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1.
Braz. j. biol ; 84: e247487, 2024. graf
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE, LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1345555

RESUMO

Abstract Worldwide, conventional agriculture makes extensive use of pesticides. Although the effects of herbicides are relatively well known in terms of environmental impacts on non-target organisms, there is very little scientific evidence regarding the impacts of herbicide residues on aquatic arthropods from tropical conservation areas. This study evaluates for the first time the toxicity of the herbicides ametryn, atrazine, and clomazone on the aquatic insect Limnocoris submontandoni (Hemiptera: Naucoridae). The lethal concentration (LC50) of herbicides was evaluated for these insects, as well as the effect of the herbicides on the insects' tissues and testicles. The estimated LC50 was 1012.41, 192.42, and 46.09 mg/L for clomazone, atrazine, and ametryn, respectively. Spermatocyte and spermatid changes were observed under the effect of atrazine, and effects on spermatogenesis were observed for some concentrations of clomazone, with apparent recovery after a short time. Our results provide useful information on the effects of herbicide residues in aquatic systems. This information can help minimize the risk of long-term reproductive effects in non-target species that have been previously overlooked in ecotoxicology studies.


Resumo Em todo o mundo, a agricultura convencional faz uso extensivo de pesticidas. Embora os efeitos dos herbicidas sejam relativamente bem conhecidos em termos de impactos ambientais em organismos não-alvo, há pouca evidência científica sobre os impactos de resíduos de herbicidas em artrópodes aquáticos de áreas de conservação tropicais. Este estudo avalia pela primeira vez a toxicidade dos herbicidas ametryn, atrazine e clomazone sobre o inseto aquático Limnocoris submontandoni (Hemiptera: Naucoridae). A concentração letal (LC50) de herbicidas foi avaliada para esses insetos, bem como o efeito dos herbicidas nos tecidos e testículos dos insetos. A LC50 estimada foi de 1012,41, 192,42 e 46,09 mg/L para clomazone, atrazine e ametryn, respectivamente. Alterações nos espermatócitos e espermátides foram observadas sob o efeito de atrazine, e efeitos na espermatogênese foram observados para algumas concentrações de clomazone, com aparente recuperação após um curto período de tempo. Nossos resultados fornecem informações úteis sobre os efeitos de resíduos de herbicidas em sistemas aquáticos. Essas informações podem ajudar a minimizar o risco de efeitos reprodutivos de longo prazo em espécies não-alvo que foram negligenciadas anteriormente em estudos de ecotoxicologia.


Assuntos
Animais , Artrópodes , Poluentes Químicos da Água/toxicidade , Hemípteros , Herbicidas/toxicidade , Ecotoxicologia , Genitália
2.
Braz. j. biol ; 83: e246579, 2023. tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE, LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1278558

RESUMO

Abstract Water magnetization and geoprocessing are increasingly utilized tools in weed management. Our objective was to study the influence of water magnetization on herbicide efficiency and to verify whether there is a relationship between control scores and the normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI). In the laboratory experiment, water was subjected to magnetization and evaluated with respect to four characteristics. In the field experiment, plots of Brachiaria grass were subjected to treatments in a factorial scheme (6 × 2 + 1). Six herbicidal factors (doses of glyphosate and glyphosate + 2,4-D) and the magnetization or absence of magnetization of the spray solution were evaluated and compared against the control treatment (without spraying). Weed control assessments were carried out six times. Images were obtained using an embedded multispectral camera to determine the NDVI values. Data related to water characteristics were analyzed using the t test. Weed control and NDVI data were subjected to analysis of variance and are presented in regression graphs. Dispersion analysis of NDVI data was performed according to the control scores. The magnetization process decreased the pH of the water and increased the surface tension, but it did not influence the control scores or the NDVI. As the glyphosate dose was increased, the control scores were higher and the NDVI values were lower. Magnetized water did not affect the biological efficiency of the herbicides, and there was a strong correlation between the control scores and the NDVI values.


Resumo A magnetização da água e o geoprocessamento são ferramentas cada vez mais utilizadas no manejo de ervas daninhas. Nosso objetivo foi estudar a influência da magnetização da água na eficiência do herbicida e verificar se existe uma relação entre os escores de controle e o índice de vegetação por diferença normalizada (NDVI). No experimento de laboratório, a água foi submetida à magnetização e avaliada em relação a quatro características. No experimento de campo, parcelas de capim-braquiária foram submetidas a tratamentos em esquema fatorial (6 × 2 + 1). Seis fatores herbicidas (doses de glyphosate e glyphosate + 2,4-D) e a magnetização ou ausência de magnetização da calda foram avaliados e comparados com o tratamento controle (sem pulverização). Avaliações de controle de plantas daninhas foram realizadas seis vezes. As imagens foram obtidas usando uma câmera multiespectral incorporada para determinar os valores de NDVI. Os dados relacionados às características da água foram analisados ​​por meio do teste t. O controle de plantas daninhas e os dados de NDVI foram submetidos à análise de variância e são apresentados em gráficos de regressão. A análise de dispersão dos dados NDVI foi realizada de acordo com os escores de controle. O processo de magnetização diminuiu o pH da água e aumentou a tensão superficial, mas não influenciou nos escores de controle ou no NDVI. Conforme a dose de glyphosate foi aumentada, os escores de controle foram maiores e os valores de NDVI foram menores. A água magnetizada não afetou a eficiência biológica dos herbicidas, e houve uma forte correlação entre os escores de controle e os valores de NDVI.


Assuntos
Dessecação , Herbicidas , Ácido 2,4-Diclorofenoxiacético , Controle de Plantas Daninhas , Glicina/análogos & derivados
3.
Braz. j. biol ; 83: e242676, 2023. tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE, LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1278552

RESUMO

Abstract Trees occurring on the margins of agricultural areas can mitigate damage from residual herbicides. Rhizospheric microbial activity associated with trees is one of the main remedial capacity indicators. The objective of this study was to evaluate the rhizospheric microbiological activity in tree species subjected to the herbicides atrazine and sulfentrazone via the rhizosphere. The experiment was designed in four blocks and a 6 × 3 factorial scheme. The first factor consisted of six tree species from Brazil and the second of atrazine, sulfentrazone, and water solutions. Four herbicide applications were performed via irrigation. The total dry mass of the plants, mycorrhizal colonization, number of spores, basal respiration of the rhizospheric soil, and survival rate of bioindicator plants after phytoremediation were determined. Trichilia hirta had higher biomass when treated with atrazine and sulfentrazone. Herbicides decreased the microbial activity in Triplaris americana and did not affect the microbiological indicators of Myrsine gardneriana, Schizolobium parahyba, and Toona ciliata. Fewer bioindicator plants survived in soil with Triplaris americana and sulfentrazone. Microbiological indicators were influenced in different ways between species by the presence of herbicides in the rhizosphere.


Resumo As árvores que ocorrem nas margens das áreas agrícolas podem mitigar os danos dos herbicidas residuais. A atividade microbiana rizosférica associada às árvores é um dos principais indicadores de capacidade corretiva. O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar a atividade microbiológica rizosférica em espécies arbóreas submetidas aos herbicidas atrazina e sulfentrazone via rizosfera. O experimento foi estruturado em quatro blocos e esquema fatorial 6 × 3. O primeiro fator consistiu em seis espécies de árvores do Brasil e o segundo em soluções de atrazine, sulfentrazone e água. Quatro aplicações de herbicidas foram realizadas via irrigação. Foram determinados a massa seca total das plantas, colonização micorrízica, número de esporos, respiração basal do solo rizosférico e taxa de sobrevivência de plantas bioindicadoras após fitorremediação. Trichilia hirta apresentou maior biomassa quando tratada com atrazina e sulfentrazone. Os herbicidas diminuíram a atividade microbiana em Triplaris americana e não afetaram os indicadores microbiológicos de Myrsine gardneriana, Schizolobium parahyba e Toona ciliata. Menos plantas bioindicadoras sobreviveram no solo com Triplaris americana e sulfentrazone. Os indicadores microbiológicos foram influenciados de formas distintas entre as espécies pela presença dos herbicidas na rizosfera.


Assuntos
Poluentes do Solo , Micorrizas/química , Herbicidas , Solo , Microbiologia do Solo , Árvores , Brasil , Raízes de Plantas/química , Plântula , Rizosfera
4.
Braz. j. biol ; 83: e242830, 2023. tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE, LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1278540

RESUMO

Abstract Pesticide residues that contaminate the environment circulate within the hydrological cycle can accumulate within the food chain and cause problems to both environmental and human health. Microbes, however, are well known for their metabolic versatility and the ability to degrade chemically stable substances, including recalcitrant xenobiotics. The current study focused on bio-prospecting within Amazonian rainforest soils to find novel strains fungi capable of efficiently degrading the agriculturally and environmentally ubiquitous herbicide, glyphosate. Of 50 fungal strains isolated (using culture media supplemented with glyphosate as the sole carbon-substrate), the majority were Penicillium strains (60%) and the others were Aspergillus and Trichoderma strains (26 and 8%, respectively). All 50 fungal isolates could use glyphosate as a phosphorous source. Eight of these isolates grew better on glyphosate-supplemented media than on regular Czapek Dox medium. LC-MS revealed that glyphosate degradation by Penicillium 4A21 resulted in sarcosine and aminomethylphosphonic acid.


Resumo Resíduos de agrotóxicos que contaminam o meio ambiente circulam no ciclo hidrológico, podendo se acumular na cadeia alimentar e causar problemas tanto à saúde ambiental quanto humana. Por sua vez, microrganismos são bem conhecidos por sua versatilidade metabólica e capacidade de degradar substâncias quimicamente estáveis, incluindo xenobióticos recalcitrantes. O estudo atual se concentrou na bioprospecção nos solos da floresta amazônica para encontrar novas linhagens de fungos capazes de degradar com eficiência o herbicida onipresente na agricultura e no meio ambiente, o glifosato. Entre os 50 fungos isolados (usando meio de cultura suplementado com glifosato como única fonte de carbono), a maioria eram isolados do gênero Penicillium (60%) e os outros eram isolados de Aspergillus e Trichoderma (26 e 8%, respectivamente). Todos os 50 isolados de fungos foram capazes de usar glifosato como fonte de fósforo. Oito desses isolados cresceram melhor em meio suplementado com glifosato do que em meio Czapek Dox regular. LC-MS revelou que a degradação do glifosato por Penicillium 4A21 resultou nos metabólitos sarcosina e ácido aminometilfosfônico.


Assuntos
Humanos , Penicillium , Trichoderma , Herbicidas/toxicidade , Aspergillus , Solo , Microbiologia do Solo , Biodegradação Ambiental , Organofosfonatos , Fungos , Glicina/análogos & derivados
5.
Braz. j. biol ; 83: e246450, 2023.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE, LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1278532
6.
Environ Health ; 21(1): 46, 2022 05 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35501856

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Dietary habits have a profound influence on the metabolic activity of gut microorganisms and their influence on health. Concerns have been raised as to whether the consumption of foodstuffs contaminated with pesticides can contribute to the development of chronic disease by affecting the gut microbiome. We performed the first pesticide biomonitoring survey of the British population, and subsequently used the results to perform the first pesticide association study on gut microbiome composition and function from the TwinsUK registry. METHODS: Dietary exposure of 186 common insecticide, herbicide, or fungicide residues and the faecal microbiome in 65 twin pairs in the UK was investigated. We evaluated if dietary habits, geographic location, or the rural/urban environment, are associated with the excretion of pesticide residues. The composition and metabolic activity of faecal microbiota was evaluated using shotgun metagenomics and metabolomics respectively. We performed a targeted urine metabolomics analysis in order to evaluate whether pesticide urinary excretion was also associated with physiological changes. RESULTS: Pyrethroid and/or organophosphorus insecticide residues were found in all urine samples, while the herbicide glyphosate was found in 53% of individuals. Food frequency questionnaires showed that residues from organophosphates were higher with increased consumption of fruit and vegetables. A total of 34 associations between pesticide residue concentrations and faecal metabolite concentrations were detected. Glyphosate excretion was positively associated with an overall increased bacterial species richness, as well as to fatty acid metabolites and phosphate levels. The insecticide metabolite Br2CA, reflecting deltamethrin exposure, was positively associated with the phytoestrogens enterodiol and enterolactone, and negatively associated with some N-methyl amino acids. Urine metabolomics performed on a subset of samples did not reveal associations with the excretion of pesticide residues. CONCLUSIONS: The consumption of conventionally grown fruit and vegetables leads to higher ingestion of pesticides with unknown long-term health consequences. Our results highlight the need for future dietary intervention studies to understand effects of pesticide exposure on the gut microbiome and possible health consequences.


Assuntos
Herbicidas , Inseticidas , Microbiota , Resíduos de Praguicidas , Praguicidas , Adulto , Exposição Dietética/análise , Herbicidas/análise , Humanos , Inseticidas/análise , Compostos Organofosforados , Resíduos de Praguicidas/análise , Verduras/química
7.
Oxid Med Cell Longev ; 2022: 2093822, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35528506

RESUMO

Currently, aquatic and terrestrial ecosystems are continuously and chronically polluted by cocktails of countless chemical compounds. The susceptibility to infections is tremendously increasing in a variety of organisms due to exposure to environmental pollutants. Pendimethalin, an herbicide, is continuously used in agriculture to remove unwanted broadleaf weeds across the globe. Therefore, this study investigates the mechanisms of toxicity of pendimethalin in freshwater fish bighead carp upon exposure to low and environmentally relevant concentrations. For this purpose, 48 fish without any clinical abnormalities were kept in a glass aquarium in different experimental groups (T0, T1, T2, and T3). These groups were treated with pendimethalin at 0.00, 0.25, 0.50, and 0.75 mg/L, respectively. Four fish were randomly picked from each experimental group and killed at 72, 96, and 120 hours of the trial to study hematobiochemical parameters and visceral tissues including the brain, liver, heart, gills, and kidneys for histopathology. Herbicide-treated fish indicated various physical and behavioral abnormalities including hypersecretion of mucus, erratic swimming, operculum movement, air gulping, tremors of fins, loss of equilibrium, and increased surface breathing. Histopathologically, gills tissues of treated fish indicated atrophied lamellae, uplifting of secondary lamellae, necrosis of primary and secondary lamellar epithelial cells, telogenesis, congestion, and lamellar fusion. Histopathological examination of liver tissues of treated fish showed mild to moderate congestion, necrosis of hepatocytes, and atrophy of hepatocytes while kidneys revealed degeneration of renal tubules, glomerular atrophy, ceroid, and necrosis of renal tubules. The erythrocyte counts, monocyte and lymphocyte counts, and hemoglobin values were significantly (P < 0.05) reduced in pendimethalin-treated fish. Results on serum biochemistry showed that the biomarkers of kidneys, heart, and liver were significantly higher in fish of treated groups. In addition, values of different biochemical reactions like reactive oxygen species (ROS), thiobarbituric acid reactive species (TBARS), total proteins, and quantity of different antioxidant enzymes including reduced glutathione (GSH), catalase, and superoxide dismutase (SOD) were significantly different when compared to untreated fish. Moreover, the percentile of different nuclear abnormalities in red blood cells and frequency of DNA damage increased significantly in treated fish. It can be concluded from the findings that pendimethalin causes its toxic effects via disruption of physiological and hematobiochemical reactions of fish.


Assuntos
Compostos de Anilina , Carpas , Herbicidas , Poluentes Químicos da Água , Compostos de Anilina/toxicidade , Animais , Atrofia , Carpas/metabolismo , Catalase/metabolismo , Ecossistema , Água Doce , Herbicidas/toxicidade , Fígado/metabolismo , Mutagênicos , Necrose/metabolismo , Estresse Oxidativo , Superóxido Dismutase/metabolismo , Poluentes Químicos da Água/toxicidade
8.
Sci Rep ; 12(1): 7663, 2022 May 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35538136

RESUMO

Johnsongrass (Sorghum halepense) is a troublesome weed in row crop production in the United States. Herbicide resistance is a growing concern in this species, with resistance to ACCase-, ALS-, and EPSPS-inhibitors already reported. Pollen-mediated gene flow (PMGF) is capable of spreading herbicide resistance, but the extent of PMGF has not yet been studied in johnsongrass. Field experiments were conducted in a Nelder-wheel design to quantify the distance and frequency of PMGF from ALS-inhibitor-resistant (AR) to -susceptible (AS) johnsongrass across three environments (summer 2018, fall 2018, and fall 2019). The AR biotype (pollen donor) was established at the center of the wheel (5-m diameter), and a naturally occurring johnsongrass (AS) infestation was utilized as the pollen recipient, in eight directions and at nine distances (5, 10, 15, 20, 25, 35, 40, 45, and 50 m) within each direction. Seeds collected from the AS plants in each distance and direction were screened for survival to the ALS-inhibitor herbicide nicosulfuron (Accent Q) at 95 g ai ha-1 under greenhouse conditions. The survivors (i.e. hybrids) were further confirmed based on the presence of the Trp574Leu mutation. At the closest distance of 5 m, PMGF was 9.6-16.2% across the directions and environments, which progressively declined to 0.8-1.2% at 50 m. The exponential decay model predicted 50% reduction in PMGF at 2.2 m and 90% reduction at 5.8 m from the pollen donor block. Results demonstrate that herbicide resistance can spread between adjacent field populations of johnsongrass through PMGF, which necessitates sound monitoring and management.


Assuntos
Herbicidas , Sorghum , Resistência a Herbicidas/genética , Herbicidas/farmacologia , Pólen/genética , Sorghum/genética
9.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35545601

RESUMO

Hexazinone is a post-emergence herbicide/arboricides, and its acute poisoning has rarely been reported. Hexazinone is low-toxic to humans, but mass intake of hexazinone would still lead to organ impairment. This article analyzes a case of acute hexazinone poisoning from the poisoning treatment center of our hospital, and summarizes the symptoms and treatment effects of hexazinone poisoning, which is aimed at improving the comprehension, diagnosis and treatment of the disease.


Assuntos
Herbicidas , Envenenamento , Administração Oral , Humanos , Triazinas
10.
Pestic Biochem Physiol ; 183: 105086, 2022 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35430076

RESUMO

To improve the selectivity of the fenoxaprop herbicide to rice and barnyard grass, a series of fenoxaprop-P-ethyl-amino acid ester conjugates were designed and synthesized, and tested for biological activity as well as their phloem mobility. The bioassay results indicated that the target compounds possessed better activity against barnyard grass (Echinochloa crusgalli) than rape (Brassica campestris L.) at the concentration of 0.5 mmol/L. Compounds 3h and 3i, showed more than 70% control efficiency against barnyard grass, while less than 30% for rape. The compounds showed less impact on rice after spray treatment than in the germination test. Compounds 3i, 3j, and 3k showed excellently herbicidal activities against barnyard grass and low phytotoxicity to rice. Compound 3k showed 6.1% phytotoxicity to rice at a spray concentration of 0.25 mmol/L, better than fenoxaprop-P-ethyl (61.6%) at the same concentration. The selectivity results of the target compounds revealed that most of compounds obviously reduced phytotoxicity to rice while retaining herbicidal activity of barnyard grass. The herbicidal activity of compound 3d compared to FPE was increased by 50%, while its safety on rice was also increased by 50%. The concentration of the compounds in barnyard grass roots was higher than in rice roots, showing greater phloem mobility. In particular, the concentration of compound 3d on barnyard grass exhibited 142.72 mg/kg which was 3 times as much as Fenoxaprop, while its concentration on rice exhibited 3.65 mg/kg, the results revealed that the difference of phloem mobility might be the important reason for causing the selectivity.


Assuntos
Echinochloa , Herbicidas , Oryza , Aminoácidos/metabolismo , Echinochloa/metabolismo , Ésteres/metabolismo , Herbicidas/química , Herbicidas/toxicidade , Oryza/metabolismo , Floema/fisiologia
11.
PLoS One ; 17(4): e0266756, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35427360

RESUMO

The concerns on weed control through herbicides are increasing due to their negative impacts on environment and human health. Therefore, alternative weed management methods are inevitable for sustainable crop production and lowering the negative consequences of herbicides. Mulching is an environment-friendly weed management approach capable of substituting herbicides to significant extent. Therefore, this study evaluated the role of different mulching treatments on suppressing weed flora in maize (Zea mays L.) and sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.) crops. Furthermore, the impact of different mulching treatments on the productivity of both crops was also investigated. Three mulch treatments, i.e., plastic mulch (PLM), sorghum mulch (SM) and paper mulch (PM) along with two controls, i.e., weed-free (WF) and weedy-check (WC) were included in the study. Different mulch treatments significantly altered weed flora in both crops. The PLM and PM resulted in the highest suppression (43-47%) of weed flora compared to WC treatment in both crops. The highest and the lowest weed diversity was recorded for WC and WF treatments, respectively. Different allometric traits, i.e., leaf area index, crop growth rate and root length of both crops were significantly improved by PLM as compared to the WC. Overall, maize crop recorded higher density of individual and total weeds compared to sunflower with WC treatment. The density of individual and total weeds was significantly lowered by PLM compared to WC treatment in both crops. Similarly, higher growth and yield-related traits of both crops were noted with PLM compared to the rest of the mulching treatments. Results of the current study warrant that PLM could suppress weed flora and improve the productivity of both crops. However, PLM alone could not provide 100% control over weed flora; therefore, it should be combined with other weed management approaches for successful weed control in both crops.


Assuntos
Helianthus , Herbicidas , Produtos Agrícolas , Herbicidas/farmacologia , Humanos , Plantas Daninhas , Controle de Plantas Daninhas , Zea mays
12.
Pestic Biochem Physiol ; 183: 105057, 2022 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35430061

RESUMO

Fenoxaprop-P-ethyl (FE) is a highly effective weed control agent for rice fields, but it causes phytotoxicity in crops. A whole-plant bioassay has revealed that isoxadifen-ethyl hydrolysate (IH) can significantly improve the tolerance of rice to FE, but the molecular mechanisms underlying this phenomenon are still unclear. In this study, we performed RNA-Seq analysis using rice seedlings treated with FE and IH to determine the IH-regulated candidate genes involved in metabolic resistance to FE. We also analyzed spatiotemporal expression using quantitative reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction to reveal the expression patterns of these genes under different treatments. The results showed that genes encoding metabolic enzymes, such as cytochrome P450 monooxygenases, glutathione-s-transferases, UDP-glycosyltransferase, carboxylesterase, and ATP-binding cassette transporter, were influenced by the application of IH. Most of these genes were upregulated, and their products were involved in various stages of FE metabolism. Tolerance to FE was primarily mediated by CarE15, CYP86A1, GSTU6, GST4, UGT13248, UGT79, and ABCC4, all of which played a vital role in regulating the detoxification process of FE. Our findings elucidated the protective mechanisms of IH, which can help alleviate the phytotoxic effects of FE and expand its potential for application in agriculture.


Assuntos
Herbicidas , Oryza , Sistema Enzimático do Citocromo P-450/genética , Sistema Enzimático do Citocromo P-450/metabolismo , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica , Herbicidas/metabolismo , Herbicidas/toxicidade , Redes e Vias Metabólicas , Oryza/genética , Oryza/metabolismo , Transcriptoma
13.
Molecules ; 27(7)2022 Apr 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35408768

RESUMO

Chlrosulfuron, a classical sulfonylurea herbicide that exhibits good safety for wheat but causes a certain degree of damage to subsequent corn in a wheat-corn rotation mode, has been suspended field application in China since 2014. Our previous study found that diethylamino-substituted chlorsulfuron derivatives accelerated the degradation rate in soil. In order to obtain sulfonylurea herbicides with good crop safety for both wheat and corn, while maintaining high herbicidal activities, a series of pyrimidine- and triazine-based diethylamino-substituted chlorsulfuron derivatives (W102-W111) were systematically evaluated. The structures of the synthesized compounds were confirmed with 1H NMR, 13C NMR, and HRMS. The preliminary biological assay results indicate that the 4,6-disubstituted pyrimidine and triazine derivatives could maintain high herbicidal activity. It was found that the synthesized compounds could accelerate degradation rates, both in acidic and alkaline soil. Especially, in alkaline soil, the degradation rate of the target compounds accelerated more than 22-fold compared to chlorsulfuron. Moreover, most chlorsulfuron analogs exhibited good crop safety for both wheat and corn at high dosages. This study provided a reference for the further design of new sulfonylurea herbicides with high herbicidal activity, fast degradation rates, and high crop safety.


Assuntos
Herbicidas , Herbicidas/química , Pirimidinas , Solo , Relação Estrutura-Atividade , Sulfonamidas , Compostos de Sulfonilureia/química , Compostos de Sulfonilureia/farmacologia , Triazinas/farmacologia , Zea mays
14.
J Agric Food Chem ; 70(15): 4599-4610, 2022 Apr 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35385284

RESUMO

Agricultural chemical residues in farmland and crops is one of the serious public issues that constantly threatens crop production, food security, and human health. Understanding their decay mechanism in crops for accelerating their degradative metabolism is important. In this study, a rice uncharacterized cytochrome P450 gene encoding CYP76C6 was functionally identified in rice exposed to isoproturon (IPU). To verify the role of CYP76C6 in rice resistance to IPU toxicity, CYP76C6 overexpression (OEs) and knockout mutant rice by CRISPR/Cas9 were generated through genetic transformation and gene-editing technologies. Assessment of growth and physiological responses revealed that the growth of OE lines was improved, the IPU-induced cellular damage was attenuated, and IPU accumulation was significantly repressed, whereas the Cas9 lines displayed a contrasting phenotype compared to the wild-type. Both relative contents of IPU metabolites and conjugates in OE lines were reduced and those in Cas9 line were increased, suggesting that CYP76C6 plays a critical role in IPU degradation. Our study unveils a new regulator, together with its mechanism for IPU decay in rice crops, which will be used in reality to reduce environmental risks in food safety and human health.


Assuntos
Herbicidas , Oryza , Produtos Agrícolas/metabolismo , Herbicidas/química , Oryza/genética , Oryza/metabolismo , Compostos de Fenilureia/metabolismo
15.
Toxicol Lett ; 361: 43-53, 2022 May 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35367327

RESUMO

Paraquat (PQ) is a widely used herbicide that can cross the dopaminergic neuronal membrane, accumulate in mitochondria and damage complex I of the electron transport chain, leading to neuronal death. In Drosophila melanogaster, PQ exposure leads to the development of parkinsonism and is a classical model for studying Parkinson's Disease (PD). Muscle mitochondrial dysfunction, affecting survival and locomotion, is described in familial PD in D. melanogaster mutants. However, no study has shown the effects of PQ-induced parkinsonism in D. melanogaster regarding muscle ultrastructure and locomotor behavior at different ages. Thus, we evaluated survival, locomotion, and morphological parameters of mitochondria and myofibrils using transmission electron microscopy in 2 and 15-day-old D. melanogaster, treated with different PQ doses: control, 10, 50, 100, 150, and 200 mM. PQ100mM presented 100% lethality in 15-day-old D. melanogaster, while in 2-day-old animals PQ150mM produced 20% lethality. Bradykinesia was only observed in 15-day-old D. melanogaster treated with PQ10 mM and PQ50 mM. However, these results are unlikely to be associated with changes to morphology. Taken together, our data indicate pathophysiological differences between PQ-induced parkinsonism and familial parkinsonism in D. melanogaster (resultant from gene mutations), demonstrating for the first time a differential susceptibility to PQ in two developmental stages.


Assuntos
Herbicidas , Transtornos Parkinsonianos , Animais , Antioxidantes/farmacologia , Drosophila melanogaster/genética , Herbicidas/toxicidade , Paraquat/toxicidade , Transtornos Parkinsonianos/induzido quimicamente
16.
Sci Rep ; 12(1): 5638, 2022 Apr 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35379871

RESUMO

Farmers focus on reducing the cost of production and aim to increase profit. The objective of this study was to quantify the reduction of pesticides applied to soybean (Glycine max (L.) Merrill) and maize (Zea mays L.) crops in several stages of the production cycle using a site-specific spraying application based on real-time sensors in the Brazilian Cerrado region. The sprayers were equipped with a precision spraying control system based on a real-time sensor. The spraying operations were performed not only for herbicide, but also for fungicide and insecticides applications. The maps recorded the percentage of the spray boom when the application was turned on (on/off spray system) with nozzle-to-nozzle control. The precision spraying system based on real-time sensors reduced the volume of pesticides (including herbicides, insecticides, and fungicides) applied to soybean and maize crops. There was a more significant reduction in the volume of pesticides applied post-emergence of the crops in the initial stages of soybean and maize when the crops had less leaf area or less foliage coverage between the rows. The cost reduction achieved using this technology was 2.3 times lower than the cost associated with pesticide application over the entire area using a conventional sprayer. Under the experimental conditions, there were no differences in the average crop yield, compared to the historical productivity of soybean and maize crops by applying this technology because the recommended doses were not affected and the site of application was limited to points where the presence of plants was present was detected.


Assuntos
Fungicidas Industriais , Herbicidas , Praguicidas , Produtos Agrícolas , Praguicidas/análise , Zea mays
17.
Arch Environ Contam Toxicol ; 82(4): 551-557, 2022 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35394169

RESUMO

Atrazine (ATZ) is one of the pesticides mostly widely used in Brazil; several studies have shown the toxic effects of this herbicide on aquatic organisms such as fish. Thus, it is absolutely necessary finding alternatives to protect the health of fish, mainly of species commercially important for aquaculture, which may be exposed to atrazine deriving from agricultural runoff. The aim of the current study was to investigate interactions between dietary supplementation with vitamin C (Vit C) antioxidant and exposure to ATZ in Rhamdia quelen fish exposed to this herbicide. R. quelen specimens were divided into four groups: (1) CTRL, (2) VitC, (3) ATZ, (4) ATZ + VitC. Groups 3 and 4 were exposed to ATZ (10 µg L-1) for 96 h, after 30 days of VitC supplementation (1 g kg-1). Liver samples were collected for biomarker assays. Group 4 was the only group presenting decreased protein carbonyl content. Non-protein thiol (NPSH) levels were significantly higher in groups VitC, ATZ and ATZ + VitC than in CTRL. Group ATZ + VitC presented significant increase in glutatione-peroxidase (GPx) activity in comparison to the other investigated groups. Ascorbic acid (AA) levels were significantly higher in group VitC and lower in group ATZ. Therefore, interactions between herbicide ATZ and dietary supplementation with Vit C have shown biochemical changes in R. quelen fish. Thus, dietary supplements with adequate amounts of Vit C can be added as antioxidants to the diet of fish bred in aquaculture systems in order to protect them from exposure to ATZ.


Assuntos
Atrazina , Peixes-Gato , Herbicidas , Poluentes Químicos da Água , Animais , Antioxidantes/metabolismo , Ácido Ascórbico , Atrazina/toxicidade , Peixes-Gato/metabolismo , Suplementos Nutricionais , Herbicidas/toxicidade , Carbonilação Proteica , Poluentes Químicos da Água/metabolismo , Poluentes Químicos da Água/toxicidade
18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35457424

RESUMO

Wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) represent a major point source for pesticide residue entry to aquatic environment and may threaten ecosystems and biodiversity in urban area. Triazine herbicides should be paid attention to for their ubiquitous occurrence in the environment and long-term residue. The present study aimed to quantify eleven compounds of triazine herbicides during wastewater treatment processes. The solid phase extraction and gas-chromatography mass spectrometry (GC-MS) determination method were developed to identify the target herbicides with approving sensitivity. The pollution levels, removal rates of eleven triazine herbicides along five different treatment stages in WWTP were investigated. The results showed that three herbicides including atrazine, simetryn and prometryn were detected. Their concentrations in influent were among 28.79 to 104.60 ng/L. Their total removal rates from influent to effluent were 14.92%, 10.79% and 4.41%, respectively indicating that they were difficult to be effectively remove during wastewater treatment. Regarding the negative impact of triazine herbicides discharged from WWTPs on downstream water quality and aquatic life, the environmental risks were assessed by calculating the Environmental Relevance of Pesticides from Wastewater Treatment Plants Index (ERPWI) and water cycle spreading index (WCSI). The risk assessment results denoted the possible high risks for atrazine and simetryn to alage, and simetryn concurrently posed a high risk for the daphnia, while prometryn was at medium risk to alage. Atrazine and simetryn in effluent posed high risk for algae, meanwhile, simetryn had high risk for Daphnia. These results suggested a possible threat to the aquatic environment, rendering in this way the ERPWI method as a useful assessment tool. Further extensive study is needed for atrazine and simetryn in order to better understand their migration mechanism in aquatic environment.


Assuntos
Atrazina , Herbicidas , Poluentes Químicos da Água , Purificação da Água , Atrazina/análise , Ecossistema , Meio Ambiente , Monitoramento Ambiental , Herbicidas/análise , Prometrina/análise , Triazinas/análise , Poluentes Químicos da Água/análise
19.
World J Microbiol Biotechnol ; 38(6): 98, 2022 Apr 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35478266

RESUMO

Glyphosate (N-(phosphonomethyl)glycine) has emerged as the top-selling herbicide worldwide because of its versatility in controlling annual and perennial weeds and the extensive use of glyphosate-resistant crops. Concerns related to the widespread use of glyphosate and its ubiquitous presence in the environment has led to a large number of studies and reviews, which examined the toxicity and fate of glyphosate and its major metabolite, aminomethylphosphonic acid (AMPA) in the environment. Because the biological breakdown of glyphosate is most likely the main elimination process, the biodegradation of glyphosate has also been the object of abundant experimental work. Importantly, glyphosate biodegradation in aquatic and soil ecosystems is affected not only by the composition and the activity of microbial communities, but also by the physical environment. However, the interplay between microbiomes and glyphosate biodegradation in edaphic and aquatic environments has rarely been considered before. The proposed minireview aims at filling this gap. We summarize the most recent work exploring glyphosate biodegradation in natural aquatic biofilms, the biological, chemical and physical factors and processes playing on the adsorption, transport and biodegradation of glyphosate at different levels of soil organization and under different agricultural managements, and its impact on soil microbial communities.


Assuntos
Herbicidas , Microbiota , Glicina/análogos & derivados , Solo/química
20.
Arch Microbiol ; 204(5): 252, 2022 Apr 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35411478

RESUMO

A widely used herbicide for controlling weeds, glyphosate, is causing environmental pollution. It is necessary to remove it from environment using a cost-effective and eco-friendly method. The aims of this study were to isolate glyphosate-degrading bacteria and to optimize their degradative conditions required for bioremediation. Sixteen bacterial strains were isolated through enrichment and one strain, Rhodococcus soli G41, demonstrated a high removal rate of glyphosate than other strains. Response surface methodology was employed to optimize distinct environmental factors on glyphosate degradation of G41 strain. The optimal conditions for the maximum glyphosate degradation were found to have the NH4Cl concentration of 0.663% and glyphosate concentration of 0.115%, resulting in a maximum degradation of 42.7% after 7 days. Bioremediation analysis showed 47.1% and 40% of glyphosate in unsterile soil and sterile soil was removed by G41 strain after 14 days, respectively. The presence of soxB gene in G41 strain indicates that the glyphosate is degraded via the eco-friendly sarcosine pathway. The results indicated that G41 strain has the potential to serve as an in-situ candidate for bioremediation of glyphosate polluted environments.


Assuntos
Herbicidas , Rhodococcus , Biodegradação Ambiental , Glicina/análogos & derivados , Herbicidas/metabolismo , Rhodococcus/genética , Rhodococcus/metabolismo , Solo , Microbiologia do Solo
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