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1.
Wiad Lek ; 73(9 cz. 2): 1968-1972, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33148842

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: The aim: Is to increase effectiveness and assess safety of the antiviral therapy in complex treatment of patients with psoriasis with activated chronic herpes virus infection of types 1 and 2. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Matherials and methods: 120 patients and 25 practically healthy persons were examined. RESULTS: Results: It has been studied an effect of antiviral therapy on the background of basic therapy in patients with P+HSV 1,2: the percentage of HSV 1,2 DNA detection after the use of acyclovir and/or inosine pranobex was decreased in saliva from 22.0±3.43 % to 6.7±1.32 % (р<0.01) and in epithelium - from 33.3±4.23 % to 6.7±1.8 % (р<0.01); The use of antiviral therapy has showed a decrease in the expression of miR 155 molecules from 126.3 ±10.5 U/6 to 62.4±5.48 U/6 (р<0.05), an increase in the number of T-regulatory lymphocytes from 6.8±1.25% to 9.1±1.41% (p=0.0503); a decrease of IFN-α level in saliva from10.1±1.84 ng/ml to 8.2±1.27 ng/ml (р1=0.0398); in the serum IL-23 level was significantly decreased from14.9±2.11 pg/ml to 8.8±2.03 pg/ml (р<0.05) and TGF-ß synthesis was increased from 3.9±1.23 pg/ml to 9.3±2.21 pg/ml (р<0.01). CONCLUSION: Conclusions: An improved method of treatment and evaluation of its clinical and immunological effectiveness based on an integral criterion was suggested as a result of conducted antiviral therapy amid basic therapy in patients with psoriasis with activated HSV-1 and HSV-2.


Assuntos
Antivirais , Herpesvirus Humano 1 , Psoríase , Aciclovir/uso terapêutico , Antivirais/uso terapêutico , Herpesvirus Humano 2 , Humanos , Psoríase/complicações , Psoríase/tratamento farmacológico
2.
Cell Rep ; 33(5): 108345, 2020 11 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33147460

RESUMO

Bat cells and tissue have elevated basal expression levels of antiviral genes commonly associated with interferon alpha (IFNα) signaling. Here, we show Interferon Regulatory Factor 1 (IRF1), 3, and 7 levels are elevated in most bat tissues and that, basally, IRFs contribute to the expression of type I IFN ligands and high expression of interferon regulated genes (IRGs). CRISPR knockout (KO) of IRF 1/3/7 in cells reveals distinct subsets of genes affected by each IRF in an IFN-ligand signaling-dependent and largely independent manner. As the master regulators of innate immunity, the IRFs control the kinetics and maintenance of the IRG response and play essential roles in response to influenza A virus (IAV), herpes simplex virus 1 (HSV-1), Melaka virus/Pteropine orthoreovirus 3 Melaka (PRV3M), and Middle East respiratory syndrome-related coronavirus (MERS-CoV) infection. With its differential expression in bats compared to that in humans, this highlights a critical role for basal IRF expression in viral responses and potentially immune cell development in bats with relevance for IRF function in human biology.


Assuntos
Quirópteros/imunologia , Regulação da Expressão Gênica/imunologia , Fator Regulador 1 de Interferon/imunologia , Fator Regulador 7 de Interferon/imunologia , Viroses/imunologia , Animais , Herpesvirus Humano 1/imunologia , Vírus da Influenza A/imunologia , Coronavírus da Síndrome Respiratória do Oriente Médio/imunologia , Orthoreovirus/imunologia
3.
BMC Infect Dis ; 20(1): 832, 2020 Nov 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33176697

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Carvacrol, as the major components of aromatic plants used for treating human skin diseases including origanum, Satureja, thymus, and coridothymus species, presented a kind of antiviral activity. To explore the mechanisms of carvacrol against herpes simplex virus (HSV) in vitro. METHOD: The BSC-1 cells model of HSV infection was established, and from the two aspects of viral replication level and cell death pathway, the antiviral effects of carvacrol on HSV infected cells were also evaluated by plaque assay under the three modes including prevention, treatment, and direct inactivation. RESULTS: In the three ways, the half-maximal effective concentration (EC50) of 2% true carvacrol solution on HSV-2 infected cells were severally 0.43, 0.19 and 0.51 mmol/L, and the corresponding therapeutic index (TI) were 4.02, 9.11 and 3.39, respectively. It's the opposite of the increased levels caused by HSV-2 infection, that both the expressions at the transcription genes and protein levels of virus own replication key factors (including ICP4, ICP27, VP16, gB, and UL30) and cytokines (including RIP3, TNF-α, and MLKL) of infected cells treated with carvacrol were dose-dependently inhibited. Besides, HSV-2 infection can cause the decrease of intracellular protein ubiquitination level, and carvacrol can reverse the ubiquitination decrease level caused by HSV-2 infection. CONCLUSION: Carvacrol exhibits significant antiviral activity by inhibiting the HSV-2 proliferation process and HSV-2-induced TNF-α increasing levels, decreasing RIP3 and MLKL protein expressions through the intracellular RIP3-mediated programmed cell necrosis pathway. In addition, carvacrol also may exhibit anti-HSV-2 activity by reversing the ubiquitination decrease level caused by HSV-2 infection on the ubiquitin-proteasome system, which provides insights into the molecular mechanism.


Assuntos
Antivirais/farmacologia , Apoptose/efeitos dos fármacos , Cimenos/farmacologia , Células Epiteliais/virologia , Herpes Simples/metabolismo , Herpesvirus Humano 1/efeitos dos fármacos , Herpesvirus Humano 2/efeitos dos fármacos , Complexo de Endopeptidases do Proteassoma/metabolismo , Proteína Serina-Treonina Quinases de Interação com Receptores/metabolismo , Ubiquitina/metabolismo , Animais , Chlorocebus aethiops , Citocinas/metabolismo , Herpes Simples/virologia , Transdução de Sinais/efeitos dos fármacos , Células Vero , Replicação Viral/efeitos dos fármacos
4.
Cell Rep ; 33(5): 108339, 2020 11 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33147451

RESUMO

Here, we report our studies of immune-mediated regulation of Zika virus (ZIKV), herpes simplex virus 1 (HSV-1), and severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection in the human cornea. We find that ZIKV can be transmitted via corneal transplantation in mice. However, in human corneal explants, we report that ZIKV does not replicate efficiently and that SARS-CoV-2 does not replicate at all. Additionally, we demonstrate that type III interferon (IFN-λ) and its receptor (IFNλR1) are expressed in the corneal epithelium. Treatment of human corneal explants with IFN-λ, and treatment of mice with IFN-λ eye drops, upregulates antiviral interferon-stimulated genes. In human corneal explants, blockade of IFNλR1 enhances replication of ZIKV and HSV-1 but not SARS-CoV-2. In addition to an antiviral role for IFNλR1 in the cornea, our results suggest that the human cornea does not support SARS-CoV-2 infection despite expression of ACE2, a SARS-CoV-2 receptor, in the human corneal epithelium.


Assuntos
Betacoronavirus/fisiologia , Córnea/virologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/transmissão , Herpesvirus Humano 1/fisiologia , Interferons/imunologia , Pneumonia Viral/transmissão , Zika virus/fisiologia , Animais , Betacoronavirus/imunologia , Córnea/imunologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/imunologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/virologia , Herpes Simples/imunologia , Herpes Simples/transmissão , Herpes Simples/virologia , Humanos , Camundongos , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral/imunologia , Pneumonia Viral/virologia , Replicação Viral/fisiologia , Infecção por Zika virus/imunologia , Infecção por Zika virus/transmissão , Infecção por Zika virus/virologia
5.
BMC Infect Dis ; 20(1): 782, 2020 Oct 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33081701

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Primary herpetic gingivostomatitis (PHGS) in children, though usually self-limited, might mimic bacterial and enteroviral pharyngitis clinically. We conducted a study to define the clinical features of PHGS in children. METHODS: Between January 2012 and December 2016, 282 inpatients aged less than 19 years with cell culture-confirmed herpes simplex virus (HSV) infection in a medical center were identified from the virologic laboratory logbook. Clinical data were retrospectively collected. RESULTS: Among the 282 inpatients, 185 cases were considered as PHGS and were included for analysis. Fever was present in 99.5%. The mean duration of fever was 5.11 days (±2.24) with the longest being 17 days. Common oral manifestations included oral ulcers (84.3%), which equally resided in the anterior and posterior part of the oral cavity (65.4% vs. 63.2%), gum swelling and/or bleeding (67.6%), and exudate coated tonsils (16.8%). Leukocytosis (WBC count > 15,000/uL3) was noted in 52 patients (28.1%) and a serum C-reactive protein level > 40 mg/L in 55 patients (29.7%). Fixty-five patients (35%) were diagnosed with PHGS on admission and were significantly more likely to have ulcers over the anterior oral cavity (76.1% vs. 26.7%) and gum swelling/bleeding (76.2% vs. 7.5%, p-value all < 0.001) on admission and were significantly less likely to receive antibiotic treatment (16.9 vs. 36.7%, p-value < 0.01) than others. Forty-six patients (25%) undiagnosed as PHGS on discharge were significantly more likely to have exudate coated on the tonsils, to receive antibiotic treatment and significantly less likely to have gum swelling/bleeding and oral ulcers (all p-values < 0.01). CONCLUSIONS: Meticulously identifying specific oral manifestations of gum swelling/bleeding and ulcers over the anterior oral cavity in children can help making the diagnosis of PHGS earlier and subsequently reduce unnecessary prescription of antibiotics.


Assuntos
Gengivite/diagnóstico , Herpes Simples/diagnóstico , Herpesvirus Humano 1/imunologia , Úlceras Orais/diagnóstico , Faringite/diagnóstico , Estomatite Herpética/diagnóstico , Tonsilite/diagnóstico , Adolescente , Antibacterianos/uso terapêutico , Proteína C-Reativa/análise , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Diagnóstico Diferencial , Diagnóstico Precoce , Feminino , Febre , Herpes Simples/tratamento farmacológico , Herpes Simples/virologia , Herpesvirus Humano 1/isolamento & purificação , Humanos , Lactente , Leucocitose , Masculino , Estudos Retrospectivos , Estomatite Herpética/tratamento farmacológico , Estomatite Herpética/virologia
6.
Nat Commun ; 11(1): 4894, 2020 09 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32994400

RESUMO

Identification of the complete set of translated genes of viruses is important to understand viral replication and pathogenesis as well as for therapeutic approaches to control viral infection. Here, we use chemical proteomics, integrating bio-orthogonal non-canonical amino acid tagging and high-resolution mass spectrometry, to characterize the newly synthesized herpes simplex virus 1 (HSV-1) proteome in infected cells. In these infected cells, host cellular protein synthesis is shut-off, increasing the chance to preferentially detect viral proteomes. We identify nine previously cryptic orphan protein coding sequences whose translated products are expressed in HSV-1-infected cells. Functional characterization of one identified protein, designated piUL49, shows that it is critical for HSV-1 neurovirulence in vivo by regulating the activity of virally encoded dUTPase, a key enzyme that maintains accurate DNA replication. Our results demonstrate that cryptic orphan protein coding genes of HSV-1, and probably other large DNA viruses, remain to be identified.


Assuntos
Encefalite por Herpes Simples/virologia , Herpesvirus Humano 1/patogenicidade , Pirofosfatases/metabolismo , Proteínas Virais/metabolismo , Fatores de Virulência/metabolismo , Animais , Encéfalo/patologia , Encéfalo/virologia , Chlorocebus aethiops , Replicação do DNA , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Encefalite por Herpes Simples/patologia , Feminino , Genes Virais/genética , Células HEK293 , Células HeLa , Herpesvirus Humano 1/genética , Humanos , Camundongos , Biossíntese de Proteínas , Proteômica/métodos , Células Vero , Proteínas Virais/genética , Fatores de Virulência/genética , Replicação Viral
8.
Nat Commun ; 11(1): 4148, 2020 08 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32811834

RESUMO

We evaluate gene editing of HSV in a well-established mouse model, using adeno-associated virus (AAV)-delivered meganucleases, as a potentially curative approach to treat latent HSV infection. Here we show that AAV-delivered meganucleases, but not CRISPR/Cas9, mediate highly efficient gene editing of HSV, eliminating over 90% of latent virus from superior cervical ganglia. Single-cell RNA sequencing demonstrates that both HSV and individual AAV serotypes are non-randomly distributed among neuronal subsets in ganglia, implying that improved delivery to all neuronal subsets may lead to even more complete elimination of HSV. As predicted, delivery of meganucleases using a triple AAV serotype combination results in the greatest decrease in ganglionic HSV loads. The levels of HSV elimination observed in these studies, if translated to humans, would likely significantly reduce HSV reactivation, shedding, and lesions. Further optimization of meganuclease delivery and activity is likely possible, and may offer a pathway to a cure for HSV infection.


Assuntos
Desoxirribonucleases/genética , Dependovirus/genética , Infecções Oculares/terapia , Edição de Genes/métodos , Herpes Simples/terapia , Herpesvirus Humano 1/genética , Latência Viral/genética , Animais , Sistemas CRISPR-Cas/genética , Células Cultivadas , Chlorocebus aethiops , Infecções Oculares/genética , Infecções Oculares/virologia , Feminino , Células HEK293 , Herpes Simples/genética , Herpesvirus Humano 1/patogenicidade , Humanos , Camundongos , Neurônios/metabolismo , Neurônios/virologia , RNA-Seq , Análise de Célula Única , Gânglio Cervical Superior/metabolismo , Gânglio Cervical Superior/virologia , Células Vero
9.
PLoS Pathog ; 16(8): e1008703, 2020 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32776994

RESUMO

Herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV1) is a complicated structural agent with a sophisticated transcription process and a high infection rate. A vaccine against HSV1 is urgently needed. As multiple viral-encoded proteins, including structural and nonstructural proteins, contribute to immune response stimulation, an attenuated or deficient HSV1 vaccine may be relatively reliable. Advances in genomic modification technologies provide reliable means of constructing various HSV vaccine candidates. Based on our previous work, an M6 mutant with mutations in the UL7, UL41, LAT, Us3, Us11 and Us12 genes was established. The mutant exhibited low proliferation in cells and an attenuated phenotype in an animal model. Furthermore, in mice and rhesus monkeys, the mutant can induce remarkable serum neutralizing antibody titers and T cell activation and protect against HSV1 challenge by impeding viral replication, dissemination and pathogenesis.


Assuntos
Vacinas contra o Vírus do Herpes Simples/imunologia , Herpes Simples/imunologia , Herpesvirus Humano 1/imunologia , Animais , Feminino , Herpes Simples/prevenção & controle , Herpes Simples/virologia , Vacinas contra o Vírus do Herpes Simples/administração & dosagem , Vacinas contra o Vírus do Herpes Simples/genética , Herpesvirus Humano 1/genética , Herpesvirus Humano 1/fisiologia , Humanos , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos BALB C , Mutação , Fenótipo , Vacinas Atenuadas/administração & dosagem , Vacinas Atenuadas/genética , Vacinas Atenuadas/imunologia , Proteínas Virais/administração & dosagem , Proteínas Virais/genética , Proteínas Virais/imunologia
10.
BMC Infect Dis ; 20(1): 577, 2020 Aug 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32758172

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Despite the significant decline in the prevalence of HIV in Tanzania, the prevalence rates in Mbeya, Iringa, and Njombe regions are higher than the national average and have remained stable for years. The current stable HIV prevalence may be driven by factors such as a high incidence of sexually transmitted infections (STIs) and high-risk behaviours. In sub-Saharan Africa, it has previously been observed that up to 50% of HIV cases were attributed to herpes simplex type 2 (HSV-2) among low-risk populations. Because the proportion of sexually transmitted HSV-1 is rising, it is essential to study the interaction between HSV-1 and HIV infections. METHODS: We conducted a study in Mbeya region using the archived blood sera of participants from the recently completed EU-funded EMINI project. A specially designed questionnaire was used to obtain the social and demographic characteristics of the study participants in the database. We tested archived participants' sera for herpes simplex virus type 1 using Virotech HSV-1 (gG1) IgG ELISA (Enzygnost, Behring, Germany). Univariate and multivariate Poisson regression models were used to identify factors associated with HSV-1. RESULTS: A total of 640 adults were randomly recruited after stratification by HIV status (318 were HIV positive), age, and sex. The overall seroprevalence of HSV-1 in the study population was 92.1%. The extrapolated seroprevalence estimate of herpes simplex virus type 1 in the general population was 95.0% (96.0% in males versus 94.0% in females). Males and females were equally affected by HSV-1. HSV-1 was less prevalent in HIV-positive individuals than in HIV-negative individuals. CONCLUSION: People living with HIV were less likely to be HSV-1 seropositive. Further prospective studies are necessary to conclude a causal association.


Assuntos
Infecções Oportunistas Relacionadas com a AIDS/epidemiologia , HIV-1 , Herpes Simples/epidemiologia , Herpesvirus Humano 1/imunologia , Doenças Sexualmente Transmissíveis/epidemiologia , Infecções Oportunistas Relacionadas com a AIDS/sangue , Infecções Oportunistas Relacionadas com a AIDS/virologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Anticorpos Antivirais/sangue , Estudos de Coortes , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Herpes Simples/sangue , Herpes Simples/virologia , Humanos , Incidência , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Prevalência , Fatores de Risco , Estudos Soroepidemiológicos , Comportamento Sexual , Doenças Sexualmente Transmissíveis/sangue , Doenças Sexualmente Transmissíveis/virologia , Tanzânia/epidemiologia , Adulto Jovem
11.
Anal Chem ; 92(16): 11297-11304, 2020 08 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32683857

RESUMO

Viruses are infections species that infect a large spectrum of living systems. Although displaying a wide variety of shapes and sizes, they are all composed of nucleic acid encapsulated into a protein capsid. After virions enter the host cell, they replicate to produce multiple copies of themselves. They then lyse the host, releasing virions to infect new cells. The high proliferation rate of viruses is the underlying cause of their fast transmission among living species. Although many viruses are harmless, some of them are responsible for severe diseases such as AIDS, viral hepatitis, and flu. Traditionally, electron microscopy is used to identify and characterize viruses. This approach is time- and labor-consuming, which is problematic upon pandemic proliferation of previously unknown viruses, such as H1N1 and COVID-19. Herein, we demonstrate a novel diagnosis approach for label-free identification and structural characterization of individual viruses that is based on a combination of nanoscale Raman and infrared spectroscopy. Using atomic force microscopy-infrared (AFM-IR) spectroscopy, we were able to probe structural organization of the virions of Herpes Simplex Type 1 viruses and bacteriophage MS2. We also showed that tip-enhanced Raman spectroscopy (TERS) could be used to reveal protein secondary structure and amino acid composition of the virus surface. Our results show that AFM-IR and TERS provide different but complementary information about the structure of complex biological specimens. This structural information can be used for fast and reliable identification of viruses. This nanoscale bimodal imaging approach can be also used to investigate the origin of viral polymorphism and study mechanisms of virion assembly.


Assuntos
Microscopia de Força Atômica/métodos , Nanoestruturas/química , Análise Espectral Raman/métodos , Vírion/química , Animais , Betacoronavirus/isolamento & purificação , Betacoronavirus/fisiologia , Capsídeo/química , Chlorocebus aethiops , Infecções por Coronavirus/patologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/virologia , Microscopia Crioeletrônica , Análise Discriminante , Herpesvirus Humano 1/fisiologia , Humanos , Vírus da Influenza A Subtipo H1N1/fisiologia , Análise dos Mínimos Quadrados , Levivirus/metabolismo , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral/patologia , Pneumonia Viral/virologia , Estrutura Terciária de Proteína , Células Vero
12.
Nat Commun ; 11(1): 3382, 2020 07 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32636381

RESUMO

The Stimulator of Interferon Genes (STING) pathway initiates potent immune responses upon recognition of DNA. To initiate signaling, serine 365 (S365) in the C-terminal tail (CTT) of STING is phosphorylated, leading to induction of type I interferons (IFNs). Additionally, evolutionary conserved responses such as autophagy also occur downstream of STING, but their relative importance during in vivo infections remains unclear. Here we report that mice harboring a serine 365-to-alanine (S365A) mutation in STING are unexpectedly resistant to Herpes Simplex Virus (HSV)-1, despite lacking STING-induced type I IFN responses. By contrast, resistance to HSV-1 is abolished in mice lacking the STING CTT, suggesting that the STING CTT initiates protective responses against HSV-1, independently of type I IFNs. Interestingly, we find that STING-induced autophagy is a CTT- and TBK1-dependent but IRF3-independent process that is conserved in the STING S365A mice. Thus, interferon-independent functions of STING mediate STING-dependent antiviral responses in vivo.


Assuntos
Herpes Simples/imunologia , Fator Regulador 3 de Interferon/imunologia , Interferon Tipo I/imunologia , Proteínas de Membrana/genética , Animais , Autofagia , Feminino , Herpesvirus Humano 1 , Evasão da Resposta Imune , Macrófagos/imunologia , Masculino , Proteínas de Membrana/imunologia , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Camundongos Knockout , Camundongos Mutantes , Mutação Puntual , Transdução de Sinais
13.
PLoS Pathog ; 16(7): e1008795, 2020 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32716975

RESUMO

HSV-1 causes 50% of first-time genital herpes infections in resource-rich countries and affects 190 million people worldwide. A prophylactic herpes vaccine is needed to protect against genital infections by both HSV-1 and HSV-2. Previously our laboratory developed a trivalent vaccine that targets glycoproteins C, D, and E present on the HSV-2 virion. We reported that this vaccine protects animals from genital disease and recurrent virus shedding following lethal HSV-2 challenge. Importantly the vaccine also generates cross-reactive antibodies that neutralize HSV-1, suggesting it may provide protection against HSV-1 infection. Here we compared the efficacy of this vaccine delivered as protein or nucleoside-modified mRNA immunogens against vaginal HSV-1 infection in mice. Both the protein and mRNA vaccines protected mice from HSV-1 disease; however, the mRNA vaccine provided better protection as measured by lower vaginal virus titers post-infection. In a second experiment, we compared protection provided by the mRNA vaccine against intravaginal challenge with HSV-1 or HSV-2. Vaccinated mice were totally protected against death, genital disease and infection of dorsal root ganglia caused by both viruses, but somewhat better protected against vaginal titers after HSV-2 infection. Overall, in the two experiments, the mRNA vaccine prevented death and genital disease in 54/54 (100%) mice infected with HSV-1 and 20/20 (100%) with HSV-2, and prevented HSV DNA from reaching the dorsal root ganglia, the site of virus latency, in 29/30 (97%) mice infected with HSV-1 and 10/10 (100%) with HSV-2. We consider the HSV-2 trivalent mRNA vaccine to be a promising candidate for clinical trials for prevention of both HSV-1 and HSV-2 genital herpes.


Assuntos
Proteção Cruzada/imunologia , Herpes Genital , Herpesvirus Humano 1/imunologia , Herpesvirus Humano 2/imunologia , Vacinas contra Herpesvirus/imunologia , Latência Viral/imunologia , Animais , Anticorpos Neutralizantes/imunologia , Anticorpos Antivirais/imunologia , Feminino , Herpes Genital/virologia , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos BALB C , RNA Mensageiro , Proteínas do Envelope Viral/imunologia
14.
PLoS One ; 15(7): e0236183, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32697805

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Herpetic keratitis (HK) models using whole human corneas are essential for studying virus-host relationships, because of high species specificity and the role of interactions between corneal cell populations that cell culture cannot reproduce. Nevertheless, the two current corneal storage methods (hypothermia and organ culture (OC)) do not preserve corneas in good physiological condition, as they are characterized by epithelial abrasion, stromal oedema, and excessive endothelial mortality. METHODS: To rehabilitate human corneas intended for scientific use, we used an active storage machine (ASM) that restores two physiological parameters that are essential for corneal homeostasis: intraocular pressure and storage medium renewal (21mmHg and 2.6 µL/min, respectively). ASM storage regenerates a normal multilayer epithelium in 2 weeks. We infected six pairs of corneas unsuitable for graft by inoculating the epithelium with herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1), and compared each ASM-stored cornea with the other cornea stored in the same medium using the conventional OC method. RESULTS: Only corneas in the ASM developed a dendritic (n = 3) or geographic (n = 2) epithelial ulcer reproducing typical HSV-1-induced clinical lesions. Corneas in OC showed only extensive desquamations. None of the uninfected controls showed epithelial damage. Histology, immunohistochemistry, transmission electron microscopy and polymerase chain reaction on corneal tissue confirmed infection in all cases (excluding negative controls). CONCLUSIONS: The ASM provides an innovative ex vivo model of HK in whole human cornea that reproduces typical epithelial lesions.


Assuntos
Córnea/patologia , Herpesvirus Humano 1/patogenicidade , Ceratite Herpética/patologia , Técnicas de Cultura de Órgãos/instrumentação , Preservação de Órgãos/instrumentação , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Córnea/diagnóstico por imagem , Córnea/ultraestrutura , Córnea/virologia , Interações entre Hospedeiro e Microrganismos , Humanos , Ceratite Herpética/diagnóstico , Ceratite Herpética/tratamento farmacológico , Ceratite Herpética/virologia , Microscopia Eletrônica de Transmissão , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Técnicas de Cultura de Órgãos/métodos , Preservação de Órgãos/métodos , Microscopia com Lâmpada de Fenda
15.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 117(32): 19475-19486, 2020 08 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32709741

RESUMO

The DNA sensor cGAS catalyzes the production of the cyclic dinucleotide cGAMP, resulting in type I interferon responses. We addressed the functionality of cGAS-mediated DNA sensing in human and murine T cells. Activated primary CD4+ T cells expressed cGAS and responded to plasmid DNA by upregulation of ISGs and release of bioactive interferon. In mouse T cells, cGAS KO ablated sensing of plasmid DNA, and TREX1 KO enabled cells to sense short immunostimulatory DNA. Expression of IFIT1 and MX2 was downregulated and upregulated in cGAS KO and TREX1 KO T cell lines, respectively, compared to parental cells. Despite their intact cGAS sensing pathway, human CD4+ T cells failed to mount a reverse transcriptase (RT) inhibitor-sensitive immune response following HIV-1 infection. In contrast, infection of human T cells with HSV-1 that is functionally deficient for the cGAS antagonist pUL41 (HSV-1ΔUL41N) resulted in a cGAS-dependent type I interferon response. In accordance with our results in primary CD4+ T cells, plasmid challenge or HSV-1ΔUL41N inoculation of T cell lines provoked an entirely cGAS-dependent type I interferon response, including IRF3 phosphorylation and expression of ISGs. In contrast, no RT-dependent interferon response was detected following transduction of T cell lines with VSV-G-pseudotyped lentiviral or gammaretroviral particles. Together, T cells are capable to raise a cGAS-dependent cell-intrinsic response to both plasmid DNA challenge or inoculation with HSV-1ΔUL41N. However, HIV-1 infection does not appear to trigger cGAS-mediated sensing of viral DNA in T cells, possibly by revealing viral DNA of insufficient quantity, length, and/or accessibility to cGAS.


Assuntos
Linfócitos T CD4-Positivos/virologia , HIV-1/fisiologia , Interferon Tipo I/metabolismo , Nucleotidiltransferases/metabolismo , Animais , Linfócitos T CD4-Positivos/imunologia , Linfócitos T CD4-Positivos/metabolismo , Células Cultivadas , DNA Viral/fisiologia , Exodesoxirribonucleases/genética , Exodesoxirribonucleases/metabolismo , Herpesvirus Humano 1/fisiologia , Interações Hospedeiro-Patógeno , Humanos , Imunidade Inata , Fator Regulador 3 de Interferon/metabolismo , Camundongos , Nucleotidiltransferases/genética , Fosfoproteínas/genética , Fosfoproteínas/metabolismo , Fosforilação , Especificidade da Espécie , Replicação Viral
17.
Nat Immunol ; 21(7): 727-735, 2020 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32541831

RESUMO

Stimulator-of-interferon genes (STING) is vital for sensing cytosolic DNA and initiating innate immune responses against microbial infection and tumors. Redox homeostasis is the balance of oxidative and reducing reactions present in all living systems. Yet, how the intracellular redox state controls STING activation is unclear. Here, we show that cellular redox homeostasis maintained by glutathione peroxidase 4 (GPX4) is required for STING activation. GPX4 deficiency enhanced cellular lipid peroxidation and thus specifically inhibited the cGAS-STING pathway. Concordantly, GPX4 deficiency inhibited herpes simplex virus-1 (HSV-1)-induced innate antiviral immune responses and promoted HSV-1 replication in vivo. Mechanistically, GPX4 inactivation increased production of lipid peroxidation, which led to STING carbonylation at C88 and inhibited its trafficking from the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) to the Golgi complex. Thus, cellular stress-induced lipid peroxidation specifically attenuates the STING DNA-sensing pathway, suggesting that GPX4 facilitates STING activation by maintaining redox homeostasis of lipids.


Assuntos
Herpes Simples/imunologia , Proteínas de Membrana/metabolismo , Fosfolipídeo Hidroperóxido Glutationa Peroxidase/metabolismo , Animais , Carbolinas/farmacologia , Células Cultivadas , DNA Viral/imunologia , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Retículo Endoplasmático/metabolismo , Feminino , Fibroblastos , Complexo de Golgi/metabolismo , Células HEK293 , Herpes Simples/virologia , Herpesvirus Humano 1/genética , Herpesvirus Humano 1/imunologia , Homeostase/imunologia , Humanos , Imunidade Inata , Peroxidação de Lipídeos/genética , Peroxidação de Lipídeos/imunologia , Macrófagos Peritoneais/citologia , Macrófagos Peritoneais/imunologia , Macrófagos Peritoneais/metabolismo , Proteínas de Membrana/imunologia , Camundongos , Camundongos Knockout , Nucleotidiltransferases/metabolismo , Oxirredução , Oximas/farmacologia , Fosfolipídeo Hidroperóxido Glutationa Peroxidase/antagonistas & inibidores , Fosfolipídeo Hidroperóxido Glutationa Peroxidase/genética , Cultura Primária de Células , Carbonilação Proteica/imunologia , Transdução de Sinais/efeitos dos fármacos , Transdução de Sinais/imunologia , Sulfonamidas/farmacologia , Células THP-1 , Replicação Viral/imunologia
18.
Neurol Sci ; 41(6): 1361-1364, 2020 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32405882

RESUMO

CASE REPORT: We describe the case of a 73-year-old woman who was diagnosed with herpes simplex virus-1 encephalitis during the COVID-19 pandemic. The diagnosis was somehow delayed because relatives were initially cautious in bringing the patient to the hospital and, here, the work-up focus was on coronavirusrelated aspects as the patient was initially reputed to be infected with COVID-19. CONCLUSIONS: During the current viral outbreak, physicians should not neglect the possibility of other diseases that represent neurological emergencies and require immediate recognition and treatment.


Assuntos
Betacoronavirus , Infecções por Coronavirus/diagnóstico por imagem , Diagnóstico Tardio , Encefalite por Herpes Simples/diagnóstico por imagem , Herpesvirus Humano 1 , Pneumonia Viral/diagnóstico por imagem , Idoso , Infecções por Coronavirus/terapia , Diagnóstico Diferencial , Encefalite por Herpes Simples/terapia , Feminino , Humanos , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral/terapia
19.
Acta Chir Plast ; 60(2-4): 62-67, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32370520

RESUMO

Serious burn trauma is associated with changes of the immune system, and immunosuppression induced by burn trauma can lead to reactivation of latent infections. Herpetic viruses are known for their lifelong persistence after primary infection and ability to reactivate. Their reactivation in the setting of burn trauma or primary infection can cause serious complications for a weakened burn patient. Presented is a case of a toddler who sustained second-degree scald burns over 20% of his body surface area. The injury was complicated by a multi-resistant bacterial infection in addition to reactivation of a latent HHV-6 infection concurrently with a primary HSV-1 infection. Described further are basic diagnostics, local and systemic treatment strategies, and other complications due to disseminated herpetic infections. To date, HHV-6 reactivation has not been described in conjunction with burn injury.


Assuntos
Infecções Bacterianas/microbiologia , Queimaduras/fisiopatologia , Infecções por Herpesviridae/virologia , Herpesvirus Humano 1/isolamento & purificação , Herpesvirus Humano 6/isolamento & purificação , Infecções Bacterianas/etiologia , Queimaduras/complicações , Pré-Escolar , Farmacorresistência Bacteriana Múltipla/fisiologia , Infecções por Herpesviridae/etiologia , Humanos , Ativação Viral/fisiologia
20.
Planta Med ; 86(7): 505-515, 2020 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32247285

RESUMO

Spondias mobin leaves have been traditionally used for treating cold sores. The study investigated the mechanism of antiherpes action of S. mombin extract, fractions, and geraniin. Different concentrations of samples were used to evaluate the in vitro antiherpes activity (anti-HSV-1) in virucidal, post-infection, attachment, and penetration assays. The mechanism of action of geraniin was investigated considering the glycoproteins gB and gD of HSV-1 surface as potential molecular targets. Molecular docking simulations were carried out for both in order to determine the possible binding mode position of geraniin at the activity sites. The binding mode position was posteriorly optimized considering the flexibility of the glycoproteins. The chemical analysis of samples was performed by LC-MS and revealed the presence of 22 substances, which are hydrolysable tannins, O-glycosylated flavonoids, phenolic acids, and a carbohydrate. The extract, tannin-rich fraction and geraniin showed important in vitro virucidal activity through blocking viral attachment but showed no relevant inhibition of viral penetration. The in silico approaches demonstrated a high number of potential strong intermolecular interactions as hydrogen bonds between geraniin and the activity site of the glycoproteins, particularly the glycoprotein gB. In silico experiments indicated that geraniin is at least partially responsible for the anti-herpes activity through interaction with the viral surface glycoprotein gB, which is responsible for viral adsorption. These results highlight the therapeutic potential of S. mombin anti-herpes treatment and provides support for its traditional purposes. However, further studies are required to validate the antiviral activities in vivo, as well as efficacy in humans.


Assuntos
Anacardiaceae , Antivirais , Herpes Simples , Herpesvirus Humano 1 , Herpesvirus Humano 2 , Humanos , Simulação de Acoplamento Molecular , Extratos Vegetais , Folhas de Planta , Células Vero , Replicação Viral
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