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1.
Int J Mol Sci ; 23(21)2022 Nov 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36362429

RESUMO

Herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1) is a neurotropic virus that occasionally may spread to the central nervous system (CNS), being the most common cause of sporadic encephalitis. One of the main neurovirulence factors of HSV-1 is the protein ICP34.5, which although it initially seems to be relevant only in neuronal infections, it can also promote viral replication in non-neuronal cells. New ICP34.5 functions have been discovered during recent years, and some of them have been questioned. This review describes the mechanisms of ICP34.5 to control cellular antiviral responses and debates its most controversial functions. One of the most discussed roles of ICP34.5 is autophagy inhibition. Although autophagy is considered a defense mechanism against viral infections, current evidence suggests that this antiviral function is only one side of the coin. Different types of autophagic pathways interact with HSV-1 impairing or enhancing the infection, and both the virus and the host cell modulate these pathways to tip the scales in its favor. In this review, we summarize the recent progress on the interplay between autophagy and HSV-1, focusing on the intricate role of ICP34.5 in the modulation of this pathway to fight the battle against cellular defenses.


Assuntos
Herpes Simples , Herpesvirus Humano 1 , Humanos , Herpesvirus Humano 1/fisiologia , Proteínas Virais/metabolismo , Autofagia/fisiologia , Replicação Viral , Antivirais/metabolismo , Herpes Simples/metabolismo
2.
J Virol ; 96(21): e0140122, 2022 Nov 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36286481

RESUMO

Macrophages are one of the first innate immune infiltrates in the cornea of mice following ocular infection with herpes simplex virus 1 (HSV-1). Using gamma interferon (IFN-γ) and interleukin-4 (IL-4) injections to polarize macrophages into M1 and M2, respectively, and in M1 and M2 conditional knockout mice, we have shown that M1 macrophages play an important role in suppressing both virus replication in the eye and eye disease in HSV-1-infected mice. Autophagy is also important in controlling HSV infection and integrity of infected cells. To determine if blocking autophagy in M1 and M2 macrophages affects HSV-1 infectivity and eye disease, we generated two transgenic mouse strains expressing the HSV-1 γ34.5 autophagy gene under the M1 promoter (M1-γ34.5) or the M2 promoter (M2-γ34.5). We found that blocking autophagy in M1 macrophages increased both virus replication in the eyes and eye disease in comparison to blocking autophagy in M2 macrophages or wild-type (WT) control mice, but blocked autophagy did not affect latency-reactivation. However, blocking autophagy affected fertility in both M1 and M2 transgenic mice. Analysis of 62 autophagy genes and 32 cytokines/chemokines from infected bone marrow-derived macrophages from M1-γ34.5, M2-γ34.5, and WT mice suggested that upregulation of autophagy-blocking genes (i.e., Hif1a, Mtmr14, mTOR, Mtmr3, Stk11, and ULK2) and the inflammatory tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α) gene in M1-γ34.5 transgenic mice correlated with increased pathogenicity, while upregulation of proautophagy genes (Nrbf2 and Rb1cc1) in M2-γ34.5 macrophages correlated with reduced pathogenicity. The in vivo and in vitro responses of M1-γ34.5 and M2-γ34.5 transgenic mice to HSV-1 infection were independent of the presence of the γ34.5 gene in wild-type HSV-1. Our results suggest that M1 macrophages, but not M2 macrophages, play an important role in autophagy relative to primary virus replication in the eye and eye disease in infected mice. IMPORTANCE Autophagy plays a critical role in clearing, disassembling, and recycling damaged cells, thus limiting inflammation. The HSV-1 γ34.5 gene is involved in neurovirulence and immune evasion by blocking autophagy in infected cells. We found that blocking autophagy in M1 macrophages enhances HSV-1 virus replication in the eye and eye disease in ocularly infected transgenic mice. Our results also show the suppressive effects of γ34.5 on immune responses to infection, suggesting the importance of intact autophagy in M1 but not M2 macrophages in controlling primary infection and eye disease.


Assuntos
Oftalmopatias , Herpes Simples , Herpesvirus Humano 1 , Camundongos , Animais , Camundongos Transgênicos , Herpesvirus Humano 1/fisiologia , Replicação Viral , Macrófagos , Camundongos Knockout , Córnea , Interferon gama/genética , Autofagia , Proteínas Relacionadas à Autofagia , Transativadores , Monoéster Fosfórico Hidrolases
3.
J Virol ; 96(22): e0096322, 2022 Nov 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36314822

RESUMO

The evolutionarily conserved, structural HSV-1 tegument protein pUL36 is essential for both virus entry and assembly. While its N-terminal deubiquitinase (DUB) activity is dispensable for infection in cell culture, it is required for efficient virus spread in vivo, as it acts as a potent viral immune evasin. Interferon (IFN) induces the expression of hundreds of antiviral factors, including many ubiquitin modulators, which HSV-1 needs to neutralize to efficiently initiate a productive infection. Herein, we discover two functions of the conserved pUL36 DUB during lytic replication in cell culture in an understudied but equally important scenario of HSV-1 infection in IFN-treated cells. Our data indicate that the pUL36 DUB contributes to overcoming the IFN-mediated suppression of productive infection in both the early and late phases of HSV-1 infection. We show that incoming tegument-derived pUL36 DUB activity contributes to the IFN resistance of HSV-1 in IFN-primed cells to efficiently initiate lytic virus replication. Subsequently, the de novo expressed DUB augmented the efficiency of virus replication and increased the output of infectious virus. Notably, the DUB defect was only apparent when IFN was applied prior to infection. Our data indicate that IFN-induced defense mechanisms exist and that they work to both neutralize infectivity early on and slow the progression of HSV-1 replication in the late stages of infection. Also, our data indicate that pUL36 DUB activity contributes to the disarming of these host responses. IMPORTANCE HSV-1 is a ubiquitous human pathogen that is responsible for common cold sores and may also cause life-threatening disease. pUL36 is an essential, conserved herpesvirus protein with N-terminal deubiquitinating (DUB) activity. The DUB is dispensable for HSV-1 replication in cell culture but represents an important viral immune evasin in vivo. IFN plays a pivotal role in HSV-1 infection and suppresses viral replication both in vitro and in vivo. Here, we show that DUB activity contributes to overcoming IFN-induced cellular resistance in order to more efficiently initiate lytic replication and produce infectious virions. As such, DUB activity in the incoming virions increases their infectivity, while the de novo synthesized DUB augments productive infection. Thus, the HSV-1 DUB antagonizes the activity of IFN-inducible effector proteins to facilitate productive infection at multiple levels. Our findings underscore the importance of using more challenging cell culture systems to fully understand virus protein functions.


Assuntos
Enzimas Desubiquitinantes , Herpes Simples , Herpesvirus Humano 1 , Proteínas Virais , Humanos , Enzimas Desubiquitinantes/metabolismo , Herpesvirus Humano 1/fisiologia , Proteínas Virais/metabolismo , Replicação Viral , Interferons
4.
PLoS Pathog ; 18(10): e1010898, 2022 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36215312

RESUMO

We previously reported that knocking out signal peptide peptidase (SPP), a glycoprotein K (gK) binding partner, in mouse peripheral sensory neurons reduced latency-reactivation in infected mice without affecting primary virus replication or eye disease. Since virus replication in the eye plays an essential role in eye disease, we generated a conditional knockout mouse lacking SPP expression in the eye by crossing Pax6 (paired box 6)-Cre mice that have intact Pax6 expression with SPPflox/flox mice. Significantly less SPP protein expression was detected in the eyes of Pax6-SPP-/- mice than in WT control mice. HSV-1 replication in the eyes of Pax6-SPP-/- mice was significantly lower than in WT control mice. Levels of gB, gK, and ICP0 transcripts in corneas, but not trigeminal ganglia (TG), of Pax6-SPP-/- infected mice were also significantly lower than in WT mice. Corneal scarring and angiogenesis were significantly lower in Pax6-SPP-/- mice than in WT control mice, while corneal sensitivity was significantly higher in Pax6-SPP-/- mice compared with WT control mice. During acute viral infection, absence of SPP in the eye did not affect CD4 expression but did affect CD8α and IFNγ expression in the eye. However, in the absence of SPP, latency-reactivation was similar in Pax6-SPP-/- and WT control groups. Overall, our results showed that deleting SPP expression in the eyes reduced primary virus replication in the eyes, reduced CD8α and IFNγ mRNA expression, reduced eye disease and reduced angiogenesis but did not alter corneal sensitivity or latency reactivation to HSV-1 infection. Thus, blocking gK binding to SPP in the eye may have therapeutic potential by reducing both virus replication in the eye and eye disease associated with virus replication.


Assuntos
Oftalmopatias , Herpes Simples , Herpesvirus Humano 1 , Ceratite Herpética , Camundongos , Animais , Herpesvirus Humano 1/fisiologia , Ceratite Herpética/genética , Camundongos Knockout , Herpes Simples/genética , Gânglio Trigeminal , Replicação Viral/fisiologia , Córnea , RNA Mensageiro , Glicoproteínas , Latência Viral/fisiologia , Camundongos Endogâmicos BALB C
5.
J Virol ; 96(22): e0141622, 2022 Nov 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36300939

RESUMO

Herpes simplex virus 1 (HSV-1) utilizes cellular RNA polymerase II (Pol) to transcribe its genes in one of two phases. In the latent phase, viral transcription is highly restricted, but during the productive lytic phase, more than 80 genes are expressed in a temporally coordinated cascade. In this study, we used Precision nuclear Run On followed by deep Sequencing (PRO-Seq) to characterize early viral transcriptional events using HSV-1 immediate early (IE) gene mutants, corresponding genetically repaired viruses, and wild-type virus. Unexpectedly, in the absence of the IE genes ICP4, ICP22, and ICP0 at 1.5 hours postinfection (hpi), we observed high levels of aberrant transcriptional activity across the mutant viral genomes but substantially less on either wild-type or the congenic repaired virus genomes. This feature was particularly prominent in the absence of ICP4 expression. Cycloheximide treatment during infection with both the ICP4 and ICP22 mutants and their respective genetic repairs did not alter the relative distribution of Pol activity, but it increased overall activity across both viral genomes, indicating that both virion components and at least some de novo protein synthesis were required for full repression. Overall, these data reveal that prior to their role in transcriptional activation, IE gene products and virion components first repress transcription and that the HSV-1 lytic transcriptional cascade is mediated through subsequent derepression steps. IMPORTANCE HSV-1 transcription during productive replication is believed to comprise a series of activation steps leading to a specific sequence of gene expression. Here, we show that virion components and IE gene products ICP0, ICP4, and ICP22 first repress viral gene transcription to various degrees before subsequently activating specific gene subsets. It follows that the entire HSV transcriptional program involves a series of steps to sequentially reverse this repression. This previously uncharacterized repressive activity of IE genes very early in infection may represent an important checkpoint allowing HSV-1 to orchestrate either the robust lytic transcriptional cascade or the more restricted transcriptional program during latency.


Assuntos
Herpesvirus Humano 1 , Proteínas Imediatamente Precoces , Transcrição Viral , Animais , Humanos , Chlorocebus aethiops , Regulação Viral da Expressão Gênica , Herpes Simples/virologia , Herpesvirus Humano 1/fisiologia , Proteínas Imediatamente Precoces/metabolismo , Ubiquitina-Proteína Ligases/genética , Ubiquitina-Proteína Ligases/metabolismo , Células Vero , Replicação Viral
6.
Comput Math Methods Med ; 2022: 7137401, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36276998

RESUMO

Berberine exhibits polytrophic medicinal roles in various diseases and is safe and effective. However, its role and the underlying mechanism in the replication of herpes simplex virus 1 (HSV-1) remain unreported. This research aimed to determine the functional mechanisms of berberine on HSV-1 infection. We determined the CC50 (405.11 ± 15.67 µM) and IC50 (45.6 ± 6.84 µM) of berberine on HEK293T cells infected with HSV-1. Berberine inhibited the transcription and translation of HSV-1 activity-related genes (gD, ICP-4, ICP-5, and ICP-8) in HSV-1-infected HEK293T cells dose-dependently. Berberine also inhibited the phosphorylation of MAPK proteins (JNK and p38) and inflammatory responses induced by HSV-1 infection in HEK293T cells dose-dependently. In conclusion, berberine attenuates HSV-1 replication through its activity, infective ability, and inflammatory response. Our research indicated that berberine may be a candidate drug for HSV-1 infection.


Assuntos
Berberina , Herpesvirus Humano 1 , Humanos , Herpesvirus Humano 1/fisiologia , Berberina/farmacologia , Células HEK293 , Replicação Viral , Antivirais/farmacologia
7.
Viruses ; 14(10)2022 10 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36298744

RESUMO

The alphaherpesvirus UL37 tegument protein is a highly conserved, multi-functional protein. Mutagenesis analysis delineated the UL37 domains necessary for retrograde transport and viral replication. Specifically, the amino-terminal 480 amino acids are dispensable for virus replication in epithelial cell culture, but it is unknown whether this amino-terminal deletion affects UL37 structure and intracellular transport in epithelial cells and neurons. To investigate the structure and function of UL37, we utilized multiple computational approaches to predict and characterize the secondary and tertiary structure and other functional features. The structure of HSV-1 UL37 and Δ481N were deduced using publicly available predictive algorithms. The predicted model of HSV-1 UL37 is a stable, multi-functional, globular monomer, rich in alpha helices, with unfolded regions within the linker and the C-tail domains. The highly flexible C-tail contains predicted binding sites to the dynein intermediate chain, as well as DNA and RNA. Predicted interactions with the cytoplasmic surface of the lipid membrane suggest UL37 is a peripheral membrane protein. The Δ481N truncation did not alter the predicted structure of the UL37 C-terminus protein and its predicted interaction with dynein. We validated these models by examining the replication kinetics and transport of the Δ481N virus toward the nuclei of infected epithelial and neuronal cells. The Δ481N virus had substantial defects in virus spread; however, it exhibited no apparent defects in virus entry and intracellular transport. Using computational analyses, we identified several key features of UL37, particularly the flexible unstructured tail; we then demonstrated that the UL37 C-terminus alone is sufficient to effectively transport the virus towards the nucleus of infected epithelial and neuronal cells.


Assuntos
Herpesvirus Humano 1 , Herpesvirus Humano 1/fisiologia , Dineínas/metabolismo , Proteínas Estruturais Virais/genética , Aminoácidos/metabolismo , RNA/metabolismo , Proteínas de Membrana/metabolismo , Lipídeos
8.
Eur Rev Med Pharmacol Sci ; 26(17): 6340-6343, 2022 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36111935

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: We investigated whether the ternary fusion protein (MBP-SERPINA3-IFN-κ, MSIK) can inhibit the proliferation of human papillomavirus (HPV) and the possible mechanism of this inhibitory effect. MATERIALS AND METHODS: First, the purchased MSIK protein was prepared into MSIK protein solutions of different concentrations, and then epithelial cells and 300 mice were involved in the research. The HSV-1 virus was used as the infection pathogen to explore the mechanism of MSIK reinhibition of HPV virus. The virus content in each sample was detected by PCR technology. RESULTS: Epithelial cells treated with different concentrations of MSIK had inhibitory effects on the invasion and replication of HSV-1 virus. MSIK protein had a positive effect on wound healing in mice at the same time, and it had an inhibitory effect on the invasion of HSV-1 virus, and the higher concentration of MSIK, the better the effect. CONCLUSIONS: MSIK can quickly help wound healing and inhibit the replication of HSV-1 virus. It can also effectively prevent the influx of HPV virus and replication has a positive effect on the prevention and treatment of HPV virus.


Assuntos
Alphapapillomavirus , Herpesvirus Humano 1 , Infecções por Papillomavirus , Animais , Herpesvirus Humano 1/fisiologia , Humanos , Camundongos , Papillomaviridae
9.
Viruses ; 14(9)2022 09 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36146839

RESUMO

Herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1) infection can manifest locally as mucocutaneous lesions or keratitis and can also spread to the central nervous system to cause encephalitis. HSV-1 establishes a lifelong latent infection and neither cure nor vaccine is currently available. The innate immune response is the first line of defense against infection. Caspases and gasdermins are important components of innate immunity. Caspases are a family of cysteine proteases, most of which mediate regulated cell death. Gasdermins are a family of pore-forming proteins that trigger lytic cell death. To determine whether caspases or gasdermins contribute to innate immune defenses against HSV-1, we screened mice deficient in specific cell death genes. Our results indicate a modest role for caspase-6 in defense against HSV-1. Further, Asc-/-Casp1/11-/- mice also had a modest increased susceptibility to HSV-1 infection. Caspase-7, -8, and -14 did not have a notable role in controlling HSV-1 infection. We generated Gsdma1-Gsdma2-Gsdma3 triple knockout mice, which also had normal susceptibility to HSV-1. We confirmed that the previously published importance of RIPK3 during systemic HSV-1 infection also holds true during skin infection. Overall, our data highlight that as a successful pathogen, HSV-1 has multiple ways to evade host innate immune responses.


Assuntos
Herpes Simples , Herpesvirus Humano 1 , Animais , Caspase 6 , Caspase 7 , Caspases/genética , Herpesvirus Humano 1/fisiologia , Imunidade Inata , Camundongos , Camundongos Knockout , Proteínas Citotóxicas Formadoras de Poros , Proteínas
10.
Antiviral Res ; 207: 105424, 2022 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36155071

RESUMO

Herpetic simplex keratitis (HSK) mainly represents an immune cell-mediated, and more specifically, CD4+ T cell-orchestrated inflammatory response to virus invasion. The virus in infected corneas could be easily inhibited or hidden in the trigeminal ganglion using antiviral drugs, but the immune-related inflammation will last for a long time and lead to significant complications. In the present study, we found that the subconjunctival injection of SHIP-1 activator AQX1125 in mouse HSK model alleviated the corneal inflammatory and angiogenic responses, as well as promoted quicker recovery of the cornea, with significantly fewer infiltration of CD4+ T lymphocytes. Furthermore, using primary CD4+ T lymphocytes, we observed that by modulating PI3K signaling and the expression of transcription factors KLF2 and CCR7, SHIP-1 could significantly influence the migration of lymphocytes toward CCL19 and 21, which are the "exit cues" for cells to emigrate from inflammatory sites. Thus, we propose that the pharmacological SHIP-1 activation represents a new potential therapeutic approach to control HSK lesions, and its function on the CCR7-CCL19/21 biological axis may be a novel underlying mechanism for its anti-inflammatory action.


Assuntos
Herpesvirus Humano 1 , Ceratite Herpética , Animais , Antivirais/uso terapêutico , Linfócitos T CD4-Positivos , Córnea , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Herpesvirus Humano 1/fisiologia , Ceratite Herpética/tratamento farmacológico , Fatores de Transcrição Kruppel-Like/metabolismo , Fatores de Transcrição Kruppel-Like/uso terapêutico , Camundongos , Fosfatidilinositol 3-Quinases/metabolismo , Fosfatidilinositol-3,4,5-Trifosfato 5-Fosfatases/genética , Fosfatidilinositol-3,4,5-Trifosfato 5-Fosfatases/metabolismo , Prognóstico , Receptores CCR7/genética , Receptores CCR7/metabolismo , Receptores CCR7/uso terapêutico , Fatores de Transcrição/metabolismo
11.
Microbiol Spectr ; 10(5): e0311422, 2022 Oct 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36173301

RESUMO

Herpes simplex virus 1 (HSV-1) commandeers the host cell proteasome at several steps of its replication cycle, including entry. Here we demonstrate that HSV-2, pseudorabies virus (PRV), and bovine herpesvirus 1 (BoHV-1) entry are blocked by bortezomib, a proteasome inhibitor that is an FDA-approved cancer drug. Proteasome-dependent entry of HSV-1 is thought to be ubiquitin-independent. To interrogate further the proteasomal mechanism of entry, we determined the involvement of the ubiquitin-like molecule NEDD8 and the neddylation cascade in alphaherpesvirus entry and infection. MLN4924 is a small-molecule inhibitor of neddylation that binds directly to the NEDD8-activating enzyme. Cell treatment with MLN4924 inhibited plaque formation and infectivity by HSV-1, PRV, and BoHV-1 at noncytotoxic concentrations. Thus, the neddylation pathway is broadly important for alphaherpesvirus infection. However, the neddylation inhibitor had little effect on entry of the veterinary viruses but had a significant inhibitory effect on entry of HSV-1 and HSV-2 into seven different cell types. Washout experiments indicated that MLN4924's effect on viral entry was reversible. A time-of-addition assay suggested that the drug was acting on an early step in the entry process. Small interfering RNA (siRNA) knockdown of NEDD8 significantly inhibited HSV entry. In probing the neddylation-dependent step in entry, we found that MLN4924 dramatically blocked endocytic uptake of HSV from the plasma membrane by >90%. In contrast, the rate of HSV entry into cells that support direct fusion of HSV with the cell surface was unaffected by MLN4924. Interestingly, proteasome activity was less important for the endocytic internalization of HSV from the cell surface. The results suggest that the NEDD8 cascade is critical for the internalization step of HSV entry. IMPORTANCE Alphaherpesviruses are ubiquitous pathogens of humans and veterinary species that cause lifelong latent infections and significant morbidity and mortality. Host cell neddylation is important for cell homeostasis and for the infection of many viruses, including HSV-1, HSV-2, PRV, and BoHV-1. Inhibition of neddylation by a pharmacologic inhibitor or siRNA blocked HSV infection at the entry step. Specifically, the NEDD8 pathway was critically important for HSV-1 internalization from the cell surface by an endocytosis mechanism. The results expand our limited understanding of cellular processes that mediate HSV internalization. To our knowledge, this is the first demonstration of a function for the neddylation cascade in virus entry.


Assuntos
Herpes Simples , Herpesvirus Humano 1 , Herpesvirus Suídeo 1 , Animais , Humanos , RNA Interferente Pequeno , Inibidores de Proteassoma , Bortezomib , Complexo de Endopeptidases do Proteassoma , Linhagem Celular , Herpesvirus Humano 1/fisiologia , Herpesvirus Suídeo 1/fisiologia , Ubiquitinas
12.
Viruses ; 14(8)2022 07 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36016282

RESUMO

Herpes simplex virus 1 (HSV-1) expresses a large number of miRNAs, and their function is still not completely understood. In addition, HSV-1 has been found to deregulate host miRNAs, which adds to the complexity of the regulation of efficient virus replication. In this study, we comprehensively addressed the deregulation of host miRNAs by massive-parallel sequencing. We found that only miRNAs expressed from a single cluster, miR-183/96/182, are reproducibly deregulated during productive infection. These miRNAs are predicted to regulate a great number of potential targets involved in different cellular processes and have only 33 shared targets. Among these, members of the FoxO family of proteins were identified as potential targets for all three miRNAs. However, our study shows that the upregulated miRNAs do not affect the expression of FoxO proteins, moreover, these proteins were upregulated in HSV-1 infection. Furthermore, we show that the individual FoxO proteins are not required for efficient HSV-1 replication. Taken together, our results indicate a complex and redundant response of infected cells to the virus infection that is efficiently inhibited by the virus.


Assuntos
Herpes Simples , Herpesvirus Humano 1 , MicroRNAs , Herpes Simples/genética , Herpesvirus Humano 1/fisiologia , Humanos , MicroRNAs/genética , MicroRNAs/metabolismo , Regulação para Cima , Replicação Viral
13.
Viruses ; 14(8)2022 08 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36016337

RESUMO

Co-infecting pathogens have been speculated to influence Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) disease progression. Herpes Simplex Virus Type-2 (HSV-2), another sexually transmitted pathogen, is commonly observed in individuals with HIV-1. Some clinical studies have observed an increase in HIV-1 viral copy number in HSV-2 co-infected individuals. In vitro studies have also demonstrated an increase in the expression of HIV-1 co-receptors on immune cells infected with HSV-2. Although both the viruses show distinctive persistent infection, the influence of HSV-2 on HIV-1 is poorly understood. Here we present a comparative analysis of primary CD4+ T-cells and four different T-cell lines (PM-1, CEM CCR5+, MOLT4 CCR5+, and A3R5.7) to assess the influence of HSV-2 co-infection on HIV-1 replication in vitro. Cell lines indicating significant changes in HIV-1 viral copy number [CEM CCR5+ (0.61 Log10), A3R5.7 (0.78 Log10)] were further evaluated for the infectivity of HIV-1 virions and the changes in gene expression profiles of HSV-2/HIV-1 co-infected and mono-infected cells, which were further confirmed by qPCR. Significant changes in NUP, MED, and VPS mRNA expression were observed in the gene expression profiles in co-infected CEM CCR5+ and A3R5.7 cells. In both cell lines, it was observed that the WNT signaling, PI3 kinase, apoptosis, and T-cell activation pathways were negatively affected in co-infected cells. The data suggest that HSV-2 infection of T-cells may influence the expression of genes that have been previously shown to affect HIV-1 replication in vitro. This idea needs to be explored further to identify anti-viral targets for HSV-2 and HIV-1.


Assuntos
Coinfecção , Infecções por HIV , HIV-1 , Herpesvirus Humano 1 , Linhagem Celular , Variações do Número de Cópias de DNA , HIV-1/fisiologia , Herpesvirus Humano 1/fisiologia , Herpesvirus Humano 2/fisiologia , Humanos , Receptores CCR5/genética , Receptores CCR5/metabolismo , Linfócitos T/metabolismo , Transcriptoma , Replicação Viral
14.
J Virol ; 96(16): e0016322, 2022 08 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35913218

RESUMO

Low endosomal pH facilitates herpesvirus entry in a cell-specific manner. Herpes simplex virus 1 (HSV-1) causes significant morbidity and death in humans worldwide. HSV-1 enters cells by low-pH and neutral-pH pathways. Low-pH-induced conformational changes in the HSV envelope glycoprotein B (gB) may mediate membrane fusion during viral entry. HSV-1 gC, a 511-amino acid, type I integral membrane glycoprotein, mediates HSV-1 attachment to host cell surface glycosaminoglycans, but this interaction is not essential for viral entry. We previously demonstrated that gC regulates low-pH viral entry independent of its known role in cell attachment. Low-pH-triggered conformational changes in gB occur at a lower pH when gC is absent, suggesting that gC positively regulates gB conformational changes. Here, we demonstrate that mildly acidic pH triggers conformational changes in gC itself. Low-pH treatment of virions induced antigenic changes in distinct gC epitopes, and those changes were reversible. One of these gC epitopes is recognized by a monoclonal antibody that binds to a linear sequence that includes residues within gC amino acids 33 to 123. This antibody inhibited low-pH entry of HSV, suggesting that its gC N-terminal epitope is particularly important. We propose that gC plays a critical role in HSV entry through a low-pH endocytosis pathway, which is a major entry route in human epithelial cells. IMPORTANCE Herpesviruses are ubiquitous pathogens that cause lifelong latent infections and are characterized by multiple entry pathways. The HSV envelope gC regulates HSV entry by a low-pH entry route. The fusion protein gB undergoes pH-triggered conformational changes that are facilitated by gC. Here, we report that gC itself undergoes a conformational change at low pH. A monoclonal antibody to gC that binds to a region that undergoes pH-induced changes also selectively inhibits HSV low-pH entry, corroborating the importance of gC in the low-pH entry pathway. This study illustrates the complex role of endosomal pH during HSV entry and provides novel insights into the functions of gC.


Assuntos
Herpesvirus Humano 1 , Proteínas do Envelope Viral/química , Anticorpos Monoclonais , Epitopos/metabolismo , Herpes Simples/virologia , Herpesvirus Humano 1/fisiologia , Humanos , Internalização do Vírus
15.
J Virol ; 96(17): e0086422, 2022 09 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35969080

RESUMO

To infect its human host, herpes simplex virus 1 (HSV-1) must overcome the protective barriers of skin and mucosa. Here, we addressed whether pathological skin conditions can facilitate viral entry via the skin surface and used ex vivo infection studies to explore viral invasion in atopic dermatitis (AD) skin characterized by disturbed barrier functions. Our focus was on the visualization of the onset of infection in single cells to determine the primary entry portals in the epidermis. After ex vivo infection of lesional AD skin, we observed infected cells in suprabasal layers indicating successful invasion in the epidermis via the skin surface which was never detected in control skin where only sample edges allowed viral access. The redistribution of filaggrin, loricrin, and tight-junction components in the lesional skin samples suggested multiple defective mechanical barriers. To dissect the parameters that contribute to HSV-1 invasion, we induced an AD-like phenotype by adding the Th2 cytokines interleukin 4 (IL-4) and IL-13 to healthy human skin samples. Strikingly, we detected infected cells in the epidermis, implying that the IL-4/IL-13-driven inflammation is sufficient to induce modifications allowing HSV-1 to penetrate the skin surface. In summary, not only did lesional AD skin facilitate HSV-1 penetration but IL-4/IL-13 responses alone allowed virus invasion. Our results suggest that the defective epidermal barriers of AD skin and the inflammation-induced altered barriers in healthy skin can make receptors accessible for HSV-1. IMPORTANCE Herpes simplex virus 1 (HSV-1) can target skin to establish primary infection in the epithelium. While the human skin provides effective barriers against viral invasion under healthy conditions, a prominent example of successful invasion is the disseminated HSV-1 infection in the skin of atopic dermatitis (AD) patients. AD is characterized by impaired epidermal barrier functions, chronic inflammation, and dysbiosis of skin microbiota. We addressed the initial invasion process of HSV-1 in atopic dermatitis skin to understand whether the physical barrier functions are sufficiently disturbed to allow the virus to invade skin and reach its receptors on skin cells. Our results demonstrate that HSV-1 can indeed penetrate and initiate infection in atopic dermatitis skin. Since treatment of skin with IL-4 and IL-13 already resulted in successful invasion, we assume that inflammation-induced barrier defects play an important role for the facilitated access of HSV-1 to its target cells.


Assuntos
Dermatite Atópica , Epiderme , Herpes Simples , Herpesvirus Humano 1 , Dermatopatias , Epiderme/patologia , Epiderme/virologia , Herpes Simples/patologia , Herpesvirus Humano 1/fisiologia , Humanos , Inflamação , Interleucina-13 , Interleucina-4 , Pele/patologia , Pele/virologia , Dermatopatias/virologia , Técnicas de Cultura de Tecidos
16.
J Virol ; 96(17): e0108122, 2022 09 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35975996

RESUMO

Following acute infection, herpes simplex virus 1 (HSV-1) establishes lifelong latency in neurons. The latency associated transcript (LAT) is the only viral gene abundantly expressed during latency. Wild-type (WT) HSV-1 reactivates more efficiently than LAT mutants because LAT promotes establishment and maintenance of latency. While sensory neurons in trigeminal ganglia (TG) are important sites for latency, brainstem is also a site for latency and reactivation from latency. The principal sensory nucleus of the spinal trigeminal tract (Pr5) likely harbors latent HSV-1 because it receives afferent inputs from TG. The locus coeruleus (LC), an adjacent brainstem region, sends axonal projections to cortical structures and is indirectly linked to Pr5. Senescent cells accumulate in the nervous system during aging and accelerate neurodegenerative processes. Generally senescent cells undergo irreversible cell cycle arrest and produce inflammatory cytokines and chemokines. Based on these observations, we hypothesized HSV-1 influences senescence and inflammation in Pr5 and LC of latently infected mice. This hypothesis was tested using a mouse model of infection. Strikingly, female but not age-matched male mice latently infected with a LAT null mutant (dLAT2903) exhibited significantly higher levels of senescence markers and inflammation in LC, including cell cycle inhibitor p16, NLRP3 (NOD-, LRR- and pyrin domain-containing protein 3), IL-1α, and IL-ß. Conversely, Pr5 in female but not male mice latently infected with WT HSV-1 or dLAT2903 exhibited enhanced expression of important inflammatory markers. The predilection of HSV-1 to induce senescence and inflammation in key brainstem regions of female mice infers that enhanced neurodegeneration occurs. IMPORTANCE HSV-1 (herpes simplex virus 1), an important human pathogen, establishes lifelong latency in neurons in trigeminal ganglia and the central nervous system. In contrast to productive infection, the only viral transcript abundantly expressed in latently infected neurons is the latency associated transcript (LAT). The brainstem, including principal sensory nucleus of the spinal trigeminal tract (Pr5) and locus coeruleus (LC), may expedite HSV-1 spread from trigeminal ganglia to the brain. Enhanced senescence and expression of key inflammatory markers were detected in LC of female mice latently infected with a LAT null mutant (dLAT2903) relative to age-matched male or female mice latently infected with wild-type HSV-1. Conversely, wild-type HSV-1 and dLAT2903 induced higher levels of senescence and inflammatory markers in Pr5 of latently infected female mice. In summary, enhanced inflammation and senescence in LC and Pr5 of female mice latently infected with HSV-1 are predicted to accelerate neurodegeneration.


Assuntos
Herpes Simples , Herpesvirus Humano 1 , Doenças Neuroinflamatórias , Animais , Tronco Encefálico/virologia , Senescência Celular , Feminino , Herpes Simples/patologia , Herpesvirus Humano 1/patogenicidade , Herpesvirus Humano 1/fisiologia , Inflamação , Masculino , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos NOD , Doenças Neuroinflamatórias/virologia , Gânglio Trigeminal/virologia , Latência Viral
17.
Brain Res ; 1793: 148040, 2022 10 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35932812

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Neuroinvasive herpes simplex-1 (HSV-1) isolates including H129 and McIntyre cross at or near synapses labeling higher-order neurons directly connected to infected cells. H129 spreads predominately in the anterograde direction while McIntyre strains spread only in the retrograde direction. However, it is unknown if neurons are functional once infected with derivatives of H129 or McIntyre. NEW METHOD: We describe a previously unpublished HSV-1 recombinant derived from H129 (HSV-373) expressing mCherry fluorescent reporters and one new McIntyre recombinant (HSV-780) expressing the mCherry fluorophore and demonstrate how infections affect neuron viability. RESULTS AND COMPARISON WITH EXISTING METHODS: Each recombinant virus behaved similarly and spread to the target 4 days post-infection. We tested H129 recombinant infected neurons for neurodegeneration using Fluoro-jade C and found them to be necrotic as a result of viral infection. We performed dual inoculations with both HSV-772 and HSV-780 to identify cells comprising both the anterograde pathway and the retrograde pathway, respectively, of our circuit of study. We examined the presence of postsynaptic marker PSD-95, which plays a role in synaptic plasticity, in HSV-772 infected and in dual-infected rats (HSV-772 and HSV-780). PSD-95 reactivity decreased in HSV-772-infected neurons and dual-infected tissue had no PSD-95 reactivity. CONCLUSIONS: Infection by these new recombinant viruses traced the circuit of interest but functional studies of the cells comprising the pathway were not possible because viral-infected neurons died as a result of necrosis or were stripped of PSD-95 by the time the viral labels reached the target.


Assuntos
Herpesvirus Humano 1 , Animais , Herpesvirus Humano 1/fisiologia , Neurônios , Ratos
18.
mBio ; 13(5): e0219422, 2022 10 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36043789

RESUMO

Herpes simplex virus type-1 (HSV-1) infections are known to alter the host metabolism for efficient propagation in vitro. However, in vivo metabolic perturbations upon prolonged HSV-1 infection remain poorly understood. We used high-resolution liquid chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry (LC-MS) and functional assays to determine the state of the trigeminal ganglion (TG) tissue metabolism upon prolonged corneal HSV-1 infection in a murine model. The metabolomics data indicated significant alterations in the host metabolic profile. After HSV-1 infection, the TG microenvironment assumed downregulation of central carbon metabolism and nucleotide synthesis pathways. We validated our observations using in vitro and ex vivo models through targeted inhibition of crucial metabolic polyamine pathways identified in our metabolomics screen. Our findings collectively suggested that HSV-1 infection altered the host metabolic product regulations that limit the energy and macromolecular precursors required for viral replication. IMPORTANCE The more severe ocular pathologies associated with HSV-1 infection are significant vision loss, ocular morbidity, and herpetic keratitis. The current clinical landscape lacks curative drugs and vaccines against HSV-1, a heavy burden associated with this neurotropic, ubiquitous pathogen. The virus is notoriously successful in establishing latency in the host TG, where it remains dormant with periodic reactivations in response to various stimuli like stress and immunosuppression. Metabolic perturbations in tissue microenvironment likely aid the virus in establishing its latent state along with subsequent reactivations yet remain poorly characterized. Here, we used mass spectrometry coupled with statistical data analysis to study the host metabolome in the TG during HSV-1 infection and identify metabolites that likely regulate infection.


Assuntos
Herpes Simples , Herpesvirus Humano 1 , Ceratite Herpética , Camundongos , Animais , Herpesvirus Humano 1/fisiologia , Gânglio Trigeminal , Replicação Viral , Córnea , Poliaminas , Carbono , Nucleotídeos , Latência Viral/fisiologia
19.
Int J Mol Sci ; 23(13)2022 Jun 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35806198

RESUMO

Herpes simplex virus type-1 (HSV-1) and John Cunningham polyomavirus (JCPyV) are widely distributed DNA viruses causing mainly asymptomatic infection, but also mild to very severe diseases, especially when these viruses reach the brain. Some drugs have been developed to inhibit HSV-1 replication in host cells, but their prolonged use may induce resistance phenomena. In contrast, to date, there is no cure for JCPyV. The search for alternative drugs that can reduce viral infections without undermining the host cell is moving toward antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) of natural occurrence. These include amphibian AMPs belonging to the temporin family. Herein, we focus on temporin G (TG), showing that it strongly affects HSV-1 replication by acting either during the earliest stages of its life cycle or directly on the virion. Computational studies have revealed the ability of TG to interact with HSV-1 glycoprotein B. We also found that TG reduced JCPyV infection, probably affecting both the earliest phases of its life cycle and the viral particle, likely through an interaction with the viral capsid protein VP1. Overall, our results are promising for the development of short naturally occurring peptides as antiviral agents used to counteract diseases related to HSV-1 and JCPyV.


Assuntos
Herpesvirus Humano 1 , Anfíbios , Animais , Peptídeos Catiônicos Antimicrobianos/farmacologia , Peptídeos Antimicrobianos , Herpesvirus Humano 1/fisiologia , Replicação Viral
20.
Int J Mol Sci ; 23(15)2022 Jul 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35897709

RESUMO

Herpes simplex virus type-1 (HSV-1) infection causes several disorders, and acyclovir is used as a reference compound. However, resistant strains are commonly observed. Herein, we investigate the effects of N-heterocyclic compounds (pyrazolopyridine derivatives), named ARA-04, ARA-05, and AM-57, on HSV-1 in vitro replication. We show that the 50% effective concentration (EC50) values of the compounds ARA-04, ARA-05, and AM-57 were 1.00 ± 0.10, 1.00 ± 0.05, and 0.70 ± 0.10 µM, respectively. These compounds presented high 50% cytotoxic concentration (CC50) values, which resulted in a selective index (SI) of 1000, 1000, and 857.1 for ARA-04, ARA-05, and AM-57, respectively. To gain insight into which step of the HSV-1 replication cycle these molecules would impair, we performed adsorption and penetration inhibition assays and time-of-addition experiments. Our results indicated that ARA-04 and ARA-05 affected viral adsorption, while AM-57 interfered with the virus replication during its α- and γ-phases and decreased ICP27 content during initial and late events of HSV-1 replication. In addition, we also observed that AM-57 caused a strong decrease in viral gD content, which was reinforced by in silico calculations that suggested AM-57 interacts preferentially with the viral complex between a general transcription factor and virion protein (TFIIBc-VP16). In contrast, ARA-04 and ARA-05 interact preferentially in the proteins responsible for the viral adsorption process (nectin-1 and glycoprotein). Thus, our results suggest that the 1H-pyrazolo[3,4-b]pyridine derivatives inhibit the HSV-1 replicative cycle with a novel mechanism of action, and its scaffold can be used as a template for the synthesis of promising new molecules with antiviral effects, including to reinforce the presented data herein for a limited number of molecules.


Assuntos
Herpes Simples , Infecções por Herpesviridae , Herpesvirus Humano 1 , Aciclovir/farmacologia , Animais , Antivirais/farmacologia , Antivirais/uso terapêutico , Chlorocebus aethiops , Herpes Simples/tratamento farmacológico , Infecções por Herpesviridae/tratamento farmacológico , Herpesvirus Humano 1/fisiologia , Pirazóis , Piridinas/farmacologia , Piridinas/uso terapêutico , Células Vero , Replicação Viral
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