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3.
Rev Soc Bras Med Trop ; 54: e00892020, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33338106

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Viral hepatitis is a major public health problem. It is necessary to understand the epidemic, verifying the combination of biological and demographic characteristics. METHODS: This is an analytical ecological and epidemiological study. Confirmed case data from the Notification Disease Information System (SINAN) were used. RESULTS: From 2009-2018, SINAN confirmed 404,003 viral hepatitis cases in Brazil, with 12.49%, 37.06%, and 48.28% cases of hepatitis A, B, and C, respectively. CONCLUSIONS: In Brazil, 4,296 deaths were associated with viral hepatitis, of which 36.66% were associated with acute hepatitis B. The proportional distribution of cases varied among the five Brazilian regions.


Assuntos
Hepatite B , Hepatite Viral Humana , Brasil/epidemiologia , Estudos Epidemiológicos , Hepatite B/epidemiologia , Hepatite Viral Humana/epidemiologia , Humanos , Incidência
4.
Zhonghua Liu Xing Bing Xue Za Zhi ; 41(9): 1460-1464, 2020 Sep 10.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33076599

RESUMO

Objective: To explore the time series characteristics of 5 types of viral hepatitis in China and predict their incidence through effective models. Methods: The monthly incidence data of 5 types of viral hepatitis (A, B, C, D and unspecified) in China from 2009 to 2018 were collected for descriptive and time series analyses, decomposition methods were used to explore the seasonality in the form of seasonal indices and the long-term trend in the form of a linear regression model. Autoregressive integrated moving average (ARIMA) models were established for each type of viral hepatitis. Results: From 2009 to 2018, a total of 14 856 990 cases of viral hepatitis were reported, the seasonal index range of 5 types of viral hepatitis were all lower than 1, the seasonality of hepatitis E was significant, and its incidence was unimodal, but no obvious seasonality characteristics were observed for other four types of viral hepatitis. The incidences of hepatitis A, hepatitis E and unspecified hepatitis remained at lower levels, showing slow declines. Although the cases of hepatitis B accounted for the highest proportion (79.59%, 11 824 262/14 856 990) among 5 types of viral hepatitis, the decline was fastest (-0.01/100 000). The incidence of hepatitis C was on rise, and the rate of increase remained stable (0.005/100 000). The predicted incidences of 5 types of viral hepatitis in China from January 2009 to December 2018 fitted by ARIMA model were consistent with the actual incidences, and the mean absolute error percentage (MAPE) ranged from 3.756 8 to 8.068 3. Conclusions: Time series analysis on surveillance data is useful for better understanding the incidence of the viral hepatitis. The ARIMA model has good application value in the short-term prediction of viral hepatitis incidence in China.


Assuntos
Hepatite Viral Humana/epidemiologia , China/epidemiologia , Previsões , Humanos , Incidência
6.
PLoS Negl Trop Dis ; 14(6): e0007880, 2020 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32511233

RESUMO

The SEN virus (SENV) has been linked to transfusion-associated non-A-E hepatitis; however, information regarding SENV infections in patients with thalassemia, particularly in those with hepatitis virus co-infections, remains limited. This study investigated the frequency of SENV (genotypes D and H) infections in Iraqi patients with thalassemic patients infected and not infected with hepatitis C virus. The study involved 150 ß-thalassemia patients (75 with HCV infections and 75 without) and 75 healthy blood donors. Patient levels of vitamins C and E, liver function markers, and glutathione peroxidase (GPX) were determined. Recovered viral nucleic acids were amplified using the conventional polymerase chain reaction (SENV DNA) or the real-time polymerase chain reaction (HCV RNA) techniques. Only 10% of healthy donors had evidence of SENV infection. Among patients with thalassemia, 80% and 77% of patients with and without concurrent HCV infections, respectively, had SENV infections. DNA sequencing analyses were performed on blood samples obtained from 29 patients. Patients with thalassemia, particularly those with SENV infections, had higher levels of several enzymatic liver function markers and total serum bilirubin (P < 0.05) than did healthy blood donors. Among the examined liver function markers, only gamma-glutamyl transferase demonstrated significantly higher levels in HCV-negative patients infected with SENV-H than in those infected with SENV-D (P = 0.01). There were significantly lower vitamin C, vitamin E, and glutathione peroxidase levels in patients than in healthy donors (P < 0.05), but only glutathione peroxidase levels were significantly lower in HCV-negative thalassemia patients infected with SENV than in those without SENV infections (P = 0.04). The SENV-H genotype sequences were similar to the global standard genes in GenBank. These results broaden our understanding the nature of the SENV-H genotype and the differential role of SENV-H infections, compared to SENV-D infections, in patients with thalassemia, in Iraq.


Assuntos
Doadores de Sangue , Infecções por Vírus de DNA/epidemiologia , Genótipo , Hepatite Viral Humana/epidemiologia , Torque teno virus/classificação , Torque teno virus/isolamento & purificação , Talassemia beta/complicações , Adolescente , Adulto , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Infecções por Vírus de DNA/virologia , Feminino , Hepatite Viral Humana/virologia , Humanos , Iraque/epidemiologia , Testes de Função Hepática , Masculino , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase , Estudos Retrospectivos , Análise de Sequência de DNA , Torque teno virus/genética , Adulto Jovem
8.
Infez Med ; 28(suppl 1): 37-41, 2020 Jun 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32532936

RESUMO

In December 2019, a new Coronavirus (SARS-CoV-2) emerged in China, causing the pandemic disease COVID-19. The clinical presentation is variable, but the predominant symptoms are those of the upper respiratory tract. AIM: The aim of the current study is to describe the incidence and type of the gastrointestinal injury (GI) in COVID-19, as well as their prognostic value. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We conducted a coincidental search on this topic in PubMed, Web of Science and EMBASE. We also followed a group of 31 Bulgarian COVID-19 patients throughout the course of their disease and analyzed their symptoms (catarrhal and other) and outcome. RESULTS: The publications concerning our survey followed a total of 1509 COVID-19 patients. In the Bulgarian cohort, only 14 from the 31 patients were laboratory-confirmed COVID-19 cases. Approximately 1/3 of the infected individuals presented with GI. In some patients this was the first, or only, symptom of the disease. It was also indicative of a more severe disease course. CONCLUSION: GI may be an important symptom and prognostic factor in COVID-19. Therefore, patients with acute gastrointestinal symptoms must be actively tested for SARS-CoV-2.


Assuntos
Infecções por Coronavirus/complicações , Diarreia/etiologia , Náusea/etiologia , Pneumonia Viral/complicações , Vômito/etiologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Bulgária/epidemiologia , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Técnicas de Laboratório Clínico , Resfriado Comum/etiologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/diagnóstico , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Diarreia/epidemiologia , Feminino , Febre/etiologia , Hemorragia Gastrointestinal/epidemiologia , Hemorragia Gastrointestinal/etiologia , Hepatite Viral Humana/epidemiologia , Hepatite Viral Humana/etiologia , Humanos , Incidência , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Náusea/epidemiologia , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral/diagnóstico , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Avaliação de Sintomas , Vômito/epidemiologia , Adulto Jovem
9.
Infez Med ; 28(suppl 1): 96-103, 2020 Jun 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32532945

RESUMO

Liver injury has been reported to occur during the disease in severe cases. Therefore, this meta-analysis study aims to investigate the incidence of liver injury among published literature from 2019-Jan-01 to 2020-April-03 to provide an outline for further studies on the liver injury of COVID-19. Four databases including Pubmed, Embase, Web of Science, and the Scopus were searched for studies published from 2019-Jan-01 to 2020-April-03. Data analysis and drawing of charts were performed using the Comprehensive Meta-Analysis Software Version 2.2 (Biostat, USA). The search yielded 450 publications, of which 64 potentially eligible studies were identified for full-text review and 21 studies fulfilling the inclusion criteria remained. A total of 4191 COVID-19 patients were included in our meta-analysis. The pooled prevalence of liver injury was 19.5% (95% CI: 14.3-26.1). According to our results, there was significant heterogeneity among the 19 studies (X2 = 738.5; p < 0.001; I2 = 94.34%). Among 288 death cases, the pooled prevalence of liver injury was 22.8% (95% CI: 11.7-39.8). In summary, the COVID-19 disease itself can result in severe and even fatal respiratory diseases and even may lead to ARDS and multiple organ failure. The results of this systematic review highlight the importance of liver injury that may assist clinicians anywhere in the globe in controlling COVID-19-related infection and complications. Moreover, the prevalence of liver injury can be higher in severe cases than in mild cases.


Assuntos
Infecções por Coronavirus/complicações , Falência Hepática/etiologia , Pneumonia Viral/complicações , Adulto , Idoso , Betacoronavirus/genética , Betacoronavirus/isolamento & purificação , China/epidemiologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Feminino , Hepatite Viral Humana/epidemiologia , Hepatite Viral Humana/etiologia , Humanos , Irã (Geográfico)/epidemiologia , Falência Hepática/epidemiologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Insuficiência de Múltiplos Órgãos/epidemiologia , Insuficiência de Múltiplos Órgãos/etiologia , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Prevalência , RNA Viral/sangue , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase em Tempo Real , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase Via Transcriptase Reversa , Risco , Tamanho da Amostra
10.
Ann Parasitol ; 66(2): 135-141, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32530590

RESUMO

There is an increasing concern about the co-infection of visceral leishmaniosis (VL) with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and/or viral hepatitis B/C. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of HIV and viral hepatitis co-infections among VL patients in a hyperendemic area in Eastern Sudan and to assess antibody levels in co-infected patients. This is a retrospective study where the sera of confirmed VL cases and non-VL individuals were analysed. The sera were screened for co-infections using immunochromatographic tests and ELISA for anti-HIV 1+2 antibodies, hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg), and anti-hepatitis C virus (HCV). Anti-Leishmania donovani antibodies in the sera of VL alone were assessed and compared to the sera of co-infected patients. Of the 100 screened VL sera, 6 (6%), 0 (0%), and 1 (1%) were positive for HBsAg, anti-HCV, and anti-HIV, respectively. These values were 5 (5%), 0 (0%), and 1 (1%) in the control group. Of note, the HCV screening test (Biorex, UK) showed positive reactivity in 32 (32%) and 17 (17%) sera of VL and control groups, respectively. All reactive sera tested negative in HCV ELISA. Of the 93 VL sera, 75 (80.6%) had strong DAT titers (1:˃102400), 2 (2.1%) demonstrated the lowest DAT titers (1:≤800), and 5 (5.4%) had marginal DAT titers (1:1600). Interestingly, the VL/HIV co-infected serum had a negative antibody titer (1:1600). Of the 6 VL/HBV co-infected sera, 1 (16.7%) and 5 (83.3%) demonstrated moderate (1:12800­1:51600) and strong (1:≥102400) DAT titers, respectively. The strong DAT titers observed in the VL/HBV co-infected sera were comparable to the DAT titers of the VL sera. The VL co-infection with HIV and hepatitis B/C is low in endemic areas in Eastern Sudan but may create a diagnostic difficulty. VL/HIV co-infected patients can have low Leishmania antibodies, thus alternative methodologies (e.g., antigen tests) may help the diagnosis.


Assuntos
Infecções por HIV , Hepatite Viral Humana , Leishmaniose Visceral , Anticorpos/sangue , Infecções por HIV/sangue , Infecções por HIV/complicações , Infecções por HIV/epidemiologia , Hepatite Viral Humana/sangue , Hepatite Viral Humana/complicações , Hepatite Viral Humana/epidemiologia , Humanos , Leishmaniose Visceral/complicações , Leishmaniose Visceral/epidemiologia , Prevalência , Estudos Retrospectivos , Estudos Soroepidemiológicos , Sudão/epidemiologia
11.
Rev Soc Bras Med Trop ; 53: e20190511, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32578703

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: The Amazon tropical rainforest has the most dense and diverse ecosystem worldwide. A few studies have addressed rodent-borne diseases as potential hazards to humans in this region. METHODS: A retrospective survey was conducted using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay for detecting mammarenavirus and orthohantavirus antibodies in 206 samples collected from rural settlers of the Brazilian Western Amazonian region. RESULTS: Six (2.91%) individuals in the age group of 16 to 36 years were found to possess antibodies against mammarenavirus. CONCLUSION: Evidence of previous exposure to mammarenavirus in the rural population points to its silent circulation in this region.


Assuntos
Anticorpos Antivirais/sangue , Infecções por Arenaviridae/epidemiologia , Arenaviridae/imunologia , Reservatórios de Doenças/veterinária , Hepatite Viral Humana/epidemiologia , Orthohepadnavirus/imunologia , Roedores/virologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Animais , Arenaviridae/classificação , Infecções por Arenaviridae/diagnóstico , Infecções por Arenaviridae/transmissão , Brasil/epidemiologia , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Feminino , Hepatite Viral Humana/diagnóstico , Hepatite Viral Humana/transmissão , Humanos , Lactente , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Orthohepadnavirus/classificação , Estudos Retrospectivos , Roedores/classificação , População Rural , Fatores Socioeconômicos , Adulto Jovem
12.
PLoS One ; 15(6): e0234273, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32542052

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Viral hepatitis (hepatitis A, B, C, D and E) remains a public health problem in Peru, with a high disease burden. There are limited data on the prevalence of viral hepatitis at a national level, and none reported for over two decades. In this study, the prevalence rates of hepatitis A (HAV), B (HBV), C (HCV), D (HDV) and E virus (HEV) infections in the Peruvian population were determined to provide updated baseline data that would help guide the development of strategies aimed at reducing the transmission of viral hepatitis in Peru. METHODS: We conducted a cross-sectional, population-based study in the 25 regions of Peru. The study included participants of both sexes, aged 15-69 years, who had lived for >6 months in a specific region of Peru. Serum samples were analyzed by ELISA for anti-HAV (IgG), anti-HBs ≥10 mUI/ml, anti-HCV, anti-HDV and anti-HEV (IgG) antibodies, and by chemiluminescence for the HBV surface antigen (HBsAg) and antibodies against the core HBV antigen (anti-HBc IgM and IgG). RESULTS: In a total of 5183 study participants, the prevalence rates of anti-HAV (IgG), HBsAg, total anti-HBc IgG, anti-HBs ≥10 mUI/ml, anti-HCV and anti-HEV (IgG) were 98.4% [95% confidence interval (CI) 98.0-98.7), 0.4% (95% CI 0.21-0.55), 10.1% (95% CI 9.4-11.0), 60% (95% CI 58.5-61.2), 0.1% (95% CI 0.02-0.25), and 14% (95% CI 13.1-15.0%), respectively. The prevalence of anti-HDV among HBsAg carriers was 15% (3/20). CONCLUSIONS: The prevalence of HAV and HEV in the population aged 15-69 years in Peru is high, while the prevalence of HBV and HDV has changed from intermediate to low endemicity level and the prevalence of HCV is low. These findings would prove useful in the development of new strategies aimed at reducing the transmission of viral hepatitis in Peru, with a view to ultimately eliminating these infections in the future.


Assuntos
Hepatite Viral Humana/epidemiologia , Estudos Soroepidemiológicos , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Anticorpos Antivirais/imunologia , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Hepatite A/epidemiologia , Hepatite B/epidemiologia , Hepatite C/epidemiologia , Hepatite D/epidemiologia , Hepatite E/epidemiologia , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Peru/epidemiologia , Prevalência , Adulto Jovem
13.
Ann Saudi Med ; 40(4): 273-280, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32564624

RESUMO

In December 2019, a novel coronavirus was identified in patients in Wuhan, China. The virus, subsequently named severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2, spread worldwide and the disease (coronavirus disease 2019 or COVID-19) was declared a global pandemic by the World Health Organization in March 2020. Older adults and individuals with comorbidities have been reported as being more vulnerable to COVID-19. Patients with chronic liver disease (CLD) have compromised immune function due to cirrhosis and are more susceptible to infection. However, it is unclear if patients with CLD are more vulnerable to COVID-19 and its complications than other populations. The high number of severe cases of COVID-19 has placed an unusual burden on health systems, compromising their capacity to provide the regular care that patients with CLD require. Hence, it is incredibly crucial at this juncture to provide a set of interim recommendations on the management of patients with CLD during the current COVID-19 outbreak.


Assuntos
Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Hepatopatias/epidemiologia , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Monofosfato de Adenosina/efeitos adversos , Monofosfato de Adenosina/análogos & derivados , Corticosteroides/efeitos adversos , Alanina/efeitos adversos , Alanina/análogos & derivados , Amidas/efeitos adversos , Antivirais/uso terapêutico , Azetidinas/efeitos adversos , Betacoronavirus , Biópsia/métodos , Carcinoma Hepatocelular/epidemiologia , Carcinoma Hepatocelular/terapia , Comorbidade , Infecções por Coronavirus/tratamento farmacológico , Infecções por Coronavirus/prevenção & controle , Combinação de Medicamentos , Interações Medicamentosas , Inibidores Enzimáticos/efeitos adversos , Hepatite Autoimune/epidemiologia , Hepatite Autoimune/terapia , Hepatite Viral Humana/epidemiologia , Hepatite Viral Humana/terapia , Humanos , Hidroxicloroquina/efeitos adversos , Imunossupressores/uso terapêutico , Inibidores de Janus Quinases/efeitos adversos , Cirrose Hepática/epidemiologia , Cirrose Hepática/terapia , Hepatopatias/terapia , Neoplasias Hepáticas/epidemiologia , Neoplasias Hepáticas/terapia , Transplante de Fígado , Lopinavir/efeitos adversos , Hepatopatia Gordurosa não Alcoólica/epidemiologia , Hepatopatia Gordurosa não Alcoólica/terapia , Pandemias/prevenção & controle , Pneumonia Viral/tratamento farmacológico , Pneumonia Viral/prevenção & controle , Pirazinas/efeitos adversos , Ritonavir/efeitos adversos , Arábia Saudita/epidemiologia , Sulfonamidas/efeitos adversos , Ultrassonografia/métodos
14.
Gastroenterol Clin North Am ; 49(2): 179-189, 2020 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32389357

RESUMO

Viral hepatitis (A, B, C, D, and E) is the leading cause of inflammation of liver tissue (hepatitis). The disease burden associated with hepatitis A and E occurs shortly after infection; it is more severe among adults. With hepatitis A and E, the number of incident cases (new acute infections) is important from a public health perspective. Long-term hepatitis has been shown to cause cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma in patients. The disease burden associated with hepatitis B, C, and D appears 10 to 20 years after infection. Thus, the prevalence of these infections is important from a public health perspective.


Assuntos
Saúde Global , Hepatite Viral Humana/epidemiologia , Carcinoma Hepatocelular/epidemiologia , Carcinoma Hepatocelular/etiologia , Feminino , Hepatite Viral Humana/complicações , Hepatite Viral Humana/mortalidade , Humanos , Cirrose Hepática/epidemiologia , Cirrose Hepática/etiologia , Neoplasias Hepáticas/epidemiologia , Neoplasias Hepáticas/etiologia , Masculino , Prevalência , Saúde Pública , Fatores de Tempo
19.
Rev. cuba. salud pública ; 46(1): e1252, ene.-mar. 2020. tab
Artigo em Espanhol | LILACS, CUMED | ID: biblio-1126831

RESUMO

Introducción: El personal de salud se encuentra expuesto a contraer enfermedades infecto contagiosas en el ejercicio de su labor, una de ellas es la hepatitis B. Los estudiantes de atención prehospitalaria no se encuentran exentos de sufrir esta enfermedad, sobre todo por el contexto de las emergencias y desastres donde se desenvuelven. Objetivo: Determinar la prevalencia de seroprotección para el virus de hepatitis B en estudiantes de atención prehospitalaria en una universidad en Colombia. Métodos: Estudio descriptivo de corte transversal realizado a estudiantes de atención prehospitalaria en el periodo febrero-junio de 2017. No se utilizó ninguna técnica de muestreo porque se incluyó la totalidad de los estudiantes en práctica. Se aplicó un cuestionario con preguntas de datos sociodemográficos, registro del esquema de vacunación para hepatitis B y el resultado de los anticuerpos (Anti-HBs). Para el análisis estadístico se utilizó Microsoft Excel 2010, se construyeron estadísticas descriptivas. Las variables numéricas se describieron con base en medidas de tendencia central y variabilidad, las variables categóricas se describieron con base en prevalencias y distribuciones porcentuales. Resultados: En la caracterización de los 103 estudiantes evaluados se encontró que el 98 por ciento obtuvo títulos de anticuerpos (Anti-HBs) mayores a 10 UI/ml, considerándose como reactivos a las dosis de las vacunas, alcanzando títulos protectores. Sin embargo, el 93 por ciento no cumplió con el esquema de vacunación establecido. Conclusiones: Los resultados obtenidos evidencian la efectividad de las dosis aplicadas de vacuna para el virus de hepatitis B para obtener los títulos de anticuerpos a estudiantes de atención prehospitalaria en una universidad en Colombia. Pero existen incumplimientos en los tiempos recomendados para la aplicación de cada una de las dosis y en el tiempo de toma de los títulos(AU)


Introduction: Health personnel are at risk of infectious diseases when doing their job. One of them is hepatitis B. Prehospital care students are not free from suffering this disease, especially due to the emergencies and disasters context in which they work. Objective: To determine the prevalence of seroprotection for the hepatitis B virus in prehospital care students at a university in Colombia. Methods: Descriptive cross-sectional study carried out on prehospital care students during the period February-June 2017. No sampling technique was used because all the students in practice were included. A questionnaire was applied with questions of social-demographic data, registration of the vaccination schedule for hepatitis B and result of (Anti-HBs) antibodies. For statistical analysis, Microsoft Excel 2010 was used and descriptive statistics were designed. Numerical variables were described based on measures of central tendency and variability, categorical variables were described based on prevalence and percentage distributions. Results: In the depiction of the 103 students who were evaluated, it was found that 98 percent obtained antibody titers (Anti-HBs) bigger than 10 IU / ml, being considered as reactive to the doses of the vaccines and getting protective titles. However, 93 percent did not fill the established vaccination schedule. Conclusions: It can be concluded that the results obtained show the effectiveness of the applied doses of vaccine for the hepatitis B virus to obtain antibody titers to prehospital care students at a university in Colombia. But there are breaches in the recommended times for the application of each of the doses and in the time of taking the antibody titers(AU)


Assuntos
Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Vacinas contra Hepatite B/uso terapêutico , Educação Pré-Médica , Assistência Pré-Hospitalar , Hepatite Viral Humana/epidemiologia , Epidemiologia Descritiva , Estudos Transversais , Colômbia
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