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1.
J Prev Med Hyg ; 63(2): E292-E297, 2022 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35968069

RESUMO

Introduction: Viral hepatitis remains a public health concern worldwide, mainly in developing countries. The public's awareness and interest in viral hepatitis information are essential in preventing and controlling this disease. Infodemiology has been used as a surrogate to assess the general understanding of disease and measure public awareness of health topics. However, this analysis has not been applied to viral hepatitis. Thus, this study investigated the online global search interest for viral hepatitis in the last decade, focusing on the period before and during the COVID-19 pandemic. Methods: Global online search interest for hepatitis was measured using the Google Trends™ database. Spearman's rank-order correlation correlated country-specific characteristics and prevalence data with search volume index. Results: There was a significant reduction in online search interest for hepatitis during the COVID-19 pandemic (2020). People searching for hepatitis are also interested in hepatitis vaccination. Search volume index is positively correlated with viral hepatitis and HIV prevalence and negatively correlated with GDP. This correlation mirrors the high burden of viral hepatitis in developing countries and their citizens' desire to be informed about this disease. Conclusions: Our study found decreased global online interest in viral hepatitis during the pandemic. Moreover, higher online interest in hepatitis was observed in countries with a lower gross domestic product and high viral hepatitis and HIV prevalence. We demonstrated that global online interest toward viral hepatitis could be assessed through the infodemiologic approach using Google Trends™.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Infecções por HIV , Hepatite Viral Humana , Infecções por HIV/epidemiologia , Hepatite Viral Humana/epidemiologia , Hepatite Viral Humana/prevenção & controle , Humanos , Infodemiologia , Comportamento de Busca de Informação , Pandemias
6.
Clin Gastroenterol Hepatol ; 20(10): 2307-2316.e3, 2022 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35811045

RESUMO

BACKGROUND & AIMS: During the global coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic, patients with pre-existing chronic liver disease may represent a vulnerable population. We studied the etiology-based temporal trends in mortality of chronic liver disease and the underlying cause of death in the United States before and during the COVID-19 pandemic. METHODS: Population-based analyses were performed on United States national mortality records (2017-2020). Temporal trends in quarterly age-standardized mortality were obtained by joinpoint analysis with estimates of quarterly percentage change (QPC). RESULTS: Quarterly age-standardized all-cause mortality due to alcohol-related liver disease (ALD) initially increased at a quarterly rate of 1.1% before the COVID-19 pandemic, followed by a sharp increase during the COVID-19 pandemic at a quarterly rate of 11.2%. Likewise, steady increase in mortality of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease before the COVID-19 pandemic (QPC, 1.9%) accelerated during the COVID-19 pandemic (QPC, 6.6%). Although ALD-related mortality increased steeply compared with viral hepatitis-related mortality during the COVID-19 pandemic, the proportion of mortality due to COVID-19 among individuals with ALD was the lowest at 2.5%; more than 50% lower than viral hepatitis. The significant decline in all-cause mortality due to viral hepatitis before the COVID-19 pandemic plateaued during the COVID-19 pandemic due to increase in COVID-19-related mortality in individuals with viral hepatitis. Mortality due to cirrhosis increased markedly during the COVID-19 pandemic, mainly attributable to ALD. CONCLUSION: All-cause mortality for ALD and nonalcoholic fatty liver disease rapidly accelerated during the COVID-19 pandemic compared with the pre-COVID-19 era. There has been a significant decline in viral hepatitis; however, a significant increase in COVID-related death in this population.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Hepatite Viral Humana , Hepatopatias Alcoólicas , Hepatopatia Gordurosa não Alcoólica , Hepatite Viral Humana/complicações , Hepatite Viral Humana/epidemiologia , Humanos , Cirrose Hepática/epidemiologia , Hepatopatias Alcoólicas/epidemiologia , Hepatopatia Gordurosa não Alcoólica/complicações , Pandemias , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia
7.
Ciudad de Buenos Aires; GCBA. Gerencia Operativa de Epidemiología; 15 jul. 2022. f:12 l:25 p. tab, graf.(Boletín Epidemiológico Semanal: Ciudad Autónoma de Buenos Aires, 7, 308).
Monografia em Espanhol | LILACS, InstitutionalDB, BINACIS, UNISALUD | ID: biblio-1391810

RESUMO

Se presenta brevemente la situación mundial y regional de hepatitis virales y de hepatitis de etiología desconocida, con su correspondiente análisis de los casos residentes en la Ciudad de Buenos Aires durante el período 2020-2021. Describe la cobertura de vacunación en los años 2018-2021.


Assuntos
Hepatite/diagnóstico , Hepatite/epidemiologia , Hepatite Viral Humana/diagnóstico , Hepatite Viral Humana/transmissão , Hepatite Viral Humana/epidemiologia , Notificação de Doenças , Monitoramento Epidemiológico
9.
Sante Publique ; 33(6): 1005-1009, 2022.
Artigo em Francês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35724175

RESUMO

In 2020, the COVID-19 health crisis affected all regions of the world, not sparing people already vulnerable to other viral epidemics such as HIV or HCV and/or those in precarious or socially marginalized situations. This is particularly the case for drug users or sex workers.Coalition PLUS, a network of associations fighting against HIV and viral hepatitis which defends and promotes the community-based approach, and its partners, have set up a multi-country community-based research project aimed at documenting the impact of the health crisis on the fight against HIV and viral hepatitis (key populations and community workers/activists), as well as the community responses put in place (EPIC survey).The objective of this paper is to reflect on the implementation of this community-based research study during the COVID-19 health crisis, and in particular the unforeseen difficulties to which the community-based research process had to confront and adapt. The goal is to draw lessons on what worked (and what did not work) in order to capitalize on community-based research practices during this pandemic and subsequently, facilitate the implementation of new research projects in similar contexts.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Infecções por HIV , Hepatite Viral Humana , Profissionais do Sexo , COVID-19/epidemiologia , Infecções por HIV/epidemiologia , Hepatite Viral Humana/epidemiologia , Humanos , Pandemias
10.
J Viral Hepat ; 29(10): 844-861, 2022 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35748741

RESUMO

Viral hepatitis is caused by a heterogenous group of viral agents representing a wide range of phylogenetic groups. Many viruses can involve the liver and cause liver injury but only a subset are delineated as 'hepatitis viruses' based upon their primary site of replication and tropism for hepatocytes which make up the bulk of the liver cell population. Since their discovery, beginning with the agent that caused serum hepatitis in the 1960s, the alphabetic designations have been utilized. To date, we have five hepatitis viruses, A through E, though it is postulated that others may exist. This chapter will focus on those viruses. Note that hepatitis D is included as a subset of hepatitis B, as it cannot exist without concurrent hepatitis B infection. Pregnancy has the potential to affect all aspects of these viral agents due to the unique immunologic and physiologic changes that occur during and after the gestational period. In this review, we will discuss the most common viral hepatitis and their effects during pregnancy.


Assuntos
Hepatite B , Hepatite D , Hepatite Viral Humana , Complicações Infecciosas na Gravidez , Feminino , Vírus de Hepatite , Hepatite Viral Humana/epidemiologia , Humanos , Filogenia , Gravidez
11.
World J Gastroenterol ; 28(16): 1718-1721, 2022 Apr 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35581964

RESUMO

Viral hepatitis is an acute or chronic liver disease due to the infection from Hepatitis A, B, C, D and E viruses. It can cause severe liver damage such as cirrhosis, liver failure and liver cancer. To avoid such fatal complications, hepatitis patients must be diagnosed, pathologized and treated as soon as possible. Furthermore, these hepatitis viruses infect through different routes, resulting in distinct disease pathologies, severity and even the need for specific treatment strategies to combat the infection.


Assuntos
Hepatite A , Hepatite Viral Humana , Neoplasias Hepáticas , Hepatite Viral Humana/epidemiologia , Hepatite Viral Humana/prevenção & controle , Humanos , Cirrose Hepática/diagnóstico , Cirrose Hepática/epidemiologia , Cirrose Hepática/terapia
12.
World J Gastroenterol ; 28(14): 1405-1429, 2022 Apr 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35582678

RESUMO

Each hepatitis virus-Hepatitis A, B, C, D, E, and G-poses a distinct scenario to the patient and clinician alike. Since the discovery of each virus, extensive knowledge regarding epidemiology, virologic properties, and the natural clinical and immunologic history of acute and chronic infections has been generated. Basic discoveries about host immunologic responses to acute and chronic viral infections, combined with virologic data, has led to vaccines to prevent Hepatitis A, B, and E and highly efficacious antivirals for Hepatitis B and C. These therapeutic breakthroughs are transforming the fields of hepatology, transplant medicine in general, and public and global health. Most notably, there is even an ambitious global effort to eliminate chronic viral hepatitis within the next decade. While attainable, there are many barriers to this goal that are being actively investigated in basic and clinical labs on the local, national, and international scales. Herein, we discuss pertinent clinical information and recent organizational guidelines for each of the individual hepatitis viruses while also synthesizing this information with the latest research to focus on exciting future directions for each virus.


Assuntos
Hepatite A , Hepatite B , Hepatite Viral Humana , Antivirais/uso terapêutico , Hepatite B/tratamento farmacológico , Vírus da Hepatite B , Hepatite Viral Humana/epidemiologia , Hepatite Viral Humana/prevenção & controle , Humanos
13.
Sante Publique ; Vol. 33(6): 1005-1009, 2022 Mar 11.
Artigo em Francês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35485002

RESUMO

In 2020, the COVID-19 health crisis affected all regions of the world, not sparing people already vulnerable to other viral epidemics such as HIV or HCV and/or those in precarious or socially marginalized situations. This is particularly the case for drug users or sex workers.Coalition PLUS, a network of associations fighting against HIV and viral hepatitis which defends and promotes the community-based approach, and its partners, have set up a multi-country community-based research project aimed at documenting the impact of the health crisis on the fight against HIV and viral hepatitis (key populations and community workers/activists), as well as the community responses put in place (EPIC survey).The objective of this paper is to reflect on the implementation of this community-based research study during the COVID-19 health crisis, and in particular the unforeseen difficulties to which the community-based research process had to confront and adapt. The goal is to draw lessons on what worked (and what did not work) in order to capitalize on community-based research practices during this pandemic and subsequently, facilitate the implementation of new research projects in similar contexts.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Infecções por HIV , Hepatite Viral Humana , Profissionais do Sexo , COVID-19/epidemiologia , Infecções por HIV/epidemiologia , Hepatite Viral Humana/epidemiologia , Humanos , Pandemias
14.
World J Gastroenterol ; 28(1): 76-95, 2022 Jan 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35125820

RESUMO

Viral hepatitis results in 1.4 million deaths annually. The World Health Organization (WHO) set an ambitious target to eliminate viral hepatitis by 2030, but significant challenges remain. These include inequalities in access to healthcare, reaching at risk populations and providing access to screening and effective treatment. Stigma around viral hepatitis persists and must be addressed. The WHO goal of global elimination by 2030 is a worthy aim, but remains ambitious and the coronavirus 2019 pandemic undoubtedly has set back progress. This review article will focus on hepatitis A to E, highlighting problems that have been resolved in the field over the past decade, those that remain to be resolved and suggest directions for future problem solving and research.


Assuntos
Saúde Global , Hepatite Viral Humana , Antivirais/uso terapêutico , Hepatite Viral Humana/diagnóstico , Hepatite Viral Humana/epidemiologia , Hepatite Viral Humana/prevenção & controle , Humanos , Programas de Rastreamento , Organização Mundial da Saúde
15.
Virulence ; 13(1): 324-341, 2022 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35132924

RESUMO

Human pegivirus (HPgV-1), previously known as GB virus C (GBV-C) or hepatitis G virus (HGV), is a single-stranded positive RNA virus belonging to the genus Pegivirus of the Flaviviridae family. It is transmitted by percutaneous injuries (PIs), contaminated blood and/or blood products, sexual contact, and vertical mother-to-child transmission. It is widely prevalent in general population, especially in high-risk groups. HPgV-1 viremia is typically cleared within the first 1-2 years of infection in most healthy individuals, but may persist for longer periods of time in immunocompromised individuals and/or those co-infected by other viruses. A large body of evidences indicate that HPgV-1 persistent infection has a beneficial clinical effect on many infectious diseases, such as acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) and hepatitis C. The beneficial effects seem to be related to a significant reduction of immune activation, and/or the inhabitation of co-infected viruses (e.g. HIV-1). HPgV-1 has a broad cellular tropism for lymphoid and myeloid cells, and preferentially replicates in bone marrow and spleen without cytopathic effect, implying a therapeutic potential. The paper aims to summarize the natural history, prevalence and distribution characteristics, and pathogenesis of HPgV-1, and discuss its association with other human viral diseases, and potential use in therapy as a biovaccine or viral vector.


Assuntos
Infecções por Flaviviridae , Vírus GB C , Hepatite Viral Humana , Feminino , Infecções por Flaviviridae/epidemiologia , Vírus GB C/genética , Hepatite Viral Humana/complicações , Hepatite Viral Humana/epidemiologia , Humanos , Transmissão Vertical de Doenças Infecciosas , Pegivirus , Filogenia , Prevalência , RNA Viral/genética
16.
Adv Ther ; 39(4): 1524-1552, 2022 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35220557

RESUMO

Viral hepatitis remains a significant global health problem. All forms of viral hepatitis A through E (A-E) can lead to acute symptomatic infection, while hepatitis B and C can lead to chronic infection associated with significant morbidity and mortality related to progression to cirrhosis, end-stage-liver disease, and liver cancer. Viral hepatitis occurs worldwide, though certain regions are disproportionately affected. We now, remarkably, have highly effective curative regimens for hepatitis C, and safe and tolerable medications to suppress hepatitis B activity, and to prevent liver damage and slow disease progression. We have effective vaccines for hepatitis A and B which provide long-lasting immunity, while improved sanitation and awareness can curb outbreaks of hepatitis A and E. However, more effective and available preventive and curative strategies are needed to achieve global eradication of viral hepatitis. This review provides an overview of the epidemiology, transmission, diagnosis, and clinical features of each viral hepatitis with a primary focus on current and future therapeutic and curative options.


Assuntos
Hepatite A , Hepatite B , Hepatite Viral Humana , Neoplasias Hepáticas , Antivirais/uso terapêutico , Hepatite A/epidemiologia , Hepatite A/prevenção & controle , Hepatite B/diagnóstico , Hepatite B/tratamento farmacológico , Hepatite B/prevenção & controle , Hepatite Viral Humana/tratamento farmacológico , Hepatite Viral Humana/epidemiologia , Hepatite Viral Humana/prevenção & controle , Humanos , Neoplasias Hepáticas/tratamento farmacológico
17.
Emerg Infect Dis ; 28(3): 739-742, 2022 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35202537

RESUMO

Since the coronavirus disease pandemic response began in March 2020, tests, vaccinations, diagnoses, and treatment initiations for sexual health, HIV, and viral hepatitis in England have declined. The shift towards online and outreach services happened rapidly during 2020 and highlights the need to evaluate the effects of these strategies on health inequalities.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Infecções por HIV , Hepatite Viral Humana , Infecções Sexualmente Transmissíveis , Inglaterra/epidemiologia , Infecções por HIV/diagnóstico , Infecções por HIV/epidemiologia , Hepatite Viral Humana/epidemiologia , Hepatite Viral Humana/terapia , Humanos , Pandemias/prevenção & controle , SARS-CoV-2 , Infecções Sexualmente Transmissíveis/epidemiologia
19.
PLoS One ; 17(1): e0262903, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35061846

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Africa denotes unique facies for hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) characterized by a conjunction of low sensitization, restricted access to diagnosis and treatment and associated with the highest incidence and mortality in the world. We investigated whether hepatitis B (HBV), C (HCV) and D (VHD) viruses were etiological agents of HCC in Africa. METHODS: Relevant articles were searched in PubMed, Web of Science, African Index Medicus, and African Journal Online databases, as well as manual searches in relevant reviews and included articles. Analytical studies from Africa evaluating the association between HCC development and HBV, HCV, and HDV were included. Relevant studies were selected, data extracted, and the risk of bias assessed independently by at least 2 investigators. The association was estimated using odds ratios (OR) and their 95% confidence interval (95% CI) determined by a random-effects model. Sources of heterogeneity were determined by subgroup analyses. RESULTS: A total of 36 case-control studies were included. With controls having non-hepatic disease, the overall results suggested a significantly increased risk of HCC in patients with HBV (HBeAg (OR = 19.9; 95% CI = [3.7-105.2]), HBsAg (OR = 9.9; 95%) CI = [6.2-15.6]) and DNA (OR = 8.9; 95% CI = [5.9-13.4]); HCV (Anti-HCV (OR = 9.4; 95% CI = [6.3-14.0]) and RNA (OR = 16.5; 95% CI = [7.8-34.6]); HDV (Anti-VHD, (OR = 25.8; 95% CI = [5.9-112.2]); and HBV/HCV coinfections (HBV DNA/HCV RNA (OR = 22.5; 95% CI = [1.3-387.8]). With apparently healthy controls, the overall results suggested a significantly increased risk of HCC in patients with HBV (HBsAg, (OR = 8.9; 95% CI = [6.0-13.0]); HCV (Anti-HCV, (OR = 7.7; 95% CI = [5.6-10.6]); and HBV/HCV coinfections (HBsAg/Anti-HCV (OR = 7.8; 95% CI = [4.4-13.6]) Substantial heterogeneity and the absence of publication bias were recorded for these results. CONCLUSIONS: In Africa, HBV/HCV coinfections and HBV, HCV, and HDV infections are associated with an increased risk of developing HCC. The implementation of large-scale longitudinal and prospective studies including healthy participants to search for early biomarkers of the risk of progression to HCC is urgently needed.


Assuntos
Carcinoma Hepatocelular , Vírus de Hepatite , Hepatite Viral Humana , Neoplasias Hepáticas , África/epidemiologia , Carcinoma Hepatocelular/epidemiologia , Carcinoma Hepatocelular/virologia , Hepatite Viral Humana/epidemiologia , Hepatite Viral Humana/virologia , Humanos , Neoplasias Hepáticas/epidemiologia , Neoplasias Hepáticas/virologia , Fatores de Risco
20.
Artigo em Alemão | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35029725

RESUMO

Viral hepatitis A to E describes various infectious inflammations of the liver parenchyma that are caused by the hepatitis viruses A to E (HAV, HBV, HCV, HDV, and HEV). Although the clinical pictures are similar, the pathogens belong to different virus families and differ in terms of pathogenesis, transmission routes, clinical course, prevention, and therapy options. In Germany, there is mandatory reporting according to the Infection Protection Act (IfSG) for direct or indirect laboratory evidence and for suspicion, illness, and death of viral hepatitis. The data are transmitted to the Robert Koch Institute.In this article, on the basis of published studies and notification data, we describe the epidemiology of hepatitis A to E as well as current challenges and prevention approaches. In particular, the latter contains the improvement of existing vaccination recommendations (hepatitis A and B); improvement of access to prevention, testing, and care including therapy with antiviral drugs (hepatitis B, C, and D) and the detection and prevention of foodborne infections and outbreaks; and improvements in the field of food safety (hepatitis A and E).


Assuntos
Hepatite A , Hepatite B , Hepatite Viral Humana , Alemanha/epidemiologia , Hepatite A/diagnóstico , Hepatite A/epidemiologia , Hepatite A/prevenção & controle , Vírus de Hepatite , Hepatite Viral Humana/diagnóstico , Hepatite Viral Humana/epidemiologia , Hepatite Viral Humana/prevenção & controle , Humanos
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