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1.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32344631

RESUMO

Background: There are few published studies concerning occupational exposure to glyphosate (GLY), and these are limited to spraying, horticulture and other agricultural aspects. Therefore, the concentration of glyphosate and its metabolite aminomethylphosphonic acid (AMPA), in the urine of workers exposed to glyphosate during glyphosate production was determined, and the relationship between internal (urinary glyphosate and AMPA concentration) and external exposure dose (time weighted average (TWA) value of glyphosate in the air of workplace) was analyzed. Methods: To avoid the influence of preparations, we selected people who were only involved in GLY production (without exposure to its preparations) as our research subjects. We collected 134 urine samples of workers exposed to GLY (prototype, not preparation). The urinary concentrations of GLY and AMPA (internal exposure dose) were detected by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. The subjects' exposure to the amount of GLY in the air (external dose) was determined using ion chromatography. Conventional statistical methods, including quartiles, t-tests and regression analysis, were applied for data processing. Results: An on-site investigation revealed that the workers involved in centrifugation, crystallization, drying, and packaging and feeding were exposed to GLY. The TWA value of GLY in the workshop air was <0.02 mg/m3-34.58 mg/m3. The detection rates of GLY and AMPA in the urine samples were 86.6% and 81.3%, respectively. The concentration of urinary GLY was <0.020-17.202 mg/L (median, 0.292 mg/L). The urinary AMPA concentration was <0.010 mg/L-2.730 mg/L (median, 0.068 mg/L). The geometric means were 0.262 mg/L and 0.072 mg/L for GLY and AMPA, respectively. There was a correlation between the urinary concentration of GLY and AMPA and the TWA value of exposed workers (correlation coefficient [r] = 0.914 and 0.683, respectively; p < 0.01). Furthermore, there was a correlation between the urinary concentration of GLY and AMPA in the exposure group (r = 0.736, p < 0.01). Conclusions: The urinary concentration of GLY and AMPA of workers was correlated with the TWA value of workers' exposure, which could reflect the actual exposure of the workers.


Assuntos
Agricultura , Glicina/análogos & derivados , Herbicidas , Exposição Ocupacional , Adulto , China , Feminino , Glicina/urina , Herbicidas/urina , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Local de Trabalho
2.
Sci Total Environ ; 659: 790-795, 2019 Apr 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31096409

RESUMO

Glyphosate is one of the most widely used herbicides in the United States, which has led to its ubiquitous occurrence in food and water and regular detection in human urine at concentrations of 1-10 µg/L. Data pertaining to health risks arising from the ingestion of glyphosate are limited and are the subject of much debate, which demands the need for more exposure information for this herbicide. Very little is known about glyphosate exposure in pets. In this study, we determined concentrations of glyphosate (Glyp) and its derivatives, methyl glyphosate (Me-Glyp) and aminomethylphosphonic acid (AMPA), in urine collected from 30 dogs and 30 cats from New York State, USA. Glyp was the most predominant compound found in pet urine followed by AMPA and Me-Glyp. The mean urinary concentration of ∑Glyp (sum of Glyp + Me-Glyp + AMPA) in cats (mean: 33.8 ±â€¯46.7 ng/mL) was 2-fold higher than that in dogs (mean: 16.8 ±â€¯24.4 ng/mL). Cumulative daily intakes (CDI) of Glyp in dogs and cats estimated from the urinary concentrations were, on average, 0.57 and 1.37 µg/kg bw/d, respectively. The exposure doses were two to four orders of magnitude below the current acceptable daily intake (ADI) suggested by several international health organizations for humans.


Assuntos
Poluentes Ambientais/urina , Glicina/análogos & derivados , Herbicidas/urina , Fatores Etários , Animais , Gatos , Cães , Feminino , Glicina/urina , Masculino , New York , Fatores Sexuais
3.
Am J Emerg Med ; 37(8): 1600.e5-1600.e6, 2019 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31053371

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: This report describes changes in blood and urine concentrations of glyphosate potassium over time and their correlations with clinical symptoms in a patient with acute glyphosate potassium poisoning. CASE REPORT: A 67-year-old man visited the emergency center after ingesting 250 mL of a glyphosate potassium-based herbicide 5 h before. He was alert but presented with nausea, vomiting, and bradyarrhythmia with atrial fibrillation (tall T waves). Laboratory findings revealed a serum potassium level of 6.52 mEq/L. After treatment with an injection of calcium gluconate, insulin with glucose, bicarbonate, and an enema with polystyrene sulfonate, the patient's serum potassium level normalized and the bradyarrhythmia converted to a normal sinus rhythm. During admission, the blood and urine concentration of glyphosate and urine aminomethylphosphonic acid (AMPA, a glyphosate metabolite) was measured at regular time intervals. The patient's glyphosate blood concentration on admission was 11.48 mg/L, and it had decreased rapidly by 16 h and maintained about 1mgl/L by 70 h after admission. Urine glyphosate and AMPA levels had also decreased rapidly by 6 h after admission. DISCUSSION: Glyphosate potassium poisoning causes hyperkalemia. Blood concentrations of glyphosate were decreased rapidly by 16 h after admission, and urine concentrations were also decreased by 6 h after admission.


Assuntos
Glicina/análogos & derivados , Herbicidas/sangue , Herbicidas/envenenamento , Hiperpotassemia/induzido quimicamente , Idoso , Arritmias Cardíacas/induzido quimicamente , Glicina/sangue , Glicina/envenenamento , Glicina/urina , Herbicidas/urina , Humanos , Hiperpotassemia/sangue , Hiperpotassemia/tratamento farmacológico , Masculino , Náusea/induzido quimicamente , Potássio/sangue , Tentativa de Suicídio , Resultado do Tratamento , Vômito/induzido quimicamente
4.
Environ Health ; 18(1): 42, 2019 05 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31064415

RESUMO

In response to the recent review by Gillezeau et al., The evidence of human exposure to glyphosate: A review, Environmental Health 1/19/19, here we report additional glyphosate biomonitoring data from a repository of urine samples collected from United States farmers in 1997-98. To determine if glyphosate exposure could be identified historically, we examined urine samples from a biorepository of specimens collected from US dairy farmers between 1997 and 98. We compared samples from farmers who self-reported glyphosate application in the 8 h prior to sample collection to samples from farm applicators who did not report using glyphosate. Of 18 applicator samples tested, 39% showed detectable levels of glyphosate (mean concentration 4.04 µg/kg; range:1.3-12) compared to 0% detections among 17 non glyphosate applicator samples (p-value < 0.01). One of the applicator samples that tested positive for glyphosate also tested positive for AMPA. Concentrations of glyphosate were consistent with levels reported in the prior occupational biomonitoring studies reviewed by Gillezeau et al.Accurately detecting both glyphosate and AMPA in this small sample of Wisconsin farmers demonstrates a) glyphosate exposures among farmers were occurring 20 years ago, which was prior to the widespread planting of genetically engineered glyphosate tolerant crops first approved in 1996; and b) liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) can be used for sensitive characterization in cryopreserved urine samples. These data offer an important historical benchmark to which urinary levels from current and future biomonitoring studies can be compared.


Assuntos
Indústria de Laticínios , Glicina/análogos & derivados , Herbicidas/urina , Exposição Ocupacional/análise , Estudos de Coortes , Monitoramento Ambiental , Glicina/urina , Humanos , Wisconsin
5.
Clin Exp Nephrol ; 23(4): 474-483, 2019 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30859350

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The herbicide paraquat (1, 1'-dimethyl-4, 4'-bipyridylium dichloride; PQ) is a poison well-known to cause delayed mortality due to acute kidney injuries (AKI). This study examines the changes in serum amino acids (AAs) metabolite profiles as surrogate markers of renal cell metabolism and function after paraquat poisoning. METHODS: To identify the metabolic profiling of free serum AAs and its metabolites, serum from 40 paraquat-poisoned patients with or without AKI is collected. LC-MS/GC-MS is performed to analyze AA molecules. A Cox proportional hazard model was used to assess for incidence of AKI. Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve is applied to evaluate AKI occurrence and prognosis. RESULTS: A total of 102 serum AAs and its metabolites were identified. Compared with non-AKI patients, 37 varied significantly in AKI patients. The univariate Cox proportional hazard model analysis revealed that the estimated PQ amount, plasma PQ concentration, urine PQ concentration, APACHE, SOFA scores and 16 amino acids correlated with the incidence of AKI. Further analyses revealed that 3-methylglutarylcarnitine, 1-methylimidazoleacetate, and urea showed higher cumulative hazard ratios for the occurrence of AKI during follow-up (P < 0.05). The area under the curve (AUC) of 3-methylglutarylcarnitine, 1-methylimidazoleacetate and urea were 0.917, 0.857, 0.872, respectively. CONCLUSION: 3-methylglutarylcarnitine, 1-methylimidazoleacetate and urea were associated with AKI in patients with paraquat intoxication.


Assuntos
Lesão Renal Aguda/sangue , Aminoácidos/sangue , Carnitina/análogos & derivados , Glutaratos/sangue , Herbicidas/envenenamento , Imidazóis/sangue , Paraquat/envenenamento , Ureia/sangue , Lesão Renal Aguda/induzido quimicamente , Adulto , Área Sob a Curva , Biomarcadores/sangue , Carnitina/sangue , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Feminino , Herbicidas/sangue , Herbicidas/urina , Humanos , Masculino , Metaboloma , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Paraquat/sangue , Paraquat/urina , Envenenamento/sangue , Envenenamento/urina , Modelos de Riscos Proporcionais , Curva ROC , Adulto Jovem
7.
Environ Health ; 18(1): 2, 2019 01 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30612564

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Despite the growing and widespread use of glyphosate, a broad-spectrum herbicide and desiccant, very few studies have evaluated the extent and amount of human exposure. OBJECTIVE: We review documented levels of human exposure among workers in occupational settings and the general population. METHODS: We conducted a review of scientific publications on glyphosate levels in humans; 19 studies were identified, of which five investigated occupational exposure to glyphosate, 11 documented the exposure in general populations, and three reported on both. RESULTS: Eight studies reported urinary levels in 423 occupationally and para-occupationally exposed subjects; 14 studies reported glyphosate levels in various biofluids on 3298 subjects from the general population. Average urinary levels in occupationally exposed subjects varied from 0.26 to 73.5 µg/L; environmental exposure urinary levels ranged from 0.16 to 7.6 µg/L. Only two studies measured temporal trends in exposure, both of which show increasing proportions of individuals with detectable levels of glyphosate in their urine over time. CONCLUSIONS: The current review highlights the paucity of data on glyphosate levels among individuals exposed occupationally, para-occupationally, or environmentally to the herbicide. As such, it is challenging to fully understand the extent of exposure overall and in vulnerable populations such as children. We recommend further work to evaluate exposure across populations and geographic regions, apportion the exposure sources (e.g., occupational, household use, food residues), and understand temporal trends.


Assuntos
Exposição Ambiental/análise , Glicina/análogos & derivados , Herbicidas/urina , Glicina/urina , Humanos
8.
Int J Hyg Environ Health ; 222(2): 205-210, 2019 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30293930

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) has recently classified glyphosate as a Group 2A 'probably carcinogenic to humans'. Due to this carcinogenic classification and resulting international debate, there is an increased demand for studies evaluating human health effects from glyphosate exposures. There is currently limited information on human exposures to glyphosate and a paucity of data regarding glyphosate's biological half-life in humans. OBJECTIVE: This study aims to estimate the human half-life of glyphosate from human urine samples collected from amenity horticulture workers using glyphosate based pesticide products. METHODS: Full void urine spot samples were collected over a period of approximately 24 h for eight work tasks involving seven workers. The elimination time and estimation of the half-life of glyphosate using three different measurement metrics: the unadjusted glyphosate concentrations, creatinine corrected concentrations and by using Urinary Excretion Rates (UER) (µg L-1, µmol/mol creatinine and UER µg L-1) was calculated by summary and linear interpolation using regression analysis. RESULTS: This study estimates the human biological half-life of glyphosate as approximately 5 ½, 10 and 7 » hours for unadjusted samples, creatinine corrected concentrations and by using UER (µg L-1, µmol/mol creatinine, UER µg L-1), respectively. The approximated glyphosate half-life calculations seem to have less variability when using the UER compared to the other measuring metrics. CONCLUSION: This study provides new information on the elimination rate of glyphosate and an approximate biological half-life range for humans. This information can help optimise the design of sampling strategies, as well as assisting in the interpretation of results for human biomonitoring studies involving this active ingredient. The data could also contribute to the development or refinement of Physiologically Based PharmacoKinetic (PBPK) models for glyphosate.


Assuntos
Poluentes Ambientais/urina , Glicina/análogos & derivados , Herbicidas/urina , Adulto , Monitoramento Biológico , Feminino , Glicina/urina , Meia-Vida , Humanos , Irlanda , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade
9.
Int J Hyg Environ Health ; 221(7): 1012-1022, 2018 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30078418

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Glyphosate has recently received much public attention following its 'Group 2A - probably carcinogenic to humans' classification from the International Agency for Research on Cancer. Despite the widespread use of glyphosate, there is limited data on potential exposures during common occupational uses. OBJECTIVE: The study aimed to characterise occupational exposures to glyphosate among amenity horticulturists through the collection and analysis of urine samples following pesticide application. The impact of work practices on personal exposure, as well as suitability of collecting multiple spot urine samples as a sampling strategy for the assessment of occupational exposure for glyphosate were also examined. METHODS: A minimum of three spot urine samples were collected per work task; before the work task began, after the work task completion and the following first morning void. All samples were analysed separately for glyphosate using liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry and for creatinine. Differences in urinary glyphosate concentrations between the pre-task samples versus the post-task and the peak urinary samples were both analysed using paired Student t-tests. Determinants of exposure on glyphosate urine concentrations were evaluated using Pearson's correlation coefficients and linear regression. A multivariate mixed effect model were elaborated to compare the glyphosate concentrations between post-task and following first morning void samples. In these models, worker identity was entered as a random effect to account for the presence of correlations between repeated measurements from the same individuals. RESULTS: Peak urine glyphosate concentrations measured for work tasks were 2.5, 1.9, 1.9 and 7.4 µg L-1 (arithmetic mean, geometric mean, median and maximum value, respectively). Concentrations were highest in samples taken up to 3 h after completing the work task. Regression analysis showed that workers who sprayed the day before the sampling task had higher glyphosate concentrations in pre-task samples than those who did not spray the day before (p < 0.01). Similarly, workers who took breaks during the work task had higher peak urinary glyphosate concentrations (p < 0.01). The multivariate mixed effect model showed that the following first morning void samples were approximately a factor 0.7 lower than post-task values. CONCLUSION: Occupational exposures to glyphosate among amenity horticulturalists are greater than those reported in environmental studies and comparable with previously reported agricultural studies. A suitable sampling strategy for occupational exposures to glyphosate is the collection of a spot urine sample up to 3 h after completing the application of a glyphosate based pesticide product, which provides a reliable marker of peak exposure.


Assuntos
Agricultura , Glicina/análogos & derivados , Herbicidas/urina , Exposição Ocupacional/análise , Adulto , Monitoramento Ambiental , Feminino , Glicina/urina , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade
10.
Environ Health ; 17(1): 52, 2018 05 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29843719

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Glyphosate-based herbicides (GBHs) are the most widely used pesticides worldwide, and glyphosate is the active ingredient of such herbicides, including the formulation known as Roundup. The massive and increasing use of GBHs results in not only the global burden of occupational exposures, but also increased exposure to the general population. The current pilot study represents the first phase of a long-term investigation of GBHs that we are conducting over the next 5 years. In this paper, we present the study design, the first evaluation of in vivo parameters and the determination of glyphosate and its major metabolite aminomethylphosphonic acid (AMPA) in urine. METHODS: We exposed Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats orally via drinking water to a dose of glyphosate equivalent to the United States Acceptable Daily Intake (US ADI) of 1.75 mg/kg bw/day, defined as the chronic Reference Dose (cRfD) determined by the US EPA, starting from prenatal life, i.e. gestational day (GD) 6 of their mothers. One cohort was continuously dosed until sexual maturity (6-week cohort) and another cohort was continuously dosed until adulthood (13-week cohort). Here we present data on general toxicity and urinary concentrations of glyphosate and its major metabolite AMPA. RESULTS: Survival, body weight, food and water consumption of the animals were not affected by the treatment with either glyphosate or Roundup. The concentration of both glyphosate and AMPA detected in the urine of SD rats treated with glyphosate were comparable to that observed in animals treated with Roundup, with an increase in relation to the duration of treatment. The majority of glyphosate was excreted unchanged. Urinary levels of the parent compound, glyphosate, were around 100-fold higher than the level of its metabolite, AMPA. CONCLUSIONS: Glyphosate concentrations in urine showed that most part of the administered dose was excreted as unchanged parent compound upon glyphosate and Roundup exposure, with an increasing pattern of glyphosate excreted in urine in relation to the duration of treatment. The adjuvants and the other substances present in Roundup did not seem to exert a major effect on the absorption and excretion of glyphosate. Our results demonstrate that urinary glyphosate is a more relevant marker of exposure than AMPA in the rodent model.


Assuntos
Glicina/análogos & derivados , Herbicidas/toxicidade , Herbicidas/urina , Animais , Relação Dose-Resposta a Droga , Glicina/toxicidade , Glicina/urina , Humanos , Projetos Piloto , Ratos , Ratos Sprague-Dawley , Projetos de Pesquisa
11.
Environ Res ; 165: 235-236, 2018 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29729481

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Glyphosate is the highest volume herbicide used globally and has recently been classified as a 2 A 'probably carcinogenic to humans' by the International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC). There is limited data to evaluate the public health impacts from glyphosate exposure. The objective of this study is to conduct an exploratory glyphosate exposure assessment study among Irish adults, who were non-occupational users of glyphosate. STUDY DESIGN: A convenient sampling method was used, collecting one first morning void spot urine sample from each participant. METHODS: A biomonitoring survey involving the collection and analysis of 20 ml spot urine samples from 50 Irish adults was conducted in June 2017. Participants completed a short questionnaire to collect information on demographics, dietary habits and lifestyle. Glyphosate was extracted using solid phase extraction (SPE) and analysed by liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MC/MS). RESULTS: Of the 50 urine samples analysed, 10 (20%) contained detectable levels of glyphosate (0.80-1.35 µg L-1). Exposure concentrations are higher than those reported in comparable studies of European and American adults. CONCLUSIONS: Glyphosate was detectable in 20% of the samples collected from Irish adults. The low proportion of detectable glyphosate levels could be due to lower localised use of pesticides, having a small sample size or the higher analytical detection limit used in this study (0.5 µg L-1), which could underestimate the true exposure and warrants further investigation. Given the widespread use of glyphosate, further information on population exposure is required to advance our understanding of the relationship between chronic low dose exposure to glyphosate and human health risk.


Assuntos
Monitoramento Ambiental , Poluentes Ambientais/urina , Glicina/análogos & derivados , Herbicidas/urina , Adulto , Glicina/urina , Humanos , Irlanda , Projetos Piloto
12.
Environ Int ; 121(Pt 2): 1148-1154, 2018 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30808487

RESUMO

Concentrations of nine metabolites of organophosphate and pyrethroid insecticides, as well as two phenoxy herbicides, were determined in 322 urine samples collected from eight countries during 2006-2014 by high-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (HPLC-MS/MS). The target pesticides were found ubiquitously, indicating widespread exposure of humans to pesticides in these countries. The highest sum concentrations of 11 pesticides were found in urine collected from Vietnam (median, 28.9 ng/mL), followed in decreasing order by samples from India (14.2 ng/mL), China (13.6 ng/mL), Korea (12.5 ng/mL), Greece (12.3 ng/mL), Saudi Arabia (11.3 ng/mL), the USA (7.9 ng/mL), and Japan (7.1 ng/mL). Organophosphorus compounds accounted for 62-77% of the total urinary pesticide concentrations. Para-nitrophenol (metabolite of parathion and methyl parathion) and 3,5,6-trichloro-2-pyridinol (metabolite of chlorpyrifos and chlorpyrifos-methyl) were the major metabolites, especially in India (72%), China (69%), and Greece (66%). Differences in urinary pesticide concentrations between genders (male vs. female), age groups (categorized as ≤20, 21-49, and ≥50 years), and cities (Guangzhou, Shanghai, and Qiqihar) were examined. On the basis of the concentrations measured in urine, total daily intakes (DIs) of pesticides were estimated. The DIs of chlorpyrifos were found to be higher for populations in Vietnam, Greece, India, China, and Korea (≥9.6 µg/day) than those estimated for the other countries (<5 µg/day). The DIs of parathion (≥9.6 µg/day) in populations of China, India, and Korea were higher than those estimated for the other countries (5.7-9.3 µg/day). This is the first study to establish baseline levels of exposure of a variety of pesticides in several Asian countries.


Assuntos
Exposição Ambiental/análise , Herbicidas/urina , Compostos Organofosforados/urina , Praguicidas/urina , Piretrinas/urina , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Medição de Risco , Adulto Jovem
13.
Arch Environ Occup Health ; 73(4): 205-218, 2018 07 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28901838

RESUMO

We conducted a cross-sectional study to assess the relationship between pesticide exposures and testosterone levels in 133 male Thai farmers. Urine and serum samples were collected concurrently from participants. Urine was analyzed for levels of specific and nonspecific metabolites of organophosphates (OPs), pyrethroids, select herbicides, and fungicides. Serum was analyzed for total and free testosterone. Linear regression analyses revealed significant negative relationships between total testosterone and the herbicide 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D) after controlling for covariates (eg, age, BMI, smoking status). Positive significant associations were found between some OP pesticides and total testosterone. Due to the small sample size and the observational nature of the study, future investigation is needed to confirm our results and to elucidate the biological mechanisms.


Assuntos
Fazendeiros/estatística & dados numéricos , Fungicidas Industriais/urina , Herbicidas/urina , Inseticidas/urina , Exposição Ocupacional/análise , Testosterona/sangue , Adulto , Cromatografia Gasosa , Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Pressão , Estudos Transversais , Cromatografia Gasosa-Espectrometria de Massas , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Organofosfatos/urina , Piretrinas/urina , Espectrometria de Massas em Tandem , Tailândia , Adulto Jovem
15.
Int J Hyg Environ Health ; 220(6): 1064-1073, 2017 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28668341

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Pesticides and their potential adverse health effects are of great concern and there is a dearth of knowledge regarding occupational exposure to pesticides among amenity horticulturalists. OBJECTIVE: This study aims to measure occupational exposures to amenity horticuturalists using pesticides containing the active ingredients, glyphosate and fluroxypyr by urinary biomonitoring. METHODS: A total of 40 work tasks involving glyphosate and fluroxypyr were surveyed over the period of June - October 2015. Workers used a variety of pesticide application methods; manual knapsack sprayers, controlled droplet applicators, pressurised lance applicators and boom sprayers. Pesticide concentrations were measured in urine samples collected pre and post work tasks using liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS). Differences in pesticide urinary concentrations pre and post work task, and across applications methods were analysed using paired t-tests and linear regression. RESULTS: Pesticide urinary concentrations were higher than those reported for environmental exposures and comparable to those reported in some agricultural studies. Log-transformed pesticide concentrations were statistically significantly higher in post-work samples compared to those in pre-work samples (paired t-test, p<0.001; for both µgL-1 and µmol/mol creatinine). Urinary pesticide concentrations in post-work samples had a geometric mean (geometric standard deviation) of 0.66 (1.11) µgL-1 for glyphosate and 0.29 (1.69) µgL-1 for fluroxypyr. Linear regression revealed a statistically significant positive association to exist between the time-interval between samples and the log-transformed adjusted (i.e. post- minus pre-task) pesticide urinary concentrations (ß=0.0039; p<0.0001). CONCLUSION: Amenity horticulturists can be exposed to pesticides during tasks involving these products. Further research is required to evaluate routes of exposure among this occupational group.


Assuntos
Acetatos/urina , Agricultura , Glicina/análogos & derivados , Herbicidas/urina , Exposição Ocupacional/análise , Piridinas/urina , Adulto , Idoso , Monitoramento Ambiental , Feminino , Glicina/urina , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade
16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28587206

RESUMO

The use of pesticides in Mexican agriculture creates an interest in learning about the presence of these substances in different environmental matrices. Glyphosate (GLY) is an herbicide widely used in the state of Campeche, located in the Mayan zone in the western Yucatan peninsula. Despite the fact that GLY is considered a non-toxic pesticide to humans, its presence in water bodies through spillage, runoff, and leaching are a risk to human health or biota that inhabit these ecosystems. In the present study, glyphosate residues were determined in groundwater, bottled drinking water, and the urine of subsistence farmers from various localities of the Hopelchén municipality in Campeche. Determination of GLY was carried out using Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay (ELISA). The highest concentrations of GLY were observed in the groundwater (1.42 µg/L) of Ich-Ek and urine (0.47 µg/L) samples of subsistence farmers from the Francisco J. Mújica communities. The glyphosate concentrations in groundwater and bottled drinking water indicate an exposure and excessive use of glyphosate in these agricultural communities. This is one of the first studies that reports glyphosate concentration levels in human urine and bottled drinking water in México and in the groundwater in the Yucatan Peninsula as part of a prospective pilot study, to which a follow-up will be performed to monitor this trend over time.


Assuntos
Água Potável/análise , Fazendeiros , Glicina/análogos & derivados , Poluentes Químicos da Água/química , Coleta de Dados , Glicina/química , Glicina/urina , Água Subterrânea/química , Herbicidas/química , Herbicidas/urina , Humanos , México , Resíduos de Praguicidas , Projetos Piloto , Estudos Prospectivos
17.
Environ Res ; 156: 420-425, 2017 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28410519

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Evidence from experimental studies suggests that atrazine and its analytes alter the timing of puberty in laboratory animals. Such associations have not been investigated in humans. OBJECTIVE: To determine the association between in utero exposure to atrazine analytes and earlier menarche attainment in a nested case-control study of the population-based Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children. METHODS: Cases were girls who reported menarche before 11.5 years while controls were girls who reported menarche at or after 11.5 years. Seven atrazine analyte concentrations were measured in maternal gestational urine samples (sample gestation week median (IQR): 12 (8-17)) during the period 1991-1992, for 174 cases and 195 controls using high performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. We evaluated the study association using multivariate logistic regression, adjusting for potential confounders. We used multiple imputation to impute missing confounder data for 29% of the study participants. RESULTS: Diaminochlorotriazine (DACT) was the most frequently detected analyte (58%>limit of detection [LOD]) followed by desethyl atrazine (6%), desethyl atrazine mercapturate (3%), atrazine mercapturate (1%), hydroxyl atrazine (1%), atrazine (1%) and desisopropyl atrazine (0.5%). Because of low detection of other analytes, only DACT was included in the exposure-outcome analyses. The adjusted odds of early menarche for girls with DACT exposures≥median was 1.13 (95% Confidence Interval [95% CI]:0.82, 1.55) and exposure

Assuntos
Atrazina/toxicidade , Atrazina/urina , Exposição Materna , Menarca/efeitos dos fármacos , Adolescente , Fatores Etários , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Criança , Inglaterra , Feminino , Herbicidas/toxicidade , Herbicidas/urina , Humanos , Modelos Logísticos , Estudos Longitudinais
18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28353657

RESUMO

Use of pesticides by households in rural Ghana is common for residential pest control, agricultural use, and for the reduction of vectors carrying disease. However, few data are available about exposure to pesticides among this population. Our objective was to quantify urinary concentrations of metabolites of organophosphate (OP), pyrethroid, and select herbicides during pregnancy, and to explore exposure determinants. In 2014, 17 pregnant women from rural Ghana were surveyed about household pesticide use and provided weekly first morning urine voids during three visits (n = 51 samples). A total of 90.1% (46/51) of samples had detectable OP metabolites [geometric mean, GM (95% CI): 3,5,6-trichloro-2-pyridinol 0.54 µg/L (0.36-0.81), para-nitrophenol 0.71 µg/L (0.51-1.00)], 75.5% (37/49) had detectable pyrethroid metabolites [GM: 3-phenoxybenzoic acid 0.23 µg/L (0.17, 0.32)], and 70.5% (36/51) had detectable 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid levels, a herbicide [GM: 0.46 µg/L (0.29-0.73)]. Concentrations of para-nitrophenol and 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid in Ghanaian pregnant women appear higher when compared to nonpregnant reproductive-aged women in a reference U.S. POPULATION: Larger studies are necessary to more fully explore predictors of exposure in this population.


Assuntos
Herbicidas/urina , Inseticidas/urina , Exposição Materna/estatística & dados numéricos , Gravidez/urina , Saúde da População Rural/estatística & dados numéricos , Adulto , Estudos Transversais , Monitoramento Ambiental , Feminino , Gana , Humanos , Projetos Piloto
19.
J Expo Sci Environ Epidemiol ; 27(5): 484-490, 2017 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27531372

RESUMO

We evaluated 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D) exposure in four municipalities with and without cosmetic pesticide bylaws in British Columbia, Canada. We recruited a child (aged 1.5-5 years) and adult from 10 households in each city, who provided urine samples in May and June, 2009. No households had used pesticides for 7 days prior to sample collection. We quantified urinary 2,4-D using LC/MS/MS. Quantities of 2,4-D in urine were similar across cities and below biomonitoring equivalents corresponding to references doses in the United State of America and Canada. When adult's and children's urines were analyzed together in linear mixed-effects regression models, natural log urinary 2,4-D was significantly associated with having a diet of ⩾50% organic food (ß=-0.6 (0.3) µg/l, P=0.05). Without natural log transformation, median concentration of urinary 2,4-D among those who ate ⩾50% organic food (n=12) was 1.4 µg/l versus 1.5 µg/l for others (n=59). Lack of a significant association (two-sided alpha=0.05) between pesticide bylaws and urinary 2,4-D might reflect small sample size, lack of recent acute exposure, or that 2,4-D exposure is primarily influenced by sources of exposure not addressed through bylaws. Food might be a route of exposure to 2,4-D, consistent with other studies. Future research will require larger sample sizes for sufficient statistical power.


Assuntos
Ácido 2,4-Diclorofenoxiacético/urina , Cosméticos , Herbicidas/urina , Praguicidas/toxicidade , Adulto , Colúmbia Britânica , Pré-Escolar , Cidades , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Projetos Piloto , Estados Unidos
20.
Int J Hyg Environ Health ; 220(1): 8-16, 2017 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27838355

RESUMO

The broadband herbicide glyphosate (N-[phosphonomethyl]-glycine) and its main metabolite aminomethylphosphonic acid (AMPA) were analyzed by GC-MS-MS in 24h-urine samples cryo-archived by the German Environmental Specimen Bank (ESB). Samples collected in 2001, 2003, 2005, 2007, 2009, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014, and 2015 were chosen for this retrospective analysis. All urine samples had been provided by 20 to 29 years old individuals living in Greifswald, a city in north-eastern Germany. Out of the 399 analyzed urine samples, 127 (=31.8%) contained glyphosate concentrations at or above the limit of quantification (LOQ) of 0.1µg/L. For AMPA this was the case for 160 (=40.1%) samples. The fraction of glyphosate levels at or above LOQ peaked in 2012 (57.5%) and 2013 (56.4%) after having discontinuously increased from 10.0% in 2001. Quantification rates were lower again in 2014 and 2015 with 32.5% and 40.0%, respectively. The overall trend for quantifiable AMPA levels was similar. Glyphosate and AMPA concentrations in urine were statistically significantly correlated (spearman rank correlation coefficient=0.506, p≤0.001). Urinary glyphosate and AMPA levels tended to be higher in males. The possible reduction in exposure since 2013 indicated by ESB data may be due to changes in glyphosate application in agricultural practice. The ESB will continue monitoring internal exposures to glyphosate and AMPA for following up the time trend, elucidating inter-individual differences, and contributing to the ongoing debate on the further regulation of glyphosate-based pesticides.


Assuntos
Monitoramento Ambiental/estatística & dados numéricos , Glicina/análogos & derivados , Herbicidas/urina , Organofosfonatos/urina , Adulto , Feminino , Alemanha , Glicina/urina , Humanos , Isoxazóis , Masculino , Tetrazóis , Adulto Jovem
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