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1.
Elife ; 102021 11 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34725038

RESUMO

In many species, within-group conflict leads to immediate avoidance of potential aggressors or increases in affiliation, but no studies have investigated delayed post-conflict management behaviour. Here, we experimentally test that possibility using a wild but habituated population of dwarf mongooses (Helogale parvula). First, we used natural and playback-simulated foraging displacements to demonstrate that bystanders take notice of the vocalisations produced during such within-group conflict events but that they do not engage in any immediate post-conflict affiliative behaviour with the protagonists or other bystanders. We then used another playback experiment to assess delayed effects of within-group conflict on grooming interactions: we examined affiliative behaviour at the evening sleeping burrow, 30-60 min after the most recent simulated foraging displacement. Overall, fewer individuals groomed on evenings following an afternoon of simulated conflict, but those that did groomed more than on control evenings. Subordinate bystanders groomed with the simulated aggressor significantly less, and groomed more with one another, on conflict compared to control evenings. Our study provides experimental evidence that dwarf mongooses acoustically obtain information about within-group contests (including protagonist identity), retain that information, and use it to inform conflict-management decisions with a temporal delay.


Assuntos
Agressão , Asseio Animal , Herpestidae/psicologia , Comportamento Social , Vocalização Animal , Animais , Comportamento Animal , Feminino , Masculino , África do Sul
2.
Ticks Tick Borne Dis ; 12(6): 101821, 2021 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34525434

RESUMO

In Okinawa prefecture, Japan, the first case of severe fever with thrombocytopenia syndrome (SFTS) was confirmed in August 2016, and this case remains to be the only reported case of SFTS in Okinawa. The epidemiological investigation indicated that the patient had been infected on the main island of Okinawa, but source and route of infection were unknown. Therefore, to understand the possible source and route of SFTS virus (SFTSV) infection in Okinawa, we performed a seroepidemiological study of SFTSV among animals and dwellers in Okinawa and conducted a questionnaire survey to investigate risk factors for tick bites in Okinawa. Among the 1,035 serum samples from four different animal species, anti-SFTSV antibodies were detected in only 4.2% wild mongoose (Herpestes auropunctatus) serum samples. To our knowledge, this is the first study to report the detection of anti-SFTSV antibodies in wild mongooses. Meanwhile, all 1,104 human inhabitants tested negative for anti-SFTSV antibodies, suggesting that the frequency of SFTSV exposure is low in Okinawa. Logistic regression analysis of the questionnaire results showed that outdoor activity was associated with an increased risk of tick bite among Okinawa residents. Despite the current low frequency of SFTSV infection in animals and humans, endemic circulation of the virus in Okinawa should be carefully monitored in the area for preventing future infections.


Assuntos
Gatos , Cabras , Herpestidae , Phlebovirus/isolamento & purificação , Febre Grave com Síndrome de Trombocitopenia/epidemiologia , Febre Grave com Síndrome de Trombocitopenia/veterinária , Sus scrofa , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Animais , Doenças do Gato/epidemiologia , Doenças do Gato/virologia , Feminino , Doenças das Cabras/epidemiologia , Doenças das Cabras/virologia , Humanos , Japão/epidemiologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Prevalência , Estudos Soroepidemiológicos , Febre Grave com Síndrome de Trombocitopenia/virologia , Suínos , Doenças dos Suínos/epidemiologia , Doenças dos Suínos/virologia , Adulto Jovem
3.
Ann Parasitol ; 67(2): 151-159, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34331851

RESUMO

The ischnoceran louse, Felicola rohani Werneck, 1956 is reported for the first time from India on the Indian grey mongoose - Herpestes edwardsii (Geoffroy Saint-Hilaire, 1818) and the amblyceran louse, Heterodoxus spiniger (Enderlein, 1909) is recorded for the first time from that host species. The lice were collected from freshly accidentally killed specimen of the host, preserved and kept at the Museum of Estuarine Biology Regional Centre, Zoological Survey of India, Gopalpur-on-sea, Ganjam Odisha. Detailed morphological descriptions of the lice, based on light and scanning electron microscopy, are presented in this paper.


Assuntos
Amblíceros , Herpestidae , Infestações por Piolhos , Ftirápteros , Animais , Índia , Infestações por Piolhos/veterinária , Microscopia Eletrônica de Varredura
4.
PLoS Negl Trop Dis ; 15(7): e0009536, 2021 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34264951

RESUMO

Mongooses, a nonnative species, are a known reservoir of rabies virus in the Caribbean region. A cross-sectional study of mongooses at 41 field sites on the US Virgin Islands of St. Croix, St. John, and St. Thomas captured 312 mongooses (32% capture rate). We determined the absence of rabies virus by antigen testing and rabies virus exposure by antibody testing in mongoose populations on all three islands. USVI is the first Caribbean state to determine freedom-from-rabies for its mongoose populations with a scientifically-led robust cross-sectional study. Ongoing surveillance activities will determine if other domestic and wildlife populations in USVI are rabies-free.


Assuntos
Animais Selvagens/virologia , Reservatórios de Doenças/virologia , Herpestidae/virologia , Vírus da Raiva/isolamento & purificação , Animais , Estudos Transversais , Vírus da Raiva/classificação , Vírus da Raiva/genética , Ilhas Virgens Americanas
5.
Nat Commun ; 12(1): 3717, 2021 06 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34162841

RESUMO

Rawls argued that fairness in human societies can be achieved if decisions about the distribution of societal rewards are made from behind a veil of ignorance, which obscures the personal gains that result. Whether ignorance promotes fairness in animal societies, that is, the distribution of resources to reduce inequality, is unknown. Here we show experimentally that cooperatively breeding banded mongooses, acting from behind a veil of ignorance over kinship, allocate postnatal care in a way that reduces inequality among offspring, in the manner predicted by a Rawlsian model of cooperation. In this society synchronized reproduction leaves adults in a group ignorant of the individual parentage of their communal young. We provisioned half of the mothers in each mongoose group during pregnancy, leaving the other half as matched controls, thus increasing inequality among mothers and increasing the amount of variation in offspring birth weight in communal litters. After birth, fed mothers provided extra care to the offspring of unfed mothers, not their own young, which levelled up initial size inequalities among the offspring and equalized their survival to adulthood. Our findings suggest that a classic idea of moral philosophy also applies to the evolution of cooperation in biological systems.


Assuntos
Comportamento Animal/fisiologia , Herpestidae/fisiologia , Reprodução/fisiologia , Comportamento Social , Animais , Animais Recém-Nascidos , Peso Corporal/fisiologia , Cruzamento , Feminino , Masculino , Modelos Teóricos , Gravidez , Predomínio Social
6.
Ecol Lett ; 24(9): 1966-1975, 2021 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34176203

RESUMO

Personality traits, such as the propensity to cooperate, are often inherited from parents to offspring, but the pathway of inheritance is unclear. Traits could be inherited via genetic or parental effects, or culturally via social learning from role models. However, these pathways are difficult to disentangle in natural systems as parents are usually the source of all of these effects. Here, we exploit natural 'cross fostering' in wild banded mongooses to investigate the inheritance of cooperative behaviour. Our analysis of 800 adult helpers over 21 years showed low but significant genetic heritability of cooperative personalities in males but not females. Cross fostering revealed little evidence of cultural heritability: offspring reared by particularly cooperative helpers did not become more cooperative themselves. Our results demonstrate that cooperative personalities are not always highly heritable in wild, and that the basis of behavioural traits can vary within a species (here, by sex).


Assuntos
Herpestidae , Animais , Comportamento Cooperativo , Herpestidae/genética , Masculino , Linhagem , Personalidade , Fenótipo
7.
Parasitol Int ; 84: 102399, 2021 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34077794

RESUMO

Strongyloides is a genus of parasitic nematodes of vertebrates that contains over 50 species, each with a variable host range. A recent molecular phylogenetic analysis on this genus showed that Strongyloides spp. from various carnivore hosts form a strongly supported clade together with Strongyloides stercoralis, a major pathogen of humans and dogs (named the "stercoralis/procyonis group"). In the present study, we obtained DNA sequencing data of Strongyloides sp. isolated from an imported meerkat (Suricata suricatta). Based on the phylogenetic analysis, we considered this a new member of the stercoralis/procyonis group. This study represents the first isolation and molecular characterization of a Strongyloides species from hosts belonging to the family Herpestidae (mongooses and meerkat). However, whether the meerkat serves as a natural host of this Strongyloides species remains to be investigated.


Assuntos
Herpestidae , Strongyloides/classificação , Estrongiloidíase/veterinária , Animais , Sequência de Bases , DNA de Helmintos/análise , Masculino , Animais de Estimação , Strongyloides/genética , Strongyloides/isolamento & purificação , Estrongiloidíase/diagnóstico , Estrongiloidíase/parasitologia
8.
Acta Crystallogr F Struct Biol Commun ; 77(Pt 4): 113-120, 2021 Apr 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33830076

RESUMO

Mice (Mus musculus) are nocturnal small animals belonging to the rodent family that live in burrows, an environment in which significantly high CO2 levels prevail. It is expected that mouse hemoglobin (Hb) plays an important role in their adaptation to living in such a high-CO2 environment, while many other species cannot. In the present study, mouse Hb was purified and crystallized at a physiological pH of 7 in the orthorhombic space group P212121; the crystals diffracted to 2.8 Šresolution. The primary amino-acid sequence and crystal structure of mouse Hb were compared with those of mammalian Hbs in order to investigate the structure-function relationship of mouse Hb. Differences were observed from guinea pig Hb in terms of amino-acid sequence and from cat Hb in overall structure (in terms of r.m.s.d.). The difference in r.m.s.d. from cat Hb may be due to the existence of the molecule in a conformation other than the R-state. Analysis of tertiary- and quaternary-structural features, the α1ß2 interface region and the heme environment without any ligands in all four heme groups showed that mouse methemoglobin is in an intermediate state between the R-state and the T-state that is much closer to the R-state conformation.


Assuntos
Cristalografia por Raios X/métodos , Hemoglobinas/química , Hemoglobinas/genética , Sequência de Aminoácidos , Animais , Gatos , Cobaias , Herpestidae , Humanos , Camundongos , Estrutura Secundária de Proteína , Coelhos , Ratos , Especificidade da Espécie
9.
Viruses ; 13(2)2021 02 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33672496

RESUMO

We applied the model-guided fieldwork framework to the Caribbean mongoose rabies system by parametrizing a spatially-explicit, individual-based model, and by performing an uncertainty analysis designed to identify parameters for which additional empirical data are most needed. Our analysis revealed important variation in output variables characterizing rabies dynamics, namely rabies persistence, exposure level, spatiotemporal distribution, and prevalence. Among epidemiological parameters, rabies transmission rate was the most influential, followed by rabies mortality and location, and size of the initial infection. The most influential landscape parameters included habitat-specific carrying capacities, landscape heterogeneity, and the level of resistance to dispersal associated with topography. Movement variables, including juvenile dispersal, adult fine-scale movement distances, and home range size, as well as life history traits such as age of independence, birth seasonality, and age- and sex-specific mortality were other important drivers of rabies dynamics. We discuss results in the context of mongoose ecology and its influence on disease transmission dynamics. Finally, we suggest empirical approaches and study design specificities that would provide optimal contributing data addressing the knowledge gaps identified by our approach, and would increase our potential to use epidemiological models to guide mongoose rabies control and management in the Caribbean.


Assuntos
Herpestidae/virologia , Raiva/veterinária , Distribuição Animal , Animais , Região do Caribe/epidemiologia , Feminino , Herpestidae/fisiologia , Masculino , Modelos Biológicos , Raiva/epidemiologia , Raiva/transmissão , Raiva/virologia , Vírus da Raiva/classificação , Vírus da Raiva/genética , Vírus da Raiva/isolamento & purificação , Vírus da Raiva/fisiologia
10.
Proc Biol Sci ; 288(1945): 20202104, 2021 02 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33593194

RESUMO

In cooperatively breeding species where rearing effort is shared among multiple group members, increases in group size typically reduce average per capita contributions to offspring care by all group members (load-lightening) but it is not known how changes in group size affect the distribution of workload among group members. The socioeconomic collective action theory suggests that, in larger groups, the incentives for free riding are stronger, leading to greater inequalities in work division among group members. Here, we use the Gini index to measure inequality at the group level in the contributions of helpers to three different cooperative behaviours (babysitting, pup-provisioning and raised guarding) in groups of varying size in wild Kalahari meerkats (Suricata suricatta). In larger groups, inequality in helpers' contributions to cooperative activities and the frequency of free riding both increased. Elevated levels of inequality were generated partly as a result of increased differences in contributions to cooperative activities between helpers in different sex and age categories in larger groups. After controlling for the positive effect of group size on total provisioning, increasing levels of inequality in contributions were associated with reductions in total pup-provisioning conducted by the group. Reductions in total pup-provisioning were, in turn, associated with reductions in the growth and survival of pups (but pup growth and survival were not directly affected by inequality in provisioning). Our results support the prediction of collective action theory described above and show how the Gini index can be used to investigate the distribution of cooperative behaviour within the group.


Assuntos
Comportamento Cooperativo , Herpestidae , Animais , Botsuana
11.
J Anim Ecol ; 90(1): 153-167, 2021 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33428240

RESUMO

Animal groups are heterogeneous assemblages of individuals with differing fitness interests, which may lead to internal conflict over investment in group territorial defence. Differences between individuals may lead to different behavioural responses to intergroup conflict, particularly between the sexes. These potential impacts have been little studied. We used social network analysis to investigate the impact of simulated intergroup conflicts on social relationships in groups of wild banded mongooses Mungos mungo, in which intergroup fights are more costly for males than females. We predicted that social cohesion (specifically male-to-male and female-to-male grooming) would increase after conflict, and aggression would decrease, to minimize conflict between the sexes. Simulated intergroup conflicts were performed by exposing banded mongoose groups to scents, 'war cry' playbacks, and live intruders from a rival group. All grooming and aggression interactions between individuals were recorded, and grooming and aggression social networks were created for the 2 days preceding a simulated intergroup conflict (pre-conflict network) and the 2 days after (post-conflict network). We found no evidence of an increase in social cohesion after simulated conflicts, measured as grooming eigenvector centrality. Male-to-male, male-to-female and female-to-male grooming strength decreased after simulated intrusions compared to female-to-female grooming strength. However, male-female aggression decreased in intrusion trials compared to other interaction types, consistent with the hypothesis that intergroup encounters reduce the level of intragroup conflict between males and females. Males were more affected socially by intergroup encounters than females, which may be because they are investing in defence rather than internal relationships. Focusing on individual relationship changes, using social network analysis, can reveal changes in the directionality of behaviour in response to intergroup encounters, and highlight how individual responses to conflict may scale up to affect social networks and, potentially, group performance. This study highlights the importance of studying both group-level behaviours and individual relationships to more fully understand responses to intergroup encounters.


Assuntos
Agressão , Herpestidae , Animais , Comportamento Cooperativo , Feminino , Asseio Animal , Masculino , Comportamento Social , Territorialidade
12.
Int J Legal Med ; 135(3): 979-991, 2021 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32875396

RESUMO

Scavenging animals often scatter skeletal remains of forensic interest and cause scavenging damage. This study aimed to identify scavenging animals in the peri-urban agricultural Highveld of South Africa, describe their scattering patterns, and the damage they cause to bone. Ten pig carcasses (Sus scrofa domesticus) (40-80 kg) were placed at the University of Pretoria's Mierjie Le Roux Experimental Farm (Highveld) in summer and winter. Motion-activated cameras recorded the scavenging. Scavenger species were identified and their behaviors, scattering pattern, and the damage they cause to bone were described. Scavenging was primarily by black-backed jackals; however, mongooses (slender, yellow, and water mongoose), Cape porcupine, and honey badger were also active. Remains were commonly scattered in two directions by jackals. The distance of scattering was heavily influenced by fencing. The remains were scattered within a maximum radius of 73.7 m. The remains were scavenged and skeletonized faster in summer. Jackals caused minimal damage to bone, isolated to superficial, nonspecific scores, furrows, and punctures. A few mongoose bone alterations were present as jagged gnaw marks on the angle of the mandible and gnawing of the vertebral spinous process. Cape porcupine bone damage included gnaw marks on the condyle of a femur and head of humerus, and destruction of the proximal and distal ends of a tibia. The described scattering pattern and bone modification patterns will assist in the recovery and analysis of scavenged remains found in peri-urban agricultural areas in South Africa.


Assuntos
Comportamento Apetitivo , Restos Mortais/lesões , Osso e Ossos/lesões , Comportamento Alimentar , Antropologia Forense , Animais , Herpestidae , Chacais , Mustelidae , Porcos-Espinhos , Estações do Ano , África do Sul
13.
Anim Cogn ; 24(1): 165-175, 2021 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32955622

RESUMO

Social learning is widespread in the animal kingdom, but individuals can differ in how they acquire and use social information. Personality traits, such as neophobia, may, for example, promote individual learning strategies. Here, we contribute comparative data on social learning strategies in carnivorans by examining whether narrow-striped mongooses (Mungotictis decemlineata), a group-living Malagasy euplerid, learn socially and whether neophobia influences social learning. To this end, we tested seven wild female groups with a two-option artificial feeding box, using a demonstrator-observer paradigm, and conducted novel object tests to assess neophobia. In five groups, one individual was trained as a demonstrator displaying one of the techniques, whereas the other two groups served as control groups. Neophobia did not co-vary with an individual's propensity to seek social information. However, less neophobic individuals, and individuals that tended to seek social information, learned the task faster. Moreover, individuals in demonstrator groups learned the task faster than those in groups without a demonstrator and used the demonstrated technique more often. Hence, narrow-striped mongooses rely on social facilitation and local or stimulus enhancement to solve new problems. Finally, our results suggest that several individual characteristics should be taken into consideration to obtain a more comprehensive understanding of social learning strategies.


Assuntos
Herpestidae , Aprendizado Social , Animais , Feminino , Aprendizagem , Facilitação Social
14.
J Anim Ecol ; 90(3): 641-652, 2021 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33241582

RESUMO

Recent comparative studies show that cooperative breeding is positively correlated with harsh and unpredictable environments and it is suggested that this association occurs because helpers buffer the negative effects of adverse ecological conditions on fitness. In the Kalahari, rainfall varies widely between- and within years, affecting primary production and the availability of the principal prey of cooperatively breeding Kalahari meerkats, Suricata suricatta. Our study aimed to establish whether the presence and number of helpers buffer the negative effects of variation in rainfall on the fecundity and body mass of breeding females, and the survival and growth of pups. We investigate the relationship between group size and variation in rainfall on dominant female fecundity, body mass, and offspring survival and growth using an additive modelling approach on 21 years of individual-based records of the life histories of individual meerkats. We show that breeding female fecundity is reduced during periods of low rainfall but that the effects of low rainfall are mitigated by increases in group size and body mass because heavier females and those in larger groups have increased fecundity and reduced interbirth intervals. Pup growth and survival are also reduced during periods of low rainfall, but only in smaller groups. Our results support the suggestion that cooperative breeding mitigates the detrimental effects of adverse environmental conditions and may enhance the capacity of species to occupy environments where food availability is low and unpredictable.


Assuntos
Herpestidae , Animais , Botsuana , Feminino , Fertilidade , Reprodução
15.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 117(47): 29759-29766, 2020 11 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33168743

RESUMO

Collective conflicts among humans are widespread, although often highly destructive. A classic explanation for the prevalence of such warfare in some human societies is leadership by self-serving individuals that reap the benefits of conflict while other members of society pay the costs. Here, we show that leadership of this kind can also explain the evolution of collective violence in certain animal societies. We first extend the classic hawk-dove model of the evolution of animal aggression to consider cases in which a subset of individuals within each group may initiate fights in which all group members become involved. We show that leadership of this kind, when combined with inequalities in the payoffs of fighting, can lead to the evolution of severe intergroup aggression, with negative consequences for population mean fitness. We test our model using long-term data from wild banded mongooses, a species characterized by frequent intergroup conflicts that have very different fitness consequences for male and female group members. The data show that aggressive encounters between groups are initiated by females, who gain fitness benefits from mating with extragroup males in the midst of battle, whereas the costs of fighting are borne chiefly by males. In line with the model predictions, the result is unusually severe levels of intergroup violence. Our findings suggest that the decoupling of leaders from the costs that they incite amplifies the destructive nature of intergroup conflict.


Assuntos
Comportamento Animal/fisiologia , Herpestidae/psicologia , Liderança , Modelos Psicológicos , Violência/psicologia , Agressão/psicologia , Animais , Técnicas de Observação do Comportamento , Comportamento Competitivo/fisiologia , Comportamento Cooperativo , Feminino , Aptidão Genética , Masculino , Fatores Sexuais , Evolução Social , Gravação em Vídeo
16.
J Vet Dent ; 37(3): 141-148, 2020 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33241762

RESUMO

Development of gingival enlargement and periodontitis is described in a young dwarf mongoose. Repeated treatments resulted in gingival resection and histologic evaluation however gingival enlargement was ultimately responsive to extraction of associated teeth. In cases such as these, surgical extraction of teeth associated with severe recurrent gingival enlargement should be considered to avoid the stress and risk of repeated immobilizations.


Assuntos
Hiperplasia Gengival , Herpestidae , Periodontite , Animais , Hiperplasia Gengival/veterinária , Gengivectomia/veterinária , Periodontite/veterinária
17.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 117(48): 30012-30013, 2020 12 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33188089
18.
BMC Biol ; 18(1): 119, 2020 09 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32907574

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The ability to recombine smaller units to produce infinite structures of higher-order phrases is unique to human language, yet evidence of animals to combine multiple acoustic units into meaningful combinations increases constantly. Despite increasing evidence for meaningful call combinations across contexts, little attention has been paid to the potential role of temporal variation of call type composition in longer vocal sequences in conveying information about subtle changes in the environment or individual differences. Here, we investigated the composition and information content of sentinel call sequences in meerkats (Suricata suricatta). While being on sentinel guard, a coordinated vigilance behaviour, meerkats produce long sequences composed of six distinct sentinel call types and alarm calls. We analysed recordings of sentinels to test if the order of the call types is graded and whether they contain additional group-, individual-, age- or sex-specific vocal signatures. RESULTS: Our results confirmed that the six distinct types of sentinel calls in addition to alarm calls were produced in a highly graded way, likely referring to changes in the perceived predation risk. Transitions between call types one step up or down the a priory assumed gradation were over-represented, while transitions over two or three steps were significantly under-represented. Analysing sequence similarity within and between groups and individuals demonstrated that sequences composed of the most commonly emitted sentinel call types showed high within-individual consistency whereby adults and females had higher consistency scores than subadults and males respectively. CONCLUSIONS: We present a novel type of combinatoriality where the order of the call types contains temporary contextual information, and also relates to the identity of the caller. By combining different call types in a graded way over long periods, meerkats constantly convey meaningful information about subtle changes in the external environment, while at the same time the temporal pattern of the distinct call types contains stable information about caller identity. Our study demonstrates how complex animal call sequences can be described by simple rules, in this case gradation across acoustically distinct, but functionally related call types, combined with individual-specific call patterns.


Assuntos
Herpestidae/fisiologia , Comportamento Social , Vocalização Animal , Acústica , Animais , Feminino , Herpestidae/psicologia , Masculino
19.
Anim Reprod Sci ; 221: 106585, 2020 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32889408

RESUMO

In ex situ conditions, little is known about the reproductive biology of meerkats. The aim of present study was to describe the morphological aspects of male genital organs and accessory glands using macroscopic evaluation, ultrasonography, and radiography, as well as describing semen characteristics post-electroejaculation. The results indicated anatomical characteristics of meerkats are very similar to those of cats, having a prostate, accessory bulbourethral glands, and an elongated and radiopaque structure in the penis, which is indicative of there being a baculum. The testicular volume was 0.81 cm³ (± 0.10) and the relative testis weight was 1.37 cm³/kg (± 0.15). Both testicles are present in the scrotum, which has an ellipsoidal shape, homogeneous texture, hypoechoic parenchyma and are encased in a hyperechoic tunica albuginea. Electroejaculation was effectively induced in all animals for semen collection with utilization of medetomidine and ketamine. The values semen samples variables were as follows for volume - 0.125 ±â€¯0.193 mL, motility - 19.8 ±â€¯18.6 %, vigor - 1.9 ±â€¯1.0, concentration - 40.5 ±â€¯25.2 × 106 sperm/mL and morphologically normal sperm - 10.8 ±â€¯6.6 %. This is the first study in which there is a description of morphological and imaging aspects of the male reproductive tracts of meerkats, as well as the seminal characteristics after using electroejaculation for semen collection. Knowledge of anatomical and seminal characteristics is essential for implementation of assisted reproduction programs, as well as reproductive management in the species.


Assuntos
Genitália Masculina/anatomia & histologia , Herpestidae/fisiologia , Análise do Sêmen/veterinária , Espermatozoides/fisiologia , Animais , Animais de Zoológico , Herpestidae/anatomia & histologia , Masculino
20.
Res Microbiol ; 171(8): 290-300, 2020 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32898701

RESUMO

The microbial characterization of the mammal's gut is an emerging research area, wherein culturomics methodologies applied to human samples are transposed to the animal context without improvement. In this work, using Egyptian mongoose as a model, we explore wet bench conditions to define an effective experimental design based on culturomics and DNA barcoding with potential application to different mammal species. After testing a battery of solid media and enrichments, we show that YCFA-based media, in aerobic and anaerobic conditions, together with PDA supplemented with chloramphenicol, are sufficient to maximize bacterial and fungal microbiota diversity. The pasteurization of the sample enrichment before cultivation is central to gain insight into sporogenic communities. We suggest the application of this optimized culturomics strategy to accurately expand knowledge on the microbial richness of mammals' gut, maximizing the application of common laboratory resources, without dramatic time and consumables expenditure but with high resolution of microbial landscapes. The analysis of ten fecal samples proved adequate to assess the core gastrointestinal microbiota of the mesocarnivore under analysis. This approach may empower most microbiology laboratories, particularly the veterinary, to perform studies on mammal's microbiota, and, in contrast with metagenomics, enabling the recovery of live bacteria for further studies.


Assuntos
Trato Gastrointestinal/microbiologia , Herpestidae/microbiologia , Metagenoma , Metagenômica/métodos , Técnicas Microbiológicas/métodos , Animais , Biodiversidade , Meios de Cultura , DNA Bacteriano/genética , DNA Fúngico/genética , Fezes/microbiologia , Feminino , Microbioma Gastrointestinal , Masculino , Mamíferos/microbiologia , Dados de Sequência Molecular , RNA Ribossômico 16S/genética , Análise de Sequência de DNA , Espectrometria de Massas por Ionização e Dessorção a Laser Assistida por Matriz
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