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1.
BMC Infect Dis ; 20(1): 260, 2020 Apr 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32245368

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Infection by hepatitis E virus (HEV) can cause a high burden of morbidity and mortality in countries with poor access to clean water and sanitation. Our study aimed to investigate the situation of HEV infections in the Central African Republic (CAR). METHODS: A retrospective analysis of the blood samples and notification forms collected through the national yellow fever (YF) surveillance program, but for which a diagnosis of YF was discarded, was carried out using an anti-HEV IgM ELISA and a HEV-specific RT-PCR. RESULTS: Of 2883 YF-negative samples collected between January 2008 and December 2012, 745 (~ 26%) tested positive by at least either of the 2 tests used to confirm HEV cases. The results revealed that the CAR was hit by a large HEV outbreak in 2008 and 2009. The results also showed a clear seasonal pattern with correlation between HEV incidence and rainfall in Bangui. A phylogenetic analysis showed that the circulating strains belonged to genotypes 1e and 2b. CONCLUSIONS: Overall, this study provides further evidences that HEV can be a significant cause of acute febrile jaundice, particularly among adults during rainy season or flood, in a country from Sub-Saharan Africa.


Assuntos
Surtos de Doenças , Vírus da Hepatite E/genética , Vírus da Hepatite E/imunologia , Hepatite E/diagnóstico , Hepatite E/epidemiologia , Chuva , Doenças Transmitidas pela Água/epidemiologia , Adolescente , Adulto , República Centro-Africana/epidemiologia , Criança , Ensaio de Imunoadsorção Enzimática , Feminino , Inundações , Genótipo , Anticorpos Anti-Hepatite/sangue , Hepatite E/complicações , Hepatite E/virologia , Vírus da Hepatite E/isolamento & purificação , Humanos , Imunoglobulina M/sangue , Incidência , Icterícia/etiologia , Estudos Longitudinais , Masculino , Filogenia , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase em Tempo Real , Estudos Retrospectivos , Doenças Transmitidas pela Água/virologia , Adulto Jovem
2.
Cent Eur J Public Health ; 28(1): 70-73, 2020 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32228821

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Hepatitis E infection is one of the most frequent acute hepatitis in the world. Currently five human genotypes with different geographical distributions and distinct epidemiologic patterns are identified. In Slovakia, only rare cases of hepatitis E have been reported in recent years. Therefore, the aim of the study was to evaluate the prevalence of anti-HEV total antibodies and the main risk factors for HEV in the general population in Eastern Slovakia. METHODS: Detection of anti-HEV total antibodies samples was done by a commercial enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) kit. RESULTS: Of 175 hospitalized patients included in the study, 76 (43.5%) showed positivity for anti-HEV total antibodies. No statistically significant differences were found in anti-HEV positivity between men and women or in the groups of different living areas (town/village - urban/rural). CONCLUSION: Prevalence of anti-HEV total antibodies of hospitalised patients was high. The risk factor significantly associated with antibody positivity was eating raw meat. Other factors, such as sex, age, living area and contact with animals were not associated with antibody positivity.


Assuntos
Hepatite E/epidemiologia , Hospitalização/estatística & dados numéricos , Ensaio de Imunoadsorção Enzimática , Feminino , Anticorpos Anti-Hepatite/isolamento & purificação , Vírus da Hepatite E/imunologia , Humanos , Masculino , Fatores de Risco , Estudos Soroepidemiológicos , Eslováquia/epidemiologia
3.
Emerg Microbes Infect ; 9(1): 332-340, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32037983

RESUMO

The seroprevalenc of autoimmune hepatitis (AIH)-related antibodies in patients, particularly Asians, with acute hepatitis E (AHE) is unclear. In this study, we investigated whether acute hepatitis E virus (HEV) infection is associated with the seroprevalence of AIH-related autoantibodies and assessed their impact on the disease characteristics. AIH-related autoantibodies were detected by indirect immunofluorescence in 198 AHE patients and 50 type 1 AIH patients. The positivity rates of against nuclear antigen (ANA) and smooth muscles antibody (SMA) in AHE patients were 37.4% and 22.7%, and the total positivity rate was 50%. Compared to those in AIH patients, the positivity rates of ANA-H and SMA-AA were significantly lower (35.1% vs. 82.1% and 4.4% vs. 88.4%). Female gender and the ALT level, but not immunosuppressive or antiviral drugs, were independently predictive of the presence of AIH-related autoantibodies in AHE patients. Fifty-two patients positive for AIH-related autoantibodies were followed up for 12 months. During this period, 33 of them became negative and 19 remained positive, albeit with significantly decreased titres. In conclusions, the seroprevalence of AIH-related autoantibodies in AHE patients was elevated, particularly in females, but their subspecificities and titres differed from those of type 1 AIH. Acute HEV infection may be related to AIH.Abbreviations: AIH: autoimmune hepatitis; AHE: acute hepatitis E; ANA: against nuclear antigen; SMA: smooth muscles antibody; ANA-H: ANA with homogeneous pattern; SMA-AA: SMA with anti-actin pattern; Anti-LKM1: anti- liver-kidney microsomes-1 antibody; ANCA: anti-neutrophil cytoplasmic antibody; AMA: anti-mitochondrial antibody; Anti-SLA: anti-soluble liver antigen; Anti-LC1: anti-liver cytoplasmic type 1 antibody; pANCA: perinuclear antineutrophil cytoplasmic antibody.


Assuntos
Autoanticorpos/sangue , Hepatite E/sangue , Hepatite Autoimune/sangue , Doença Aguda , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Estudos de Casos e Controles , China , Feminino , Hepatite E/imunologia , Hepatite Autoimune/imunologia , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Prospectivos , Estudos Soroepidemiológicos
4.
Rev Soc Bras Med Trop ; 53: e20190486, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32049206

RESUMO

This review focuses on reports of hepatitis E virus, hantavirus, rotavirus, coronavirus, and arenavirus in synanthropic rodents (Rattus rattus, Rattus norvegicus, and Mus musculus) within urban environments. Despite their potential impact on human health, relatively few studies have addressed the monitoring of these viruses in rodents. Comprehensive control and preventive activities should include actions such as the elimination or reduction of rat and mouse populations, sanitary education, reduction of shelters for the animals, and restriction of the access of rodents to residences, water, and food supplies.


Assuntos
Infecções por Arenaviridae/transmissão , Infecções por Coronavirus/transmissão , Reservatórios de Doenças/virologia , Infecções por Hantavirus/transmissão , Hepatite E/transmissão , Camundongos/virologia , Ratos/virologia , Infecções por Rotavirus/transmissão , Animais , População Urbana
5.
PLoS One ; 15(2): e0229073, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32040501

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Hepatitis E virus (HEV) is a zoonotic pathogen of which pigs have been established as reservoirs. In the present study, we investigated the presence of HEV among pigs in the Center and Littoral regions of Cameroon and performed the molecular characterization of positive strains. METHODOLOGY: A total of 453 serum and stool samples were randomly collected from pigs in slaughterhouses in Obala, Douala and Yaounde. All samples were examined for the presence of anti-HEV IgG and IgM antibodies using ELISA assays. IgM positive stool samples were tested for HEV RNA using an RT-PCR assay, followed by a nested PCR assay for sequencing and phylogenetic analysis. RESULTS: Overall, 216 samples (47.7%, 95% CI: 43.1%-52.3%) were positive for at least one of the serological markers of HEV infection. Amongst these, 21.0% were positives for anti-HEV IgM, 17.7% for anti-HEV IgG, and 9.1% for both. A total of eight stool samples (5.9%) were positive for HEV RNA by nested RT-PCR. Phylogenetic analysis showed that the retrieved sequences clustered within HEV genotype 3. CONCLUSION: This study shows a high prevalence of anti-HEV antibodies and the circulation of genotype 3 in the swine population in Cameroon. Subsequent studies will be needed to elucidate the zoonotic transmission of HEV from pigs to humans in Cameroon.


Assuntos
Reservatórios de Doenças/virologia , Genótipo , Vírus da Hepatite E/classificação , Hepatite E/veterinária , Doenças dos Suínos/epidemiologia , Doenças dos Suínos/virologia , Animais , Camarões/epidemiologia , Ensaio de Imunoadsorção Enzimática , Feminino , Anticorpos Anti-Hepatite/sangue , Vírus da Hepatite E/genética , Vírus da Hepatite E/imunologia , Imunoglobulina G/sangue , Imunoglobulina M/sangue , Masculino , Vigilância em Saúde Pública , Estudos Soroepidemiológicos , Suínos , Doenças dos Suínos/diagnóstico , Doenças dos Suínos/imunologia , Zoonoses
6.
PLoS One ; 15(2): e0228068, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32012176

RESUMO

Hepatitis E is an enteric disease highly prevalent in the developing countries. The basis for high mortality among pregnant hepatitis E patients remains unclear. Importantly, a large proportion of infected pregnant women present with subclinical infection as well. In order to understand the possible mechanisms influencing clinical presentation of hepatitis E in pregnant women, we explored a system biology approach. For this, PBMCs from various categories were subjected to RNAseq analysis. These included non-pregnant (NPR, acute and convalescent phases) and pregnant (PR, 2nd and 3rd trimesters, acute phase and subclinical HEV infections) patients and corresponding healthy controls. The current study deals with immune response genes. In contrast to exclusive up-regulation of nonspecific, early immune response transcripts in the NPR patients, the PR patients exhibited broader and heightened expression of genes associated with innate as well as adaptive T and B cell responses. The study identified for the first time (1) inverse relationship of immunoglobulin (Ig) genes overexpression and (2) association of differential expression of S100 series genes with disease presentation. The data suggests possible involvement of TLR4 and NOD1 in pregnant patients and alpha defensins in all patient categories suggesting a role in protection. Induction of IFNγ gene was not detected during the acute phase irrespective of pregnancy. Association of response to vitamin D, transcripts related to NK/NKT and regulatory T cells during subclinical infection are noteworthy. The data obtained here could be correlated with several studies reported earlier in hepatitis E patients suggesting utility of PBMCs as an alternate specimen. The extensive, informative data provided here for the first time should form basis for future studies that will help in understanding pathogenesis of fulminant hepatitis E.


Assuntos
Perfilação da Expressão Gênica , Regulação da Expressão Gênica/imunologia , Hepatite E/genética , Hepatite E/imunologia , Leucócitos Mononucleares/metabolismo , Complicações na Gravidez/virologia , Trimestres da Gravidez/genética , Adulto , Feminino , Ontologia Genética , Hepatite E/fisiopatologia , Humanos , Gravidez , Complicações na Gravidez/genética , Complicações na Gravidez/imunologia , Trimestres da Gravidez/imunologia , Adulto Jovem
7.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 117(3): 1731-1741, 2020 01 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31896581

RESUMO

Hepatitis E virus (HEV) is the causative agent of hepatitis E in humans and the leading cause for acute viral hepatitis worldwide. The virus is classified as a member of the genus Orthohepevirus A within the Hepeviridae family. Due to the absence of a robust cell culture model for HEV infection, the analysis of the viral life cycle, the development of effective antivirals and a vaccine is severely limited. In this study, we established a protocol based on the HEV genotype 3 p6 (Kernow C-1) and the human hepatoma cell lines HepG2 and HepG2/C3A with different media conditions to produce intracellular HEV cell culture-derived particles (HEVcc) with viral titers between 105 and 106 FFU/mL. Viral titers could be further enhanced by an HEV variant harboring a mutation in the RNA-dependent RNA polymerase. These HEVcc particles were characterized in density gradients and allowed the trans-complementation of subgenomic reporter HEV replicons. In addition, in vitro produced intracellular-derived particles were infectious in liver-humanized mice with high RNA copy numbers detectable in serum and feces. Efficient infection of primary human and swine hepatocytes using the developed protocol could be observed and was inhibited by ribavirin. Finally, RNA sequencing studies of HEV-infected primary human hepatocytes demonstrated a temporally structured transcriptional defense response. In conclusion, this robust cell culture model of HEV infection provides a powerful tool for studying viral-host interactions that should facilitate the discovery of antiviral drugs for this important zoonotic pathogen.


Assuntos
Vírus da Hepatite E/genética , Vírus da Hepatite E/fisiologia , Hepatite E/metabolismo , Hepatócitos/virologia , Animais , Antivirais/farmacologia , Carcinoma Hepatocelular , Técnicas de Cultura de Células , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Genótipo , Células Hep G2 , Hepatite E/virologia , Vírus da Hepatite E/efeitos dos fármacos , Humanos , Neoplasias Hepáticas/tratamento farmacológico , Camundongos , RNA Replicase/genética , RNA Replicase/metabolismo , Replicon , Ribavirina/metabolismo , Suínos , Carga Viral , Replicação Viral
8.
PLoS Negl Trop Dis ; 14(1): e0007586, 2020 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31961861

RESUMO

In the absence of reliable data on the burden of hepatitis E virus (HEV) in high endemic countries, we established a hospital-based acute jaundice surveillance program in six tertiary hospitals in Bangladesh to estimate the burden of HEV infection among hospitalized acute jaundice patients aged ≥14 years, identify seasonal and geographic patterns in the prevalence of hepatitis E, and examine factors associated with death. We collected blood specimens from enrolled acute jaundice patients, defined as new onset of either yellow eyes or skin during the past three months of hospital admission, and tested for immunoglobulin M (IgM) antibodies against HEV, HBV and HAV. The enrolled patients were followed up three months after hospital discharge to assess their survival status; pregnant women were followed up three months after their delivery to assess pregnancy outcomes. From December'2014 to September'2017, 1925 patients with acute jaundice were enrolled; 661 (34%) had acute hepatitis E, 48 (8%) had hepatitis A, and 293 (15%) had acute hepatitis B infection. Case fatality among hepatitis E patients was 5% (28/589). Most of the hepatitis E cases were males (74%; 486/661), but case fatality was higher among females-12% (8/68) among pregnant and 8% (7/91) among non-pregnant women. Half of the patients who died with acute hepatitis E had co-infection with HAV or HBV. Of the 62 HEV infected mothers who were alive until the delivery, 9 (15%) had miscarriage/stillbirth, and of those children who were born alive, 19% (10/53) died, all within one week of birth. This study confirms that hepatitis E is the leading cause of acute jaundice, leads to hospitalizations in all regions in Bangladesh, occurs throughout the year, and is associated with considerable morbidity and mortality. Effective control measures should be taken to reduce the risk of HEV infections including improvements in water quality, sanitation and hygiene practices and the introduction of HEV vaccine to high-risk groups.


Assuntos
Hepatite E/terapia , Icterícia/terapia , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Anticorpos Antivirais/sangue , Bangladesh/epidemiologia , Monitoramento Epidemiológico , Feminino , Hepatite E/diagnóstico , Hepatite E/epidemiologia , Hepatite E/virologia , Vírus da Hepatite E/imunologia , Hospitalização , Humanos , Imunoglobulina M/sangue , Icterícia/diagnóstico , Icterícia/epidemiologia , Icterícia/virologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Adulto Jovem
9.
Int J Food Microbiol ; 317: 108479, 2020 Mar 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31874303

RESUMO

Hepatitis E virus (HEV) infection is endemic in many developing countries and becomes of interest in the developed countries. Several animals are sources of HEV infection to humans. Recently, HEV was detected in the milk of cows in China, this data comes up with the probability of HEV transmission to humans via ingestion of contaminated milk. In Egypt, contaminated water and residing in rural communities are risk factors for HEV infection, while limited data is available on the zoonotic HEV transmission. Since pigs, wild boars, camels are not common in Egypt, we investigated if cows and/or cow milk represent a risk factor for HEV transmission in the Assiut governorate. Milk samples (n = 480), collected from Assiut city and 12 non-mixed dairy farms distributed in the rural communities, were tested for HEV markers such as anti-HEV IgG, HEV RNA, and HEV Ag. All milk samples collected from Assiut city (n = 220) were negative for HEV markers. Also, milk samples collected from 11 farms (n = 220) were negative for HEV markers. While, in one farm, we could detect anti-HEV IgG in 8 out of 40 samples (20%), HEV RNA and HEV Ag were detectable in 1 out of 40 samples (2.5%). However, we could not detect the HEV markers in the stool from anti-HEV IgG positive cows. Surprisingly, phylogenetic analysis of the isolated virus revealed it belonged to HEV-3 subtype 3a. Importantly, when cows from the positive farm were retested 1 month later, we observed an increase in the number of animals that were positive for anti-HEV IgG (10/40, 25%). In addition, the level of anti-HEV IgG was significantly higher in the milk of these cows in the second collection than the samples of the first collection suggesting ongoing infection on this farm. In conclusion: we reported that HEV-3 and/or HEV like agent was detected in the milk of the cow distributed in rural communities of Assiut governates. Investigation of the cow milk should be done to assess if the cow milk is a risk factor for HEV transmission for Egyptian people, especially in rural communities.


Assuntos
Vírus da Hepatite E/isolamento & purificação , Hepatite E , Leite/virologia , Animais , Bovinos , Doenças dos Bovinos/epidemiologia , Doenças dos Bovinos/virologia , China/epidemiologia , Egito , Fazendas , Fezes/virologia , Feminino , Hepatite E/epidemiologia , Hepatite E/transmissão , Hepatite E/veterinária , Vírus da Hepatite E/genética , Humanos , Filogenia , Prevalência , RNA Viral/análise , RNA Viral/genética , Suínos , Doenças dos Suínos/epidemiologia , Doenças dos Suínos/virologia
10.
Muscle Nerve ; 61(1): 108-110, 2020 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31573093

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The aim of this study was to further characterize the clinical phenotype of hepatitis E virus (HEV)-associated neuralgic amyotrophy (NA). METHODS: Three patients with HEV-associated NA underwent clinical, electrodiagnostic, and ultrasound assessment. RESULTS: In all patients, symptoms developed in several phases within a time span of 4-6 weeks, with three or more nerves involved. Symptoms were bilateral in two. In two patients, nerves of the trunk and the lower limb were affected as well. In one patient, three bouts occurred, each heralded by an increase in pain. In the other two, pain subsided quickly and nerve damage developed in two phases. Segmental enlargement with or without hourglass-like constrictions of the nerves was demonstrated by ultrasound in all. CONCLUSIONS: The multiphasic presentation, together with the extensive multi-nerve involvement, may reflect a severe and protracted inflammation of the nerves in HEV-associated NA.


Assuntos
Neurite do Plexo Braquial/diagnóstico , Neurite do Plexo Braquial/etiologia , Hepatite E/complicações , Adulto , Plexo Braquial/diagnóstico por imagem , Neurite do Plexo Braquial/diagnóstico por imagem , Eletrodiagnóstico , Eletromiografia , Hepatite E/diagnóstico por imagem , Humanos , Masculino , Nervo Mediano/diagnóstico por imagem , Músculo Esquelético/diagnóstico por imagem , Fenótipo , Nervos Espinhais/diagnóstico por imagem , Nervos Torácicos/diagnóstico por imagem , Ultrassonografia
11.
J Pharm Biomed Anal ; 177: 112880, 2020 Jan 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31546137

RESUMO

Hepatitis E, which is caused by infection with hepatitis E virus (HEV), is a global health problem in both developed and developing countries. An efficacious hepatitis E vaccine was licensed (by China) in 2011 with a trade name of Hecolin®. The antigen contained in this vaccine is a truncated version of the sole capsid protein encoded by open reading frame 2, which is designated p239. In this study, the real-time and real-condition stability and accelerated stability of five lots of hepatitis E vaccine products at the end of the designated shelf life, were assessed by a well-established quality analysis platform. The protein integrity of p239 that was recovered from the vaccine lots was demonstrated using CE-SDS, LC-MS and MALDI-TOF MS. The particle characteristics of the recovered vaccine antigen were assessed by TEM and HPSEC. The immunogenicity of hepatitis E vaccines was assessed by a mouse potency assay, which is part of product release and stability testing. Several methods were employed to assess the antigenicity of vaccines with or without adjuvant dissolution. Specifically, the well-established methods of sandwich ELISA and surface plasma resonance (SPR)-based BIAcore were used with unique murine monoclonal antibodies. Most interesting, two 'dissolution-free' immunoassays were also used for in situ antigenicity assessment of the vaccines. In addition to the confirmation of vaccine stability at the end of expiry dating, i.e., after storage in recommended conditions (2-8 °C) for 36 months, the mouse potency assay and sandwich ELISA were used to assess the accelerated stability of prefilled syringes to demonstrate the feasibility of out-of-cold-chain storage. In summary, molecular and functional characterization confirmed the shelf life stability of the vaccine at the end of expiry dating and the feasibility of transporting the hepatitis E vaccine for a given period of time out of cold chains.


Assuntos
Anticorpos Anti-Hepatite/sangue , Vírus da Hepatite E/imunologia , Hepatite E/prevenção & controle , Vacinas Sintéticas/imunologia , Vacinas contra Hepatite Viral/imunologia , Animais , Estabilidade de Medicamentos , Armazenamento de Medicamentos , Estudos de Viabilidade , Feminino , Anticorpos Anti-Hepatite/imunologia , Antígenos de Hepatite/imunologia , Hepatite E/virologia , Humanos , Imunoensaio/métodos , Imunogenicidade da Vacina , Camundongos , Modelos Animais , Temperatura , Fatores de Tempo , Vacinas Sintéticas/administração & dosagem , Vacinas Sintéticas/química , Vacinas contra Hepatite Viral/administração & dosagem , Vacinas contra Hepatite Viral/química
13.
Zhonghua Liu Xing Bing Xue Za Zhi ; 40(11): 1426-1431, 2019 Nov 10.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31838816

RESUMO

Objective: To analyze the epidemiological characteristics of hepatitis E Virus antibody (anti-HEV) in people aged 1-29 years in China in 2014. Methods: Based on database of the national serologic survey of hepatitis B in people aged 1-29 years in China, in 2014, the sample size was estimated. The serum samples of the people surveyed were randomly selected to detect anti-HEV IgG by using enzyme- linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Statistical software SAS 9.1.3 was used to calculate the positive rate of anti-HEV and 95% confidence interval (CI) in different age, gender groups, urban and rural areas and geographic areas by using the Taylor series linear method with sampling weight. The difference was determined by comparing 95%CI. Results: A total of 14 106 serum samples were detected from people aged 1-29 years, including 6 996 males (49.60%), 7 013 urban residents (49.72%). The positive rate of anti-HEV was 8.12%(95%CI: 7.19-9.15) in people aged 1-29 years. There was no statistical difference between the men and women, between urban area and rural area. The positive rates of anti-HEV in western area(11.36%, 95%CI: 9.45-13.62) was higher than those in eastern and central areas. The positive rates of anti-HEV were 2.46%, 2.24%, 4.50%, 7.58%, 11.89% and 17.27% in people aged 1-, 5-, 10-, 15-, 20- and 25-29 years, respectively. As the age increased, the positive rate of anti-HEV gradually increased. In different ethnic groups, the positive rate of anti-HEV was higher in Tibetan (18.32%, 95%CI: 12.02-26.90), Zhuang (9.54%, 95%CI: 4.33-19.73) ethnic groups. Conclusion: The positive rate of anti-HEV declined slightly in China in 2014. It is still necessary to pay close attention to the HEV infection, morbidity of hepatitis E and risk factors in people aged 1-29 years.


Assuntos
Anticorpos Anti-Hepatite/sangue , Vírus da Hepatite E/isolamento & purificação , Hepatite E/epidemiologia , População Rural/estatística & dados numéricos , População Urbana/estatística & dados numéricos , Adolescente , Adulto , Anticorpos Antivirais/sangue , Criança , Pré-Escolar , China/epidemiologia , Ensaio de Imunoadsorção Enzimática , Estudos Epidemiológicos , Feminino , Hepatite E/sangue , Hepatite E/imunologia , Vírus da Hepatite E/imunologia , Humanos , Imunoglobulina G/sangue , Imunoglobulina M/sangue , Lactente , Masculino , Inquéritos e Questionários , Proteínas Virais/imunologia , Adulto Jovem
14.
Artigo em Russo | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31884773

RESUMO

The Hepatitis E (HE) is a viral liver disease that is common on all continents at different rates and very frequently is not symptomatically distinguishable from other viral hepatitis, such as hepatitis A, B and C, as well as from other infectious diseases referred to as "acute jaundice syndrome". The GE-anthroponosis (in the case of infection caused by genotypes 1 or 2 of hepatitis E virus) or anthropozoonosis (in the case of infection caused by 3 or 4 viruses) is predominantly propagated through fecal-oral transmission. The article presents the general characteristics of VGE, human risk factors and means of prevention. The particular attention is paid to the development of complex of anti-epidemic, hygienic and veterinary sanitary measures in the Belgorod Oblast.


Assuntos
Surtos de Doenças/prevenção & controle , Hepatite E/epidemiologia , Monitoramento Epidemiológico , Humanos , Higiene , Fatores de Risco , Federação Russa/epidemiologia , Saneamento
15.
Blood Transfus ; 17(6): 428-432, 2019 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31846607

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The routes of hepatitis E virus (HEV) transmission have still not been fully clarified. Here, we evaluated the possibility of sexual transmission of HEV, which remains a highly disputed issue. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Hepatitis E virus sexual transmission risk was assessed by comparing the prevalence of HEV infection in a sample of 196 Italian men who have sex with men (MSM) involved in a multi-country hepatitis A virus (HAV) outbreak, and in 3,912 Italian male blood donors selected from the same regions and provinces as the MSM. Selection of study of participants was motivated by the fact that HEV prevalence among Italian blood donors has been found to vary enormously between different geographical areas. RESULTS: Anti-HEV IgG prevalence was 14.8% and 5.6% in blood donors and MSM, respectively. Adjusted anti-HEV IgG prevalence was significantly lower in MSM than in blood donors (odds ratio [OR], 0.40; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.22-0.75; p<0.01), among residents in northern (OR, 0.45; 95% CI: 0.37-0.55; p<0.01) and southern (OR, 0.45; 95% CI: 0.35-0.58; p <0.01) Italy than among residents in Central Italy, while the prevalence was significantly higher in participants over 50 years of age than in those under 50 years of age (OR, 1.83; 95% CI: 1.48-2.27; p<0.01). DISCUSSION: Our findings suggest that sexual intercourse does not have a relevant role in HEV transmission. In particular, sexual transmission of HEV is unlikely to influence the prevalence of HEV infection at population level.


Assuntos
Doadores de Sangue , Surtos de Doenças , Vírus da Hepatite A , Hepatite A , Vírus da Hepatite E , Hepatite E , Minorias Sexuais e de Gênero , Adulto , Idoso , Hepatite A/sangue , Hepatite A/epidemiologia , Hepatite E/sangue , Hepatite E/epidemiologia , Humanos , Itália , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Prevalência
16.
J Microbiol ; 57(12): 1126-1131, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31758397

RESUMO

Hepatitis E virus (HEV) is a causative agent of acute hepatitis and jaundice. The number of human infections is approximated to be over 20 million cases per year. The transmission is mainly via the fecal-oral route and contaminated water and food are considered to be a major source of infection. As a mouse model is not available, a recent development of a cell culture-adapted HEV strain (47832c) is considered as a very important tools for molecular analysis of HEV pathogenesis in cells. Previously, we demonstrated that HEV-encoded methyltransferase (MeT) encoded by the 47832c strain inhibits MDA5- and RIG-I-mediated activation of interferon ß (IFN-ß) promoter. Here, we report that MeT impairs the phosphorylation and activation of interferon regulatory factor 3 and the p65 subunit of NF-κB in a dose-dependent manner. In addition, the MeT encoded by the 47832c, but not that of HEV clinical or field isolates (SAR-55, Mex-14, KC-1, and ZJ-1), displays the inhibitory effect. A deeper understanding of MeTmediated suppression of IFN-ß expression would provide basis of the cell culture adaptation of HEV.


Assuntos
Vírus da Hepatite E/fisiologia , Helicase IFIH1 Induzida por Interferon/efeitos dos fármacos , Helicase IFIH1 Induzida por Interferon/metabolismo , Metiltransferases/antagonistas & inibidores , Metiltransferases/metabolismo , Transdução de Sinais/fisiologia , Animais , Técnicas de Cultura de Células , Proteína DEAD-box 58/efeitos dos fármacos , Proteína DEAD-box 58/metabolismo , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Células HEK293 , Hepatite E/virologia , Vírus da Hepatite E/enzimologia , Vírus da Hepatite E/patogenicidade , Humanos , Fator Regulador 3 de Interferon/metabolismo , Interferon beta/metabolismo , Camundongos , NF-kappa B/metabolismo , Fosforilação
18.
Curr Med Sci ; 39(5): 719-726, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31612388

RESUMO

Hepatitis E virus (HEV) infection is a major cause of morbidity in endemic areas. Its consequences among chronic hepatitis B (CHB) patients have been under-reported. The aim of this study was to assess the impact of superinfective HEV infection (acute and past) on virological and clinical features of patients with CHB infection. Clinical, biochemical, virological and immunological data of 153 CHB patients including 98 with hepatitis B virus (HBV) monoinfection and 55 with HBV-HEV superinfection with both HEV and HBV infection was retrospectively investigated and analyzed in this study conducted in Wuhan, China. An overall anti-HEV IgG seroprevalence was found to be 35.9% in CHB patients. HBV-HEV superinfection patients showed significantly higher rate of complications (ascites, hepato-renal syndrome & encephalopathy) (all with P=0.04), cirrhosis (P<0.001) and acute-on-chronic liver failure (P<0.001) than HBV monoinfection patients. They also displayed elevated ALTs (P<0.001) and total serum bilirubin (P<0.001) with diminished albumin (P<0.001) and HBV viral load (P<0.001). Cytokines assay revealed increased expression of IL-6 (P=0.02), IL-10 (P=0.009) and TNF-α (P=0.003) in HBV-HEV superinfection patients compared to HBV monoinfection patients. Our study demonstrated that HEV superinfection in CHB patients was associated with progressive clinical manifestation, which is likely due to the enhanced expression of cytokines related with hepatocytes necrosis. HEV was also associated with repressed HBV replication, but the underlying mechanism requires further investigation.


Assuntos
Insuficiência Hepática Crônica Agudizada/virologia , Ascite/virologia , Encefalopatia Hepática/virologia , Hepatite B Crônica/virologia , Hepatite E/virologia , Síndrome Hepatorrenal/virologia , Cirrose Hepática/virologia , Superinfecção/virologia , Insuficiência Hepática Crônica Agudizada/complicações , Insuficiência Hepática Crônica Agudizada/imunologia , Insuficiência Hepática Crônica Agudizada/patologia , Adulto , Idoso , Alanina Transaminase/sangue , Alanina Transaminase/imunologia , Ascite/complicações , Ascite/imunologia , Ascite/patologia , Bilirrubina/sangue , Bilirrubina/imunologia , China , Feminino , Encefalopatia Hepática/complicações , Encefalopatia Hepática/imunologia , Encefalopatia Hepática/patologia , Anticorpos Anti-Hepatite/sangue , Vírus da Hepatite B/imunologia , Vírus da Hepatite B/patogenicidade , Hepatite B Crônica/complicações , Hepatite B Crônica/imunologia , Hepatite B Crônica/patologia , Hepatite E/complicações , Hepatite E/imunologia , Hepatite E/patologia , Vírus da Hepatite E/imunologia , Vírus da Hepatite E/patogenicidade , Hepatócitos/imunologia , Hepatócitos/patologia , Hepatócitos/virologia , Síndrome Hepatorrenal/complicações , Síndrome Hepatorrenal/imunologia , Síndrome Hepatorrenal/patologia , Humanos , Imunoglobulina G/sangue , Interleucina-10/sangue , Interleucina-10/imunologia , Interleucina-6/sangue , Interleucina-6/imunologia , Fígado/imunologia , Fígado/patologia , Fígado/virologia , Cirrose Hepática/complicações , Cirrose Hepática/imunologia , Cirrose Hepática/patologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Retrospectivos , Superinfecção/complicações
19.
Wei Sheng Yan Jiu ; 48(4): 545-559, 2019 Jul.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31601334

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Real-time reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction(real-time RT-PCR) assay based on Taqman and phylogenetic tree were developed for detecting hepatitis E virus in swine feces of pig farms from several provinces and city. METHODS: Designing prime and probe refering to HEV genotype sequences of Genbank, we developed a Taqman-based real-time RT-PCR assay and nested RT-PCR according to HEV conserved domain after optimizing reaction system, then detected the prevalence of HEV infection of pig farms. RESULTS: The sensitivity of the real-time RT-PCR assay established in this experiment was 19. 9 copies/µL, the amplification efficiency was 92. 9%-109. 1%, there was no cross reaction with Sapovirus, Norovirus and Hepatitis A. A total of 342 samples of swine feces were detected. There were two hundred and ten positive samples, and positive rate was 61. 4%. The positive rate of before-fattening was 56. 6%, and after-fattening was 66. 9%. The positive rate of before and after fattening samples had statistical difference(χ~2=24. 8, P<0. 05). The genotype identification system determined that the positive strains isolated in this study were HEV-4 type, and three subtypes of 4 b, 4 d and 4 h were detected. CONCLUSION: The pig farms of several provinces and city are contaminated by HEV extensively. The genotypes of the isolated strains are all HEV-4 type. The infection rate and infection subtype of pigs in different provinces and cities are different.


Assuntos
Fezes/virologia , Vírus da Hepatite E , Epidemiologia Molecular , Animais , Genótipo , Hepatite E , Filogenia , RNA Viral , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase Via Transcriptase Reversa , Transcrição Reversa , Suínos , Doenças dos Suínos/virologia
20.
Rev Soc Bras Med Trop ; 52: e20190302, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31618309

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Solid-organ transplant recipients are at risk of hepatitis E virus (HEV) infection. We analyzed the seroprevalence/risk factors of HEV in Croatian liver transplant recipients. METHODS: Two hundred forty-two serum samples were tested for HEV immunoglobuline IgG/IgM and HEV RNA. Sociodemographic data and risk factors were collected using a questionnaire. RESULTS: HEV IgG seroprevalence rate was 24.4%. Positive/equivocal HEV IgM were found in two patients. HEV RNA was not detected. Logistic regression showed that older age, female gender, rural area/farm, water well, and septic tank were associated with HEV seropositivity. CONCLUSIONS: This study revealed a high exposure rate to HEV in Croatian liver recipients.


Assuntos
Vírus da Hepatite E/imunologia , Hepatite E/epidemiologia , Transplante de Fígado/efeitos adversos , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Croácia/epidemiologia , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Anticorpos Anti-Hepatite/sangue , Hepatite E/imunologia , Humanos , Imunoglobulina G/sangue , Imunoglobulina M/sangue , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , RNA Viral/sangue , Fatores de Risco , Estudos Soroepidemiológicos , Fatores Socioeconômicos
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