Your browser doesn't support javascript.
loading
Mostrar: 20 | 50 | 100
Resultados 1 - 20 de 7.274
Filtrar
1.
Cell Host Microbe ; 31(1): 83-96.e5, 2023 01 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36596305

RESUMO

HIV-1 establishes a life-long reservoir of virally infected cells which cannot be eliminated by antiretroviral therapy (ART). Here, we demonstrate a markedly altered viral reservoir profile of long-term ART-treated individuals, characterized by large clones of intact proviruses preferentially integrated in heterochromatin locations, most prominently in centromeric satellite/micro-satellite DNA. Longitudinal evaluations suggested that this specific reservoir configuration results from selection processes that promote the persistence of intact proviruses in repressive chromatin positions, while proviruses in permissive chromosomal locations are more likely to be eliminated. A bias toward chromosomal integration sites in heterochromatin locations was also observed for intact proviruses in study participants who maintained viral control after discontinuation of antiretroviral therapy. Together, these results raise the possibility that antiviral selection mechanisms during long-term ART may induce an HIV-1 reservoir structure with features of deep latency and, possibly, more limited abilities to drive rebound viremia upon treatment interruptions.


Assuntos
Infecções por HIV , HIV-1 , Humanos , HIV-1/genética , Heterocromatina , Provírus/genética , Antivirais/uso terapêutico , Linfócitos T CD4-Positivos , Latência Viral , Carga Viral , Antirretrovirais/uso terapêutico
2.
Sci Adv ; 9(1): eabq5423, 2023 01 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36608133

RESUMO

Deposition of tau protein aggregates in the brain of affected individuals is a defining feature of "tauopathies," including Alzheimer's disease. Studies of human brain tissue and various model systems of tauopathy report that toxic forms of tau negatively affect nuclear and genomic architecture, identifying pathogenic tau-induced heterochromatin decondensation and consequent retrotransposon activation as a causal mediator of neurodegeneration. On the basis of their similarity to retroviruses, retrotransposons drive neuroinflammation via toxic intermediates, including double-stranded RNA (dsRNA). We find that dsRNA and dsRNA sensing machinery are elevated in astrocytes of postmortem brain tissue from patients with Alzheimer's disease and progressive supranuclear palsy and in brains of tau transgenic mice. Using a Drosophila model of tauopathy, we identify specific tau-induced retrotransposons that form dsRNA and find that pathogenic tau and heterochromatin decondensation causally drive dsRNA-mediated neurodegeneration and neuroinflammation. Our study suggests that pathogenic tau-induced heterochromatin decondensation and retrotransposon activation cause elevation of inflammatory, transposable element-derived dsRNA in the adult brain.


Assuntos
Doença de Alzheimer , Tauopatias , Animais , Camundongos , Adulto , Humanos , Doença de Alzheimer/metabolismo , Elementos de DNA Transponíveis , Retroelementos/genética , RNA de Cadeia Dupla/metabolismo , Doenças Neuroinflamatórias , Heterocromatina/metabolismo , Proteínas tau/genética , Proteínas tau/metabolismo , Tauopatias/genética , Tauopatias/metabolismo , Encéfalo/metabolismo , Camundongos Transgênicos , Drosophila/genética
3.
Nat Commun ; 14(1): 350, 2023 Jan 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36681699

RESUMO

As the largest substructures in the nucleus, nucleoli are the sites of ribosome biogenesis. Increasing evidence indicates that nucleoli play a key role in the organization of 3D genome architecture, but systematic studies of nucleolus-associated chromatin interactions are lacking. Here, we developed a nucleolus Hi-C (nHi-C) experimental technique to enrich nucleolus-associated chromatin interactions. Using the nHi-C experiment, we identify 264 high-confidence nucleolus-associated domains (hNADs) that form strong heterochromatin interactions associated with the nucleolus and consist of 24% of the whole genome in HeLa cells. Based on the global hNAD inter-chromosomal interactions, we find five nucleolar organizer region (NOR)-bearing chromosomes formed into two clusters that show different interaction patterns, which is concordant with their epigenetic states and gene expression levels. hNADs can be divided into three groups that display distinct cis/trans interaction signals, interaction frequencies associated with nucleoli, distance from the centromeres, and overlap percentage with lamina-associated domains (LADs). Nucleolus disassembly caused by Actinomycin D (ActD) significantly decreases the strength of hNADs and affects compartment/TAD strength genome-wide. In summary, our results provide a global view of heterochromatin interactions organized around nucleoli and demonstrate that nucleoli act as an inactive inter-chromosomal hub to shape both compartments and TADs.


Assuntos
Cromatina , Heterocromatina , Humanos , Cromatina/metabolismo , Heterocromatina/metabolismo , Células HeLa , Nucléolo Celular/metabolismo , Núcleo Celular
4.
Nucleus ; 14(1): 2159142, 2023 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36710442

RESUMO

The eukaryotic nucleus displays a variety of membraneless compartments with distinct biomolecular composition and specific cellular activities. Emerging evidence indicates that protein-based liquid-liquid phase separation (LLPS) plays an essential role in the formation and dynamic regulation of heterochromatin compartmentalization. This feature is especially conspicuous at the pericentric heterochromatin domains. In this review, we will describe our understanding of heterochromatin organization and LLPS. In addition, we will highlight the increasing importance of multivalent weak homo- and heteromolecular interactions in LLPS-mediated heterochromatin compartmentalization in the complex environment inside living cells.


Assuntos
Proteínas Cromossômicas não Histona , Heterocromatina , Proteínas Cromossômicas não Histona/genética , Núcleo Celular
5.
Nucleus ; 14(1): 2165602, 2023 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36633363

RESUMO

The eukaryotic genome is organized in three dimensions within the nucleus. Transcriptionally active chromatin is spatially separated from silent heterochromatin, a large fraction of which is located at the nuclear periphery. However, the mechanisms by which chromatin is localized at the nuclear periphery remain poorly understood. Here we demonstrate that Proline Rich 14 (PRR14) protein organizes H3K9me3-modified heterochromatin at the nuclear lamina. We show that PRR14 dynamically associates with both the nuclear lamina and heterochromatin, and is able to reorganize heterochromatin in the nucleus of interphase cells independent of mitosis. We characterize two functional HP1-binding sites within PRR14 that contribute to its association with heterochromatin. We also demonstrate that PPR14 forms an anchoring surface for heterochromatin at the nuclear lamina where it interacts dynamically with HP1-associated chromatin. Our study proposes a model of dynamic heterochromatin organization at the nuclear lamina via the PRR14 tethering protein.


Assuntos
Heterocromatina , Lâmina Nuclear , Heterocromatina/metabolismo , Lâmina Nuclear/metabolismo , Núcleo Celular/metabolismo , Cromatina/metabolismo , Proteínas Cromossômicas não Histona/metabolismo
6.
Nat Cell Biol ; 25(1): 42-55, 2023 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36604593

RESUMO

ZNF462 haploinsufficiency is linked to Weiss-Kruszka syndrome, a genetic disorder characterized by neurodevelopmental defects, including autism. Though conserved in vertebrates and essential for embryonic development, the molecular functions of ZNF462 remain unclear. We identified its murine homologue ZFP462 in a screen for mediators of epigenetic gene silencing. Here we show that ZFP462 safeguards neural lineage specification of mouse embryonic stem cells (ESCs) by targeting the H3K9-specific histone methyltransferase complex G9A/GLP to silence meso-endodermal genes. ZFP462 binds to transposable elements that are potential enhancers harbouring pluripotency and meso-endoderm transcription factor binding sites. Recruiting G9A/GLP, ZFP462 seeds heterochromatin, restricting transcription factor binding. Loss of ZFP462 in ESCs results in increased chromatin accessibility at target sites and ectopic expression of meso-endodermal genes. Taken together, ZFP462 confers lineage and locus specificity to the broadly expressed epigenetic regulator G9A/GLP. Our results suggest that aberrant activation of lineage non-specific genes in the neuronal lineage underlies ZNF462-associated neurodevelopmental pathology.


Assuntos
Heterocromatina , Histona-Lisina N-Metiltransferase , Animais , Camundongos , Heterocromatina/genética , Histona-Lisina N-Metiltransferase/genética , Histona-Lisina N-Metiltransferase/metabolismo , Cromatina , Células-Tronco Embrionárias , Fatores de Transcrição/genética , Fatores de Transcrição/metabolismo , Proteínas de Ligação a DNA/genética , Proteínas do Tecido Nervoso/genética
7.
Cells ; 12(2)2023 Jan 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36672260

RESUMO

The expression of genetic information is tightly controlled by chromatin regulatory proteins, including those in the heterochromatin gene repression family. Many of these regulatory proteins work together on the chromatin substrate to precisely regulate gene expression during mammalian development, giving rise to many different tissues in higher organisms from a fixed genomic template. Here we identify and characterize the interactions of two related heterochromatin regulatory proteins, heterochromatin protein 1 alpha (HP1α) and M-phase phosphoprotein 8 (MPP8), with hepatoma-derived growth factor-related protein 2 (HRP2). We find in biochemical experiments that HRP2 copurifies and co-sediments with heterochromatin-associated proteins, including HP1α and MPP8. Using the Chromatin in vivo Assay in multiple cell types, we demonstrate that HP1α-mediated gene repression dynamics are altered by the presence of HRP2. Furthermore, the knockout of HRP2 in MDA-MB-231 cells results in significant changes to chromatin structure and stability, which alter gene expression patterns. Here, we detail a mechanism by which HRP2 contributes to epigenetic transcriptional regulation through engagement with heterochromatin-associated proteins to stabilize the chromatin landscape and influence gene expression.


Assuntos
Proteínas Cromossômicas não Histona , Heterocromatina , Animais , Proteínas Cromossômicas não Histona/metabolismo , Cromatina , Homólogo 5 da Proteína Cromobox , Fatores de Transcrição/metabolismo , Mamíferos/metabolismo
8.
Genes (Basel) ; 14(1)2023 Jan 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36672891

RESUMO

Amongst the 460 karyotypes of Polyphagan Coleoptera that we studied, 50 (10.8%) were carriers of an X autosome rearrangement. In addition to mitotic metaphase analysis, the correct diagnosis was performed on meiotic cells, principally at the pachytene stage. The percentages of these inter-chromosomal rearrangements, principally fusions, varied in relation to the total diploid number of chromosomes: high (51%) below 19, null at 19, low (2.7%) at 20 (the ancestral and modal number), and slightly increasing from 7.1% to 16.7% from 22 to above 30. The involvement of the X in chromosome fusions appears to be more than seven-fold higher than expected for the average of the autosomes. Examples of karyotypes with X autosome rearrangements are shown, including insertion of the whole X in the autosome (ins(A;X)), which has never been reported before in animals. End-to-end fusions (Robertsonian translocations, terminal rearrangements, and pseudo-dicentrics) are the most frequent types of X autosome rearrangements. As in the 34 species with a 19,X formula, there was no trace of the Y chromosome in the 50 karyotypes with an X autosome rearrangement, which demonstrates the dispensability of this chromosome. In most instances, C-banded heterochromatin was present at the X autosome junction, which suggests that it insulates the gonosome from the autosome portions, whose genes are subjected to different levels of expression. Finally, it is proposed that the very preferential involvement of the X in inter-chromosome rearrangements is explained by: (1) the frequent acrocentric morphology of the X, thus the terminal position of constitutive heterochromatin, which can insulate the attached gonosomal and autosomal components; (2) the dispensability of the Y chromosome, which considerably minimizes the deleterious consequences of the heterozygous status in male meiosis, (3) following the rapid loss of the useless Y chromosome, the correct segregation of the X autosome-autosome trivalent, which ipso facto is ensured by a chiasma in its autosomal portion.


Assuntos
Besouros , Cromossomo X , Animais , Masculino , Heterocromatina/genética , Besouros/genética , Cromossomo Y/genética , Cromossomos Sexuais
9.
Reproduction ; 165(1): 49-63, 2023 Jan 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36194437

RESUMO

In brief: Proper regulation of heterochromatin is critical for spermatogenesis. This study reveals the dynamic localization patterns of distinct chromatin regulators during spermatogenesis and disrupted sex chromatin status in spermatocytes in the absence of DICER. Abstract: Heterochromatin is dynamically formed and organized in differentiating male germ cells, and its proper regulation is a prerequisite for normal spermatogenesis. While heterochromatin is generally transcriptionally silent, we have previously shown that major satellite repeat (MSR) DNA in the pericentric heterochromatin (PCH) is transcribed during spermatogenesis. We have also shown that DICER associates with PCH and is involved in the regulation of MSR-derived transcripts. To shed light on the heterochromatin regulation in the male germline, we studied the expression, localization and heterochromatin association of selected testis-enriched chromatin regulators in the mouse testis. Our results show that HELLS, WDHD1 and BAZ1A are dynamically expressed during spermatogenesis. They display limited overlap in expression, suggesting involvement in distinct heterochromatin-associated processes at different steps of differentiation. We also show that HELLS and BAZ1A interact with DICER and MSR chromatin. Interestingly, deletion of Dicer1 affects the sex chromosome heterochromatin status in late pachytene spermatocytes, as demonstrated by mislocalization of Polycomb protein family member SCML1 to the sex body. These data substantiate the importance of dynamic heterochromatin regulation during spermatogenesis and emphasize the key role of DICER in the maintenance of chromatin status in meiotic male germ cells.


Assuntos
Cromatina , Proteínas Cromossômicas não Histona , DNA Helicases , Heterocromatina , Animais , Masculino , Camundongos , Cromatina/metabolismo , DNA Helicases/genética , Heterocromatina/metabolismo , Espermatócitos/metabolismo , Espermatogênese/fisiologia , Testículo/metabolismo , Proteínas Cromossômicas não Histona/genética
10.
Braz. j. biol ; 83: e248814, 2023. tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1339390

RESUMO

Abstract The karyotype and constitutive heterochromatin pattern of the white stork Ciconia ciconia samples obtained from Manzala lake, Dimiaat, Egypt was described. Somatic cells of Ciconia ciconia samples have diploid number 2n= 68 chromosomes. Out of 68 chromosomes, 11 pairs including sex chromosomes were macrochromosomes and the remaining pairs were microchromosomes. Of the 11 macrochromosome pairs, no.1, 2, 4 and 5 were submetacentric and pairs no. 6, 7 and 8 were described as metacentric. In addition, the autosome pair no.3 was subtelocentric, while autosome pair no.9 was acrocentric. Also, the sex chromosome Z represents the fourth one in size and it was classified as submetacentric while, W chromosome appeared as medium size and was acrocentric. Furthermore, C-banding pattern (constitutive heterochromatin) revealed variation in their sizes and occurrence between macrochromosomes. Pairs no. 7 and 8 of autosomes exhibited unusual distribution of heterochromatin, where they appeared as entirely heterochromatic. This may be related to the origin of sex chromosomes Z and W. However, there is no sufficient evidence illustrate the appearance of entirely heterochromatic autosomes. Therefore, there is no available cytogenetic literature that describes the C-banding and karyotype of Ciconia Ciconia, so the results herein are important and may assist in cytogenetic study and evolutionary pattern of Ciconiiformes.


Resumo O cariótipo e o padrão constitutivo de heterocromatina das amostras de cegonha-branca Ciconia ciconia obtidas no lago Manzala, Dimiaat, Egito, foram descritos. As células somáticas de amostras de Ciconia ciconia possuem número diploide 2n = 68 cromossomos. Dos 68 cromossomos, 11 pares incluindo cromossomos sexuais eram macrocromossomos e os pares restantes eram microcromossomos. Dos 11 pares de macrocromossomos, os nos 1, 2, 4 e 5 eram submetacêntricos, e os pares nos 6, 7 e 8 foram descritos como metacêntricos. Além disso, o par de autossomos no 3 era subtelocêntrico, enquanto o par de autossomos no 9 era acrocêntrico. Além disso, o cromossomo sexual Z representa o quarto em tamanho e foi classificado como submetacêntrico, enquanto o cromossomo W apareceu como de tamanho médio e acrocêntrico. Além disso, o padrão de bandamento C (heterocromatina constitutiva) revelou variação em seus tamanhos e ocorrência entre macrocromossomos. Pares nos 7 e 8 dos autossomos exibiram distribuição incomum de heterocromatina, onde apareceram como totalmente heterocromáticos. Isso pode estar relacionado à origem dos cromossomos sexuais Z e W. No entanto, não há evidências suficientes para ilustrar o aparecimento de autossomos totalmente heterocromáticos. Portanto, não há literatura citogenética disponível que descreva o bandamento C e o cariótipo de Ciconia ciconia, portanto os resultados aqui apresentados são importantes e podem auxiliar no estudo citogenético e no padrão evolutivo de Ciconiiformes.


Assuntos
Animais , Cromossomos Sexuais/genética , Heterocromatina/genética , Aves , Cariótipo , Cariotipagem
11.
Braz. j. biol ; 83: e243514, 2023. tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1278560

RESUMO

Abstract Allium sativum L. is an herb of the Alliaceae family with a specific taste and aroma and medicinal and nutraceutical properties that are widely marketed in several countries. Brazil is one of the largest importers of garlic in the world, despite of its production is restricted and limited to internal consumption. Thus, explore the genetic diversity of commercial garlic conserved at germplasm banks is essential to generate additional genetic information about its economically important crop. A suitable tool for this purpose is the cytogenetic characterisation of these accessions. This study aimed to characterise the cytogenetic diversity among seven accessions of garlic from a Germplasm Bank in Brazil. The karyotypes were obtained by conventional staining and with chromomycin A3 (CMA) and 4,6-diamidino-2-phenylindole (DAPI) fluorochromes. All accessions analysed showed chromosome number 2n = 16, karyotype formula 6M+2SM, symmetrical karyotypes, reticulate interphase nuclei, and chromosomes with uniform chromatin condensation from prophase to metaphase. The fluorochromes staining showed differences in the amount and distribution of heterochromatin along the chromosomes and between accessions studied. Based on the distribution pattern of these small polymorphisms, it was possible to separate the seven accessions into three groups. It was also possible to differentiate some of the accessions individually. One of the results obtained showed a heteromorphic distension of the nucleolar organiser region observed on the chromosome pairs 6 or 7 with peculiar characteristics. It was suggested for example, that the heteromorphic block of heterochromatin (CMA+++/DAPI-) on chromosome 6 of the "Branco Mineiro Piauí" accession can be used as a marker to identify this genotype or may be associated with some character of economic interest.


Resumo Allium sativum L. é uma erva da família Alliaceae com sabor e aroma específicos e propriedades medicinais e nutracêuticas amplamente comercializada em diversos países. O Brasil é um dos maiores importadores de alho do mundo, apesar da sua produção ser restrita e limitada ao consumo interno. Assim, explorar a diversidade genética do alho comercial conservado em bancos de germoplasma é essencial para fornecer informações genéticas adicionais acerca dessa cultura economicamente importante. Uma ferramenta adequada para esse fim é a caracterização citogenética desses acessos. Este estudo teve como objetivo caracterizar a diversidade citogenética entre sete acessos de alho de um Banco de Germoplasma no Brasil. Os cariótipos foram obtidos por coloração convencional e com os fluorocromos de cromomicina A3 (CMA) e 4,6-diamidino-2-fenilindol (DAPI). Todos os acessos analisados ​​apresentaram número cromossômico 2n = 16, fórmula cariotípica 6M + 2SM, cariótipos simétricos, núcleos reticulados em intérfase e cromossomos com condensação uniforme da cromatina da prófase para a metáfase. A coloração com fluorocromos mostrou diferenças na quantidade e distribuição de heterocromatina ao longo dos cromossomos e entre os acessos estudados. Com base no padrão de distribuição desses pequenos polimorfismos, foi possível separar os sete acessos em três grupos. Também foi possível diferenciar individualmente alguns dos acessos. Um dos resultados obtidos mostrou distensão heteromórfica da região organizadora nucleolar observada nos pares dos cromossomos 6 ou 7 com características peculiares. Foi sugerido, por exemplo, que o bloco heteromórfico de heterocromatina (CMA +++ / DAPI-) no cromossomo 6 do acesso "Branco Mineiro Piauí" pode ser usado como um marcador para identificar esse genótipo ou pode estar associado a algum caráter de interesse econômico.


Assuntos
Alho , Brasil , Heterocromatina/genética , Bandeamento Cromossômico , Cariótipo , Cariotipagem
12.
Nucleic Acids Res ; 51(1): 117-143, 2023 01 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36533441

RESUMO

Nucleoli are nuclear compartments regulating ribosome biogenesis and cell growth. In embryonic stem cells (ESCs), nucleoli containing transcriptionally active ribosomal genes are spatially separated from pericentromeric satellite repeat sequences packaged in largely repressed constitutive heterochromatin (PCH). To date, mechanisms underlying such nuclear partitioning and the physiological relevance thereof are unknown. Here we show that repressive chromatin at PCH ensures structural integrity and function of nucleoli during cell cycle progression. Loss of heterochromatin proteins HP1α and HP1ß causes deformation of PCH, with reduced H3K9 trimethylation (H3K9me3) and HP1γ levels, absence of H4K20me3 and upregulated major satellites expression. Spatially, derepressed PCH aberrantly associates with nucleoli accumulating severe morphological defects during S/G2 cell cycle progression. Hp1α/ß deficiency reduces cell proliferation, ribosomal RNA biosynthesis and mobility of Nucleophosmin, a major nucleolar component. Nucleolar integrity and function require HP1α/ß proteins to be recruited to H3K9me3-marked PCH and their ability to dimerize. Correspondingly, ESCs deficient for both Suv39h1/2 H3K9 HMTs display similar nucleolar defects. In contrast, Suv4-20h1/2 mutant ESCs lacking H4K20me3 at PCH do not. Suv39h1/2 and Hp1α/ß deficiency-induced nucleolar defects are reminiscent of those defining human ribosomopathy disorders. Our results reveal a novel role for SUV39H/HP1-marked repressive constitutive heterochromatin in regulating integrity, function and physiology of nucleoli.


Assuntos
Homólogo 5 da Proteína Cromobox , Proteínas Cromossômicas não Histona , Heterocromatina , Histonas , Humanos , Cromatina , Proteínas Cromossômicas não Histona/genética , Proteínas Cromossômicas não Histona/metabolismo , Histonas/genética , Histonas/metabolismo , Fatores de Transcrição/metabolismo , Animais , Camundongos
13.
Nat Struct Mol Biol ; 30(1): 38-51, 2023 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36550219

RESUMO

The relationships between chromosomal compartmentalization, chromatin state and function are poorly understood. Here by profiling long-range contact frequencies in HCT116 colon cancer cells, we distinguish three silent chromatin states, comprising two types of heterochromatin and a state enriched for H3K9me2 and H2A.Z that exhibits neutral three-dimensional interaction preferences and which, to our knowledge, has not previously been characterized. We find that heterochromatin marked by H3K9me3, HP1α and HP1ß correlates with strong compartmentalization. We demonstrate that disruption of DNA methyltransferase activity greatly remodels genome compartmentalization whereby domains lose H3K9me3-HP1α/ß binding and acquire the neutrally interacting state while retaining late replication timing. Furthermore, we show that H3K9me3-HP1α/ß heterochromatin is permissive to loop extrusion by cohesin but refractory to CTCF binding. Together, our work reveals a dynamic structural and organizational diversity of the silent portion of the genome and establishes connections between the regulation of chromatin state and chromosome organization, including an interplay between DNA methylation, compartmentalization and loop extrusion.


Assuntos
Cromatina , Heterocromatina , Metilação , Histonas/metabolismo , Homólogo 5 da Proteína Cromobox , Fatores de Transcrição/metabolismo
14.
Zh Nevrol Psikhiatr Im S S Korsakova ; 122(12): 128-137, 2022.
Artigo em Russo | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36537643

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To study the ultrastructure of microglia adjacent to oligodendrocytes in white matter of the prefrontal cortex in continuous schizophrenia (CSch) as compared to controls and attack-like schizophrenia (ASch) and to perform correlation analysis between the parameters of microglia and adjacent oligodendrocytes previously detected in both clinical types of schizophrenia. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Electron microscopic morphometric study of microglia adjacent to oligodendrocytes was performed in postmortem white matter of the prefrontal cortex (BA10) in 9 cases of CSch, 8 cases of ASch and 20 healthy controls. Group comparisons were made by ANCOVA and Pearson correlation analyses. RESULTS: The reduction of volume fraction (Vv) and the number of mitochondria in microglia was found in elderly subjects (>50 y.o.) as compared to young controls (60%, p<0.05), and the increase in these parameters of lipofuscin granules were detected in elderly subjects as compared to elderly controls in CSch (470%, 606%, p<0.001). Vv and the number of mitochondria in microglia correlated negatively with area of heterochromatin in microglia (r≥-0.7, p<0.05), and area of lipofuscin correlated positively with area of heterochromatin in microglia (r=0.76, p<0.05) and with illness duration (r=0.7, p<0.05) only in the CSch group. The numerical density of microglia was not changed in both schizophrenia groups. Area of heterochromatin was increased in both groups as compared to controls (p<0.05) and correlated negatively with the numerical density of microglia in the CSch group. The number of mitochondria in oligodendrocytes (reduced in CSch) correlated positively with the number of mitochondria in microglia and negatively with Vv of lipofuscin granules in microglia and with area of microglial nucleus only in the CSch group. CONCLUSION: Specific features of CSch as compared to ASch might be associated with the disturbances of mitochondrial and lipid metabolism in microglia, dysfunction of nucleus and accelerated aging of microglia that might lead to alterations of mitochondrial metabolism in oligodendrocytes.


Assuntos
Esquizofrenia , Substância Branca , Humanos , Esquizofrenia/metabolismo , Microglia , Substância Branca/ultraestrutura , Heterocromatina/metabolismo , Lipofuscina/metabolismo , Oligodendroglia/ultraestrutura , Córtex Pré-Frontal/ultraestrutura
15.
Biochem Soc Trans ; 50(6): 1809-1822, 2022 12 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36484643

RESUMO

In eukaryotic cells, genomic DNA is hierarchically compacted by histones into chromatin, which is initially assembled by the nucleosome and further folded into orderly and flexible structures that include chromatin fiber, chromatin looping, topologically associated domains (TADs), chromosome compartments, and chromosome territories. These distinct structures and motifs build the three-dimensional (3D) genome architecture, which precisely controls spatial and temporal gene expression in the nucleus. Given that each type of cell is characterized by its own unique gene expression profile, the state of high-order chromatin plays an essential role in the cell fate decision. Accumulating evidence suggests that the plasticity of high-order chromatin is closely associated with stem cell fate. In this review, we summarize the biological roles of the state of high-order chromatin in embryogenesis, stem cell differentiation, the maintenance of stem cell identity, and somatic cell reprogramming. In addition, we highlight the roles of epigenetic factors and pioneer transcription factors (TFs) involved in regulating the state of high-order chromatin during the determination of stem cell fate and discuss how H3K9me3-heterochromatin restricts stem cell fate. In summary, we review the most recent progress in research on the regulatory functions of high-order chromatin dynamics in the determination and maintenance of stem cell fate.


Assuntos
Cromatina , Histonas , Histonas/metabolismo , Diferenciação Celular , Heterocromatina , Células-Tronco/metabolismo
16.
Nat Commun ; 13(1): 7787, 2022 12 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36526633

RESUMO

Cells contain numerous substructures that have been proposed to form via liquid-liquid phase separation (LLPS). It is currently debated how to reliably distinguish LLPS from other mechanisms. Here, we benchmark different methods using well-controlled model systems in vitro and in living cells. We find that 1,6-hexanediol treatment and classical FRAP fail to distinguish LLPS from the alternative scenario of molecules binding to spatially clustered binding sites without phase-separating. In contrast, the preferential internal mixing seen in half-bleach experiments robustly distinguishes both mechanisms. We introduce a workflow termed model-free calibrated half-FRAP (MOCHA-FRAP) to probe the barrier at the condensate interface that is responsible for preferential internal mixing. We use it to study components of heterochromatin foci, nucleoli, stress granules and nuage granules, and show that the strength of the interfacial barrier increases in this order. We anticipate that MOCHA-FRAP will help uncover the mechanistic basis of biomolecular condensates in living cells.


Assuntos
Nucléolo Celular , Heterocromatina , Nucléolo Celular/metabolismo , Sítios de Ligação , Heterocromatina/metabolismo
17.
Nucleic Acids Res ; 50(22): 12702-12722, 2022 12 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36537242

RESUMO

Heterochromatin protein 1α (HP1α) is a crucial element of chromatin organization. It has been proposed that HP1α functions through liquid-liquid phase separation (LLPS), which allows it to compact chromatin into transcriptionally repressed heterochromatin regions. In vitro, HP1α can undergo phase separation upon phosphorylation of its N-terminus extension (NTE) and/or through interactions with DNA and chromatin. Here, we combine computational and experimental approaches to elucidate the molecular interactions that drive these processes. In phosphorylation-driven LLPS, HP1α can exchange intradimer hinge-NTE interactions with interdimer contacts, which also leads to a structural change from a compacted to an extended HP1α dimer conformation. This process can be enhanced by the presence of positively charged HP1α peptide ligands and disrupted by the addition of negatively charged or neutral peptides. In DNA-driven LLPS, both positively and negatively charged peptide ligands can perturb phase separation. Our findings demonstrate the importance of electrostatic interactions in HP1α LLPS where binding partners can modulate the overall charge of the droplets and screen or enhance hinge region interactions through specific and non-specific effects. Our study illuminates the complex molecular framework that can fine-tune the properties of HP1α and that can contribute to heterochromatin regulation and function.


Assuntos
Homólogo 5 da Proteína Cromobox , Proteínas Cromossômicas não Histona , Heterocromatina , Cromatina , Homólogo 5 da Proteína Cromobox/metabolismo , Proteínas Cromossômicas não Histona/metabolismo , DNA/metabolismo , Ligantes , Fosforilação , Fatores de Transcrição/metabolismo , Humanos
18.
BMB Rep ; 55(12): 595-601, 2022 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36476271

RESUMO

Polycomb Repressive Complex 2 (PRC2) exhibits key roles in mammalian development through its temporospatial repression of gene expression. EZH1 or EZH2 is the catalytic subunit of PRC2 that mediates the mono-, di- and tri-methylation of histone H3 lysine 27 (H3K27me1/2/3), H3K27me2/me3 being a hallmark of facultative heterochromatin. PRC2 is a chromatinmodifying enzyme that is recruited to a limited number of "nucleation sites", spreads H3K27 methylation and fosters chromatin compaction. EZH1 and EZH2 exhibit differences in their expression patterns, levels of histone methyltransferase activity (HMT) in the context of PRC2, and DNA/nucleosome binding activity. This suggests that their roles in heterochromatin formation are disparate. Dysregulation of PRC2 activity leads to aberrant gene expression and is implicated in cancer and developmental diseases. In this review, we discuss the distinct function of PRC2/EZH1 and PRC2/EZH2 in the early and late developmental stages. We then discuss the cancers associated with PRC2/EZH1 and PRC2/EZH2. [BMB Reports 2022; 55(12): 595-601].


Assuntos
Histonas , Neoplasias , Humanos , Cromatina , Proteína Potenciadora do Homólogo 2 de Zeste/genética , Proteína Potenciadora do Homólogo 2 de Zeste/metabolismo , Heterocromatina , Histonas/metabolismo , Neoplasias/genética , Complexo Repressor Polycomb 2/genética , Complexo Repressor Polycomb 2/metabolismo
19.
Cells ; 11(23)2022 Nov 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36496985

RESUMO

The cry-Ste system is a genetic interaction system between heterochromatin and euchromatin in Drosophila melanogaster, regulated via the piRNA pathway. Deregulation of this system leads to meiotic defects and male sterility. Although the cry-Ste system is peculiar to D. melanogaster, ancestors of Ste and Su(Ste) elements are present in the three closely related species, D. simulans, D. sechellia, and D. mauritiana. The birth, evolution, and maintenance of this genetic system in Drosophila melanogaster are of interest. We investigate the presence of sequences homologous to cry and Ste elements in the simulans complex and describe their chromosomal distribution. The organization and expression of cry- and Ste-like sequences were further characterized in the D. simulans genome. Our results allow us to conclude that the cry-Ste genetic interaction system is absent in the D. simulans genome.


Assuntos
Drosophila melanogaster , Infertilidade Masculina , Animais , Humanos , Masculino , Drosophila melanogaster/genética , Drosophila simulans/genética , Heterocromatina , Eucromatina
20.
Cells ; 11(23)2022 Dec 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36497131

RESUMO

The pericentromeric heterochromatin is largely composed of repetitive sequences, making it difficult to analyze with standard molecular biological methods. At the same time, it carries many functional elements with poorly understood mechanisms of action. The search for new experimental models for the analysis of heterochromatin is an urgent task. In this work, we used the Rif1 mutation, which suppresses the underreplication of all types of repeated sequences, to analyze heterochromatin regions in polytene chromosomes of Drosophila melanogaster. In the Rif1 background, we discovered and described in detail a new inversion, In(1)19EHet, which arose on a chromosome already carrying the In(1)sc8 inversion and transferred a large part of X chromosome heterochromatin, including the nucleolar organizer to a new euchromatic environment. Using nanopore sequencing and FISH, we have identified the eu- and heterochromatin breakpoints of In(1)19EHet. The combination of the new inversion and the Rif1 mutation provides a promising tool for studies of X chromosome heterochromatin structure, nucleolar organization, and the nucleolar dominance phenomenon. In particular, we found that, with the complete polytenization of rDNA repeats, the nucleolus consists of a cloud-like structure corresponding to the classical nucleolus of polytene chromosomes, as well as an unusual intrachromosomal structure containing alternating transcriptionally active and inactive regions.


Assuntos
Proteínas de Drosophila , Drosophila melanogaster , Animais , Drosophila melanogaster/genética , Heterocromatina/genética , Cromossomo X/genética , Sequências Repetitivas de Ácido Nucleico/genética , Região Organizadora do Nucléolo , Proteínas de Transporte/genética , Proteínas de Drosophila/genética
SELEÇÃO DE REFERÊNCIAS
DETALHE DA PESQUISA
...