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1.
J Environ Manage ; 267: 110665, 2020 Aug 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32421682

RESUMO

The electro-kinetic remediation of soils using different powering strategies has been studied, in order to clarify which is the best strategy to couple solar powering with this remediation technology, in a context of developing more sustainable electrochemical remediation technologies. Direct powering from photovoltaic panels (Case a), application of constant electric fields with the same average value of Case a (Case b) and application of constant specific power with the same average value of Case a (Case c) have been compared. Results show an outstanding influence of the powering strategy on the removal efficiency of clopyralid (model of herbicide used in this work). The direct use of solar power profiles obtained the lowest removal efficiencies, which contrasts with the higher expected sustainability of this powering strategy. Reversion of pollutant transport overnight and extreme electric field values at noon help to explain the lower efficiency of this strategy. Evaporation mechanisms are promoted by operating at extreme large electric fields. In addition, harsher conditions lead to a higher negative soil affectation in terms of regions affected by extreme pHs, water contents and/or conductivities and to lower specific pollutant removals. Therefore, maximum efficiencies were found for Case b (constant electric potential gradient) with a total removal over 110 g kWh-1 and only a slight affectation into the final soil properties.


Assuntos
Recuperação e Remediação Ambiental , Herbicidas , Poluentes do Solo , Energia Solar , Solo
2.
Pestic Biochem Physiol ; 165: 104560, 2020 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32359536

RESUMO

Amaranthus retroflexus L. is one of the most troublesome weeds in autumn-crop fields in Northeast China. In recent years, field applications of fomesafen have failed to control an A. retroflexus population in Heilongjiang Province, China. Therefore, in this study, experiments were conducted to determine the resistance of A. retroflexus to fomesafen and investigate the molecular basis of herbicide resistance. Whole-plant dose-response experiments showed that the resistant (R) population exhibited 41.8-fold resistance to fomesafen compared with the susceptible (S) population. Target-gene sequence analysis revealed an Arg-128-Gly substitution in the protoporphyrinogen oxidase (PPO) in the R population. The response of PPO2 transgenic Arabidopsis thaliana to fomesafen demonstrated that the Arg-128-Gly substitution conferred high resistance to fomesafen. Cross- and multiple-resistance analyses indicated that the R population was cross-resistant to lactofen and carfentrazone-ethyl but was sensitive to imazethapyr, thifensulfuron-methyl, atrazine, and glyphosate. This study indicated that the Arg-128-Gly substitution is the main reason for A. retroflexus resistance to fomesafen. To our knowledge, this is the first report of a target-site based mechanism for the resistance to a PPO-inhibiting herbicide in A. retroflexus.


Assuntos
Amaranthus , Herbicidas , Benzamidas , China , Resistência a Herbicidas
3.
Pestic Biochem Physiol ; 165: 104556, 2020 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32359543

RESUMO

Glyphosate-resistant populations of Eleusine indica are widespread in several states of Malaysia. A whole-plant bioassay confirmed that eight out of the 17 populations tested were resistant to glyphosate at double the recommended rate of 2.44 kg ha-1. Screening with allele-specific PCR (AS-PCR) revealed that resistant plants contained an EPSPS gene with either the homozygous S/S-106 or the heterozygous P/S-106 alleles. All susceptible plants contained only the homozygous P/P-106 allele. In addition, DNA sequences of the full-length EPSPS gene from one susceptible (SB) and four resistant (R2, R6, R8 and R11) populations revealed an amino acid substitution of T102I in all the resistant plants, while another substitution of P381L was only found in resistant populations R6 and R11. The significance of the P381L mutation was examined by Molecular Mechanics Poisson-Boltzmann Surface Area (MM-PBSA) and residue interaction network (RIN) analyses, which suggests the P381L mutation may contribute to resistance. Mutations at 102 and 106 occur widely in the EPSPS gene of glyphosate-resistant E. indica populations from Malaysia with the TIPS mutation. In addition, the P381L mutation could also contribute to resistance.


Assuntos
Eleusine , Herbicidas , 3-Fosfoshikimato 1-Carboxiviniltransferase , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas , Glicina/análogos & derivados , Resistência a Herbicidas , Malásia , Mutação
4.
Pestic Biochem Physiol ; 165: 104506, 2020 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32359553

RESUMO

Monochoria vaginalis and M. korsakowii are allotetraploid noxious weeds in rice cultivation. Occurrences of resistance to acetolactate synthase (ALS)-inhibiting herbicides have been reported in these weeds in Japan since the 1990s. The existence of multiple copies of ALS genes in both species has hindered and complicated the detailed study of molecular mechanisms in them. To determine the copy number and full-length of ALS genes in both species, we first amplified partial sequences of ALS genes and separated them by cloning. Five and three distinct sequences were identified in M. vaginalis and M. korsakowii, respectively. RACE and TAIL PCR successfully isolated full-length ALS genes, revealing that one copy of ALS genes in both species is a pseudogene formed by a frameshift mutation. Interestingly, one of the four putative functional ALS genes in M. vaginalis contains an intron in the 3'-untranslated region. Amplification and sequencing of the full-length ALS genes in sensitive and suspected resistant lines revealed a non-synonymous point mutation at codon Pro197, resulting in amino acid substitutions (Leu, Ser, or Ala) well known to endow ALS inhibitor resistance. Importantly, codon Pro197 of the M. korsakowii pseudogene encodes leucine (Leu) both in resistant and sensitive plants, which is also known to confer ALS inhibitor resistance when ALS genes are functional. Dose responses to imazosulfuron of the lines analyzed for ALS genes were in agreement with the existence of the mutations. These results suggest that some caution is needed when diagnosing molecular resistance in M. korsakowii. The information of copy number and full-length sequences will help diagnose ALS resistance and make a basis for the study of the evolution of ALS resistance in Monochoria spp.


Assuntos
Acetolactato Sintase , Herbicidas , Resistência a Herbicidas , Humanos , Japão , Mutação , Plantas Daninhas , Tetraploidia
5.
An Acad Bras Cienc ; 92 Suppl 1: e20180519, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32348414

RESUMO

Contamination of water sources due to herbicide is of great concern. Clomazone is a pesticide with a high contamination potential which could possibility lixiviate to water streams. Changes caused by residual herbicide include flora modifications which are generally detrimental for some species. The lack of morphological studies performed in aquatic plants exposed to herbicide-contaminated environments has encouraged the development of our research. For the first time, we present a study that aimed to evaluate leaf injuries visible to the naked eye as well as microscopical effects which may be caused by clomazone on Pistia stratiotes. Pistia stratiotes was subjected to five concentrations of clomazone. Our analysis showed leaf injuries, especially after 15 days of clomazone application. Hormesis was observed when the water lettuce was subjected to the lower concentrations. Total leaf area showed increase following by reduction while injured until reaching the highest concentration. Although the concentrations of clomazone tested in our study are not lethal to water lettuce, such herbicide have still caused morphoanatomical damages on leaves which advocates for the use of P. stratiotes as a bioindicator of the presence of herbicides such as clomazone in water.


Assuntos
Araceae/efeitos dos fármacos , Herbicidas/toxicidade , Isoxazóis/toxicidade , Oxazolidinonas/toxicidade , Resíduos de Praguicidas/toxicidade , Poluentes Químicos da Água/toxicidade
6.
Water Res ; 177: 115784, 2020 Jun 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32299021

RESUMO

The solar/chlorine process is an energy-efficient advanced oxidation process that can produce reactive species such as hydroxyl radical, reactive chlorine species and ozone. This study investigated the process' ability to detoxify the typical herbicides atrazine and mecoprop (methylchlorophenoxypropionic acid). Both herbicides are resistant to direct solar photolysis or chlorination alone, but they can be degraded by the solar/chlorine process effectively. Atrazine inhibited the development of Arabidopsis thaliana, but such inhibition was negligible after solar/chlorine treatment of an atrazine solution. The transformation of atrazine in the process was shown to be through hydroxylation, hydrogen abstraction and dechlorination but did not involve chlorine substitution or addition. Cl• reacts with atrazine and mecoprop with rate constants of 6.87 × 109 M-1s-1 and 1.08 × 1010 M-1s-1, respectively, while ClO• reacts with mecoprop with a rate constant of 1.11 × 108 M-1s-1. The degradation kinetics of atrazine and mecoprop by solar/chlorine was simulated by modeling, which fitted the experimental results well. Hydroxyl radicals (HO•) mainly contributed to the degradation of atrazine by solar/chlorine at pH 7 with the contribution of 65%, whereas ClO• and O3 were main species responsible for the degradation of mecoprop with the contribution of 72% and 17%, respectively. The pseudo-first-order rate constants (k's) of the two degradations increased substantially (by 28.8% for atrazine and by 198% for mecoprop) when the chlorine dosage was increased from 50 µM to 200 µM. The k's decreased with increasing pH. The presence of natural organic matter inhibited the degradation of both herbicides, while the presence of bromide enhanced their degradation. This work reveals a feasible method for the detoxifying herbicides by combining chlorine with solar radiation.


Assuntos
Herbicidas , Poluentes Químicos da Água , Purificação da Água , Cloro , Cinética , Oxirredução , Raios Ultravioleta
7.
Pestic Biochem Physiol ; 164: 1-6, 2020 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32284114

RESUMO

Sourgrass (Digitaria insularis) is one of the most problematic weeds in South America because glyphosate resistance is widespread across most crop production regions. Acetyl coenzyme A carboxylase (ACCase)-inhibiting herbicides have been intensively used to manage D. insularis, which substantially increased selection pressure for this class of herbicides. We confirmed resistance to ACCase herbicides in a D. insularis population from Brazil and characterized its molecular basis. Resistant plants showed high level of resistance to haloxyfop (resistance factor, RF = 613-fold), low level of resistance to pinoxaden (RF = 3.6-fold), and no resistance to clethodim. A target-site mutation, Trp2027Cys, was found in the ACCase sequence from resistant plants. A protein homology model shows that the Trp2027Cys mutation is near the herbicide-binding pocket formed between two ACCase chains, and is predicted to obstruct the access of aryloxyphenoxypropionates (FOP) herbicides to the binding site. A qPCR-based single nucleotide polymorphism genotyping method was validated to discriminate susceptible (wild-type Trp2027) and resistant (mutant Cys2027) alleles. All resistant plants were homozygous for the mutation and the assay could be used for early detection of resistance in D. insularis field samples with suspected resistance to ACCase inhibitors.


Assuntos
Digitaria , Herbicidas , Acetil-CoA Carboxilase , Brasil , Resistência a Herbicidas , Mutação , Poaceae
8.
Pestic Biochem Physiol ; 164: 203-208, 2020 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32284128

RESUMO

Goosegrass is one of the most widespread weeds in orchards and tea plantations in China, and glyphosate is a popular herbicide used to control it. However, high glyphosate selection pressure has led to some populations becoming resistant. The objectives of this research were to determine resistance levels and possible resistance mechanisms of goosegrass populations from several tea plantations in Zhejiang Province in China. The resistance indexes in four goosegrass populations (SH, SY, CA and CX) ranged from 4.9 to 13.4, and lower shikimate accumulation in these populations compared with a glyphosate-susceptible (GS) population confirmed their resistance to glyphosate. No mutations in the target gene EPSPS were found in populations SH and SY, however, the expression of EPSPS in these two populations was 9.3 and 29.7 times higher than that in the GS population, respectively. In the CX population, a P106S mutation in EPSPS was found in 6.7% of the individuals and another 80.0% of individuals had EPSPS amplification. In population CA, all the individuals had a P106A mutation and 86.7% of them had amplification in EPSPS. The EPSPS copy numbers ranged from 5.2 to 62.3 in these four resistant populations. There was a positive correlation between signal intensities of primary anti-EPSPS antibody and the copy number of the EPSPS protein, as indicated by immunoblot analysis. In population CA, with high-level resistance to glyphosate, both P106A mutation and amplification in EPSPS evolved in the same individuals in this population.


Assuntos
Eleusine , Herbicidas , 3-Fosfoshikimato 1-Carboxiviniltransferase , China , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas , Glicina/análogos & derivados , Resistência a Herbicidas , Mutação
9.
Pestic Biochem Physiol ; 164: 65-72, 2020 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32284138

RESUMO

Three putative resistant (R1, R2, R3) and one susceptible (S) Lolium rigidum populations originating from Greece were studied for resistance to ALS and ACCase inhibiting herbicides, using whole plant, sequencing of als and accase gene, and in vitro ALS activity assays. The S and two R (R1, R2) populations were also evaluated for fitness in competition with wheat. The whole plant assay indicated unsatisfactory control of the R populations with mesosulfuron-methyl + iodosulfuron-methyl or pinoxaden application, whereas sequencing of the als gene revealed that all ALS-resistant individuals had a Pro-197 substitution by Leu, Glu, Ser, Ala, Thr, or Gln. In addition, the accase gene of all pinoxaden resistant individuals had an Ile-2041 substitution by Asn or Thr. Furthermore, sequencing of the individuals surviving mesosulfuron-methyl + iodosulfuron-methyl or pinoxaden treatment revealed co-existence of point mutations in the accase or als genes, respectively, demonstrating multiple resistance. The in vitro activity of the ALS enzyme confirmed that resistance to mesosulfuron-methyl + iodosulfuron-methyl was due altered target-site. The recorded higher vigor and greater competitive ability of S population against wheat as compared with that of the R populations suggests an associated fitness cost with multiple resistance.


Assuntos
Herbicidas , Lolium , Acetil-CoA Carboxilase , Esclerose Amiotrófica Lateral , Resistência a Herbicidas , Mutação
10.
Sci Total Environ ; 720: 137481, 2020 Jun 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32145617

RESUMO

The current Australian sugarcane industry transition toward adoption of an 'alternative' herbicide strategy as part of improved environmental stewardship is increasingly complicated by recent farming system, regulatory and herbicidal product changes. This study quantified and compared the efficacy, economic costs and environmental risk profiles of a range of established, emerging, and recently registered pre-emergent herbicides across field trials in the Wet Tropics region of North Queensland. Several herbicides were effective on certain weed species, but lacked broad spectrum control. Better efficacy results from products with multiple active ingredients (i.e., imazapic-hexazinone) demonstrated the benefits of using mixtures of active ingredients to widen the spectrum of weed control efficacy. All tested pre-emergent herbicides behaved quite similarly in terms of their propensity for off-site movement in water (surface runoff losses generally >10% of active applied), with their losses largely driven by their application rate. Herbicides with lower application rates consistently contributed less to the total herbicide loads measured in surface runoff. Results demonstrated alternative choices from the more environmentally problematic herbicides (such as diuron) are available with effective alternative formulations providing between 4 and 29 times less risk than the traditional diuron-hexazinone 'full rate'. However, considerable challenges still face canegrowers in making cost-effective decisions on sustainable herbicide selection. Additional research and effective grower extension are required to address information gaps in issues such as specific weed control efficacy of alternative herbicides and potential blending of some herbicides for more effective broad spectrum weed control, while also minimising environmental risks.


Assuntos
Herbicidas/química , Austrália , Queensland , Poluentes Químicos da Água , Controle de Plantas Daninhas
11.
Environ Monit Assess ; 192(4): 212, 2020 Mar 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32133572

RESUMO

The distribution of pesticides in soils with consequences for their mobility, bioavailability and water contamination is mainly ruled by sorption processes. Such processes are seldom investigated in tropical soils. Thus, specific interactions between tropical soils and most pesticides are widely unknown. Furthermore, the question arises whether the same factors govern adsorption in tropical and temperate soils. Thus, the sorption behaviour of five phenylurea herbicides (PUHs) was studied in eighteen differently composed soils originating from southwestern Nigeria. Sorption data were obtained by equilibrating the soil samples with 0.01 M CaCl2 solutions spiked with increasing concentrations of the target PUHs. The equilibrium data fitted well to the Freundlich isotherm equation (R2 ≥ 0.96), delivering the corresponding parameters (Kf and n). Linear distribution coefficients (Kd) were also calculated. The Pearson correlation was used to identify the specific soil and herbicide properties that have statistically significant correlations with sorption parameters. High correlations were established for various soil properties (pH, cation exchange capacity, organic carbon content, content of amorphous Fe and Mn oxides, clay/silt mass proportions) as well as molecular descriptors (octanol-water partition coefficient (log Kow) and molecular mass (Mw)) of the moderately hydrophobic herbicides. Monuron, chlorotoluron and isoproturon showed higher affinities for soil than previously reported. The gathered knowledge might assist in the assessment and in the precautionary avoidance of potential risks generated by these compounds in tropical soils.


Assuntos
Herbicidas , Compostos de Fenilureia , Poluentes do Solo , Adsorção , Monitoramento Ambiental , Herbicidas/química , Nigéria , Compostos de Fenilureia/química , Solo , Poluentes do Solo/química
12.
Water Res ; 173: 115584, 2020 Apr 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32062224

RESUMO

The cause of phytoplankton blooms has been extensively discussed and largely attributed to favorable external conditions such as nitrogen/phosphorus resources, pH and temperature. Here from the standpoint of hormesis response, we propose that phytoplankton blooms are initiated by stimulatory effects of low concentrations of herbicides as environmental contaminants spread over estuaries and lakes. The experimental results revealed general stimulations by herbicides on Microcystis aeruginosa and Selenastrum capricornutum, with the maximum stimulation in the 30-60% range, depending on the agent and experiment. In parallel with enhancing stimulation, the ratio of HP (high-potential) form to LP (low-potential) form of cytochrome b559 (RHL) was observed decreasing, while intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) were observed increasing. We propose that the ROS originated from the thermodynamic transformation of cytochrome b559, enhancing the stimulatory response. Furthermore, the results also proved that thermodynamic states of cytochrome b559 could be modulated by nitric oxide, thus affecting cellular equilibrium of oxidative stress (OS) and correspondingly causing the inhibitory effect of higher concentrations of herbicides on phytoplankton. This suggests that hormesis substantially derives from equilibrium shifting of OS. Moreover, it is reasonable to infer that phytoplankton blooms would be motivated by herbicides or other environmental pollutants. This study provides a new thought into global phytoplankton blooms from a contaminant perspective.


Assuntos
Herbicidas , Fitoplâncton , Citocromos b , Eutrofização , Hormese , Óxido Nítrico , Espécies Reativas de Oxigênio
13.
Sci Total Environ ; 718: 137254, 2020 May 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32087583

RESUMO

The direct effects of large-scale disturbances are readily studied because their effects are often apparent and result in large changes to ecosystems. Direct effects can cascade through the ecosystem, leading to indirect effects that are often subtle and difficult to detect. Managing anthropogenic disturbances, such as chemical contamination, requires an understanding of both direct and indirect effects to predict, measure, and characterize the impact. Using a replicated whole-ecosystem experiment and path analyses (assesses the effects of a set of variables on a specified outcome, similar to multiple regression), we examined the direct and indirect effects of a glyphosate-based herbicide and nutrient enrichment on wetland communities. The latter did not impact any measured endpoints. The strongest drivers of macrophyte, benthic invertebrate, and amphibian assemblages were the ephemerality and the size of wetlands, factors which were not altered by herbicide applications. The herbicide had a direct negative effect on macrophyte cover, amphibian larval abundance, and the proportion of predatory benthic invertebrates. However, both amphibians and invertebrates were positively affected by the reduction in the macrophyte cover caused by the herbicide applications. The opposing directions of the direct and indirect effects lead to no net change in either group. The compensatory dynamics observed herein highlight the need for a better understanding of indirect effects pathways to determine whether common anthropogenic disturbances alter the ecological communities in small wetland ecosystems.


Assuntos
Áreas Alagadas , Animais , Herbicidas , Invertebrados , Larva
14.
Chemosphere ; 248: 125915, 2020 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32007770

RESUMO

Herbicide-polluted soils have posed a threat to the crop growth and agro-product quality and safety. Even worse, the low-content of residue is still appreciable for a long time in subsurface soils. The soil bioelectrochemical remediation system (BERS) provides an inexhaustible electron acceptor to cause in situ indigenous microorganisms to generate biocurrent and accelerate the removal of metolachlor (ML). As a result of carbon fiber amendment, the highest current density (637 ± 19 mA/m2) to date has been generated in a soil BERS. The ML half-life and complete removal time decreased from 21 to 3 d and from 245 to 109 d, respectively. Importantly, the soil BERS was verified to be an effective treatment method for low-polluted sediments/soils, whether by ML or by its degradates. The quantitative degradates of ML showed that the first step was dechlorination based on the bioelectrochemical degradation pathway. The biocurrent selectively enriched special species, e.g., Geobacter and Thermincola for bioelectricity generation and Ralstonia, Phyllobacterium and Stenotrophomonas for degradation in soils. Meanwhile, Flavisolibacter and Gemmatimonas occupied the core niche in strengthening interspecific relationships by the biocurrent. This study firstly revealed the explicit abundance of Geobacter in agricultural soils and laid a foundation for the function design of mixed bacteria in the sediment/soil BERS.


Assuntos
Acetamidas/química , Recuperação e Remediação Ambiental , Bactérias/metabolismo , Biodegradação Ambiental , Fontes de Energia Bioelétrica/microbiologia , Geobacter/metabolismo , Halogenação , Herbicidas/metabolismo , Cinética , Solo/química , Microbiologia do Solo , Poluentes do Solo/análise
15.
Chemosphere ; 248: 125955, 2020 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32028155

RESUMO

The studied hypothesis is that glyphosate (GLY) can affect the oxidative balance in the hydrophilic intracellular medium in non-target Chlorella vulgaris cells. Analytical GLY (5 µM) and a commercial product (RUP) (5 µM) supplementation, did not affect the growth profile. Neither in latent (Lag) nor in exponential (Exp) phase of development, there were significant differences in the cellular abundance, evaluated as cell number, after the supplementation with GLY or RUP. The ascorbyl (A•) content was significantly increased in the presence of GLY or RUP, in Lag and Exp phase of growth. No changes were observed in stationary (St) phase after supplementation with either GLY or RUP. Ascorbate (AH-) content was decreased by 30% in Exp phase of development the presence of RUP. In St phase of the development both, the administration of either GLY or RUP decreased the antioxidant content by 34 and 37%, respectively. The supplementation with GLY and RUP lead to a significant 5- and 10-fold increase in Exp phase, respectively in the A•/AH-content ratio, assessed as a damage/protection ratio in the hydrophilic fraction of the cells, as compared to controls. Neither GLY nor RUP affected the ratio in cells in St phase of development. The data presented here showed experimental evidence that suggested that oxidative balance in the hydrophilic environment is affected by GLY, even at the low to medium concentrations currently used. The effect seems as reversible either because of the magnitude of the herbicide-dependent damage or the antioxidant activity activated.


Assuntos
Chlorella vulgaris/efeitos dos fármacos , Glicina/análogos & derivados , Poluentes Químicos da Água/toxicidade , Animais , Antioxidantes , Ácido Ascórbico , Chlorella vulgaris/fisiologia , Glicina/toxicidade , Herbicidas/toxicidade , Oxirredução , Estresse Oxidativo
16.
Chemosphere ; 248: 125959, 2020 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32035379

RESUMO

The emergent demand for food production has increased the widespread use of pesticides, especially glyphosate-based herbicides as they can protect different types of crops, especially transgenic ones. Molecules of glyphosate have been found in water bodies around the world, and its presence can cause negative effects on non-target organisms, such as fish. Glyphosate toxicity appears to be systemic in fish but does not affect their organs equally. Also, its formulations can be more toxic than pure glyphosate. In this sense, we investigated if these variations in toxicity could be related to ATP binding cassette subfamily C (ABCC) transporters and the cellular detoxification capacity, following exposure to herbicides. Thus, adults of Danio rerio were exposed (24 and 96 h) to glyphosate and Roundup Transorb® (RT) at an environmental concentration of 0.1 mg/L, and the activity of ABCC proteins and gene expression of five isoforms of ABCC were analyzed. Glyphosate and RT exposure increased ABCC protein activity and gene expression up to 3-fold when compared to controls, indicating the activation of detoxification mechanisms. Only in the brain of D. rerio, the exposure to RT did not stimulate the activity of ABCC proteins, neither the expression of genes abcc1 and abcc4 that responded to the exposure to pure glyphosate. These results may suggest that the brain is more sensitive to RT than the other target-tissues since the mechanism of detoxification via ABCC transporters were not activated in this tissue as it was in the other.


Assuntos
Glicina/análogos & derivados , Herbicidas/toxicidade , Peixe-Zebra/fisiologia , Transportadores de Cassetes de Ligação de ATP , Animais , Glicina/toxicidade
17.
J Agric Food Chem ; 68(10): 3071-3078, 2020 Mar 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32078770

RESUMO

This work reports halogenated 5-(2-hydroxyphenyl)pyrazoles as pseudilin analogues with the potential to target the enzyme IspD in the methylerythritol phosphate (MEP) pathway. Such analogues were designed using the bioisosteric replacement of the pseudilin core structure and synthesized via an efficient three-step route. With AtIspD-based screening and pre- and post-emergence herbicidal tests, these compounds were demonstrated to have considerable activities against AtIspD, with IC50 up to 3.27 µM, and against model plants rape and barnyard grass, with moderate to excellent activities. At a rate of 150 g/ha in the greenhouse test, three compounds exhibited higher or comparable herbicidal activities than pseudilin. Molecular docking of representative compounds into the allosteric site of AtIspD revealed a binding mode similar to that of pseudilin. The established bioisosterism and synthesis method in this work may serve as an important tool for the development of new herbicides and antimicrobials targeting IspD in the MEP pathway.


Assuntos
Echinochloa/enzimologia , Inibidores Enzimáticos/química , Inibidores Enzimáticos/farmacologia , Herbicidas/química , Herbicidas/farmacologia , Proteínas de Plantas/antagonistas & inibidores , Pirazóis/química , Pirazóis/farmacologia , Echinochloa/efeitos dos fármacos , Echinochloa/genética , Echinochloa/metabolismo , Inibidores Enzimáticos/síntese química , Eritritol/metabolismo , Halogenação , Herbicidas/síntese química , Simulação de Acoplamento Molecular , Estrutura Molecular , Fosfatos/metabolismo , Proteínas de Plantas/genética , Proteínas de Plantas/metabolismo , Pirazóis/síntese química , Relação Estrutura-Atividade
18.
J Agric Food Chem ; 68(10): 3026-3032, 2020 Mar 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32049526

RESUMO

Glufosinate is considered a contact herbicide because of its fast activity and limited translocation in plants. We used Palmer amaranth (Amaranthus palmeri S. Watson) as a model species to study plant-related factors affecting glufosinate uptake and translocation. Glufosinate uptake increased rapidly during the initial 24 h, achieving maximum uptake from this time on. The rate of uptake saturated with doses higher than 250 µM glufosinate, suggesting the involvement of a membrane transporter. When glufosinate concentrations were higher (>1 mM), uptake was a simple diffusion process in favor of a concentration gradient between the inside and the outside of the cells. Glufosinate uptake was inhibited by the presence of glutamine. The fast action of glufosinate did not limit its own translocation. Because glufosinate is highly water soluble, it translocates mostly through the apoplast or the xylem system. Consequently, old leaves tend to accumulate more herbicide than young meristematic leaves.


Assuntos
Amaranthus/metabolismo , Aminobutiratos/metabolismo , Herbicidas/metabolismo , Amaranthus/química , Aminobutiratos/química , Transporte Biológico , Herbicidas/química , Cinética , Folhas de Planta/química , Folhas de Planta/metabolismo , Xilema/química , Xilema/metabolismo
19.
J Agric Food Chem ; 68(10): 3017-3025, 2020 Mar 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32059105

RESUMO

Chlorsulfuron has been applied in wheat fields as a recognized herbicide worldwide, yet it was officially banned in China since 2014 for its soil persistence problem. On the basis of our previous research that 5-dimethylamino distinctively accelerated degradation rate in soils, a modified amino moiety (Ia-c) and monosubstituted amino group (Id-e) were introduced onto the fifth position of the benzene ring in sulfonylurea structures, as well as heterocyclic amino substituents (If-g) to seek a suitable soil degradation rate during such an in situ crop rotation system. Referring to the biological data and ScAHAS inhibition and ScAHAS docking results, they turned out to be AHAS inhibitors with high potent herbicidal activities. The various influence on soil degradation rate along with crop safety indicated that different substituents on the fifth position have exerted an apparent impact. Their united study of structure-activity-safety-degradation relationship has great potential to provide valuable information for further development of eco-friendly agrochemicals.


Assuntos
Acetolactato Sintase/antagonistas & inibidores , Inibidores Enzimáticos/farmacologia , Herbicidas/farmacologia , Proteínas de Plantas/antagonistas & inibidores , Poluentes do Solo/química , Compostos de Sulfonilureia/farmacologia , Acetolactato Sintase/metabolismo , Amaranthus/efeitos dos fármacos , Amaranthus/enzimologia , Brassica/efeitos dos fármacos , Brassica/enzimologia , Inibidores Enzimáticos/química , Herbicidas/química , Cinética , Modelos Moleculares , Proteínas de Plantas/metabolismo , Poluentes do Solo/farmacologia , Relação Estrutura-Atividade , Compostos de Sulfonilureia/química
20.
Ecotoxicology ; 29(3): 295-304, 2020 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32088881

RESUMO

As the top-selling herbicide in the world, glyphosate distributes widely in natural environment and its influence on the ecological security and human health has attracted more and more concern. Glutathione S-transferases (GSTs) are a well-characterized superfamily of isoenzymes for cellular defense against exogenous toxic substances and therefore protect organisms from injury. In this study, the complete cDNA sequence of GST gene (named as Dja-GST) in freshwater planarian Dugesia japonica was firstly cloned by means of RACE method. The full-length Dja-GST comprises of 706 nucleotides which encodes a polypeptide of 200 amino acids. Dja-GST has two representative GST domains at the N- and C-termini. The conservative GST-N domain includes G-site Y8, F9, R14, W39, K43, P52 and S64, while the variable GST-C domain contains H-site K104, V156, D159 and L161. Sequence analysis, phylogenetic tree reconstruction and multiple alignment collectively indicate that Dja-GST belongs to the Sigma class of GST superfamily. Also, GST gene expression profile, GST enzymatic activity and MDA content in response to glyphosate exposure were systematically investigated and the correlations among them were analyzed. The results suggest that glyphosate exposure modified the mRNA transcription and enzymatic activity of GST, as well as the MDA content in planarians, indicating that Dja-GST might play an important part in organisms defending against oxidative stress induced by glyphosate. This work lays a molecular foundation for further exploring the exact functions of Dja-GST and gives an important implication for evaluating the ecological environment effects of herbicide glyphosate.


Assuntos
Glutationa Transferase/genética , Glicina/análogos & derivados , Herbicidas/toxicidade , Planárias/fisiologia , Poluentes Químicos da Água/toxicidade , Animais , Clonagem Molecular , Água Doce , Glicina/toxicidade , Estresse Oxidativo
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