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1.
Zhonghua Wei Chang Wai Ke Za Zhi ; 24(1): 94-100, 2021 Jan 25.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33461259

RESUMO

Intestinal failure (IF) is defined as the critical reduction of functional intestines below the minimum needed to absorb nutrients and fluids, so that intravenous supplementation with parenteral nutrition (PN) is required to maintain health and/or growth. Although the benefits are evident, patients receiving PN can suffer from serious cholestasis due to lack of enteral feeding and small intestinal bacterial overgrowth (SIBO). One such complication that may arise is intestinal failure-associated liver disease (IFALD). Evidences from recent studies suggest that alterations in the intestinal microbiota, as well as intraluminal bile acid driven signaling, may play a critical role in both hepatic and intestinal injury. Since Marshall first proposed the concept of the gut-liver axis in 1998, the role of gut-liver axis disorders in the development of IFALD has received considerable attention. The conversation between gut and liver is the key to maintain liver metabolism and intestinal homeostasis, which influences each other and is reciprocal causation. However, as a "forgotten organ" , intestinal microbiota on the pathogenesis of IFALD has not been well reflected. As such, we propose, for the first time, the concept of gut-microbiota-liver axis to emphasize the importance of intestinal microbiota in the interaction of gut-liver axis. Analysis and research on gut-microbiota-liver axis will be of great significance for understanding the pathogenesis of IFALD and improving the prevention and treatment measures.


Assuntos
Microbioma Gastrointestinal , Enteropatias , Hepatopatias , Fígado/fisiopatologia , Nutrição Parenteral/efeitos adversos , Síndrome do Intestino Curto/fisiopatologia , Infecções Bacterianas/etiologia , Infecções Bacterianas/fisiopatologia , Ácidos e Sais Biliares/fisiologia , Colestase/etiologia , Colestase/microbiologia , Colestase/fisiopatologia , Nutrição Enteral , Microbioma Gastrointestinal/fisiologia , Humanos , Enteropatias/etiologia , Enteropatias/microbiologia , Enteropatias/fisiopatologia , Intestinos/microbiologia , Intestinos/fisiologia , Intestinos/fisiopatologia , Fígado/microbiologia , Fígado/fisiologia , Hepatopatias/etiologia , Hepatopatias/microbiologia , Hepatopatias/fisiopatologia , Síndrome do Intestino Curto/complicações , Síndrome do Intestino Curto/dietoterapia , Transdução de Sinais
2.
BMC Infect Dis ; 20(1): 394, 2020 Jun 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32493232

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Talaromyces marneffei is a highly pathogenic fungus that can cause life-threatening fatal systemic mycosis. Disseminated Talaromycosis marneffei affects multiple organs, including the lungs, skin, and reticuloendothelial system. However, T. marneffei infection has rarely been reported in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-negative infants with multiple intestinal perforations and diffuse hepatic granulomatous inflammation. CASE PRESENTATION: We present the case of an HIV-negative 37-month-old boy who has had recurrent pneumonia since infancy and was infected with disseminated Talaromycosis. Contrast-enhanced computed tomography of the whole abdomen showed hepatomegaly and intestinal wall thickening in the ascending colon and cecum with mesenteric lymphadenopathy. Colonoscopy showed a cobblestone pattern with erosion, ulcer, polypoid lesions, and lumen deformation ranging from the colon to the cecum. T. marneffei was isolated from the mucous membrane of the colon, liver, and bone marrow. After antifungal treatment and surgery, his clinical symptoms significantly improved. Whole-exome sequencing using the peripheral blood of the patient and his parents' revealed a heterozygous missense mutation in exon 17 of the STAT3 gene (c.1673G>A, p.G558D). CONCLUSIONS: In T. marneffei infection-endemic areas, endoscopic examination, culture, or histopathology from the intestine tissue should be performed in disseminated Talaromycosis patients with gastrointestinal symptoms. Timely and systemic antifungal therapy could improve the prognosis. Immunodeficiency typically should be considered in HIV-negative infants with opportunistic infections.


Assuntos
Hepatopatias/diagnóstico , Micoses/diagnóstico , Fator de Transcrição STAT3/genética , Talaromyces/isolamento & purificação , Antifúngicos/uso terapêutico , Pré-Escolar , Colonoscopia , Diagnóstico Diferencial , Humanos , Mucosa Intestinal/microbiologia , Perfuração Intestinal , Hepatopatias/tratamento farmacológico , Hepatopatias/microbiologia , Masculino , Mutação de Sentido Incorreto , Micoses/tratamento farmacológico , Micoses/microbiologia , Tomografia Computadorizada por Raios X
4.
Am J Physiol Gastrointest Liver Physiol ; 318(5): G889-G906, 2020 05 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32146836

RESUMO

Each individual is endowed with a unique gut microbiota (GM) footprint that mediates numerous host-related physiological functions, such as nutrient metabolism, maintenance of the structural integrity of the gut mucosal barrier, immunomodulation, and protection against microbial pathogens. Because of increased scientific interest in the GM, its central role in the pathophysiology of many intestinal and extraintestinal conditions has been recognized. Given the close relationship between the gastrointestinal tract and the liver, many pathological processes have been investigated in the light of a microbial-centered hypothesis of hepatic damage. In this review we introduce to neophytes the vast world of gut microbes, including prevalent bacterial distribution in healthy individuals, how the microbiota is commonly analyzed, and the current knowledge of the role of GM in liver disease pathophysiology. Also, we highlight the potentials and downsides of GM-based therapy.


Assuntos
Bactérias/patogenicidade , Microbioma Gastrointestinal , Intestinos/microbiologia , Hepatopatias/microbiologia , Fígado/microbiologia , Animais , Bactérias/metabolismo , Disbiose , Transplante de Microbiota Fecal , Interações Hospedeiro-Patógeno , Humanos , Fígado/metabolismo , Fígado/patologia , Hepatopatias/metabolismo , Hepatopatias/patologia , Hepatopatias/terapia , Probióticos/uso terapêutico
5.
Dig Dis Sci ; 65(3): 897-905, 2020 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32020359

RESUMO

Chronic liver disease is a major cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide. Even though effective treatments are now available for most chronic viral hepatitis, treatment options for other causes of chronic liver disease remain inadequate. Recent research has revealed a previously unappreciated role that the human intestinal microbiome plays in mediating the development and progression of chronic liver diseases. The recent remarkable success of fecal microbiota transplantation (FMT) in treating Clostridioides difficile demonstrates that the intestinal microbiota can be manipulated to obtain favorable therapeutic benefits and that FMT may become an important component of a total therapeutic approach to effectively treat hepatic disorders.


Assuntos
Transplante de Microbiota Fecal/tendências , Microbioma Gastrointestinal/fisiologia , Hepatopatias/microbiologia , Hepatopatias/terapia , Doença Crônica , Transplante de Microbiota Fecal/métodos , Previsões , Humanos , Hepatopatias/patologia
6.
Semin Ultrasound CT MR ; 41(1): 46-62, 2020 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31964494

RESUMO

Hepatobiliary infections account for a small but clinically important proportion of emergency department presentations. They present a clinical challenge due to the broad range of imaging characteristics on presentation. Recognition of complications is imperative to drive appropriate patient care and resource utilization to avoid diagnostic pitfalls and avert adverse patient outcomes. A thorough understanding of anatomy infectious pathology of hepatobiliary system is essential in the emergency setting to confidently diagnose and guide medical intervention. Many presentations of hepatobiliary infection have characteristic imaging features on individual imaging modalities with others requiring the assimilation of findings of multiple imaging modalities along with incorporating the clinical context and multispecialist consultation. Familiarity with the strengths of individual imaging modalities in the radiologists' arsenal is imperative to guide the appropriate utilization of resources, particularly in the emergent time sensitive setting. Accurate identification and diagnosis of hepatobiliary infections is vital for appropriate patient care and management stratification.


Assuntos
Doenças Biliares/diagnóstico por imagem , Infecções/diagnóstico por imagem , Hepatopatias/diagnóstico por imagem , Imagem Multimodal , Doenças Biliares/microbiologia , Diagnóstico Diferencial , Serviço Hospitalar de Emergência , Humanos , Infecções/microbiologia , Hepatopatias/microbiologia
7.
J Pediatr Hematol Oncol ; 42(2): e117-e120, 2020 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30629004

RESUMO

Saccharomyces cerevisiae is an emerging pathogen within the immunocompromised. We present a 4-year-old boy with acute lymphoblastic leukemia presenting with polymerase chain reaction-confirmed hepatosplenic S. cerevisiae infection and significant immune reconstitution symptoms. We explore the challenges of monitoring treatment efficacy using C-Reactive protein, ß-D-glucan, and imaging and the administration of chemotherapy alongside antifungals and steroids for control of immune reconstitution syndrome.


Assuntos
Antifúngicos/uso terapêutico , Protocolos de Quimioterapia Combinada Antineoplásica/efeitos adversos , Síndrome Inflamatória da Reconstituição Imune/tratamento farmacológico , Hepatopatias/complicações , Micoses/complicações , Leucemia-Linfoma Linfoblástico de Células Precursoras/tratamento farmacológico , Esplenopatias/complicações , Pré-Escolar , Humanos , Síndrome Inflamatória da Reconstituição Imune/etiologia , Síndrome Inflamatória da Reconstituição Imune/patologia , Hospedeiro Imunocomprometido , Hepatopatias/microbiologia , Masculino , Micoses/induzido quimicamente , Micoses/microbiologia , Leucemia-Linfoma Linfoblástico de Células Precursoras/microbiologia , Prognóstico , Saccharomyces cerevisiae/isolamento & purificação , Esplenopatias/induzido quimicamente , Esplenopatias/microbiologia
8.
Am J Physiol Gastrointest Liver Physiol ; 318(1): G84-G98, 2020 01 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31657225

RESUMO

The gut microbiome is the natural intestinal inhabitant that has been recognized recently as a major player in the maintenance of human health and the pathophysiology of many diseases. Those commensals produce metabolites that have various effects on host biological functions. Therefore, alterations in the normal composition or diversity of microbiome have been implicated in various diseases, including liver cirrhosis and nonalcoholic fatty liver disease. Moreover, accumulating evidence suggests that progression of dysbiosis can be associated with worsening of liver disease. Here, we review the possible roles for gut microbiota in the development, progression, and complication of liver disease.


Assuntos
Bactérias/patogenicidade , Microbioma Gastrointestinal , Intestinos/microbiologia , Hepatopatias/metabolismo , Hepatopatias/microbiologia , Fígado/metabolismo , Animais , Bactérias/metabolismo , Progressão da Doença , Disbiose , Interações Hospedeiro-Patógeno , Humanos , Fígado/patologia , Hepatopatias/patologia , Prognóstico , Fatores de Risco
9.
J Agric Food Chem ; 67(47): 13082-13092, 2019 Nov 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31671940

RESUMO

Elevated circulating level of the intestinal microbiota-derived l-carnitine metabolite trimethylamine-N-oxide (TMAO) has recently been linked to many chronic diseases. The purpose of our study was to investigate the effects of omega-7-enriched Decaisnea insignis seed oil (DISO) on reducing TMAO formation to prevent the l-carnitine-induced hepatic damage in mice. Feeding of mice with 3% l-carnitine in drinking water clearly increased the serum and urinary levels of TMAO (p < 0.05 vs Normal), whereas the serum and urinary TMAO formation was sharply reduced by DISO administration (p < 0.05). Meanwhile, DISO resulted in strong inhibition against the elevation of hepatic injury marker (AST, ALT, and ALP) activities and dyslipidemia (TC, TG, LDL-C, and HDL-C), as well as liver inflammatory cytokine (IL-1, IL-6, TNF-α, and TNF-ß) release in l-carnitine-fed mice (p < 0.05). As revealed by 16S rDNA gene sequencing, DISO significantly inhibited the l-carnitine-induced elevations in the abundance of Firmicutes, Proteobacteria, and Erysipelotrichaceae and the increases in the proportion of Lactobacillus and Akkermansia, revealing that DISO attenuated the l-carnitine-caused gut dysbiosis. These findings suggested that DISO could alleviate liver dysfunction in l-carnitine-fed mice, which might be due to the protection against TMAO formation by modulating the gut microbiota.


Assuntos
Carnitina/efeitos adversos , Microbioma Gastrointestinal/efeitos dos fármacos , Hepatopatias/tratamento farmacológico , Magnoliopsida/química , Óleos Vegetais/farmacologia , Animais , Bactérias/classificação , Bactérias/genética , Bactérias/isolamento & purificação , Humanos , Interleucina-1/genética , Interleucina-1/metabolismo , Interleucina-6/genética , Interleucina-6/metabolismo , Fígado/efeitos dos fármacos , Fígado/metabolismo , Hepatopatias/metabolismo , Hepatopatias/microbiologia , Masculino , Metilaminas/efeitos adversos , Camundongos , Sementes/química
10.
Curr Opin Pharmacol ; 49: 76-81, 2019 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31670055

RESUMO

The role of the microbiome in progression of liver disease is an exciting area of research that is advancing rapidly supported by the development of next-generation sequencing and bioinformatics tools that simultaneously identify the composition and function of the microbiome. Changes in the microbiome are associated with pathogenesis of chronic liver disease; specifically, changes in microbiome composition predict disease severity and specific microbial signatures can be used to distinguish between mild disease, advanced fibrosis and cirrhosis. Future work combining functional metagenomic analysis with preclinical mechanistic studies will be key to advancing our understanding of how the microbiome affects the pathogenesis of different chronic liver disease aetiologies and to identify personalised therapeutics based on modulation of the microbiome and its function.


Assuntos
Microbioma Gastrointestinal , Hepatopatias/microbiologia , Animais , Doença Crônica , Humanos , Hepatopatias/terapia
11.
EBioMedicine ; 49: 364-373, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31636011

RESUMO

The advancement in high-throughput sequencing technologies and systems biology approaches have revolutionized our understanding of biological systems and opened a new path to investigate unacknowledged biological phenomena. In parallel, the field of human microbiome research has greatly evolved and the relative contribution of the gut microbiome to health and disease have been systematically explored. This review provides an overview of the network-based and translational systems biology-based studies focusing on the function and composition of gut microbiota. We also discussed the association between the gut microbiome and the overall human physiology, as well as hepatic diseases and other metabolic disorders.


Assuntos
Microbioma Gastrointestinal , Hepatopatias/microbiologia , Hepatopatias/fisiopatologia , Microbiota , Biologia de Sistemas , Humanos , Metabolismo , Preparações Farmacêuticas/metabolismo
12.
J Agric Food Chem ; 67(42): 11627-11637, 2019 Oct 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31553177

RESUMO

Liver diseases alter the gut microbiota, but several lactic acid bacteria can reduce the degree of liver damage. The present study investigated whether Lactobacillus buchneri TCP016 reduces the degree of liver damage by modifying the gut microbiota via its exopolysaccharides (EPSs). First, it was illustrated that the main EPS (EPS016; molecular weight = 8.509 × 104 Da) comprised rhamnose, xylose, glucosamine, glucuronic acid, galactose, galacturonic acid, glucose, and mannose in molar ratios of 9.2:3.9:3.8:2.8:2.1:2.0:1.6:1.0. Our data showed that EPS016 alleviated the increase in plasma and hepatic enzyme and cytokine levels, increased superoxide dismutase and glutathione activity, and alleviated bacterial translocation to the liver and mesenteric lymph nodes in vivo. Furthermore, EPS016 ameliorated intestinal mucosal injury and gut flora dysbiosis, thereby decreasing the enrichment of Helicobacteraceae, Lachnospiraceae, and Enterobacteriaceae and increasing the abundance of Lactobacillus, Rikenellaceae, Bacteroidaceae, Bacteroidales_S24-7_group, and Prevotellaceae. These findings indicated that EPS016 inhibits lipopolysaccharides/d-galactosamine-induced liver injury and improves the modification of the gut microbiota.


Assuntos
Microbioma Gastrointestinal/efeitos dos fármacos , Lactobacillus/química , Hepatopatias/tratamento farmacológico , Polissacarídeos Bacterianos/administração & dosagem , Animais , Bactérias/efeitos dos fármacos , Bactérias/genética , Bactérias/isolamento & purificação , Bactérias/metabolismo , Feminino , Galactosamina/efeitos adversos , Humanos , Lactobacillus/metabolismo , Lipopolissacarídeos/efeitos adversos , Hepatopatias/etiologia , Hepatopatias/microbiologia , Camundongos Endogâmicos BALB C , Polissacarídeos Bacterianos/química , Polissacarídeos Bacterianos/metabolismo
13.
Clin Transl Gastroenterol ; 10(8): e00068, 2019 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31373933

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Chronic liver disease (CLD) is associated with both alterations of the stool microbiota and increased small intestinal permeability. However, little is known about the role of the small intestinal mucosa-associated microbiota (MAM) in CLD. The aim of this study was to evaluate the relationship between the duodenal MAM and both small intestinal permeability and liver disease severity in CLD. METHODS: Subjects with CLD and a disease-free control group undergoing routine endoscopy underwent duodenal biopsy to assess duodenal MAM by 16S rRNA gene sequencing. Small intestinal permeability was assessed by a dual sugar (lactulose: rhamnose) assay. Other assessments included transient elastography, endotoxemia, serum markers of hepatic inflammation, dietary intake, and anthropometric measurements. RESULTS: Forty-six subjects (35 with CLD and 11 controls) were assessed. In subjects with CLD, the composition (P = 0.02) and diversity (P < 0.01) of the duodenal MAM differed to controls. Constrained multivariate analysis and linear discriminate effect size showed this was due to Streptococcus-affiliated lineages. Small intestinal permeability was significantly higher in CLD subjects compared to controls. In CLD, there were inverse correlations between microbial diversity and both increased small intestinal permeability (r = -0.41, P = 0.02) and serum alanine aminotransferase (r = -0.35, P = 0.04). Hepatic stiffness was not associated with the MAM. DISCUSSION: In CLD, there is dysbiosis of the duodenal MAM and an inverse correlation between microbial diversity and small intestinal permeability. TRANSLATIONAL IMPACT: Strategies to ameliorate duodenal MAM dysbiosis may ameliorate intestinal barrier dysfunction and liver injury in CLD.


Assuntos
Duodeno/patologia , Disbiose/patologia , Mucosa Intestinal/patologia , Hepatopatias/diagnóstico , Fígado/patologia , Adulto , Idoso , Doença Crônica , DNA Bacteriano/isolamento & purificação , Progressão da Doença , Duodeno/microbiologia , Disbiose/diagnóstico , Disbiose/microbiologia , Feminino , Microbioma Gastrointestinal/genética , Humanos , Mucosa Intestinal/microbiologia , Hepatopatias/complicações , Hepatopatias/microbiologia , Hepatopatias/patologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Permeabilidade , RNA Ribossômico 16S/genética
14.
Front Immunol ; 10: 1838, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31440239

RESUMO

Background and Aims: Ascites and spontaneous bacterial peritonitis (SBP) are frequent complications of liver cirrhosis. In spite of the clinical impact, knowledge about ascites as an immune cell compartment in liver disease is limited. Therefore, we analyzed NK cells in blood, ascites, and liver. Methods: Mononuclear cells from blood, ascites, and liver explants of patients with advanced liver disease were extracted by density gradient centrifugation. Phenotyping and analysis of functional responses were carried out using flow cytometry. Migratory potential was investigated with transwell chamber assays. NK cell metabolism was assessed by Seahorse technology. Results: NK cell frequency was increased in uninfected ascites compared to blood, but not to liver. Ascites NK cells were predominantly CD16positive. CD56bright ascites NK cells did not share the typical phenotype of their liver counterparts. In contrast to the inhibitory receptor NKG2A, expression of the activating receptor NKG2D was decreased on ascites and liver CD16positive NK cells. Ascites NK cells expressed higher levels of CXCR3 than blood or liver NK cells, corresponding to increased ascites levels of CXCL10. Blood NK cells migrated toward ascites. Stimulation of mononuclear cells with Escherichia coli led to downregulation of NKG2D expression and IL-12 and IL-18 mediated secretion of interferon-γ by ascites and liver, but not blood NK cells. In-vivo, ascites NK cells expressed higher levels of the activation marker CD69 and lower levels of NKG2D during SBP compared to uninfected ascites. Conclusion: Ascites NK cells display a particular phenotype and are implicated in local immune defense against translocating bacteria.


Assuntos
Ascite/imunologia , Bactérias/imunologia , Infecções Bacterianas/imunologia , Células Matadoras Naturais/imunologia , Hepatopatias/imunologia , Peritonite/imunologia , Idoso , Ascite/patologia , Infecções Bacterianas/patologia , Translocação Bacteriana/imunologia , Feminino , Humanos , Células Matadoras Naturais/patologia , Hepatopatias/microbiologia , Hepatopatias/patologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Peritonite/microbiologia , Peritonite/patologia
16.
Am J Infect Control ; 47(12): 1500-1504, 2019 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31324490

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Hospital-acquired infections (HAIs) lead to poor health outcomes in hospitalized patients and may be disproportionately affecting the aging population of people living with HIV (PLWH). This study determined the association between HIV and HAIs, and analyzed the potential mediating effects of comorbidities. METHODS: The Louisiana Hospital Inpatient Discharge Database for the years 2011-2015 was used. All patients with at least 1 HAI diagnosis within this source population were included as cases in the case-control study, and a 1:1 ratio of controls was randomly selected from the same hospitals. RESULTS: Of the 1,852,769 eligible hospital discharges that occurred from 2011 through 2015, there were 7,422 patients with at least 1 HAI. Marginal logistic regressions of the case-control sample showed a strong association between HIV and central line-associated bloodstream infections (CLABSIs), but an inverse association between HIV and any HAI. However, the mediation analyses revealed that having at least 1 comorbidity mediates the association between HIV and CLABSIs. DISCUSSION: The unexpected inverse association between HIV and HAI could be attributed to the sample size of the exposed group of patients, or it could be explained by the mechanisms of treatment for HIV patients. CONCLUSIONS: This study found that people living with HIV are at an increased risk of developing a CLABSI, which is consistent with the published literature. The mediation analyses indicated that having at least 1 comorbidity mediated the association between HIV and CLABSI diagnosis.


Assuntos
Doenças Cardiovasculares/epidemiologia , Infecções Relacionadas a Cateter/epidemiologia , Infecção Hospitalar/epidemiologia , Diabetes Mellitus/epidemiologia , Infecções por HIV/epidemiologia , Nefropatias/epidemiologia , Hepatopatias/epidemiologia , Neoplasias/epidemiologia , Adulto , Idoso , Doenças Cardiovasculares/microbiologia , Doenças Cardiovasculares/virologia , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Infecções Relacionadas a Cateter/microbiologia , Infecções Relacionadas a Cateter/virologia , Comorbidade , Infecção Hospitalar/microbiologia , Infecção Hospitalar/virologia , Bases de Dados Factuais , Diabetes Mellitus/microbiologia , Diabetes Mellitus/virologia , Feminino , Infecções por HIV/microbiologia , Infecções por HIV/virologia , Humanos , Nefropatias/microbiologia , Nefropatias/virologia , Hepatopatias/microbiologia , Hepatopatias/virologia , Modelos Logísticos , Louisiana/epidemiologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Neoplasias/microbiologia , Neoplasias/virologia , Tamanho da Amostra
17.
Intern Med ; 58(13): 1885-1889, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31257276

RESUMO

Intravascular large B-cell lymphoma (IVLBCL) frequently involves the hepatobiliary system, but its clinical course and pathophysiology are still not fully known. We herein describe a case of IVLBCL mimicking acute hepatobiliary infection. An 85-year-old woman was admitted because of fever and epigastric pain, and she was diagnosed to have acute acalculous cholecystitis based on gallbladder wall thickening with fluid collection. The gallbladder swelling regressed within several days, and areas of intrahepatic hypoperfusion appeared. Inflammation continued despite treatment with antibiotics, and she died within 21 days. An autopsy examination revealed IVLBCL. IVLBCL can present as acute cholecystitis with an improvement in the imaging findings and the presence of a subsequent liver mass.


Assuntos
Nefropatias/terapia , Hepatopatias/terapia , Linfoma Difuso de Grandes Células B/diagnóstico , Linfoma Difuso de Grandes Células B/mortalidade , Linfoma Difuso de Grandes Células B/terapia , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Evolução Fatal , Feminino , Humanos , Nefropatias/diagnóstico , Nefropatias/fisiopatologia , Hepatopatias/diagnóstico , Hepatopatias/microbiologia , Hepatopatias/fisiopatologia , Linfoma Difuso de Grandes Células B/fisiopatologia
18.
Benef Microbes ; 10(6): 699-710, 2019 Jul 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31122041

RESUMO

The improving-intestinal-microbial-balance properties of lactic acid bacteria (LAB) are well known. Thus, LAB could play a vital role in the pathogenesis of liver diseases. In the present study, 107 LAB strains were isolated from Mongolian camel milk products and identified to species, then screened for their probiotic properties. As a result, we identified 71 Lactobacillus bacteria belonging to 9 different species, and 36 Lactococcus bacteria belonging to 8 different species. Among them, six strains of LAB with strong tolerance and adhesion ability were further studied for their protective effect on acute liver injury induced by lipopolysaccharide (LPS)/D-galactosamine (D-GalN). These six strains of LAB were fed to mice for 7 weeks, and on the final day of the experiment, LPS/D-GalN were used to induce acute liver injury. After challenging, the degree of liver pathological changes, secretion of aspartate aminotransferase (AST) and alanine aminotransferase (ALT) in serum and liver, and the expression of tumour necrosis factor (TNF)-α and interleukin (IL)-6 in the liver and intestines were observed and quantified. The results showed that the degree of liver pathological changes in mice fed with the six LAB strains were relieved to varying degrees compared with the LPS/D-GalN-induced model group, and the expressions of AST, ALT, IL-6, and TNF-α factor were also significantly decreased. Moreover, the expression levels of these factors in mice pretreated with Lactobacillus paracasei subsp. paracasei WXD5 were significantly decreased compared with other experimental groups. This suggests the probiotic potential and pharmacological value of L. paracasei subsp. paracasei as a liver injury inhibitor in the intervention of inflammation-based liver disease.


Assuntos
Camelus , Inflamação/prevenção & controle , Lactobacillus/fisiologia , Hepatopatias/prevenção & controle , Leite/microbiologia , Probióticos/administração & dosagem , Lesão Pulmonar Aguda/prevenção & controle , Alanina Transaminase/análise , Animais , Aspartato Aminotransferases/análise , Aderência Bacteriana , Células CACO-2 , Produtos Fermentados do Leite/microbiologia , Humanos , Inflamação/terapia , Interleucina-6/análise , Lactobacillus/isolamento & purificação , Hepatopatias/imunologia , Hepatopatias/microbiologia , Camundongos , Organismos Livres de Patógenos Específicos , Fator de Necrose Tumoral alfa/análise
19.
Cell Mol Gastroenterol Hepatol ; 8(2): 197-207, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31075352

RESUMO

Cystic fibrosis (CF) is a monogenic disease caused by mutation of Cftr. CF-associated liver disease (CFLD) is a common nonpulmonary cause of mortality in CF and accounts for approximately 2.5%-5% of overall CF mortality. The peak of the disease is in the pediatric population, but a second wave of liver disease in CF adults has been reported in the past decade in association with an increase in the life expectancy of these patients. New drugs are available to correct the basic defect in CF but their efficacy in CFLD is not known. The cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator, expressed in the apical membrane of cholangiocytes, is a major determinant for bile secretion and CFLD classically has been considered a channelopathy. However, the recent findings of the cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator as a regulator of epithelial innate immunity and the possible influence of the intestinal disease with an altered microbiota on the liver complication have opened new mechanistic insights on the pathogenesis of CFLD. This review provides an overview of the current understanding of the pathophysiology of the disease and discusses a potential target for intervention.


Assuntos
Regulador de Condutância Transmembrana em Fibrose Cística/metabolismo , Fibrose Cística/fisiopatologia , Imunidade Inata , Hepatopatias/fisiopatologia , Microbiota , Animais , Canalopatias , Fibrose Cística/complicações , Fibrose Cística/imunologia , Fibrose Cística/microbiologia , Regulador de Condutância Transmembrana em Fibrose Cística/fisiologia , Humanos , Hepatopatias/etiologia , Hepatopatias/imunologia , Hepatopatias/microbiologia
20.
Avian Pathol ; 48(4): 285-287, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30942612

RESUMO

Campylobacter hepaticus was recently identified as the aetiological agent of Spotty Liver Disease (SLD). SLD causes significant health and productivity losses in the Australian egg industry and the disease is present in other countries. Following the isolation and characterization of C. hepaticus, molecular tools and refined culturing methods have been developed to identify the pathogen. It is suspected that the application of these tools will lead to identification of the pathogen in many poultry production systems throughout the world. As C. hepaticus has only recently been identified, little is known about the mechanisms of pathogenesis and, hence, new research needs to be directed towards understanding SLD epidemiology and C. hepaticus virulence mechanisms to inform efforts to develop intervention strategies.


Assuntos
Infecções por Campylobacter/veterinária , Campylobacter , Galinhas , Hepatopatias/veterinária , Doenças das Aves Domésticas/microbiologia , Animais , Campylobacter/ultraestrutura , Infecções por Campylobacter/microbiologia , Infecções por Campylobacter/terapia , Fígado/microbiologia , Fígado/patologia , Fígado/ultraestrutura , Hepatopatias/microbiologia , Hepatopatias/terapia , Microscopia Eletrônica de Transmissão/veterinária , Doenças das Aves Domésticas/terapia
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