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1.
Am Nat ; 196(2): 119-131, 2020 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32673087

RESUMO

Dispersal determines the spatial dynamics of host-parasite assemblages, particularly during invasions and disease epidemics. The risk of parasitism may create an incentive for dispersal, but infection is expected to reduce dispersal ability, which may alter the host's dispersal response to biotic stressors, including population density. We measured the dispersal of a semiaquatic insect (Notonecta undulata) in aquatic mesocosms in which we manipulated the presence of ectoparasitic Hydrachnidia mites and infected conspecifics. We found that parasitism risk increases host dispersal propensity. Using a flight assay, we determined that parasite infection reduces host dispersal ability. Finally, we used a mark-release-recapture study to investigate the joint effects of both parasitism risk and parasite infection on host dispersal in a natural, spatially structured population. We found that parasitism risk reduced dispersal probability, eliminated positive density-dependent dispersal, and increased dispersal distance. Infection had no effect on dispersal in the natural population. Our results show that parasites can both increase and decrease the movement rates of their hosts, depending on the ecological context, and can alter the host's dispersal response to other biotic stressors. Future studies should consider the consequences of this double-headed impact of parasites for landscape connectivity, population persistence, and host-parasite coevolution.


Assuntos
Distribuição Animal , Heterópteros/fisiologia , Heterópteros/parasitologia , Animais , Interações Hospedeiro-Parasita , Ácaros , Densidade Demográfica
2.
Bull Entomol Res ; 110(5): 638-644, 2020 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32381143

RESUMO

Telenomus podisi Ashmead (Hymenoptera: Scelionidae) is the most important egg parasitoid of Euschistus heros (Fabricius) (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae), and its successful parasitism is related to their searching ability to find suitable hosts under a complex chemical environment using host-reliable cues. Thus, the objective of this study was to elucidate chemical substances on the external layer of E. heros eggs and report its potential kairomonal activity on T. podisi. We tested female wasps in olfactometer system to synthetic compounds obtained from a chemical identification of E. heros egg masses. The synthetic blend was also evaluated in parasitism tests under laboratory and semi-field conditions. We identified 31 substances from egg surface extracts, including monoterpenes, aldehydes and alkanes. Among those compounds, a synthetic solution including camphene, ß-pinene, limonene and benzaldehyde-induced chemotaxic behaviour on the wasps and increased the parasitism on E. heros eggs, either in laboratory or semi-field test, suggesting its potential use to T. podisi manipulation and parasitism improvement.


Assuntos
Heterópteros/química , Óvulo/química , Feromônios/farmacologia , Vespas/efeitos dos fármacos , Animais , Comportamento Animal/efeitos dos fármacos , Feminino , Heterópteros/parasitologia , Óvulo/parasitologia
3.
Folia Parasitol (Praha) ; 672020 Mar 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32350156

RESUMO

Here we describe the new trypanosomatid, Phytomonas borealis sp. n., from the midgut of the spiked shieldbugs, Picromerus bidens (Linnaeus), collected in two locations, Novgorod and Pskov Oblasts of Russia. The phylogenetic analyses, based on the 18S rRNA gene, demonstrated that this flagellate is a sister species to the secondary monoxenous Phytomonas nordicus Frolov et Malysheva, 1993, which was concurrently documented in the same host species in Pskov Oblast. Unlike P. nordicus, which can complete its development (including exit to haemolymph and penetration into salivary glands) in Picromerus bidens, the new species did not form any extraintestinal stages in the host. It also did not produce endomastigotes, indispensable for transmission in other Phytomonas spp. These observations, along with the fact that P. bidens overwinters at the egg stage, led us to the conclusion that the examined infections with P. borealis were non-specific. Strikingly, the flagellates from the Novgorod population contained prokaryotic endosymbionts, whereas the parasites from the second locality were endosymbiont-free. This is a first case documenting presence of intracellular symbiotic bacteria in Phytomonas spp. We suggest that this novel endosymbiotic association arose very recently and did not become obligate yet. Further investigation of P. borealis and its intracellular bacteria may shed light on the origin and early evolution of endosymbiosis in trypanosomatids.


Assuntos
Fenômenos Fisiológicos Bacterianos , Heterópteros/parasitologia , Simbiose , Trypanosomatina/classificação , Animais , Heterópteros/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Ninfa/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Ninfa/parasitologia , Filogenia , RNA de Protozoário/análise , RNA Ribossômico 18S/análise , Federação Russa , Trypanosomatina/microbiologia
4.
J Insect Sci ; 20(3)2020 May 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32365174

RESUMO

Stink bugs (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae) are agricultural pests of increasing significance in the North Central Region of the United States, posing a threat to major crops such as soybean. Biological control can reduce the need for insecticides to manage these pests, but the parasitism of stink bugs by Tachinidae (Diptera) is poorly characterized in this region. The objective of this study was to evaluate the rate of parasitism of stink bugs by tachinids over 2 yr from nine states across the North Central Region. Parasitism was assessed by quantifying tachinid eggs on the integument of stink bug adults. Parasitism rates (i.e., percent of adult stink bugs with tachinid eggs) were compared across stink bug species, states, stink bug sex, and years. The mean percent parasitism of stink bugs by tachinids was about 6% across the region and did not differ among stink bug species. Mean percent parasitism was significantly higher in Missouri than in northern and western states. In addition, male stink bugs had significantly higher mean percent parasitism than females. Stink bug species commonly found in soybean in the region showed some parasitism and are therefore potentially vulnerable to oviposition by these parasitoids. This is the first study to characterize the level of parasitism of stink bugs by tachinids across the North Central Region.


Assuntos
Dípteros/fisiologia , Heterópteros/parasitologia , Interações Hospedeiro-Parasita , Controle de Insetos , Controle Biológico de Vetores , Animais , Produtos Agrícolas/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Feminino , Masculino , Meio-Oeste dos Estados Unidos , Soja/crescimento & desenvolvimento
5.
PLoS One ; 15(1): e0227832, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31945116

RESUMO

Here we characterized the development of the trypanosomatid Blastocrithidia raabei in the dock bug Coreus marginatus using light and electron microscopy. This parasite has been previously reported to occur in the host hemolymph, which is rather typical for dixenous trypanosomatids transmitted to a plant or vertebrate with insect's saliva. In addition, C. marginatus has an unusual organization of the intestine, which makes it refractory to microbial infections: two impassable segments isolate the anterior midgut portion responsible for digestion and absorption from the posterior one containing symbiotic bacteria. Our results refuted the possibility of hemolymph infection, but revealed that the refractory nature of the host provokes very aggressive behavior of the parasite and makes its life cycle more complex, reminiscent of that in some dixenous trypanosomatids. In the pre-barrier midgut portion, the epimastigotes of B. raabei attach to the epithelium and multiply similarly to regular insect trypanosomatids. However, when facing the impassable constricted region, the parasites rampage and either fiercely break through the isolating segments or attack the intestinal epithelium in front of the barrier. The cells of the latter group pass to the basal lamina and accumulate there, causing degradation of the epitheliocytes and thus helping the epimastigotes of the former group to advance posteriorly. In the symbiont-containing post-barrier midgut segment, the parasites either attach to bacterial cells and produce cyst-like amastigotes (CLAs) or infect enterocytes. In the rectum, all epimastigotes attach either to the cuticular lining or to each other and form CLAs. We argue that in addition to the specialized life cycle B. raabei possesses functional cell enhancements important either for the successful passage through the intestinal barriers (enlarged rostrum and well-developed Golgi complex) or as food reserves (vacuoles in the posterior end).


Assuntos
Infecções por Euglenozoa/veterinária , Heterópteros/imunologia , Interações Hospedeiro-Parasita/fisiologia , Estágios do Ciclo de Vida/fisiologia , Trypanosomatina/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Animais , Resistência à Doença , Infecções por Euglenozoa/imunologia , Infecções por Euglenozoa/parasitologia , Hemolinfa/parasitologia , Heterópteros/parasitologia , Mucosa Intestinal/diagnóstico por imagem , Mucosa Intestinal/parasitologia , Mucosa Intestinal/ultraestrutura , Microscopia Eletrônica , Trypanosomatina/patogenicidade , Trypanosomatina/ultraestrutura
6.
Sci Rep ; 9(1): 17468, 2019 11 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31767875

RESUMO

Trypanosomatids are protozoan parasites that infect thousands of globally dispersed hosts, potentially affecting their physiology. Several species of trypanosomatids are commonly found in phytophagous insects. Leptomonas wallacei is a gut-restricted insect trypanosomatid only retrieved from Oncopeltus fasciatus. The insects get infected by coprophagy and transovum transmission of L. wallacei cysts. The main goal of the present study was to investigate the effects of a natural infection by L. wallacei on the hemipteran insect O. fasciatus, by comparing infected and uninfected individuals in a controlled environment. The L. wallacei-infected individuals showed reduced lifespan and morphological alterations. Also, we demonstrated a higher infection burden in females than in males. The infection caused by L. wallacei reduced host reproductive fitness by negatively impacting egg load, oviposition, and eclosion, and promoting an increase in egg reabsorption. Moreover, we associated the egg reabsorption observed in infected females, with a decrease in the intersex gene expression. Finally, we suggest alterations in population dynamics induced by L. wallacei infection using a mathematical model. Collectively, our findings demonstrated that L. wallacei infection negatively affected the physiology of O. fasciatus, which suggests that L. wallacei potentially has a vast ecological impact on host population growth.


Assuntos
Heterópteros/fisiologia , Trypanosomatina/patogenicidade , Animais , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Feminino , Heterópteros/parasitologia , Longevidade , Masculino , Modelos Teóricos , Oviposição , Dinâmica Populacional , Caracteres Sexuais
7.
Neotrop Entomol ; 48(6): 934-948, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31728908

RESUMO

Successful biological control requires detailed knowledge about the mass rearing conditions of the control agents in order to ensure higher quality of field-released insects. Thus, we investigated whether rearing fluctuating thermal condition would affect the fitness and costs of the parasitoid wasp Telenomus podisi Ashmead (a biocontrol agent used for controlling the Neotropical brown stink bug Euschistus heros (Fabricius)) when compared with parasitoid reared at constant temperature condition, which is commonly used in insect facilities. Parasitoids were reared under either constant (continuous exposure at 25 ± 2°C) or fluctuating temperature conditions (i.e., 30 ± 2°C during day and 20 ± 2°C at night) during four consecutive generations. Our results indicated that tested fluctuating temperature is more suitable for rearing of T. podisi as such temperature condition not only resulted in fitness benefits (e.g., shorter developmental time, longer female longevity, higher fecundity/fertility) but also reduced (approximately 23.5%) the estimated costs for producing the parasitoids. Furthermore, rearing T. podisi under fluctuating temperatures improved tolerance to low constant temperatures (i.e., 20°C) without changing the tolerance to constant high temperatures (30°C) in the fourth generation. Surprisingly, even parasitoids that developed under fluctuating thermal conditions performed better than those reared at constant temperature of 25°C. Collectively, our findings suggest that T. podisi reared under fluctuating thermal condition can tolerate better fluctuating temperatures that normally occur both during long periods of transport and in agricultural ecosystems, which will increase the quality and productivity of mass-reared T. podisi for inundative releases.


Assuntos
Heterópteros/parasitologia , Temperatura , Vespas/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Animais , Feminino , Fertilidade , Traços de História de Vida , Longevidade , Controle Biológico de Vetores
8.
Neotrop Entomol ; 48(6): 974-982, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31707597

RESUMO

This study investigates the influence of parasitoid age and egg age of the hosts Euschistus heros (Fabricius) and Dichelops melacanthus (Dallas) on parasitism of Telenomus podisi Ashmead. Six separate bioassays were conducted: parasitism on eggs of E. heros (bioassay 1) and D. melacanthus (bioassay 2) by T. podisi females of different age (1, 5, and 10 days old); parasitism by T. podisi on eggs of different age (1, 2, 3, 4, and 5 days of embryonic development) of the hosts E. heros (bioassay 3) and D. melacanthus (bioassay 4); preference of T. podisi females for eggs at different embryonic developmental stages (eggs of 1, 2, 3, 4, and 5 days) of the hosts E. heros (bioassay 5) and D. melacanthus (bioassay 6). The age of T. podisi females and their hosts affected parasitism on both E. heros and D. melacanthus eggs. Overall, the parasitism rate was higher in older than younger parasitoids, independent of the tested host species, and host eggs between 1 and 3 days old were similarly parasitized. Thus, in T. podisi mass rearing facilities, it is recommended to use older adults (5 to 10 days old) as mother wasps to increase parasitism on the offered eggs. In addition, when hosts are completely absent in the field, or climatic conditions are unfavorable for release, mass-reared adults can be kept in the laboratory (25°C) for up to 10 days for later release in the field without any impairment of their subsequent parasitism performance.


Assuntos
Fatores Etários , Heterópteros/parasitologia , Óvulo/parasitologia , Vespas/fisiologia , Animais , Bioensaio , Feminino
9.
J Insect Sci ; 19(4)2019 Jul 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31393980

RESUMO

Trissolcus japonicus (Ashmead), an Asian parasitoid of Halyomorpha halys (Stål) (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae), was first detected in North America in 2014. Although testing in quarantine facilities as a candidate for classical biological control is ongoing, adventive populations have appeared in multiple sites in the United States, Canada, and Europe. Extensive laboratory testing of T. japonicus against other North American pentatomids and H. halys has revealed a higher rate of parasitism of H. halys, but not complete host specificity. However, laboratory tests are necessarily artificial, in which many host finding and acceptance cues may be circumvented. We offered sentinel egg masses of three native pentatomid (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae) pest species (Chinavia hilaris (Say), Euschistus conspersus Uhler, and Chlorochroa ligata (Say)) in a field paired-host assay in an area with a well-established adventive population of T. japonicus near Vancouver, WA. Overall, 67% of the H. halys egg masses were parasitized by T. japonicus during the 2-yr study. Despite the 'worst case' scenario for a field test (close proximity of the paired egg masses), the rate of parasitism (% eggs producing adult wasps) on all three native species was significantly less (0.4-8%) than that on H. halys eggs (77%). The levels of successful parasitism of T. japonicus of the three species are C. hilaris > E. conspersus > C. ligata. The potential impact of T. japonicus on these pentatomids is probably minimal.


Assuntos
Heterópteros/parasitologia , Interações Hospedeiro-Parasita , Vespas/fisiologia , Animais , Feminino , Heterópteros/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Espécies Introduzidas , Ninfa/parasitologia , Washington
10.
J Exp Biol ; 222(Pt 10)2019 05 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31043458

RESUMO

This study examined the expression and role of vitellogenin (Vg) in the body of the firebug Pyrrhocoris apterus (Heteroptera, Insecta) during infection elicited by two entomopathogenic organisms, the nematode Steinernema carpocapsae and the fungus Isaria fumosorosea Infection by S. carpocapsae significantly upregulated Vg mRNA expression in the male body. The corresponding increase in Vg protein expression was also confirmed by electrophoretic and immunoblotting analyses. Remarkably, in females, the opposite tendency was noted. Nematodal infection significantly reduced both Vg mRNA and Vg protein expression levels in fat body and hemolymph, respectively. We speculate that infection of reproductive females reduces Vg expression to a level that is still sufficient for defense, but is insufficient for reproduction. This circumstance reduces energy expenditure and helps the individual to cope with the infection. Importantly, purified Vg significantly inhibited growth of Xenorhabdus spp., an entomotoxic bacteria isolated from S. carpocapsae. However, the effect of Vg against I. fumosorosea was not so obvious. The fungus significantly stimulated Vg gene expression in males; however, a similar increase was not recapitulated at the protein level. Nevertheless, in females, both mRNA and protein Vg levels were significantly reduced after the fungal infection. The obtained data demonstrate that Vg is probably an important defense protein, possibly with a specific activity. This considerably expands the known spectrum of Vg functions, as its primary role was thought to be limited to regulating egg development in the female body.


Assuntos
Heterópteros/genética , Interações Hospedeiro-Patógeno/fisiologia , Hypocreales/fisiologia , Proteínas de Insetos/genética , Rabditídios/fisiologia , Vitelogeninas/genética , Animais , Feminino , Expressão Gênica , Heterópteros/metabolismo , Heterópteros/microbiologia , Heterópteros/parasitologia , Interações Hospedeiro-Parasita , Interações Hospedeiro-Patógeno/genética , Proteínas de Insetos/metabolismo , Masculino , Vitelogeninas/metabolismo
11.
PLoS One ; 14(4): e0214484, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30943229

RESUMO

Here we described a new trypanosomatid species, Phytomonas lipae, parasitizing the dock bug Coreus marginatus based on axenic culture and in vivo material. Using light and electron microscopy we characterized the development of this flagellate in the intestine, hemolymph and salivary glands of its insect host. The intestinal promastigotes of Phytomonas lipae do not divide and occur only in the anterior part of the midgut. From there they pass into hemolymph, increasing in size, and then to salivary glands, where they actively proliferate without attachment to the host's epithelium and form infective endomastigotes. We conducted molecular phylogenetic analyses based on 18s rRNA, gGAPDH and HSP83 gene sequences, of which the third marker performed the best in terms of resolving phylogenetic relationships within the genus Phytomonas. Our inference demonstrated rather early origin of the lineage comprising the new species, right after that of P. oxycareni, which represents the earliest known branch within the Phytomonas clade. This allowed us to compare the development of P. lipae and three other Phytomonas spp. in their insect hosts and reconstruct the vectorial part of the life cycle of their common ancestor.


Assuntos
Heterópteros/parasitologia , Estágios do Ciclo de Vida , Glândulas Salivares/parasitologia , Trypanosomatina/genética , Animais , Proteínas de Choque Térmico/genética , Intestinos/parasitologia , Kinetoplastida , Funções Verossimilhança , Filogenia , Proteínas de Protozoários/genética , RNA Ribossômico 18S/genética , Trypanosomatina/classificação , Trypanosomatina/fisiologia
12.
Environ Entomol ; 48(1): 211-218, 2019 02 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30624627

RESUMO

Halyomorpha halys (Stål) (Heteroptera: Pentatomidae), the brown marmorated stink bug (BMSB), is a polyphagous fruit and vegetable pest from eastern Asia and now invasive in the United States and Europe. Earlier research revealed that the main volatile from hexane egg extracts of a western North American pentatomid, Euschistus conspersus Uhler, to which two native scelionid egg parasitoids, Telenomus podisi Ashmead and Trissolcus erugatus Johnson are highly attracted, was methyl (2E,4Z)-2,4-decadienoate, the major component of the conspecific male-produced aggregation pheromone. Conversely, extracts of BMSB eggs lacked the male-produced sesquiterpenoid H. halys pheromone components but contained C16,18,20 aldehydes (hexadecanal, octadecanal, and eicosanal); both egg-surface extracts of BMSB eggs and the C16,18,20 synthetic aldehyde blend repelled the female parasitoids. The goal of the present research was to manipulate egg-surface volatiles to induce the scelionid egg parasitoids to adopt BMSB eggs as a host. Here it was demonstrated that individual females of both parasitoids could be conditioned to H. halys egg-surface aldehydes in Y-tube olfactometer experiments, and this positive memory lasted 3-4 d. Furthermore, conditioned wasps successfully parasitized fresh H. halys eggs in no choice tests, and their offspring continued to successfully parasitize fresh H. halys eggs for 2-3 more generations. Eventually, both the individual and generational memories faded. Unconditioned female parasitoids were not attracted to H. halys egg extract or the synthetic blend of egg-surface aldehydes, nor did they parasitize BMSB eggs. Theoretical and practical implications of the research are discussed in the contexts of Hopkins' host selection principle, biological control, and instinct evolution.


Assuntos
Heterópteros/parasitologia , Controle Biológico de Vetores/métodos , Vespas/fisiologia , Animais , Feminino , Heterópteros/química , Olfatometria , Óvulo/química , Óvulo/parasitologia , Compostos Orgânicos Voláteis
13.
PLoS One ; 14(1): e0209828, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30650162

RESUMO

Salinity is increasing in aquatic ecosystems in the Mediterranean region due to global change, and this is likely to have an important impact on host-parasite interactions. Here we studied the relationships between infection by ectoparasitic water mites and salinity variation, on survival and fecundity of water boatmen Corixidae in the laboratory. Larvae of Sigara lateralis parasitised by larval mites (Hydrachna skorikowi) had lower survivorship, and failed to moult to the adult stage. In adult corixids (S. lateralis and Corixa affinis) fitness was reduced at high salinities and in individuals infected by H. skorikowi, both in terms of survival and fecundity. We also found evidence for parasitism-salinity interactions. Our results suggest that ongoing increases in salinity in Mediterranean ponds due to climate change and water abstraction for agriculture or urban use have a strong impact on water bugs, and that their interactions with ectoparasites may modify salinity effects.


Assuntos
Heterópteros/parasitologia , Infestações por Ácaros/parasitologia , Estresse Salino/fisiologia , Animais , Mudança Climática , Ecossistema , Ectoparasitoses , Fertilidade/fisiologia , Hemípteros/metabolismo , Hemípteros/parasitologia , Heterópteros/metabolismo , Interações Hospedeiro-Parasita , Larva , Mar Mediterrâneo , Infestações por Ácaros/metabolismo , Ácaros , Salinidade , Água
14.
J Econ Entomol ; 112(1): 108-114, 2019 02 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30462298

RESUMO

Lethal and sublethal effects of insecticides used in organic agriculture were tested against Anastatus reduvii and Telenomus podisi, native North American hymenopteran egg parasitoids of the native Euschistus servus Say (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae) and the invasive Halyomorpha halys Stål. Entrust (spinosad), PyGanic (pyrethrin), Neemix (azadirachtin), and Azera (pyrethrin + azadirachtin) were tested at equivalent field rates of 1×, 0.5×, and 0.1×. Bioassays included insecticide exposure to parasitoids through residue on substrate, parasitized host eggs, and their food source. When exposed to dried residues, Entrust caused 100% mortality at the 0.5× rate to both species; PyGanic, Neemix, and Azera exhibited low toxicity. Exposure of parasitized host eggs to Entrust 1× during the egg stage of parasitoid development reduced parasitoid emergence compared to all other treatments in both species. Anastatus reduvii emergence was also reduced by PyGanic at 0.5× and 1×. Parasitoid emergence from host eggs exposed during the pupal stage was more variable than egg stage exposure; emergence of both species was reduced in 0.5× and 1× rates of PyGanic, and A. reduvii was reduced in the 0.5× rate of Entrust compared to controls. Longevity of emerged parasitoids surviving exposure within host eggs showed that Entrust was more deleterious than Neemix or PyGanic. When A. reduvii was fed insecticide-laced honey, all treatments except Neemix at 0.1× reduced adult longevity compared to the control. These studies demonstrated that insecticides commonly used in organic agriculture can negatively affect two common parasitoids of stink bugs; specifically, negative effects were most pronounced with Entrust, and variable with Neemix and Pyganic.


Assuntos
Inseticidas , Vespas , Animais , Heterópteros/parasitologia , Longevidade , Agricultura Orgânica , Óvulo/parasitologia , Testes de Toxicidade
15.
J Eukaryot Microbiol ; 66(4): 600-607, 2019 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30480347

RESUMO

We describe the monoxenous trypanosomatids parasitizing true bugs and flies on the island of Curaçao. Out of 248 examined true bugs belonging to 17 species, 93 individuals were found to be infected (overall 38% prevalence) by at least one trypanosomatid species (referred to as typing units; TUs). Out of 80 flies, six were infected. All detected trypanosomatids were compared based on their 18S rRNA sequences with TUs parasitizing bugs and flies described from mainland South America, allowing us to assess their diversity and distribution. Besides Leptomonas pyrrhocoris and Leptomonas seymouri, two known species of the subfamily Leishmaniinae, our analysis revealed six new TUs falling into the groups 'jaculum', Blastocrithidia and Herpetomonas. Moreover, two new members of the genus Phytomonas and three new TUs belonging to the monophyletic group designated as 'new clade II' sensu Mol. Phylogenet. Evol, 69, 255 (2013) were isolated. The detected trypanosomatids were characterized by moderate diversity (13 TUs) species richness. Out of nine and four TUs from the heteropteran and dipteran hosts, respectively, 11 TUs have not been encountered before. Although a sampling bias may partially affect the comparison between trypanosomatid communities on Curaçao and the mainland, the high proportion of unique TUs from the former location suggests that the prominent role of islands in increasing the global diversity of macroscopic organisms may also extend to their protistan parasites.


Assuntos
Dípteros/parasitologia , Heterópteros/parasitologia , Trypanosomatina/isolamento & purificação , Animais , Curaçao , Filogenia , RNA de Protozoário/análise , RNA Ribossômico 18S/análise , Trypanosomatina/classificação , Trypanosomatina/genética
16.
Environ Entomol ; 48(1): 105-113, 2019 02 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30566605

RESUMO

Over the last 50 yr, the geographical distribution of soybean crop production in Brazil has expanded from the southern region to Maranhão state in the north. We evaluated if this latitudinal expansion affected the community of stink bugs (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae) and their parasitoids. The fauna of stink bugs and their adult parasitoids were studied in nine soybean production regions in Brazil. Stink bugs were sampled using a shake cloth and and held in laboratory cages with natural diet to await emergence of parasitoids. Stink bug and parasitoid species composition did not shift along the latitudinal gradient. Euschistus heros (Fabricius, 1798) (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae) was the most abundant stink bug and occurred in all sampling regions. Hexacladia smithii Ashmead, 1891 (Hymenoptera: Encyrtidae), Cylindromyia brasiliana (Townsend, 1927), Ectophasiopsis sp., Eutrichopoda sp., Gymnoclytia sp., Phasia sp., and Trichopoda sp. (Diptera: Tachinidae) were the parasitoid adult stink bugs that we registered. Parasitism indexes were low, ranging from 0.77 to 6.05% through the regions. On the other hand, parasitism rates were higher in areas with reduced insecticide application in comparison to areas with intensive insecticide use.


Assuntos
Biodiversidade , Heterópteros/parasitologia , Soja , Animais , Brasil , Inseticidas , Densidade Demográfica
17.
Environ Entomol ; 48(1): 173-180, 2019 02 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30566607

RESUMO

The brown marmorated stink bug, Halyomorpha halys (Stål) (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae), is an invasive agricultural and nuisance pest that has established across much of the United States and caused significant crop losses in the Mid-Atlantic region. While it has been monitored extensively using ground-deployed pheromone traps, the vertical distribution of its life stages in the canopy of wild tree hosts has not been examined. In Virginia, small pyramid traps baited with 'low-dose' H. halys pheromone lures were deployed via a pulley system at the lower, mid-, and upper canopy of female tree of heaven (Ailanthus altissima (Mill.) Swingle) in 2016 and 2017 and male A. altissima and hackberry (Celtis occidentalis L.) in 2017. Weekly captures of adults and nymphs were recorded throughout each season. Each year, additional female A. altissima trees were felled during the two main periods of H. halys oviposition. The number and relative locations of all pentatomid egg masses found on foliage were recorded and any parasitoids that emerged from them were identified. Halyomorpha halys adults and nymphs were captured in greatest numbers in upper canopy traps and in lowest numbers in traps near the tree base. More H. halys egg masses were collected from mid-canopy than from the lower or upper canopy. The adventive egg parasitoid, Trissolcus japonicus (Ashmead) (Hymenoptera: Scelionidae), emerged most frequently from egg masses found at mid-canopy and was not recovered from those in the lower canopy. Results are discussed in relation to the foraging ecology of H. halys and its natural enemies, including TT. japonicus.


Assuntos
Distribuição Animal , Heterópteros , Vespas , Ailanthus , Animais , Cadeia Alimentar , Heterópteros/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Heterópteros/parasitologia , Interações Hospedeiro-Parasita , Óvulo/parasitologia , Árvores , Vespas/fisiologia
18.
Neotrop Entomol ; 48(1): 126-135, 2019 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29725954

RESUMO

Successful parasitoid rearing is crucial for augmentative biological control. A low temperature preservation protocol allowing the availability of host and parasitoid year-round was evaluated in this study in four bioassays: (1) host eggs [Euschistus heros (Fabricius)] stored at - 196, - 80, and - 20°C for up to 70 days prior to exposure to Telenomus podisi Ashmead parasitism; (2) Euschistus heros eggs removed from storage at - 196°C after 70 days and kept at 5°C for up to 9 days prior to exposure to T. podisi parasitism; (3) Telenomus podisi adult emergence of insects stored as pupae at 5°C; and (4) fitness of adults of T. podisi stored at 5°C. Higher parasitism was observed in parasitoids reared on E. heros eggs stored at - 196 and - 80°C. Host eggs removed from - 196°C and stored at 5°C for up to 6 days did not impact T. podisi parasitism and development. Storage of T. podisi pupae for more than 7 days negatively affected parasitoid biology. Storing T. podisi adults at 5°C for up to 6 days does not alter the biological parameters of the parasitoid. Thus, parasitoids can be stored as pupae or adults as well as its host E. heros eggs. Our findings can be applied to improve the feasibility of year-round insect production.


Assuntos
Temperatura Baixa , Heterópteros/parasitologia , Óvulo/parasitologia , Vespas/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Animais , Agentes de Controle Biológico , Feminino , Masculino , Pupa
19.
Environ Entomol ; 47(6): 1459-1464, 2018 12 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30351344

RESUMO

Stink bugs are important insect pests of soybean, Glycine max (L.), in Louisiana. Scouting, economic thresholds, and insecticide applications are the main strategies used in the integrated pest management of soybean insect pests. However, biological control of stink bug eggs by parasitoids has the potential to reduce populations of these pests. A survey of stink bug egg parasitoids was conducted at different sites in Louisiana from 2008 to 2010. Similarly, a study on the incidence of stink bug egg parasitoids within soybean vertical strata and plant structures was conducted in 2009 to 2011. Species of stink bug eggs collected during the studies included the redbanded stink bug, Piezodorus guildinii (Westwood), the brown stink bug species complex, Euschistus spp., the southern green stink bug, Nezara viridula L., the spined soldier bug, Podisus maculiventris (Say), and the green stink bug, Chinavia hilaris (Say). The percentage of stink bug eggs parasitized in the central location of Louisiana was higher compared with the northwest location during the 2008 to 2010 growing seasons. There were no differences in percentage of stink bug egg parasitism within soybean plant strata between 2009 and 2011. Telenomus podisi Ashmead (Hymenoptera: Platygastridae) was the most abundant parasitoid, and it showed preference for P. guildinii. Other platygastrid species that emerged included Trissolcus euschisti Ashmead (Hymenoptera: Platygastridae), Gryon obesum Masner (Hymenoptera: Platygastridae), and Telenomus longicornis Johnson (Hymenoptera: Platygastridae). This study is the first to report the parasitization of P. guildinii eggs on soybeans in the United States.


Assuntos
Heterópteros/parasitologia , Interações Hospedeiro-Parasita , Óvulo/parasitologia , Soja , Vespas/fisiologia , Animais , Feminino , Louisiana , Masculino
20.
Environ Entomol ; 47(4): 812-821, 2018 08 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29878176

RESUMO

The brown marmorated stink bug, Halyomorpha halys (Stål) (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae), has spread across North America and is causing serious economic damages. Current management of this pest is based primarily on use of insecticides, which can disrupt integrated pest management programs. Alternatively, biological control is a more benign management tactic. This study provides the first examination of potential impact of parasitoids and predators of pentatomid eggs in Minnesota. Over 2 yr, 10,074 fresh and 9,870 frozen H. halys eggs were deployed in two forest and two soybean habitats in St. Paul, Minnesota from June to August. Our results demonstrate that rates of parasitism and predation were low, accounting for only 0.4 and 3.7%, respectively, across years, habitats, and egg states. In general, the parasitoid Telenomus podisi Ashmead (Hymenoptera: Scelionidae), had higher impacts on H. halys eggs in soybean, and generalist predators were more prevalent in forest habitats. Overall, predation was higher on fresh versus frozen eggs, and parasitism was not consistent across egg states. Although the rates of H. halys mortality due to natural enemies were low, results of our study may be conservative estimates of their true impact. Also, sentinel egg mass surveys should account for undeveloped parasitoids to better quantify H. halys egg mortality by native parasitoids. Alternative management tactics, such as the introduction of Trissolcus japonicus (Ashmead) (Hymenoptera: Scelionidae), could be considered to improve biological control of H. halys. Our findings serve as the foundation for future work on biological control of this pest and other pentatomids.


Assuntos
Cadeia Alimentar , Florestas , Heterópteros/fisiologia , Heterópteros/parasitologia , Soja , Animais , Minnesota , Óvulo/parasitologia , Óvulo/fisiologia , Soja/crescimento & desenvolvimento
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