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1.
Environ Entomol ; 50(2): 390-398, 2021 04 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33891675

RESUMO

High-temperature events can influence insect population dynamics and could be especially important for predicting the potential spread and establishment of invasive insects. The interaction between temperature and environmental humidity on insect populations is not well understood but can be a key factor that determines habitat range and population size. The brown marmorated stink bug, Halyomorpha halys (Stål), is an invasive agricultural pest in the United States and Europe, which causes serious economic damage to a wide range of crops. This insect's range continues to expand. It has recently invaded the Central Valley of California, which has a hotter and drier climate compared with the Eastern United States where this insect is established. We investigated how high-temperature events and relative humidity would impact the survival and reproduction of H. halys. Using incubators and humidity chambers, we evaluated the impact of humidity and short-term (2 d) high-temperature exposure on the survival and development of H. halys eggs, nymphs, and adults. We found that high temperatures significantly reduced H. halys survival. The impact of humidity on H. halys survival was dependent on temperature and life stage. Low humidity decreased first-instar survival but not third- to fourth-instar survival. High humidity increased first instar survival but decreased third- to fourth-instar survival. Humidity did not influence adult or egg survival. We also found that high temperatures decreased H. halys reproduction. Our findings have important implications for understanding the invasive ecology of H. halys and may be used to improve models predicting H. halys range expansion.


Assuntos
Heterópteros , Óvulo , Animais , Europa (Continente) , Umidade , Temperatura
2.
Biol Lett ; 17(3): 20200780, 2021 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33653096

RESUMO

Resistance to toxins in insects is generally thought of as their own genetic trait, but recent studies have revealed that gut microorganisms could mediate resistance by detoxifying phytotoxins and man-made insecticides. By laboratory experiments, we here discovered a striking example of gut symbiont-mediated insecticide resistance in a serious rice pest, Cletus punctiger. The rice bug horizontally acquired fenitrothion-degrading Burkholderia through oral infection and housed it in midgut crypts. Fenitrothion-degradation test revealed that the gut-colonizing Burkholderia retains a high degrading activity of the organophosphate compound in the insect gut. This gut symbiosis remarkably increased resistance against fenitrothion treatment in the host rice bug. Considering that many stinkbug pests are associated with soil-derived Burkholderia, our finding strongly supports that a number of stinkbug species could gain resistance against insecticide simply by acquiring insecticide-degrading gut bacteria.


Assuntos
Microbioma Gastrointestinal , Heterópteros , Oryza , Animais , Humanos , Resistência a Inseticidas , Laboratórios , Simbiose
3.
Ecotoxicology ; 30(4): 678-688, 2021 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33788078

RESUMO

The management of the Neotropical brown stinkbug Euschistus heros (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae) in soybean fields has been heavily dependent on the application of neonicotinoid insecticides. Neonicotinoids act primarily by impairing the function of the nicotinic acetylcholine receptors of the nervous system. These compounds also target specific organs (e.g., salivary glands), which may potentiate their insecticidal efficacy. Here, we evaluated whether the exposure to the neonicotinoid imidacloprid would cause cytomorphological changes in the salivary glands of E. heros. First, we determined the lethal concentrations (LCs) of imidacloprid through contact and ingestion. Subsequently, the cytomorphology of the salivary glands were evaluated in insect groups that survived exposure to the LC5 (3.75 mg a.i./L), LC50 (112.5 mg a.i./L), or LC75 (375.0 mg a.i./L, equivalent to the recommended field rate) doses. Imidacloprid induced apoptosis and necrosis in the salivary gland cells according to the insecticide concentration and salivary gland region. All concentrations increased apoptosis and injured cells (e.g., vacuolization, chromatin condensation, swelling of organelles, and plasma membrane rupture) in the principal and accessory salivary glands. Individuals that survived exposure to the highest concentrations (i.e., LC5 and LC50) were more affected, and exhibited several necrotic cells on their main principal salivary glands. Collectively, our results indicate that imidacloprid exerts toxic effects on the non-target organs, such as the salivary glands, which increases the efficacy of this compound in the management of stink bug infestations.


Assuntos
Heterópteros , Animais , Neonicotinoides/toxicidade , Nitrocompostos/toxicidade , Glândulas Salivares
4.
Zootaxa ; 4920(3): zootaxa.4920.3.1, 2021 Jan 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33756653

RESUMO

This paper provides a review of the plant bug subfamily Bryocorinae (Hemiptera: Miridae) of European Russia and the Caucasus. Although several bryocorine species are widely used as biological control agents, species delimitation remains challenging even in the relatively well-studied European fauna. We provide diagnoses, distribution data, host information, and illustrated keys to six genera and 21 species found in the region. The following new records are given: Dicyphus (B.) albonasutus Wagner, 1951 (Crimea and Caucasus, North Ossetia), Dicyphus (B.) digitalidis Josifov, 1958 (Caucasus, Abkhazia), Dicyphus (B.) geniculatus (Fieber, 1858) (Armenia and Ingushetia), Dicyphus (D.) epilobii Reuter 1883 (Abkhazia and Ingushetia), Dicyphus (D.) hyalinipennis Burmeister, 1835 (Armenia). Previous records of Dicyphus (B.) annulatus (Wolff, 1804) from the Northern Caucasus (Konstantinov Zinovyeva 2017), and Crimea were based on misidentifications and should be referred to D. albonasutus. Records of Dicyphus (D.) pallidus (Herrich-Schaeffer, 1836) from Krasnodar Terr and Azerbaijan should be referred to D. errans (Wolff, 1804).


Assuntos
Hemípteros , Heterópteros , Distribuição Animal , Animais , Federação Russa
5.
Zootaxa ; 4920(2): zootaxa.4920.2.8, 2021 Jan 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33756670

RESUMO

The millipede assassin bug genus Abelocephala Maldonado, 1996 (Heteroptera: Reduviidae: Ectrichodiinae: Abelocephalini) is currently comprised of seven Oriental species. Two macropterous males, representing two new species, were recently collected from Taiwan in Malaise trap samples: A. baliensis sp. nov. and A. yilanensis sp. nov. Habitus and structural images are provided for each new species. A revised diagnosis of Abelocephala and an updated identification key to all species of the genus are given.


Assuntos
Heterópteros , Reduviidae , Triatoma , Distribuição Animal , Animais , Masculino , Taiwan
6.
Zootaxa ; 4927(2): zootaxa.4927.2.9, 2021 Feb 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33756714

RESUMO

A new fossil isometopine species, Electromyiomma herczeki sp. nov. is described and illustrated from Eocene Baltic amber. The morphological information of the fossil specimen and the key to the species of the extinct genus Electromyiomma are provided. The restatement of paratype female of E. weitschati is discussed with the support of previous remarks based on antenna structure.


Assuntos
Âmbar , Heterópteros , Animais , Países Bálticos , Cor , Feminino , Fósseis
7.
Zootaxa ; 4942(1): zootaxa.4942.1.1, 2021 Mar 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33756909

RESUMO

The Japanese fauna of the myrmecomorphic plant bug genus Pilophorus Hahn is updated and reclassified. Seventeen species are now recognized, including three herein described as new, P. hyotan, P. satoyamanus and P. setulosellus; and P. pullulus Poppius, 1914 which is reinstated as valid and recorded from Japan for the first time. The identity of P. okamotoi Miyamoto Lee, 1966, originally described from Korean Jeju Island and previously confused with P. satoyamanus n. sp., is reconfirmed and rediagnosed. Frequently misidentified species, P. erraticus Linnavuori, 1962 P. pseudoperplexus Josifov, 1987 and P. setulosus Horváth, 1905 as well as the little known taxon, P. choii, are rediagnosed. The distribution and diagnostic features of P. typicus (Distant, 1909) are presented in light of the recognition of P. hyotan n. sp. An updated checklist and a key to genera and species of the tribe Pilophorini are provided to aid in unequivocal identification of every Japanese pilophorine taxon. A new species of Pherolepis Kulik from Kyushu, P. hizenicus, is also described.


Assuntos
Ascomicetos , Hemípteros , Heterópteros , Distribuição Animal , Animais , Japão , Plantas
8.
Zootaxa ; 4941(4): zootaxa.4941.4.4, 2021 Mar 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33756922

RESUMO

A new species of Procestus Townes, 1970 is described from Brazil. An identification key to all known species is provided. Figures of the holotypes of Procestus nabis Townes, 1970 and P. simplex Townes, 1970, and a paratype of P. pammae Ugalde Gauld, 2002 are included.                Procestus nabis and P. simplex are redescribed.


Assuntos
Heterópteros , Himenópteros , Vespas , Animais , Brasil
9.
Zootaxa ; 4938(4): zootaxa.4938.4.6, 2021 Mar 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33756969

RESUMO

The knowledge about the monotypic genera Steleocoris Mayr and Theloris Thunberg is restricted to their original descriptions and subsequent nomenclatural acts. These genera are primarily distributed in South Africa and are two of the few genera of Carpocorini (Pentatomidae: Pentatominae) occurring in Africa. Here, we redescribe Steleocoris comma (Thunberg) and Theloris costata (Thunberg) and illustrate the genitalia of both sexes for the first time. Also, an occurrence map is provided based on collection labels from analyzed specimens and records available on GBIF and the web repository iNaturalist.org.


Assuntos
Hemípteros , Heterópteros , Animais , Feminino , Genitália , Masculino
10.
Zootaxa ; 4938(2): zootaxa.4938.2.2, 2021 Feb 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33756978

RESUMO

The identities of two East and Southeast Asian species of the plant bug genus Fingulus Distant, 1904 (Hemiptera: Heteroptera: Miridae: Deraeocorinae: Deraeocorini) are clarified based on their type specimens. The following new subjective synonymies are proposed: F. longicornis Miyamoto, 1965 = F. brevirostris Ren, 1983, syn. nov.; and F. ruficeps Hsiao Ren, 1983 = F. henrytomi Nakatani Yasunaga, 2018, syn. nov. Previous records of F. umbonatus Stonedahl Cassis, 1991 from Hainan, China, and F. collaris Miyamoto, 1965 from Zhejiang and Yunnan, China, are regarded as misidentifications of F. ruficeps and F. inflatus Stonedahl Cassis, 1991, respectively.


Assuntos
Hemípteros , Heterópteros , Distribuição Animal , Animais , China
11.
Zootaxa ; 4948(4): zootaxa.4948.4.7, 2021 Mar 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33757011

RESUMO

The identities of certain East and Southeast Asian genera and species of Reduviidae (Hemiptera: Heteroptera) are clarified based on their type materials and taxonomic conclusions are drawn. The following new subjective synonymies and new combinations are proposed: Harpactorinae: Cutocoris Stål, 1859 = Paracydnocoris Miller, 1954, syn. nov.; Cutocoris distinctus (Miller, 1954), comb. nov. (transferred from Paracydnocoris) = Cydnocoris ventralis Hsiao, 1979, syn. nov.; Cutocoris macgillavryi (Miller, 1954), comb. nov. (transferred from Paracydnocoris); Henricohahnia wangi Ren, 2001 = H. obscara Cai Li, 2003, syn. nov.; Pahabengkakia Miller, 1941 = Stalireduvius Tomokuni Cai, 2004, syn. nov.; Pahabengkakia piliceps Miller, 1941 = S. nodipes Tomokuni Cai, 2004, syn. nov.; Reduviinae: Reduvius xantusi (Horváth, 1879), comb. nov. (transferred from Velitra) = R. decliviceps Hsiao, 1976, syn. nov. Pahabengkakia piliceps is recorded from Laos for the first time.


Assuntos
Hemípteros , Heterópteros , Reduviidae , Distribuição Animal , Animais
12.
Zootaxa ; 4942(4): zootaxa.4942.4.6, 2021 Mar 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33757051

RESUMO

The giant water bug fauna from tropical South America remains poorly known. Three species of Belostoma Latreille (Belostoma fittkaui De Carlo, B. sayagoi De Carlo and B. hirsutum Roback Nieser) have been cited only a few times in the literature. These three species are remarkable since they represent an extreme variation for the genus, with article II of the labium distinctly shorter than article III. Here, the synonymy of B. hirsutum with B. sayagoi is proposed based on examination of type material and additional specimens. Further, B. fittkaui and B. sayagoi are redescribed, including discussion about comparative morphology with congeners. A new species group is proposed for these species and a key to the Belostoma species groups is provided. Distribution records are also updated.


Assuntos
Blattellidae , Heterópteros , Animais
13.
Zootaxa ; 4942(2): zootaxa.4942.2.5, 2021 Mar 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33757067

RESUMO

Three new species of the Rhagovelia orientalis species group are described from the Philippines: R. sophiae sp.n. from Catanduanes, R. masbatensis sp.n. from Masbate and Ticao, and R. orientaliformis sp.n. from western Mindanao. The species group now contains 30 species; 24 are endemic to the Philippines.


Assuntos
Hemípteros , Heterópteros , Distribuição Animal , Animais , Filipinas
14.
Zootaxa ; 4903(2): zootaxa.4903.2.1, 2021 Jan 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33757094

RESUMO

The subfamily Isometopinae (Insecta: Hemiptera: Heteroptera: Miridae) from India and Sri Lanka is reviewed. Nine genera and seventeen species are recorded from both countries, keyed, illustrated, and diagnosed. Six species are described as new: Astroscopometopus hesaraghattaensis, n. sp., Isometopus webbi, n. sp. and Isometopus wolskii, n. sp., Isometopidea viraktamathi, n. sp., Myiomma belavadii, n. sp., and Myiomma ramamurthyi, n. sp. Alcecoris periscopus McAtee and Malloch 1924, Isometopus yoshizawai Yasunaga Duwal, 2006 and Paloniella parallela Yasunaga Hayashi, 2002 are reported for the first time from India.


Assuntos
Hemípteros , Heterópteros , Distribuição Animal , Animais , Índia , Tamanho do Órgão , Sri Lanka
15.
Ecotoxicology ; 30(3): 441-447, 2021 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33629137

RESUMO

A recent increase in the Calocoris trivialis populations associated with premature olive blossom dropping in Crete coupled with ineffective control by organophosphate and pyrethroid insecticides resulted in resistance development speculation. A stem-dip assay was developed to evaluate C. trivialis susceptibility to dimethoate and beta-cyfluthrin against nymphal and adult insect stages. Susceptibility of C. trivialis populations collected from two Cretan orchards with no (AGRK) and extensive spray history (SPL) to both insecticides was evaluated and compared. Dimethoate LC50 values of the AGRK population were 17.47 and 33.37 mg L-1 for adults and nymphs and 45.85 and 20.08 mg L-1 for SPL respectively. C. trivialis was significantly more susceptible to beta-cyfluthrin as indicated by LC50 values for AGRK, SPL adults (0.53, 0.73 mg L-1) and nypmphs (1.44, 2.21 mg L-1). No evidence for resistance development was found in any of the insecticide cases. Adult insects were significantly more sensitive than nymphs in both insecticide/population combinations. Ratios of nymph: adult LC50values were 1.91, 2.71 for dimethoate and beta-cyfluthrin in AGRK and 2.28, 3.02 in SPL population. Susceptibility data and evidence of differential stage-dependent response of C. trivialis to both insecticides should be taken account for the establishment of effective control strategies.


Assuntos
Hemípteros , Heterópteros , Inseticidas , Olea , Piretrinas , Animais , Bioensaio , Grécia , Resistência a Inseticidas , Inseticidas/toxicidade , Piretrinas/toxicidade
16.
Environ Entomol ; 50(1): 202-207, 2021 02 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33595659

RESUMO

Determining the host range of an invasive insect in a new environment is a key step in the development of management strategies. As the brown marmorated stink bug, Halyomorpha halys Stål, expands into agricultural regions of North America, efforts to elucidate its dietary habits on a landscape scale rely on intensive sampling of potential host plants. Although this approach yields useful information, results can be biased toward common and easily sampled plant species; important hosts can be missed if sampling them is impractical or limited in scope. Here we lay the groundwork for the application of gut content analysis to the feeding ecology of H. halys by investigating the persistence of host plant DNA in the digestive tracts of insects with known feeding histories. Adult H. halys were fed bean seedlings (Phaseolus lunatus L.) for 7 d, followed by a forced host switch to carrot (Daucus carota L.). Insect guts were dissected out at 0, 1, 3, 7, and 14 d following the switch, and host plant chloroplast genes (trnF and trnL) were amplified via polymerase chain reaction. Amplicons were identified using high-throughput sequencing and analyzed for Phaseolus DNA. The original host remained detectable at 3 d (trnF) and 14 d (trnL) in substantial quantities. The proportion of total reads identified as Phaseolus rapidly decreased with time; a concomitant increase in Daucus reads was observed. Our results indicate that high-throughput sequencing of gut contents has great potential for exploring the dietary histories of field-caught H. halys and other phytophagous insects.


Assuntos
Microbioma Gastrointestinal , Hemípteros , Heterópteros , Agricultura , Animais , Comportamento Alimentar , América do Norte
17.
J Insect Sci ; 21(1)2021 Jan 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33585926

RESUMO

Apolygus lucorum (Meyer-Dür) (Hemiptera: Miridae) tends to feed on young plant tissues. To explore the relationship between stylet probing behaviors of adult A. lucorum and conditions of cotton leaves, we conducted an experiment using electropenetrography (EPG). Behaviors were recorded on four cotton varieties, in relation to thickness and biochemical traits of differently-aged leaves. Cotton leaf age had a significant effect on the probing behavior of A. lucorum but cotton variety did not. One-day-old leaves of A. lucorum received the highest mean number of stylet probes (penetrations) per insect, and longest mean durations per insect of combined stylet probing or its components, cell rupture and ingestion behaviors. All of the leaf traits (thickness and biochemical substances) were similar among these four cotton varieties. Leaf thickness had a significantly negative effect on the same four variables above. Gossypol and tannin also had a negative impact on combined probing duration. Redundancy analysis showed that the four EPG variables were closely related to nutrient substances (amino acids, sugar, and water) while they had the opposite relationship with plant defense substances (gossypol and tannin). On cotton in the seedling stages, A. lucorum fed more readily on the youngest, thinnest leaves in our no-choice EPG experiments. Nutrients and chemical resistance substances determined the probing duration of A. lucorum. Our findings can contribute to better understanding of patterns of feeding and host consumption by A. lucorum, ultimately improving cotton resistance to A. lucorum.


Assuntos
Gossypium , Herbivoria , Heterópteros/fisiologia , Folhas de Planta , Animais , Comportamento Alimentar , Feminino , Gossypium/química , Gossypium/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Folhas de Planta/química , Folhas de Planta/crescimento & desenvolvimento
18.
J Insect Sci ; 21(1)2021 Jan 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33560354

RESUMO

The western tarnished plant bug, Lygus hesperus Knight, overwinters as a diapausing adult in response to short day lengths. Once environmental conditions are favorable, the bugs revert to an active reproductive state. To determine the impact on life-history traits of diverting resources toward diapause rather than oogenesis during early adulthood, diapausing and nondiapausing L. hesperus females were reared from the same cohorts. Body mass, ovarian maturation, ovipositional activity, and survivorship were monitored starting either at the time of release from diapause-inducing conditions or at adult eclosion for diapausers and nondiapausers, respectively. Females that had gone through 2 wk of diapause were larger and able to mobilize the resources necessary for oogenesis faster than nondiapausers, initiating oogenesis and ovipositing sooner and at a faster initial rate. However, lifetime egg production and average daily rates were similar for both groups. Postdiapausers lived longer than nondiapausers by an average of 19 d, which is five more than the 2-wk period when they were reproductively senescent. Overall, the results indicate that short-term diapause does not have a negative impact on life history. Furthermore, the extra endogenous resources stored during diapause may be able to enhance the alacrity with which the female can take advantage of improved environmental conditions and may prolong life by shielding the females against environmental stressors such as temperature extremes, oxidative agents, or food deficits.


Assuntos
Diapausa de Inseto , Heterópteros/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Traços de História de Vida , Oviposição , Animais , Feminino
19.
J Insect Sci ; 21(1)2021 Jan 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33400796

RESUMO

The western tarnished plant bug, Lygus hesperus Knight, overwinters as a diapausing adult in response to short day lengths. Once environmental conditions are favorable, the bugs revert to an active reproductive state. To determine the impact on life-history traits of diverting resources toward diapause rather than oogenesis during early adulthood, diapausing and nondiapausing L. hesperus females were reared from the same cohorts. Body mass, ovarian maturation, ovipositional activity, and survivorship were monitored starting either at the time of release from diapause-inducing conditions or at adult eclosion for diapausers and nondiapausers, respectively. Females that had gone through 2 wk of diapause were larger and able to mobilize the resources necessary for oogenesis faster than nondiapausers, initiating oogenesis and ovipositing sooner and at a faster initial rate. However, lifetime egg production and average daily rates were similar for both groups. Postdiapausers lived longer than nondiapausers by an average of 19 d, which is five more than the 2-wk period when they were reproductively senescent. Overall, the results indicate that short-term diapause does not have a negative impact on life history. Furthermore, the extra endogenous resources stored during diapause may be able to enhance the alacrity with which the female can take advantage of improved environmental conditions and may prolong life by shielding the females against environmental stressors such as temperature extremes, oxidative agents, or food deficits.


Assuntos
Diapausa de Inseto , Heterópteros/fisiologia , Traços de História de Vida , Oogênese , Oviposição , Animais , Feminino , Heterópteros/crescimento & desenvolvimento
20.
J Chem Ecol ; 47(1): 87-98, 2021 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33405043

RESUMO

Plant-derived volatiles play a significant role in host selection of phytophagous insects, but their role in seasonal host shifts remain unclear. The polyphagous mirid bug Apolygus lucorum displays marked seasonal host alternation. During summer, volatiles from flowering plants play a key role in A. lucorum foraging. Though A. lucorum adults deposit overwintering eggs on jujube (Ziziphus jujuba) and grape (Vitis vinifera) during autumn, it is unclear whether plant volatiles equally mediate this host selection behavior. During 2015 and 2016, we found that population densities of A. lucorum adults on cotton (Gossypium hirsutum) during August were higher than those in September, whereas the opposite pattern was observed on fruit trees (i.e., jujube and grape). The dispersal factor of the adult population that dispersed from cotton fields during September was higher than in August, whereas opposite patterns were observed in the neighboring jujube/grape orchard. In Y-tube olfactometer trials, A. lucorum adults preferred cotton plant volatiles over fruit tree odors in August, whereas the opposite patterns were found in September. Three electro-physiologically active volatiles (butyl acrylate, butyl propionate and butyl butyrate) were identified from jujube and grape plants. During September, active volatiles are emitted in considerably greater amounts by jujube and grape than in August, while the amount of volatile emissions in cotton decreases in September. Temporal shifts in plant volatile emission thus may modulate host plant foraging of A. lucorum, and appear to guide its colonization of different host plants. Our findings help understand the role of plant volatiles in the host plant selection and seasonal dynamics of polyphagous herbivores.


Assuntos
Herbivoria , Heterópteros/fisiologia , Magnoliopsida/metabolismo , Compostos Orgânicos Voláteis/metabolismo , Animais , Feminino , Gossypium , Magnoliopsida/química , Masculino , Odorantes , Análise de Componente Principal , Estações do Ano , Vitis , Compostos Orgânicos Voláteis/análise , Ziziphus
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