoso , Análise Custo-Benefício , Procedimentos Cirúrgicos Eletivos/métodos , Feminino , Hepatite C/diagnóstico , Hepatite C/epidemiologia , Hepatite C/prevenção & controle , Humanos , Controle de Infecções/métodos , Controle de Infecções/organização & administração , Masculino , Programas de Rastreamento/economia , Programas de Rastreamento/métodos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Período Pré-Operatório , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia
9.
BMC Infect Dis ; 19(1): 774, 2019 Sep 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31488064

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: HCV (Hepatitis C virus) is a prevalent chronic disease with potentially deadly consequences, especially for drug users. However, there are no special HCV or HIV (human immunodeficiency virus)-related intervention programs that are tailored for drug users in China; to fill this gap, the purpose of this study was to explore HCV and HIV-related knowledge among drug users in MMT (methadone maintenance treatment) sites of China and to investigate the effectiveness of HCV and HIV-related education for improving the knowledge of IDUs (injection drug users) and their awareness of infection. METHODS: The study was a randomized cluster controlled trial that compared a usual care group to a usual care plus HCV/HIV-REP (HCV/HIV-Reduction Education Program) group with a 24-week follow-up. The self-designed questionnaires, the HCV- and HIV-related knowledge questionnaire and the HIV/HCV infection awareness questionnaire, were used to collect the data. Four MMT clinics were selected for this project; two MMT clinics were randomly assigned to the research group, with subjects receiving their usual care plus HCV/HIV-REP, and the remaining two MMT clinics were the control group, with subjects receiving their usual care over 12 weeks. Sixty patients were recruited from each MMT clinic. A total of 240 patients were recruited. Follow-up studies were conducted at the end of the 12th week and the 24th week after the intervention. RESULTS: At baseline, the mean score (out of 20 possible correct answers) for HCV knowledge among the patients in the group receiving the intervention was 6.51 (SD = 3.5), and it was 20.57 (SD = 6.54) for HIV knowledge (out of 45 correct answers) and 8.35 (SD = 2.8) for HIV/HCV infection awareness (out of 20 correct answers). At the 12-week and 24-week follow-up assessments, the research group showed a greater increase in HCV-/HIV-related knowledge (group × time effect, F = 37.444/11.281, P < 0.05) but no difference in their HIV/HCV infection awareness (group × time effect, F = 2.056, P > 0.05). CONCLUSION: An MMT-based HCV/HIV intervention program could be used to improve patient knowledge of HCV and HIV prevention, but more effort should be devoted to HIV/HCV infection awareness. TRIAL REGISTRATION: Protocols for this study were approved by institution review board (IRB) of Shanghai Mental Health Center (IRB:2009036), and registered in U.S national institutes of health (http://www.clinicaltrials.gov, NCT01647191 ). Registered 23 July 2012.


Assuntos
Usuários de Drogas/educação , Infecções por HIV/prevenção & controle , Hepatite C/prevenção & controle , Metadona/uso terapêutico , Tratamento de Substituição de Opiáceos , Educação de Pacientes como Assunto , Adulto , Conscientização , China/epidemiologia , Análise por Conglomerados , Usuários de Drogas/psicologia , Usuários de Drogas/estatística & dados numéricos , Eficiência Organizacional , Feminino , HIV/fisiologia , Infecções por HIV/epidemiologia , Conhecimentos, Atitudes e Prática em Saúde , Hepacivirus/fisiologia , Hepatite C/epidemiologia , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Tratamento de Substituição de Opiáceos/métodos , Tratamento de Substituição de Opiáceos/estatística & dados numéricos , Educação de Pacientes como Assunto/organização & administração , Educação de Pacientes como Assunto/normas , Prevalência , Inquéritos e Questionários , Resultado do Tratamento
10.
Przegl Epidemiol ; 73(2): 167-178, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31385675

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: The aim of this article was to analyze the epidemiological situation of HCV in Poland in 2017, based on data collected as part of epidemiological surveillance. MATERIAL AND METHODS: The analysis was carried out based on: 1) individual data collected as part of epidemiological interviews with persons diagnosed with HCV infection in 2017, 2) diagnosis rate from bulletins "Infectious diseases and poisonings in Poland" for the years 2011-2017 and 3) data about deaths due to hepatitis C from the Demographic Surveys and Labour Market Department of the Central Statistical Office. RESULTS: In 2017, the diagnosis rate of HCV infection stayed on high level: 10.44 per 100,000 (4010 cases were reported). Stabilization of hepatitis C epidemiological situation was observed in the following issues: 1) diagnosis rate reported in men and women remained at a similar level (10.55 vs. 10.33 per 100,000); 2) diagnosis rate still showed variation depending on the voivodship (from 4.09 to 18.48 per 100,000) and the location of residence (urban/rural, 12.7 vs. 7.0 per 100,000); 3) the percentage of hospitalization accompanying the new cases of HCV infection has shown downward trend (36% in 2017); 4) the decreasing hepatitis C mortality trend was continued (175 cases of death in 2017); 5) the most common possible transmission route were still medical procedures. In 2017, the outbreak of HCV infection in the Lubelskie was registered. (8 patients, 291 exposed persons, with whom computer tomography with a contrast from multi-dose packaging was conducted, using an automatic injection device). CONCLUSIONS: Epidemiological situation of hepatitis C since 2015 is stable. The role of medical care in the transmission of HCV infections in Poland is worrying.


Assuntos
Hepatite C/epidemiologia , Sistema de Registros , Adolescente , Adulto , Distribuição por Idade , Idoso , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Feminino , Hepatite C/mortalidade , Hepatite C/prevenção & controle , Hepatite C/transmissão , Hospitalização/estatística & dados numéricos , Humanos , Incidência , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Polônia/epidemiologia , População Rural , Distribuição por Sexo , População Urbana , Adulto Jovem
11.
BMC Infect Dis ; 19(1): 724, 2019 Aug 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31420017

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Hepatitis C virus (HCV) is a leading cause of chronic liver disease. As yet there is no approved vaccine protects against contracting hepatitis C. HCV seriously affects many people's health in the world. METHODS: In this article, an epidemiological model is proposed and discussed to understand the transmission and prevalence of hepatitis C in mainland China. This research concentrates on hepatitis C data from Chinese Center for Disease Control and Prevention (China's CDC). The optimal parameters of the model are obtained by calculating the minimum chi-square value. Sensitivity analyses of the basic reproduction number and the endemic equilibrium are conducted to evaluate the effectiveness of control measures. RESULTS: Vertical infection is not the most important factor that causes hepatitis C epidemic, but contact transmission is. The proportion of acute patients who are transformed into chronic patients is about 82.62%. The possibility of the hospitalized patients who are restored to health is about 76.24%. There are about 92.32% of acute infected are not treated. The reproduction number of hepatitis C in mainland China is estimated as approximately 1.6592. CONCLUSION: We find that small changes of transmission infection rate of acutely infected population, transmission infection rate of exposed population, transition rate for the acutely infected, and rate of progression to acute stage from the exposed can achieve the purpose of controlling HCV through sensitivity analysis. Finally, based on the results of sensitivity analysis, we find out several preventions and control strategies to control the Hepatitis C.


Assuntos
Hepatite C/prevenção & controle , Hepatite C/transmissão , Controle de Infecções , China/epidemiologia , Epidemias , Feminino , Hepatite C/epidemiologia , Humanos , Modelos Teóricos , Prevalência
12.
Biosci Trends ; 13(3): 273-275, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31327795

RESUMO

Acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS), hepatitis B virus (HBV), hepatitis C virus (HCV), gonorrhea and syphilis are the major sexually transmitted diseases (STDs) in the world, which are the focus of epidemic prevention and control in China. The epidemiological trend analysis of STDs in Shanghai could reflect the epidemic situation of these diseases in high-income areas of China, providing a reference for how to control their epidemic. Although the overall incidence rate of infectious diseases levelled off after 2009, Shanghai still faces many new obstacles in the fight against STDs. Without effective prevention and control strategies for high-risk behaviors, such as active sexual activity without protection, for key susceptible populations, there may be a more serious epidemic of STDs in the future. Given these situations, strategies for controlling STDs in Shanghai should be more targeted with the development of epidemics, focusing on the following key areas for future work: i) attaching importance to health education; ii) strengthening epidemic surveillance; and iii) developing Community Health Service Centers (CHSC) as intervention subjects.


Assuntos
Doenças Sexualmente Transmissíveis/epidemiologia , Doenças Sexualmente Transmissíveis/prevenção & controle , Síndrome de Imunodeficiência Adquirida/epidemiologia , Síndrome de Imunodeficiência Adquirida/prevenção & controle , China/epidemiologia , Feminino , Gonorreia/epidemiologia , Gonorreia/prevenção & controle , Hepacivirus/patogenicidade , Vírus da Hepatite B/patogenicidade , Hepatite C/epidemiologia , Hepatite C/prevenção & controle , Humanos , Masculino , Sífilis/epidemiologia , Sífilis/prevenção & controle
13.
MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep ; 68(29): 637-641, 2019 Jul 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31344021

RESUMO

In April 2015, the country of Georgia, with a high prevalence of hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection (5.4% of the adult population, approximately 150,000 persons), embarked on the world's first national elimination program (1,2). Nearly 40% of these infections are attributed to injection drug use, and an estimated 2% of the adult population currently inject drugs, among the highest prevalence of injection drug use in the world (3,4). Since 2006, needle and syringe programs (NSPs) have been offering HCV antibody testing to persons who inject drugs and, since 2015, referring clients with positive test results to the national treatment program. This report summarizes the results of these efforts. Following implementation of the elimination program, the number of HCV antibody tests conducted at NSPs increased from an average of 3,638 per year during 2006-2014 to an average of 21,551 during 2015-2018. In 2017, to enable tracking of clinical outcomes among persons who inject drugs, NSPs began encouraging clients to voluntarily provide their national identification number (NIN), which all citizens must use to access health care treatment services. During 2017-2018, a total of 2,780 NSP clients with positive test results for HCV antibody were identified in the treatment database by their NIN. Of 494 who completed treatment and were tested for HCV RNA ≥12 weeks after completing treatment, 482 (97.6%) were cured of HCV infection. Following the launch of the elimination program, Georgia has made much progress in hepatitis C screening among persons who inject drugs; recent data demonstrate high cure rates achieved in this population. Testing at NSPs is an effective strategy for identifying persons with HCV infection. Tracking clients referred from NSPs through treatment completion allows for monitoring the effectiveness of linkage to care and treatment outcomes in this population at high risk, a key to achieving hepatitis C elimination in Georgia. The program in Georgia might serve as a model for other countries.


Assuntos
Erradicação de Doenças , Hepatite C/prevenção & controle , Programas de Rastreamento/estatística & dados numéricos , Abuso de Substâncias por Via Intravenosa/epidemiologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Feminino , Georgia/epidemiologia , Hepatite C/epidemiologia , Humanos , Masculino , Avaliação de Programas e Projetos de Saúde , Adulto Jovem
14.
Transpl Infect Dis ; 21(5): e13146, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31306562

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Transplanting kidneys from deceased donors with hepatitis C virus (HCV) viremia has been controversial for some time. Direct-acting antiviral agents have been shown to be highly effective in treating HCV infection. We report our experience with transplanting kidneys from HCV-positive donors with detectable viremia into HCV-negative recipients, followed by early treatment with a sofosbuvir-based antiviral regimen. METHODS: Data were collected from seven HCV-negative recipients receiving kidneys from five deceased HCV-viremic donors. Before transplantation, all intentional transplanted recipients had given informed consent regarding the acceptance of an HCV-viremic kidney. Recipients were closely monitored after transplant with measurements of HCV viremia, liver and renal function, and trough levels of immunosuppressive drugs. RESULTS: Four donors were infected with HCV genotype 1; the other with HCV genotype 3a. HCV viremia was detectable in all seven renal transplant recipients within 3 days after transplant. After determination of HCV genotype, antiviral treatment with a sofosbuvir-based regimen (sofosbuvir/ledipasvir, n = 4; sofosbuvir/velpatasvir, n = 3) was initiated within a median of 7 days after transplantation and was continued for 8 to 12 weeks. For all recipients, viral load was below the level of detection at the end of treatment, and all exhibited a sustained virologic response 12 weeks later. All recipients exhibited normal liver enzyme activity at the end of treatment. Renal allograft function and trough levels of tacrolimus remained stable. CONCLUSIONS: Early administration of a sofosbuvir-based regimen to HCV-negative recipients of kidneys from HCV-viremic donors is feasible and safe. The definition of an optimal therapeutic approach warrants further investigation.


Assuntos
Antivirais/administração & dosagem , Hepacivirus/efeitos dos fármacos , Hepatite C/prevenção & controle , Transplante de Rim/efeitos adversos , Rim/virologia , Sofosbuvir/administração & dosagem , Adulto , Esquema de Medicação , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Resposta Viral Sustentada , Doadores de Tecidos , Transplantados , Carga Viral/efeitos dos fármacos , Viremia
15.
PLoS One ; 14(5): e0216459, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31120906

RESUMO

Highly efficacious and tolerable treatments that cure hepatitis C viral (HCV) infection exist today, increasing the feasibility of disease elimination. However, large healthcare systems may not be fully prepared for supporting recommended actions due to knowledge gaps, inadequate infrastructure and uninformed policy direction. Additionally, the HCV cascade of care is complex, with many embedded barriers, and a significant number of patients do not progress through the cascade and are thus not cured. The aim of this retrospective cohort study was to evaluate a large healthcare system's HCV screening rates, linkage to care efficiency, and provider testing preferences. Patients born during 1945-1965, not previously HCV positive or tested from within the Electronic Health Record (EHR), were identified given that three-quarters of HCV-infected persons in the United States are from this Birth Cohort (BC). In building this HCV testing EHR prompt, non-Birth Cohort patients were excluded as HCV-specific risk factors identifying this population were not usually captured in searchable, structured data fields. Once completed, the BC prompt was released to primary care locations. From July 2015 through December 2016, 11.5% of eligible patients (n = 9,304/80,556) were HCV antibody tested (anti-HCV), 3.8% (353/9,304) anti-HCV positive, 98.1% (n = 311/317) HCV RNA tested, 59.8% (n = 186/311) HCV RNA positive, 86.6% (161/186) referred and 76.4% (n = 123/161) seen by a specialist, and 34.1% (n = 42/123) cured of their HCV. Results from the middle stages of the cascade in this large healthcare system are encouraging; however, entry into the cascade-HCV testing-was performed for only 11% of the birth cohort, and the endpoint-HCV cure-accounted for only 22% of all infected. Action is needed to align current practice with recommendations for HCV testing and treatment given that these are significant barriers toward elimination.


Assuntos
Bases de Dados Factuais , Prestação Integrada de Cuidados de Saúde , Registros Eletrônicos de Saúde , Anticorpos Anti-Hepatite C/sangue , Hepatite C , Atenção Primária à Saúde , RNA Viral/sangue , Idoso , Feminino , Hepatite C/sangue , Hepatite C/epidemiologia , Hepatite C/prevenção & controle , Humanos , Masculino , Maryland/epidemiologia , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Retrospectivos , Fatores de Risco , Virginia/epidemiologia
16.
CMAJ ; 191(17): E462-E468, 2019 04 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31036608

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Opioid agonist treatment is considered important in preventing acquisition of hepatitis C virus (HCV) among people who inject drugs; however, the role of dosage in opioid agonist treatment is unclear. We investigated the joint association of prescribed dosage of opioid agonist treatment and patient-perceived dosage adequacy with risk of HCV infection among people who inject drugs. METHODS: We followed prospectively people who inject drugs at risk of acquiring HCV infection (who were RNA negative and HCV-antibody negative or positive) in Montréal, Canada (2004-2017). At 6-month, then 3-month intervals, participants were tested for HCV antibodies or RNA, and completed an interviewer-administered behavioural questionnaire, reporting the following: current exposure to opioid agonist treatment (yes/no), prescribed dosage either high (methadone ≥ 60 mg/d or buprenorphine ≥ 16 mg/d) or low, and perceived dosage adequacy (adequate/inadequate). We then assigned participants to 1 of 5 exposure categories: no opioid agonist treatment, high dosage of opioid agonist treatment perceived to be adequate, high dosage perceived to be inadequate, low dosage perceived to be adequate or low dosage perceived to be inadequate. To estimate associations between categories of opioid agonist treatment dosage and incident HCV infection, we conducted Cox regression analyses, adjusting for multiple confounding factors. RESULTS: Of 513 participants (median age 35.0 yr, 77.6% male), 168 acquired HCV over 1422.6 person-years of follow-up (incidence 11.8/100 person-years, 95% confidence interval [CI] 10.1-13.7). We observed a gradient in the relative risks of HCV infection across categories of opioid agonist treatment dosage. Compared with people who inject drugs not receiving opioid agonist treatment, adjusted hazard ratios were 0.43 (95% CI 0.23-0.84) for those receiving high dosages perceived to be adequate, 0.61 (95% CI 0.25-1.50) for those receiving high dosages perceived to be inadequate, 1.22 (95% CI 0.74-2.00) for those receiving low dosages perceived to be adequate and 1.94 (95% CI 1.11-3.39) for those receiving low dosages perceived to be inadequate. INTERPRETATION: Risk of HCV infection varies considerably according to dosage of opioid agonist treatment and patient-perceived adequacy, with associations indicating both protective and harmful effects relative to no exposure to opioid agonist treatment.


Assuntos
Transmissão de Doença Infecciosa/prevenção & controle , Usuários de Drogas/estatística & dados numéricos , Hepatite C/prevenção & controle , Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Opioides/tratamento farmacológico , Adulto , Buprenorfina/administração & dosagem , Estudos de Coortes , Feminino , Hepatite C/etiologia , Humanos , Injeções Intravenosas/efeitos adversos , Masculino , Metadona/administração & dosagem , Tratamento de Substituição de Opiáceos , Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Opioides/complicações
18.
Braz J Infect Dis ; 23(3): 182-190, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31145876

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION AND AIM: Hepatitis C is a key challenge to public health in Brazil. The objective of this paper was to describe the Brazilian strategy for hepatitis C to meet the 2030 elimination goal proposed by World Health Organization (WHO). METHODS: A mathematical modeling approach was used to estimate the current HCV-infected Brazilian population, and to evaluate the relative costs of two different scenarios to address HCV disease burden in Brazil: (1) if no further changes are made to the HCV treatment program in Brazil; (2) where the WHO targets for 2030 elimination are met through diagnosis and treatment efforts peaking before 2024. RESULTS: An anti-HCV prevalence of 0.53% was calculated for the total population. It was estimated that the number of HCV-RNA+ individuals in Brazil in 2017 was 632,000 (0.31% of the population). Scale-up of treatment and diagnosis over time will be necessary in order to achieve WHO targets beginning in 2018. Direct costs (diagnostic, treatment and healthcare costs) are projected to increase significantly during the scale-up of treatment and diagnosis in the initial years of the intervention scenario, but then fall below the base case on an annual basis by 2025-2036, once HCV is eliminated, due to health sectors savings from the prevention of HCV liver-related morbidity and mortality. CONCLUSION: Achieving the WHO targets is technically feasible in Brazil with a scale-up of treatment and diagnosis over time, beginning in 2018. However, elimination of hepatitis C requires policy changes to substantially scale-up prevention, screening and treatment of HCV, together with public health advocacy to raise awareness among affected populations and healthcare providers.


Assuntos
Erradicação de Doenças/economia , Hepacivirus/genética , Hepatite C/prevenção & controle , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Brasil/epidemiologia , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Erradicação de Doenças/métodos , Genótipo , Hepatite C/tratamento farmacológico , Hepatite C/economia , Hepatite C/epidemiologia , Humanos , Incidência , Lactente , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Modelos Teóricos , Organização Mundial da Saúde , Adulto Jovem
19.
PLoS Pathog ; 15(5): e1007772, 2019 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31100098

RESUMO

Cumulative evidence supports a role for neutralizing antibodies contributing to spontaneous viral clearance during acute hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection. Information on the timing and specificity of the B cell response associated with clearance is crucial to inform vaccine design. From an individual who cleared three sequential HCV infections with genotypes 1b, 1a and 3a strains, respectively, we employed peripheral B cells to isolate and characterize neutralizing human monoclonal antibodies (HMAbs) to HCV after the genotype 1 infections. The majority of isolated antibodies, designated as HMAbs 212, target conformational epitopes on the envelope glycoprotein E2 and bound broadly to genotype 1-6 E1E2 proteins. Further, some of these antibodies showed neutralization potential against cultured genotype 1-6 viruses. Competition studies with defined broadly neutralizing HCV HMAbs to epitopes in distinct clusters, designated antigenic domains B, C, D and E, revealed that the selected HMAbs compete with B, C and D HMAbs, previously isolated from subjects with chronic HCV infections. Epitope mapping studies revealed domain B and C specificity of these HMAbs 212. Sequential serum samples from the studied subject inhibited the binding of HMAbs 212 to autologous E2 and blocked a representative domain D HMAb. The specificity of this antibody response appears similar to that observed during chronic infection, suggesting that the timing and affinity maturation of the antibody response are the critical determinants in successful and repeated viral clearance. While additional studies should be performed for individuals with clearance or persistence of HCV, our results define epitope determinants for antibody E2 targeting with important implications for the development of a B cell vaccine.


Assuntos
Anticorpos Neutralizantes/imunologia , Desenho de Drogas , Hepacivirus/imunologia , Anticorpos Anti-Hepatite C/imunologia , Hepatite C/prevenção & controle , Proteínas do Envelope Viral/imunologia , Vacinas contra Hepatite Viral/imunologia , Adulto , Sequência de Aminoácidos , Anticorpos Monoclonais/imunologia , Mapeamento de Epitopos , Genótipo , Hepatite C/imunologia , Hepatite C/virologia , Humanos , Masculino , Testes de Neutralização , Estudos Prospectivos , Homologia de Sequência , Adulto Jovem
20.
Biol Pharm Bull ; 42(5): 770-777, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31061319

RESUMO

Previously, we reported that coffee extract and its constituents, caffeic acid (CA) and p-coumaric acid, inhibit infection by the hepatitis C virus (HCV). In the present report, we identified another coffee-related compound, tannic acid (TA), which also inhibits HCV infection. We systematically evaluated which steps of the viral lifecycle were affected by CA and TA. TA substantially inhibits HCV RNA replication and egression, while CA does not. The infectivity of the HCV pretreated with CA or TA was almost lost. Cellular attachment of HCV particles and their interaction with apolipoprotein E, which is essential for HCV infectivity, were significantly reduced by CA. These results indicate that CA inhibits HCV entry via its direct effect on viral particles and TA inhibits HCV RNA replication and particle egression as well as entry into host cells. Taken together, our findings may provide insights into CA and TA as potential anti-HCV strategies.


Assuntos
Antivirais/farmacologia , Ácidos Cafeicos/farmacologia , Hepacivirus/efeitos dos fármacos , Hepatite C/prevenção & controle , Taninos/farmacologia , Apolipoproteínas E/metabolismo , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Hepacivirus/genética , Hepacivirus/metabolismo , Hepacivirus/patogenicidade , Humanos , RNA Viral/efeitos dos fármacos
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