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1.
Braz. j. biol ; 84: e247487, 2024. graf
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1345555

RESUMO

Abstract Worldwide, conventional agriculture makes extensive use of pesticides. Although the effects of herbicides are relatively well known in terms of environmental impacts on non-target organisms, there is very little scientific evidence regarding the impacts of herbicide residues on aquatic arthropods from tropical conservation areas. This study evaluates for the first time the toxicity of the herbicides ametryn, atrazine, and clomazone on the aquatic insect Limnocoris submontandoni (Hemiptera: Naucoridae). The lethal concentration (LC50) of herbicides was evaluated for these insects, as well as the effect of the herbicides on the insects' tissues and testicles. The estimated LC50 was 1012.41, 192.42, and 46.09 mg/L for clomazone, atrazine, and ametryn, respectively. Spermatocyte and spermatid changes were observed under the effect of atrazine, and effects on spermatogenesis were observed for some concentrations of clomazone, with apparent recovery after a short time. Our results provide useful information on the effects of herbicide residues in aquatic systems. This information can help minimize the risk of long-term reproductive effects in non-target species that have been previously overlooked in ecotoxicology studies.


Resumo Em todo o mundo, a agricultura convencional faz uso extensivo de pesticidas. Embora os efeitos dos herbicidas sejam relativamente bem conhecidos em termos de impactos ambientais em organismos não-alvo, há pouca evidência científica sobre os impactos de resíduos de herbicidas em artrópodes aquáticos de áreas de conservação tropicais. Este estudo avalia pela primeira vez a toxicidade dos herbicidas ametryn, atrazine e clomazone sobre o inseto aquático Limnocoris submontandoni (Hemiptera: Naucoridae). A concentração letal (LC50) de herbicidas foi avaliada para esses insetos, bem como o efeito dos herbicidas nos tecidos e testículos dos insetos. A LC50 estimada foi de 1012,41, 192,42 e 46,09 mg/L para clomazone, atrazine e ametryn, respectivamente. Alterações nos espermatócitos e espermátides foram observadas sob o efeito de atrazine, e efeitos na espermatogênese foram observados para algumas concentrações de clomazone, com aparente recuperação após um curto período de tempo. Nossos resultados fornecem informações úteis sobre os efeitos de resíduos de herbicidas em sistemas aquáticos. Essas informações podem ajudar a minimizar o risco de efeitos reprodutivos de longo prazo em espécies não-alvo que foram negligenciadas anteriormente em estudos de ecotoxicologia.


Assuntos
Animais , Artrópodes , Poluentes Químicos da Água/toxicidade , Hemípteros , Herbicidas/toxicidade , Ecotoxicologia , Genitália
2.
Braz. j. biol ; 83: e242830, 2023. tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1278540

RESUMO

Abstract Pesticide residues that contaminate the environment circulate within the hydrological cycle can accumulate within the food chain and cause problems to both environmental and human health. Microbes, however, are well known for their metabolic versatility and the ability to degrade chemically stable substances, including recalcitrant xenobiotics. The current study focused on bio-prospecting within Amazonian rainforest soils to find novel strains fungi capable of efficiently degrading the agriculturally and environmentally ubiquitous herbicide, glyphosate. Of 50 fungal strains isolated (using culture media supplemented with glyphosate as the sole carbon-substrate), the majority were Penicillium strains (60%) and the others were Aspergillus and Trichoderma strains (26 and 8%, respectively). All 50 fungal isolates could use glyphosate as a phosphorous source. Eight of these isolates grew better on glyphosate-supplemented media than on regular Czapek Dox medium. LC-MS revealed that glyphosate degradation by Penicillium 4A21 resulted in sarcosine and aminomethylphosphonic acid.


Resumo Resíduos de agrotóxicos que contaminam o meio ambiente circulam no ciclo hidrológico, podendo se acumular na cadeia alimentar e causar problemas tanto à saúde ambiental quanto humana. Por sua vez, microrganismos são bem conhecidos por sua versatilidade metabólica e capacidade de degradar substâncias quimicamente estáveis, incluindo xenobióticos recalcitrantes. O estudo atual se concentrou na bioprospecção nos solos da floresta amazônica para encontrar novas linhagens de fungos capazes de degradar com eficiência o herbicida onipresente na agricultura e no meio ambiente, o glifosato. Entre os 50 fungos isolados (usando meio de cultura suplementado com glifosato como única fonte de carbono), a maioria eram isolados do gênero Penicillium (60%) e os outros eram isolados de Aspergillus e Trichoderma (26 e 8%, respectivamente). Todos os 50 isolados de fungos foram capazes de usar glifosato como fonte de fósforo. Oito desses isolados cresceram melhor em meio suplementado com glifosato do que em meio Czapek Dox regular. LC-MS revelou que a degradação do glifosato por Penicillium 4A21 resultou nos metabólitos sarcosina e ácido aminometilfosfônico.


Assuntos
Humanos , Penicillium , Trichoderma , Herbicidas/toxicidade , Aspergillus , Solo , Microbiologia do Solo , Biodegradação Ambiental , Organofosfonatos , Fungos , Glicina/análogos & derivados
4.
Ecotoxicol Environ Saf ; 241: 113817, 2022 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36068746

RESUMO

In this study, the effects of traditional copper (CuSO4.5H2O) and novel copper algaecides (Captain XTR, SeClear and Lake Guard Blue) were tested on Daphnia magna under acute (48 h) and chronic (21 d) exposure scenarios. The EC50 values calculated in the acute tests were between 0.5 and 0.6 mg Cu L-1 for all four compounds. Lake Guard Blue and CuSO4.5 H2O were more toxic than SeClear and Captain XTR. During the chronic test, the effects of SeClear (EC50: 0.274 mg Cu L-1) on reproduction and body length were larger than the effects of the other three copper-based algaecides (EC50: 0.436 mg Cu L-1 for CuSO4.5 H2O, 0.498 mg Cu L-1 for Captain XTR, and 0.295 mg Cu L-1 for Lake Guard Blue). Captain XTR had the strongest negative effect on body weight, whereas body weight was affected the least by CuSO4.5 H2O. The four copper compounds affected the age at first brood significantly, which was delayed by 1.8, 2.0, 2.3 and 3.2 days for Captain XTR, CuSO4.5H2O, Lake Guard Blue and SeClear, respectively. Intrinsic rate of population increase was lowest (0.145 d-1) at the highest dosage in the SeClear treatments. Chemical equilibrium modelling revealed that most copper was chelated with EDTA present in the artificial medium used. These combined results indicate that the toxicity of the novel copper algaecide SeClear to D. magna is greater than that of traditional copper algaecide. Prior to each Cu application, tests on the effects of Cu compounds on the organisms being targeted should be done, taking into consideration the water chemistry.


Assuntos
Herbicidas , Poluentes Químicos da Água , Animais , Peso Corporal , Cobre/análise , Daphnia , Herbicidas/toxicidade , Lagos , Poluentes Químicos da Água/análise
5.
Braz J Med Biol Res ; 55: e12350, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36102419

RESUMO

2,4-Dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D) is a herbicide of the chlorophenoxy class and the second most widely used herbicide applied to several different crops worldwide. Environmental factors, especially those related to diet, strongly affect the risk of developing cancer of the gastrointestinal tract. There is currently no evidence to determine whether there is an association between 2,4-D exposure and gastrointestinal disorders. We evaluated the histological effect of chronic oral and inhalation exposure to 2,4-D on the digestive tract of rats. Eighty male adult albino Wistar rats were divided into 8 groups (n=10): two control groups, one for inhalation and one for oral exposure, and 6 groups exposed orally or by inhalation at three different concentrations of 2,4-D [3.71×10-3 grams of active ingredient per hectare (gai/ha), 6.19×10-3 gai/ha, and 9.28×10-3 gai/ha]. The animals were exposed for 6 months. The esophagus, stomach, and intestine were collected for histopathological analysis. Animals exposed to 2,4-D had hyperkeratosis of the esophagus, regardless of the exposure route. All animals exposed to a higher concentration of 2,4-D orally presented mild dysplasia of the large intestine. In the small intestine, most animals exposed to moderate and high concentrations of 2,4-D had mild dysplasia. No gastric changes were observed in any of the groups studied. Chronic exposure to 2,4-D, especially at moderate and high concentrations, regardless of the exposure route, caused reactive damage to the esophagus (hyperkeratosis) and dysplastic changes to the intestine.


Assuntos
Herbicidas , Ácido 2,4-Diclorofenoxiacético/toxicidade , Animais , Trato Gastrointestinal , Herbicidas/toxicidade , Masculino , Fenoxiacetatos , Ratos , Ratos Wistar
6.
Sci Rep ; 12(1): 13655, 2022 Aug 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35999230

RESUMO

As 3 billion pounds of herbicides are sprayed over farmlands every year, it is essential to advance our understanding how pesticides may influence neurological health and physiology of both humans and other animals. Studies are often one-dimensional as the majority examine glyphosate by itself. Farmers and the public use commercial products, like Roundup, containing a myriad of chemicals in addition to glyphosate. Currently, there are no neurological targets proposed for glyphosate and little comparison to Roundup. To investigate this, we compared how glyphosate and Roundup affect convulsant behavior in C. elegans and found that glyphosate and Roundup increased seizure-like behavior. Key to our initial hypothesis, we found that treatment with an antiepileptic drug rescued the prolonged convulsions. We also discovered over a third of nematodes exposed to Roundup did not recover from their convulsions, but drug treatment resulted in full recovery. Notably, these effects were found at concentrations that are 1,000-fold dilutions of previous findings of neurotoxicity, using over 300-fold less herbicide than the lowest concentration recommended for consumer use. Exploring mechanisms behind our observations, we found significant evidence that glyphosate targets GABA-A receptors. Pharmacological experiments which paired subeffective dosages of glyphosate and a GABA-A antagonist yielded a 24% increase in non-recovery compared to the antagonist alone. GABA mutant strain experiments showed no effect in a GABA-A depleted strain, but a significant, increased effect in a glutamic acid decarboxylase depleted strain. Our findings characterize glyphosate's exacerbation of convulsions and propose the GABA-A receptor as a neurological target for the observed physiological changes. It also highlights glyphosate's potential to dysregulate inhibitory neurological circuits.


Assuntos
Caenorhabditis elegans , Herbicidas , Animais , Glicina/análogos & derivados , Glicina/toxicidade , Herbicidas/toxicidade , Humanos , Convulsões/induzido quimicamente , Ácido gama-Aminobutírico
7.
Environ Sci Technol ; 56(16): 11504-11515, 2022 08 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35926083

RESUMO

In the environmental risk assessment of substances, toxicity to aquatic plants is evaluated using, among other methods, the 7 dayLemna sp. growth inhibition test following the OECD TG 221. So far, the test is not applicable for short-term screening of toxicity, nor does it allow evaluation of toxic modes of action (MoA). The latter is also complicated by the lack of knowledge of gene functions in the test species. Using ecotoxicogenomics, we developed a time-shortened 3 day assay inLemna minor which allows discrimination of ecotoxic MoA. By examining the changes in gene expression induced by low effect concentrations of the pharmaceutical atorvastatin and the herbicide bentazon at the transcriptome and proteome levels, we were able to identify candidate biomarkers for the respective MoA. We developed a homology-based functional annotation pipeline for the reference genome ofL. minor, which allowed overrepresentation analysis of the gene ontologies affected by both test compounds. Genes affected by atorvastatin mainly influenced lipid synthesis and metabolism, whereas the bentazon-responsive genes were mainly involved in light response. Our approach is therefore less time-consuming but sensitive and allows assessment of MoA in L. minor. Using this shortened assay, investigation of expression changes of the identified candidate biomarkers may allow the development of MoA-specific screening approaches in the future.


Assuntos
Araceae , Herbicidas , Poluentes Químicos da Água , Araceae/metabolismo , Atorvastatina/metabolismo , Atorvastatina/farmacologia , Biomarcadores , Herbicidas/metabolismo , Herbicidas/toxicidade , Toxicogenética , Poluentes Químicos da Água/metabolismo
8.
Front Endocrinol (Lausanne) ; 13: 904437, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35992109

RESUMO

Endocrine-disrupting and carcinogenic effects of glyphosate have long been suspected, but little is known about the effect of compounds used in real life at different concentrations, neither in normal nor in thyroid tumor cells. As cancer cells may have different sensitivities and the effect of the product containing glyphosate may be different from that produced by the active ingredient alone, including the Acceptable Occupational Exposure Level (AOEL=160µg/L) and the Acceptable Daily Intake (ADI=830µg/L) determined by ANVISA, we used two human thyroid-derived cell lines, Nthy-ori 3-1 (from normal follicular cells) and TPC-1 (from papillary carcinoma), to test 15 different concentrations of Roundup® Original DI. Trypan blue (TB), CCK-8 and BrdU assays were used to evaluate cytotoxicity, metabolic activity and proliferation with 24h and 48h exposures in technical and biological triplicates. TB showed an important toxic effect, especially after 24h of exposure, in both cell lines. The AOEL concentration caused the death of 43% and 50% of the Nthy-ori and TPC-1 cells, respectively, in 24 h, while ADI resulted in 35% and 58% of cell death. After 48h of exposure, AOEL and ADI caused a lower number of dead Nthy-ori (33% and 18%) and TPC-1 (33% and 37%) cells, respectively, suggesting that the toxic effect of the product disappears and/or both strains have repair mechanisms that protect them from longer exposures. On the other hand, the CCK-8 assay showed that small concentrations of Roundup have a proliferative effect: 6.5µg/L increased the number of both Nthy-ori and TPC-1 cells at 24h, and the BrdU assay confirmed the stimulatory effect with a 321% increase in the absorbance of Nthy-ori cells at 48h. The herbicide produced even more frequent increases in the BrdU absorbance of TPC-1 cells, mainly at 24h. We conclude that thyroid cells exposed to Roundup present a nonmonotonic dual dose-response curve. Low concentrations of the pesticide, considered acceptable, cause significant cell death but also have an important proliferative effect, especially on TPC-1 cells. This herbicide, widely used around the world, may play a role in the increased incidence rate of thyroid nodules and cancer that has been observed in recent decades.


Assuntos
Carcinoma Papilar , Herbicidas , Bromodesoxiuridina , Herbicidas/toxicidade , Humanos , Sincalida , Glândula Tireoide/metabolismo
9.
Front Immunol ; 13: 925241, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35967413

RESUMO

DCMU [N-(3,4-dichlorophenyl)-N-dimethylurea] or diuron is a widely used herbicide, which can cause adverse effects on human, especially on immune cells, due to their intrinsic properties and wide distribution. These cells are important for fighting not only against virus or bacteria but also against neoplastic cell development. We developed an approach that combines functional studies and miRNA and RNA sequencing data to evaluate the effects of DCMU on the human immune response against cancer, particularly the one carried out by CD8+ T cells. We found that DCMU modulates the expression of miRNA in a dose-dependent manner, leading to a specific pattern of gene expression and consequently to a diminished cytokine and granzyme B secretions. Using mimics or anti-miRs, we identified several miRNA, such as hsa-miR-3135b and hsa-miR-21-5p, that regulate these secretions. All these changes reduce the CD8+ T cells' cytotoxic activity directed against cancer cells, in vitro and in vivo in a zebrafish model. To conclude, our study suggests that DCMU reduces T-cell abilities, participating thus to the establishment of an environment conducive to cancer development.


Assuntos
Herbicidas , MicroRNAs , Animais , Linfócitos T CD8-Positivos/metabolismo , Diurona , Herbicidas/toxicidade , Humanos , MicroRNAs/genética , MicroRNAs/metabolismo , Peixe-Zebra/genética
10.
Biomater Adv ; 137: 212837, 2022 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35929242

RESUMO

The herbicide and viologen, N, N'-dimethyl-4,4'-bipyridinium dichloride (Paraquat) is known to be toxic to neuronal cells by a multifactorial process involving an elevation in the levels of reactive oxygen species (ROS), the triggering of amyloid-protein aggregation and their accumulation, collectively leading to neuronal dyshomeostasis. We demonstrate that green-chemistry-synthesized sustainable gelatin-derived carbon quantum dots (CQDs) mitigate paraquat-induced neurotoxic outcomes and resultant compromise in organismal mortality. Gelatin-derived CQDs were found to possess antioxidant properties and ameliorated ROS elevation in paraquat-insulted neuroblastoma-derived SHSY-5Y cells, protecting them from herbicide-induced cell death. These CQDs also increased lifespan in paraquat-compromised Caenorhabditis elegans and herbicide-mediated dopamine neuron ablation. Collectively, the data underscore the ability of this sustainably synthesized, environmentally friendly biocompatible nanomaterial to protect cell lines and organisms against neurotoxic outcomes. The study findings strategically position this relatively novel nanoscopic carbon quantum framework for further testing in vertebrate trials of neurotoxic insult.


Assuntos
Herbicidas , Síndromes Neurotóxicas , Pontos Quânticos , Carbono/farmacologia , Gelatina , Herbicidas/toxicidade , Humanos , Síndromes Neurotóxicas/etiologia , Paraquat/toxicidade , Pontos Quânticos/toxicidade , Espécies Reativas de Oxigênio
11.
Sci Rep ; 12(1): 13656, 2022 Aug 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35953636

RESUMO

The overuse of the herbicide nicosulfuron has become a global environmental concern. As a potential bioremediation technology, the microbial degradation of nicosulfuron shows much promise; however, the mechanism by which microorganisms respond to nicosulfuron exposure requires further study. An isolated soil-borne bacteria Pseudomonas nicosulfuronedens LAM1902 displaying nicosulfuron, chlorimuron-ethyl, and cinosulfuron degradabilities in the presence of glucose, was used to determine the transcriptional responses to nicosulfuron exposure. RNA-Seq results indicated that 1102 differentially expressed genes (DEGs) were up-regulated and 702 down-regulated under nicosulfuron stress. DEGs were significantly enriched in "ABC transporters", "sulfur metabolism", and "ribosome" pathways (p ≤ 0.05). Several pathways (glycolysis and pentose phosphate pathways, a two-component regulation system, as well as in bacterial chemotaxis metabolisms) were affected by nicosulfuron exposure. Surprisingly, nicosulfuron exposure showed positive effects on the production of oxalic acid that is synthesized by genes encoding glycolate oxidase through the glyoxylate cycle pathway. The results suggest that P. nicosulfuronedens LAM1902 adopt acid metabolites production strategies in response to nicosulfuron, with concomitant nicosulfuron degradation. Data indicates that glucose metabolism is required during the degradation and adaptation of strain LAM1902 to nicosulfuron stress. The present studies provide a glimpse at the molecular response of microorganisms to sulfonylurea pesticide toxicity and a potential framework for future mechanistic studies.


Assuntos
Herbicidas , Herbicidas/toxicidade , Pseudomonas/metabolismo , Piridinas/toxicidade , Compostos de Sulfonilureia/metabolismo , Transcriptoma
12.
Food Chem Toxicol ; 168: 113380, 2022 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36028061

RESUMO

The toxicity of co-formulants present in glyphosate-based herbicides (GBHs) has been widely discussed leading to the European Union banning the polyoxyethylene tallow amine (POEA). We identified the most commonly used POEA, known as POE-15 tallow amine (POE-15), in the widely used US GBH RangerPro. Cytotoxicity assays using human intestinal epithelial Caco-2 and hepatocyte HepG2 cell lines showed that RangerPro and POE-15 are far more cytotoxic than glyphosate alone. RangerPro and POE-15 but not glyphosate caused cell necrosis in both cell lines, and that glyphosate and RangerPro but not POE-15 caused oxidative stress in HepG2 cells. We further tested these pesticide ingredients in the ToxTracker assay, a system used to evaluate a compound's carcinogenic potential, to assess their capability for inducing DNA damage, oxidative stress and an unfolded protein response (endoplasmic reticulum, ER stress). RangerPro and POE-15 but not glyphosate gave rise to ER stress. We conclude that the toxicity resulting from RangerPro exposure is thus multifactorial involving ER stress caused by POE-15 along with oxidative stress caused by glyphosate. Our observations reinforce the need to test both co-formulants and active ingredients of commercial pesticides to inform the enactment of more appropriate regulation and thus better public and environmental protection.


Assuntos
Herbicidas , Aminas/toxicidade , Células CACO-2 , Excipientes , Gorduras , Herbicidas/toxicidade , Humanos , Necrose/induzido quimicamente , Polietilenoglicóis , Tensoativos/toxicidade
13.
J Neuroinflammation ; 19(1): 193, 2022 Jul 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35897073

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Herbicides are environmental contaminants that have gained much attention due to the potential hazards they pose to human health. Glyphosate, the active ingredient in many commercial herbicides, is the most heavily applied herbicide worldwide. The recent rise in glyphosate application to corn and soy crops correlates positively with increased death rates due to Alzheimer's disease and other neurodegenerative disorders. Glyphosate has been shown to cross the blood-brain barrier in in vitro models, but has yet to be verified in vivo. Additionally, reports have shown that glyphosate exposure increases pro-inflammatory cytokines in blood plasma, particularly TNFα. METHODS: Here, we examined whether glyphosate infiltrates the brain and elevates TNFα levels in 4-month-old C57BL/6J mice. Mice received either 125, 250, or 500 mg/kg/day of glyphosate, or a vehicle via oral gavage for 14 days. Urine, plasma, and brain samples were collected on the final day of dosing for analysis via UPLC-MS and ELISAs. Primary cortical neurons were derived from amyloidogenic APP/PS1 pups to evaluate in vitro changes in Aß40-42 burden and cytotoxicity. RNA sequencing was performed on C57BL/6J brain samples to determine changes in the transcriptome. RESULTS: Our analysis revealed that glyphosate infiltrated the brain in a dose-dependent manner and upregulated TNFα in both plasma and brain tissue post-exposure. Notably, glyphosate measures correlated positively with TNFα levels. Glyphosate exposure in APP/PS1 primary cortical neurons increases levels of soluble Aß40-42 and cytotoxicity. RNAseq revealed over 200 differentially expressed genes in a dose-dependent manner and cell-type-specific deconvolution analysis showed enrichment of key biological processes in oligodendrocytes including myelination, axon ensheathment, glial cell development, and oligodendrocyte development. CONCLUSIONS: Collectively, these results show for the first time that glyphosate infiltrates the brain, elevates both the expression of TNFα and soluble Aß, and disrupts the transcriptome in a dose-dependent manner, suggesting that exposure to this herbicide may have detrimental outcomes regarding the health of the general population.


Assuntos
Doença de Alzheimer , Herbicidas , Animais , Encéfalo , Cromatografia Líquida , Citocinas/genética , Glicina/análogos & derivados , Herbicidas/toxicidade , Humanos , Lactente , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Espectrometria de Massas em Tandem , Fator de Necrose Tumoral alfa
14.
Molecules ; 27(14)2022 Jul 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35889523

RESUMO

Pendimethalin-based herbicides are used worldwide for pre-emergence selective control of annual grasses and weeds in croplands. The endurance of herbicides residues in the environment has an impact on the soil biodiversity and fertility, also affecting non-target species, including terrestrial invertebrates. Carabid beetles are known as natural pest control agents in the soil food web of agroecosystems, and feed on invertebrates and weed seeds. Here, a mass spectrometry untargeted profiling of haemolymph is used to investigate Pterostichus melas metabolic response after to pendimethalin-based herbicide exposure. Mass spectrometric data are examined with statistical approaches, such as principal component analysis, for possible correlation with biological effects. Those signals with high correlation are submitted to tandem mass spectrometry to identify the associated biomarker. The time course exposure showed many interesting findings, including a significant downregulation of related to immune and defense peptides (M-lycotoxin-Ls4a, Peptide hormone 1, Paralytic peptide 2, and Serine protease inhibitor 2). Overall, the observed peptide deregulations concur with the general mechanism of uptake and elimination of toxicants reported for Arthropods.


Assuntos
Besouros , Herbicidas , Compostos de Anilina/química , Animais , Herbicidas/análise , Herbicidas/toxicidade , Espectrometria de Massas , Peptídeos , Solo/química
15.
Aquat Toxicol ; 249: 106232, 2022 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35809430

RESUMO

Glyphosate [N-(phosphonomethyl) glycine] is currently the most widely used herbicide worldwide. Its application in agricultural and urban areas can lead to the dispersion and arrival to aquatic systems causing environmental deterioration with detrimental effects on the inhabiting biota. This is triggered not only by the herbicide per se but also its metabolite aminomethyl-phosphonic acid (AMPA), which can be highly toxic to many aquatic organisms. Water fleas are some of the key components in aquatic food webs, being one of the most sensitive groups to pollutants. Although being often used in standardized toxicity tests, they are comparatively less studied in relation to glyphosate exposition. Here we examine the current scientific literature regarding the acute and sublethal toxicity of glyphosate in the Cladocera taxonomic group, with special comparisons between the active ingredient (A.I) and formulations. Our results document a high variation in the lethal concentrations reported for different cladoceran species, due to the high diversity of products used in the toxicity tests. Most articles accounting for sublethal effects were performed on the standard Daphnia magna species. Reproduction, including decreased fecundity and delayed age of first reproduction, is usually one of the most severely affected individual traits. Although still scarce, studies documenting metabolic and genetic alterations might provide accurate information on the mechanisms of action of the herbicide.


Assuntos
Cladóceros , Herbicidas , Poluentes Químicos da Água , Animais , Glicina/análogos & derivados , Herbicidas/toxicidade , Poluentes Químicos da Água/toxicidade
16.
Sci Total Environ ; 845: 157181, 2022 Nov 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35817095

RESUMO

In this study, two homologous series of esterquats comprising alkyl (from ethyl to octadecyl) betainate cations and bromide as well as dicamba anions were successfully synthesized, starting from a renewable raw material - glycine betaine. Due to the favorable octanol-water partition coefficient and utilization of biodegradable cations of natural origin, synthesized esterquats can be considered promising alternatives to currently applied dicamba-based formulations. In addition, the obtained results allowed us to verify whether the organic cations in quaternary ammonium salts containing herbicidally active anions (such as dicamba) play the role of biologically inactive adjuvants that only enhance the efficiency of the active ingredient or if they simultaneously exhibit a significant degree of phytotoxicity. Analysis of the influence of alkyl betainate esterquats containing nonherbicidal (bromide) anions on seedlings of white mustard revealed that alkyl betainate cations promote the germination of white mustard seeds; however, the subsequent growth of the seedlings was significantly inhibited. Further studies performed on white mustard and cornflower plants in a stage of 4-6 leaves allowed us to conclude that in the case of sensitive plants, the high phytotoxicity can be attributed to the presence of the dicamba anion, whereas for more resistant plants the additional influence of the cation on the phytotoxic effect is visible. Esterquats comprising a dodecyl substituent or longer had high surface active properties. Nonetheless, their contact angle values were not correlated with phytotoxicity data, indicating an additional influence of the cation on this stage of plant development. Interestingly, subsequent dose-response experiments conducted for two selected dicamba-based products confirmed that the greatest phytotoxicity was expressed by compounds containing a decyl substituent.


Assuntos
Dicamba , Herbicidas , Ânions , Betaína/toxicidade , Brometos , Cátions , Herbicidas/toxicidade , Sinapis
17.
Fish Physiol Biochem ; 48(4): 1039-1055, 2022 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35831485

RESUMO

Although diquat is a widely used water-soluble herbicide in the world, its sublethal adverse effects to fish have not been well characterised. In this study, histopathological examination and biochemical assays were applied to assess hepatotoxicity and combined with gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS)-based metabolomics analysis to reveal overall metabolic mechanisms in the liver of zebrafish (Danio rerio) after diquat exposure at concentrations of 0.34 and 1.69 mg·L-1 for 21 days. Results indicated that 1.69 mg·L-1 diquat exposure caused cellular vacuolisation and degeneration with nuclear abnormality and led to the disturbance of antioxidative system and dysfunction in the liver. No evident pathological injury was detected, and changes in liver biochemistry were not obvious in the fish exposed to 0.34 mg·L-1 diquat. Multivariate statistical analysis revealed differences between profiles obtained by GC-MS spectrometry from control and two treatment groups. A total of 17 and 22 metabolites belonging to different classes were identified following exposure to 0.34 and 1.69 mg·L-1 diquat, respectively. The metabolic changes in the liver of zebrafish are mainly manifested as inhibition of energy metabolism, disorders of amino acid metabolism and reduction of antioxidant capacity caused by 1.69 mg·L-1 diquat exposure. The energy metabolism of zebrafish exposed to 0.34 mg·L-1 diquat was more inclined to rely on anaerobic glycolysis than that of normal zebrafish, and interference effects on lipid metabolism were observed. The metabolomics approach provided an innovative perspective to explore possible hepatic damages on fish induced by diquat as a basis for further research.


Assuntos
Herbicidas , Poluentes Químicos da Água , Animais , Diquat/metabolismo , Diquat/toxicidade , Embrião não Mamífero/metabolismo , Herbicidas/toxicidade , Fígado/metabolismo , Poluentes Químicos da Água/toxicidade , Peixe-Zebra/metabolismo
18.
Environ Pollut ; 308: 119710, 2022 Sep 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35798193

RESUMO

The present study aimed to evaluate biochemical and cellular responses of the freshwater mussel, Hyriopsis bialata, to the herbicide atrazine (ATZ). The mussels were exposed to environmentally-relevant concentrations of ATZ (0, 0.02 and 0.2 mg/L) and a high concentration (2 mg/L) for 0, 7, 14, 21 and 28 days. Tissues comprising male and female gonads, digestive glands and gills were collected and assessed for ethoxyresorufin-O-deethylase (EROD) activity, glutathione S-transferase (GST) activity, multixenobiotic resistance mechanism (MXR), histopathological responses, DNA fragmentation and bioaccumulation of ATZ and its transformation derivatives, desethylatrazine (DEA) and desisopropylatrazine (DIA). Additionally, circulating estradiol levels were determined. It appeared that ATZ did not cause significant changes in activities of EROD, GST and MXR. There were no apparent ATZ-mediated histopathological effects in the tissues, with the exception of the male gonads exhibiting aberrant aggregation of germ cells in the ATZ-treated mussels. Contrarily, ATZ caused significant DNA fragmentation in all tissues of the treated animals in dose- and time-dependent manners. In general, the circulating estradiol levels were higher in the females than in the males. However, ATZ-treated animals did not show significant alterations in the hormonal levels, as compared with those of the untreated animals. Herein, we showed for the first time differentially spatiotemporal distribution patterns of bioaccumulation of ATZ, DEA and DIA, with ATZ and DEA detectable in the gonads of both sexes, DEA and DIA in the digestive glands and only DEA in the gills. The differential distribution patterns of bioaccumulation of ATZ and its derivatives among the tissues point to different pathways and tissue capacity in transforming ATZ into its transformation products. Taken together, the freshwater mussel H. bialata was resistant to ATZ likely due to their effective detoxification. However, using DNA damage as a potential biomarker, H. bialata is a promising candidate for biomonitoring aquatic toxicity.


Assuntos
Atrazina , Bivalves , Herbicidas , Unionidae , Animais , Atrazina/toxicidade , Bivalves/metabolismo , Citocromo P-450 CYP1A1/metabolismo , Estradiol , Feminino , Água Doce , Herbicidas/metabolismo , Herbicidas/toxicidade , Masculino , Unionidae/metabolismo
19.
Environ Res ; 214(Pt 4): 113933, 2022 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35868581

RESUMO

Glyphosate is the active ingredient in glyphosate-based herbicides (GBHs), such as Roundup™, the most widely used herbicides in the world. Glyphosate targets an essential enzyme in plants that is not found in animals. However, both glyphosate and GBHs are rated as Group 2A, probable human carcinogens, and also have documented effects on reproduction, acting as endocrine disruptive chemicals. We have reviewed reports of the effects of glyphosate and GBHs on mammalian nervous system function. As with several other herbicides, GBHs exposure has been associated with an increased risk of Parkinson's Disease and death of neurons in the substantia nigra. There is also some evidence implicating Roundup™ in elevated risk of autism. Other studies have shown the effects of GBHs on synaptic transmission in animal and cellular studies. The major mechanism of action appears to be oxidative stress, accompanied by mitochondrial dysfunction. In addition, some gut bacteria utilize the enzyme used by plants, and glyphosate and GBHs use has been shown to alter the gut microbiome. There is a large and growing body of evidence that the gut microbiome alters susceptibility to great number of human diseases, including nervous system function. The weight of the evidence indicates that in addition to cancer and reproductive effects, glyphosate and GBHs have significant adverse effects on the brain and behavior and increase the risk of at least some serious neurological diseases.


Assuntos
Herbicidas , Animais , Carcinógenos , Glicina/análogos & derivados , Glicina/toxicidade , Herbicidas/toxicidade , Humanos , Mamíferos , Sistema Nervoso
20.
BMC Public Health ; 22(1): 1343, 2022 Jul 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35836163

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Glyphosate is a herbicide which is commonly used in agricultural areas. However, previous studies on glyphosate exposure in farmers and their health are still scarce. METHODS: A longitudinal pre-post study was performed among maize farmers. Information from questionnaires, urine and blood samples, and lung function were collected a day before and a day after glyphosate application in the morning. The urine samples were analyzed using liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry to detect glyphosate levels. Serum samples were analyzed to detect malondialdehyde (MDA), glutathione (GHS), and C-reactive protein (CRP) levels using thiobarbituric acid, dithiobisnitrobenzoic acid, and nephelometry, respectively. Lung function performances were measured using a spirometer. RESULTS: A total of 180 maize farmers met the study inclusion criteria. After glyphosate application, it was found that increased urinary glyphosate levels contributed to increased serum MDA (ß = 0.024, 95% CI = 0.000, 0.0047) and decreased serum GHS (ß = -0.022, 95% CI = -0.037, -0.007), FEV1 (ß = -0.134, 95% CI = -0.168, -0.100), FEV1/FVC (ß = -0.062, 95% CI = -0.082, -0.042) and PEF (ß = -0.952, 95% CI = -1.169, -0.735). CONCLUSIONS: Exposure to glyphosate during glyphosate application had significant effects on oxidative stress and lung function in maize farmers.


Assuntos
Fazendeiros , Herbicidas , Glicina/análogos & derivados , Herbicidas/toxicidade , Humanos , Inflamação , Pulmão , Estresse Oxidativo , Tailândia , Zea mays
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