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1.
J Couns Psychol ; 66(5): 519-533, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30985167

RESUMO

This study investigates responses to, consequences of, and resistance against objectification from the perspectives of sexual minority women in the United States. Data from 5 focus groups with 33 sexual minority women were analyzed using thematic analysis. Results revealed 13 themes and 49 subthemes. First, sexual minority women's responses to objectification included those described in prior research with heterosexual women, as well as novel responses not routinely assessed in prior research (e.g., critical examination), and the complex co-occurrence of responses (e.g., indignation and internalization). Second, participants identified deleterious consequences that were consistent with prior theory and research as well as consequences that reflected resilience and growth from working through objectification. Finally, participants articulated personal, relational, and identity-related forms of resistance against objectification. Sexual and gender identity processes were interwoven with resistance. These results highlight how centering sexual minority women's experiences can both corroborate and advance prior understanding of responses to and consequences of objectification. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2019 APA, all rights reserved).


Assuntos
Mecanismos de Defesa , Identidade de Gênero , Comportamento Sexual/etnologia , Comportamento Sexual/psicologia , Minorias Sexuais e de Gênero/psicologia , Inquéritos e Questionários , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Feminino , Heterossexualidade/etnologia , Heterossexualidade/psicologia , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Adulto Jovem
2.
Cultur Divers Ethnic Minor Psychol ; 25(1): 104-112, 2019 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30714772

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Black emerging adult women (ages 18-25 years) are among the fastest growing demographics of HIV infection, second only to men who have sex with men. Black women account for nine of 10 new HIV cases, whereas 84% of these cases are reported to be from heterosexual contact with infected male partners. Heterosexual Black college women (BCW) have been nearly ignored in the HIV literature despite having shared (e.g., risky alcohol use, multiple and concurrent sex partnerships, and inconsistent condom use) and unique (e.g., segregating dating practices and high sexually transmitted infection rates) risk factors when compared with broader college student demographics. METHOD: This conceptual paper uses a multiple risk factor framework to underscore shared and unique risk factors that may work to increase the potential HIV infection risk burden in this understudied population. CONCLUSIONS: Prevention and intervention implications and recommendations for future research that have potential to impact the ways in which colleges, universities, and researchers engage this population are presented. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2019 APA, all rights reserved).


Assuntos
Afro-Americanos/estatística & dados numéricos , Infecções por HIV/etnologia , Heterossexualidade/etnologia , Assunção de Riscos , Comportamento Sexual/etnologia , Adulto , Consumo de Bebidas Alcoólicas/etnologia , Feminino , Humanos , Fatores de Risco , Parceiros Sexuais , Estudantes/estatística & dados numéricos , Universidades , Adulto Jovem
3.
BMC Public Health ; 18(1): 1387, 2018 Dec 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30563496

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The United States has the highest incarceration rate in the world. Incarceration can increase HIV risk behaviors for individuals involved with the criminal justice system and may be a driver of HIV acquisition within the community. METHODS: We used an agent-based model to simulate HIV transmission in a sexual-contact network representing heterosexual African American men and women in Philadelphia to identify factors influencing the impact of male mass incarceration on HIV acquisition in women. The model was calibrated using surveillance data and assumed incarceration increased the number of sexual contacts and decreased HIV care engagement for men post-release. Incarceration of a partner increased the number of sexual contacts for women. We compared a counterfactual scenario with no incarceration to scenarios varying key parameters to determine what factors drove HIV acquisition in women. RESULTS: Setting the duration of male high-risk sexual behavior to two years post-release increased the number of HIV transmissions to women by more than 20%. Decreasing post-release HIV care engagement and increasing HIV acquisition risk attributable to sexually transmitted infections (STIs) also increased the number of HIV transmissions to women. Changing the duration of risk behavior for women, the proportion of women engaging in higher risk behavior, and the relative risk of incarceration for HIV-infected men had minimal impact. CONCLUSION: The mass incarceration of African American men can increase HIV acquisition in African American women on a population-level through factors including post-release high-risk behaviors, disruption of HIV care engagement among formerly incarcerated men, and increased STI prevalence. These findings suggest that the most influential points of intervention may be programs seeking to reduce male risk behaviors and promote HIV care engagement post-release, as well as STI testing and treatment programs for recently incarcerated men, as well as women with incarcerated partners.


Assuntos
Afro-Americanos/psicologia , Infecções por HIV/etnologia , Prisioneiros/estatística & dados numéricos , Assunção de Riscos , Comportamento Sexual/etnologia , Adulto , Afro-Americanos/estatística & dados numéricos , Feminino , Infecções por HIV/terapia , Heterossexualidade/etnologia , Heterossexualidade/psicologia , Heterossexualidade/estatística & dados numéricos , Humanos , Masculino , Philadelphia/epidemiologia , Prevalência , Fatores de Risco , Comportamento Sexual/psicologia , Parceiros Sexuais , Doenças Sexualmente Transmissíveis/etnologia , Análise de Sistemas
4.
AIDS Educ Prev ; 30(1): 1-12, 2018 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29481300

RESUMO

Blacks and Hispanics/Latinos are disproportionately burdened by HIV compared to non-Hispanic Whites, as evidenced by higher HIV incidence, prevalence, and deaths attributable to AIDS. Increasing the use of novel prevention techniques such as Truvada for pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) could greatly help in reducing these disparities by lowering HIV incidence among these higher risk groups. Trust in providers, which may differ by race and ethnicity, may influence willingness to take PrEP. This study explores the moderating effect of race/ethnicity on trust in one's primary care provider (PCP) on PrEP willingness. This study found a significant association between PCP trust and PrEP willingness, with those with greater trust having 3.24 times the adjusted odds of being willing to try PrEP. Results regarding the effects of race and ethnicity on these outcomes, however, were inconclusive. Results indicate the importance of fostering trust between PrEP-prescribing PCPs and their patients.


Assuntos
Grupos Étnicos/psicologia , Infecções por HIV/prevenção & controle , Pessoal de Saúde/psicologia , Heterossexualidade/etnologia , Homossexualidade Masculina/etnologia , Profilaxia Pré-Exposição , Relações Profissional-Paciente , Confiança , Adolescente , Adulto , Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Africano/psicologia , Idoso , Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Europeu/psicologia , Feminino , Infecções por HIV/etnologia , Heterossexualidade/psicologia , Hispano-Americanos/psicologia , Homossexualidade Masculina/psicologia , Humanos , Incidência , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , New York
5.
J Couns Psychol ; 65(1): 1-16, 2018 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29355342

RESUMO

This study investigates sexual minority women's experiences of objectification in the United States. Data from 5 focus groups with 33 sexual minority women were analyzed using thematic analysis (Braun & Clarke, 2006, 2012). Results revealed 6 themes and 34 subthemes grouped into "manifestations of objectification: general and explicit intersections," "immediate context of relational and situational characteristics," and "broader context of oppression and privilege along gender and sexualities." First, sexual minority women's experiences of objectification included both general manifestations described in prior research with heterosexual women and manifestations of objectification that reflected intersections of systems of inequality based on sexual orientation, gender identity, race, ethnicity, culture, and age. Second, participants identified novel relational and situational characteristics of objectification. Finally, participants included experiences of stereotyping, discrimination, and dehumanization in their conceptualizations of objectification, connecting their experiences of objectification with broader dynamics of power related to gender and sexuality. Centralizing sexual minority women's experiences, this study produced a fuller understanding of objectification experiences in general and of sexual minority women's experiences in particular. (PsycINFO Database Record


Assuntos
Desumanização , Heterossexualidade/etnologia , Heterossexualidade/psicologia , Minorias Sexuais e de Gênero/psicologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Feminino , Identidade de Gênero , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Comportamento Sexual/etnologia , Comportamento Sexual/psicologia , Estereotipagem , Adulto Jovem
6.
Arch Sex Behav ; 47(3): 783-796, 2018 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28466229

RESUMO

The dual control model (DCM) postulates the involvement of relatively independent inhibitory and excitatory systems, which together provide a "double control" over sexual response and associated behavior (Janssen & Bancroft, 2007). Based on this model, the Sexual Inhibition and Sexual Excitation Scales assess the propensity for sexual excitation and sexual inhibition. This research focused on analyzing some psychometric properties of this questionnaire and developing a Spanish version in men. The sample consisted of 823 heterosexual men of ages ranging from 18 to 74 years. Confirmatory factor analysis generated a version of the scale that consisted of 34 items (11 items with the worst factor loadings were eliminated) distributed in four factors (one sexual excitation factor and three sexual inhibition factors). This is consistent with the DCM of sexual response. The four factors demonstrated good reliability coefficients except for sexual inhibition due to the threat of performance consequences, which was found to have a low internal consistency. Consequently, this is something that will be addressed in future studies. The four factors were found to have good test-retest reliability. The measures of the Sexual Inhibition and Sexual Excitation Scales had good validity properties and a coherent relationship with sexual sensation seeking and erotophilia.


Assuntos
Heterossexualidade , Psicometria , Comportamento Sexual , Inquéritos e Questionários/normas , Traduções , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Emoções , Heterossexualidade/etnologia , Heterossexualidade/estatística & dados numéricos , Humanos , Linguagem , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Psicometria/métodos , Psicometria/normas , Comportamento Sexual/etnologia , Comportamento Sexual/estatística & dados numéricos , Espanha/epidemiologia , Adulto Jovem
7.
J Sex Res ; 55(9): 1116-1133, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28682121

RESUMO

Constructions of normative sexuality shape the sexual scripts that women are permitted to adopt and the manner in which such sexuality can be expressed. We explored experiences and constructions of premarital sexuality among migrant and refugee women recently resettled in Sydney, Australia, and Vancouver, Canada. A total of 78 semistructured individual interviews and 15 focus groups composed of 82 participants were undertaken with women who had migrated from Afghanistan, Iraq, Somalia, South Sudan, Sudan, Sri Lanka, and South America. We analyzed the data using thematic decomposition. Across all cultural groups, women's premarital sexuality was regulated through cultural and religious discourse and material practice. Such regulation occurred across three main facets of women's lives, shaping the themes presented in this article: (1) regulating premarital sex-the virginity imperative; (2) regulation of relationships with men; and (3) regulation of the sexual body. These themes capture women's reproduction of dominant discourses of premarital sexuality, as well as women's resistance and negotiation of such discourses, both prior to and following migration. Identifying migrant and refugee women's experiences and constructions of premarital sexuality is essential for culturally safe sexual health practice, health promotion, and health education.


Assuntos
Atitude Frente a Saúde/etnologia , Refugiados/psicologia , Comportamento Sexual/etnologia , Saúde Sexual/etnologia , Migrantes/psicologia , Saúde da Mulher/etnologia , Adulto , Austrália , Canadá , Características Culturais , Feminino , Heterossexualidade/etnologia , Humanos , Pesquisa Qualitativa , Comportamento Sexual/psicologia , Sexualidade/etnologia , Adulto Jovem
8.
J Assoc Nurses AIDS Care ; 29(1): 30-44, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29037602

RESUMO

Heterosexually active Black adolescents with mental illnesses are at increased risk for sexually transmitted infections (STIs), including HIV. However, few HIV/STI prevention interventions exist for this demographic. We held seven focus groups (N = 33) to elucidate social, cultural, and psychological factors that influence HIV/STI risk-related sexual behaviors in this understudied population. Seven themes emerged: (a) Blackness and media portrayals, (b) Blackness as a source of cultural resilience and pride, (c) psychosocial determinants of condom use, (d) consequences of engaging in sexual activity, (e) attitudes and beliefs toward sexual behaviors, (f) benefits of sexual activity, and (g) coping mechanisms. Participants also supported the feasibility of and interest in HIV/STI prevention programs integrated with mental health treatment. Transportation, potential breaches of confidentiality, and time were noted barriers to participation. Psychoeducational, skills-based programs are needed to address the sequelae of mental illnesses as they relate to the sexual decision-making process in adolescents.


Assuntos
Comportamento do Adolescente/etnologia , Afro-Americanos/psicologia , Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Africano/psicologia , Infecções por HIV/prevenção & controle , Heterossexualidade , Transtornos Mentais/diagnóstico , Comportamento Sexual/etnologia , Doenças Sexualmente Transmissíveis/prevenção & controle , Adolescente , Feminino , Grupos Focais , Infecções por HIV/psicologia , Heterossexualidade/etnologia , Heterossexualidade/psicologia , Humanos , Entrevistas como Assunto , Masculino , Transtornos Mentais/etnologia , Transtornos Mentais/psicologia , Pesquisa Qualitativa , Comportamento Sexual/psicologia , Comportamento Sexual/estatística & dados numéricos , Doenças Sexualmente Transmissíveis/psicologia
9.
Arch Sex Behav ; 47(1): 143-156, 2018 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28224313

RESUMO

Sexual stereotypes may adversely affect the health of Black men who have sex with men (MSM). Greater understanding of the nature and nuances of these stereotypes is needed. This online, survey-based study used an inductive, intersectional approach to characterize the sexual stereotypes ascribed to Black MSM by the U.S. general public, their distinctiveness from those ascribed to Black men and MSM in general, and their relative prototypicality as compared to dominant subgroups. Members of the public, recruited in 2014-2015, were randomly assigned to survey conditions that varied systematically by race (Black, White, or unspecified) and sexual orientation (gay, heterosexual, or unspecified) of a designated social group. Participants (n = 285) reported stereotypes of their assigned group that they perceived to exist in U.S. culture in an open-response format. Cross-condition comparisons revealed that, overall, Black gay male stereotypes were non-prototypical of Black men or gay men. Rather, stereotypes of Black men were more similar to Black heterosexual men and stereotypes of gay men were more similar to White gay men. Nonetheless, 11 of the 15 most frequently reported Black gay male stereotypes overlapped with stereotypes of Black men (e.g., large penis), gay men (e.g., deviant), or both (e.g., promiscuous). Four stereotypes were unique relative to both Black men and gay men: down low, diseased, loud, and dirty. Findings suggest that Black MSM face multiple derogatory sexual stereotypes, several of which are group-specific. These stereotypes are consistent with cultural (mis)representations of Black MSM and suggest a need for more accurate portrayals of existing sexual diversity within this group.


Assuntos
Afro-Americanos/psicologia , Heterossexualidade/psicologia , Homossexualidade Masculina/etnologia , Homossexualidade Masculina/psicologia , Estereotipagem , Sexo sem Proteção/psicologia , Adulto , Afro-Americanos/estatística & dados numéricos , Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Europeu/estatística & dados numéricos , Heterossexualidade/etnologia , Heterossexualidade/estatística & dados numéricos , Homossexualidade Masculina/estatística & dados numéricos , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Racismo , Parceiros Sexuais , Fatores Socioeconômicos , Sexo sem Proteção/etnologia , Adulto Jovem
10.
AIDS Behav ; 22(6): 1944-1954, 2018 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29164353

RESUMO

This study drew on the Theory of Gender and Power (TGP) as a framework to assess power inequalities within heterosexual dyads and their effects on women. Structural equation modeling was used to better understand the relationship between structural and interpersonal power and HIV sexual risk within African American and Latina women's heterosexual dyads. The main outcome variable was women's sexual HIV risk in the dyad and was created using women's reports of condomless sex with their main male partners and partners' reports of their HIV risk behaviors. Theoretical associations developed a priori yielded a well-fitting model that explained almost a quarter of the variance in women's sexual HIV risk in main partner dyads. Women's and partner structural power were indirectly associated with women's sexual HIV risk through substance use and interpersonal power. Interpersonal power was directly associated with risk. In addition, this study found that not identifying as heterosexual was directly and indirectly associated with women's heterosexual sex risk. This study provides further support for the utility of the TGP and the relevance of gender-related power dynamics for HIV prevention among heterosexually-active women.


Assuntos
Afro-Americanos/psicologia , Infecções por HIV/prevenção & controle , Heterossexualidade/etnologia , Hispano-Americanos/psicologia , Relações Interpessoais , Parceiros Sexuais , Adulto , Feminino , Identidade de Gênero , Humanos , Análise de Classes Latentes , Masculino , Grupos Minoritários , Comportamento Sexual , Fatores Socioeconômicos
11.
J Assoc Nurses AIDS Care ; 28(5): 795-806, 2017.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28554524

RESUMO

Hispanics experience health disparities in mental health and HIV infection when compared to non-Hispanic Whites, which may be related to childhood abuse. The purpose of our cross-sectional study was to examine the relationship between childhood abuse and depressive symptoms in a sample of Hispanic men (N = 103) living in a metropolitan U.S.-Mexico border area. Secondarily, we examined the role of self-esteem in mediating this relationship, and the moderating role of sexual orientation. Gay/bisexual men (n = 53) were more likely to report childhood abuse than heterosexual (n = 50) counterparts (47.2% vs. 32%). Self-esteem mediated the relationship between childhood abuse and depression for men who have sex with men, but not heterosexual men. Nurses should increase knowledge of mental health disparities that impact Hispanic men to ensure that appropriate treatment can be provided to reduce the risk of co-occurring health risks to these men, including risk for HIV infection.


Assuntos
Sobreviventes Adultos de Maus-Tratos Infantis/psicologia , Depressão/etnologia , Heterossexualidade/estatística & dados numéricos , Hispano-Americanos/psicologia , Homossexualidade Masculina/estatística & dados numéricos , Autoimagem , Adulto , Sobreviventes Adultos de Maus-Tratos Infantis/estatística & dados numéricos , Criança , Estudos Transversais , Depressão/diagnóstico , Depressão/psicologia , Heterossexualidade/etnologia , Heterossexualidade/psicologia , Homossexualidade Masculina/etnologia , Homossexualidade Masculina/psicologia , Humanos , Masculino , México/etnologia , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia , População Urbana , Adulto Jovem
12.
AIDS Behav ; 21(5): 1407-1416, 2017 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27217037

RESUMO

Heterosexual transmission represents 26 % of newly diagnosed infection in Spanish youth. Behavioral change models have emphasized the influence of multiple variables to predict condom use behavior. The aim of this study is to examine how those variables are organized and which theory explains the condom use behavior better. A sample of 424 young heterosexuals (M age  = 20.62; SD = 2.16) filled out a battery of self-report questionnaires for assessing AIDS-related variables, personality traits and clinical variables (general, sexuality-related and health-related). A structural model was specified that included perceived pleasure and condom use self-efficacy as predictive variables. Depression and sexual compulsivity indirectly influence behavior. The final model accounted for 65.9 % of the variance in behavior. These results highlight the importance of cognitive and emotional variables as predictors of behavior (ex. expectations of pleasure and self-efficacy beliefs). This is important information for designing effective psychological interventions.


Assuntos
Preservativos/estatística & dados numéricos , Infecções por HIV/prevenção & controle , Heterossexualidade/etnologia , Modelos Psicológicos , Sexo Seguro/estatística & dados numéricos , Adolescente , Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Europeu , Feminino , Infecções por HIV/psicologia , Conhecimentos, Atitudes e Prática em Saúde , Heterossexualidade/psicologia , Humanos , Masculino , Assunção de Riscos , Autoeficácia , Inquéritos e Questionários , Adulto Jovem
13.
J Sex Res ; 54(1): 73-90, 2017 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27049595

RESUMO

Discussions of heterosexual casual sex are often imbued with (gendered) assumptions regarding the motives for, and drawbacks of, such a practice. The pulls of casual sex are often depicted as sexual gratification and the drawbacks relayed in terms of physical risk, for example, sexually transmitted infections (STIs)/human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) transmission. Most of the research in this area has largely focused on undergraduate university students or "emerging adults" in North America, using primarily quantitative methodologies. We build on this work and a small but growing amount of qualitative research to unpack the complex psychoemotional and experiential dimensions of casual sex. We report on a critical thematic analysis of interviews with 30 ethnically diverse women and men (aged 18 to 46) in New Zealand about their experiences of heterosexual casual sex to achieve two things. First, we demonstrate the complexity with which women and men discussed their casual sex experiences, highlighting how the practice was varied, contradictory, and multifaceted, and played in a localized way during the conversation. Second, we illustrate how this talk was governed by contemporary Western discourses of intimate relationships and the shape of (gendered) heterosexuality. We conclude that casual sex research must always consider the broader sociocultural context, as well as the interpersonal context, within which any sexual relating is situated.


Assuntos
Heterossexualidade/psicologia , Comportamento Sexual/psicologia , Parceiros Sexuais/psicologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Feminino , Heterossexualidade/etnologia , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Nova Zelândia , Comportamento Sexual/etnologia , Adulto Jovem
14.
Arch Sex Behav ; 46(1): 119-127, 2017 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27527875

RESUMO

The current study tested the hypothesis that men who are androphilic (sexually attracted to adult men) in a non-Western, developed country-Japan-would recall engaging in more female-typical behavior, and less male-typical behavior, in childhood, compared to men who are gynephilic (sexually attracted to adult women). Androphilic men, androphilic women, and gynephilic men (N = 302) responded to the Female-Typical Behavior Subscale and the Male-Typical Behavior Subscale of the Childhood Gender Identity Scale, which asked participants to recall their childhood behavior. Results indicated that gynephilic men scored highest on the Male-Typical Behavior Subscale and lowest on the Female-Typical Behavior Subscale. Androphilic women scored the highest on the Female-Typical Behavior Subscale and lowest on the Male-Typical Behavior Subscale. Androphilic men scored intermediately for both the Male- and Female-Typical Behavior Subscales. The results supported the hypothesis that Japanese androphilic men would recall greater gender-nonconforming childhood behavior compared to gynephilic men. These results further reinforce the conclusion that childhood gender-nonconforming behavior is a cross-culturally universal aspect of psychosexual life course development in androphilic men. We discuss why this may be the case, as well as why cross-cultural variation occurs in the magnitude with which recalled childhood gender nonconformity is reported by androphilic males.


Assuntos
Identidade de Gênero , Heterossexualidade/etnologia , Homossexualidade Masculina/etnologia , Comportamento Sexual/etnologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Feminino , Humanos , Japão , Masculino , Rememoração Mental , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Desenvolvimento Psicossexual , Adulto Jovem
15.
AIDS Care ; 29(7): 905-913, 2017 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28027656

RESUMO

Indian men who have sex with men are disproportionately impacted by HIV. While prevention efforts to date have focused on men who visit drop-in centers or physical cruising sites, little is known about men who are meeting sexual partners on virtual platforms. This paper explores issues related to sexual identity and sexual behaviors in an online sample of men who identified as gay (n = 279) or bisexual (n = 123). There were significant differences in outedness between the two groups, with 48% of bisexually identified men reporting that they were out to "no one" and 82% stating that they present themselves as heterosexual to family and friends. Corresponding rates for gay-identified men were 15% and 41%, respectively (both p < .001). Twenty-nine percent of bisexually identified men reported being married, compared to only 3% of the gay-identified men (p < .001). Bisexually identified men were also more likely to report having exclusively insertive anal sex (49% vs 30% p < .001), while gay-identified men were more likely to report exclusively receptive anal sex (41% vs 13% p < .0001). Rates of unprotected anal sex (UAS) in the two groups were similar; however, married men were significantly more likely to report unprotected vaginal sex (76% vs 35%, p < .012). Positive attitudes toward UAS and lower self-efficacy were associated with sexual risk in both groups; however, substance use was associated with sexual risk only among bisexually identified men. These findings show that a large proportion of Indian bisexually identified men lead closeted lives, especially in their interactions with friends and family, with the vast majority presenting as heterosexual. The lower condom use with wives may be due to societal pressures to have children. The results suggest that bisexually identified men may benefit from targeted programs and non-directive, non-judgmental individual or couples counseling which emphasizes condom use with both male and female partners.


Assuntos
Bissexualidade , Preservativos/estatística & dados numéricos , Infecções por HIV/prevenção & controle , Homossexualidade Masculina/etnologia , Parceiros Sexuais , Sexo sem Proteção/estatística & dados numéricos , Adulto , Feminino , Infecções por HIV/diagnóstico , Infecções por HIV/epidemiologia , Heterossexualidade/etnologia , Heterossexualidade/psicologia , Homossexualidade Masculina/psicologia , Humanos , Internet , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Assunção de Riscos , Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Substâncias/epidemiologia
16.
AIDS Care ; 28(11): 1345-54, 2016 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27267205

RESUMO

HAART has improved the well-being of many people living with HIV (PLWH). This study aimed at (i) comparing heterosexual practices between PLWH and the general population by gender, and (ii) identifying factors associated with sexual practices and at-risk behaviors in the two populations. Self-reported data were collected among PLWH attending hospitals (VESPA2 survey; n = 3022) and the general population (CSF survey; n = 10,280). Significant differences between the two samples were corrected for by implementing propensity score matching on both socio-demographic characteristics and sexual behavior in terms of number of partners. Men not reporting heterosexual intercourse were excluded. After matching, 61% of women (out of 707) and 68% of men (out of 709) were sexually active in both populations. PLWH practiced oral sex less than the general population and used condoms more consistently over the previous 12-month period, irrespective of having multiple sexual partners or not. For women living with HIV: those with several sexual partners and those consuming drugs over the previous 12 months were more likely to practice oral sex; those living in a couple for at least 6 years and migrants were less likely to practice anal intercourse. For men living with HIV: those reporting bisexual relationships and those with multiple sexual partners over the previous 12 months were more likely to practice anal heterosexual intercourse; migrants reported less oral sex, irrespective of HIV status. Error term correlations showed that anal intercourse was not linked to condom use for women or men from either population. Our results show that PLWH had a lower rate of heterosexual practices compared with the general population, and used condoms more often, irrespective of the number of sexual partners and strong cultural background (e.g., for Sub-Saharan African women). Further preventive information needs to be disseminated on the risk of infection transmission through heterosexual anal intercourse.


Assuntos
Preservativos/estatística & dados numéricos , Infecções por HIV , Heterossexualidade/estatística & dados numéricos , Adolescente , Adulto , Bissexualidade , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Feminino , França , Infecções por HIV/prevenção & controle , Infecções por HIV/psicologia , Heterossexualidade/etnologia , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Assunção de Riscos , Fatores Sexuais , Parceiros Sexuais , Inquéritos e Questionários , Migrantes/estatística & dados numéricos , Adulto Jovem
17.
J Assoc Nurses AIDS Care ; 27(5): 585-94, 2016.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27108242

RESUMO

The HIV testing, disclosure, and sexual practices of ethnic minority men suggest that addressing sexual risk behavior and the underlying reasons for not receiving HIV testing or disclosing HIV-infection status-unique to differing populations-would improve public health interventions. Descriptive behaviors and underlying perspectives reported in our study suggest that public health interventions for HIV-infected Latino men who self-identify as heterosexual should explicitly identify substance use, needle sharing, and unprotected sex to current partners as behaviors placing both oneself and one's partners at high risk for contracting HIV. However, diversity of sexual behavior among gay, straight, and bisexual HIV-infected Latino men in our study ultimately suggested that clinicians should not rely on simplistic conceptions of sexuality in assessment of self-care needs. Care in presentation and discussion of self-identified sexual preference and sexual behavior is indicated, as these do not determine actual sexual orientation or behavior and vice versa.


Assuntos
Infecções por HIV/etnologia , Infecções por HIV/prevenção & controle , Hispano-Americanos/estatística & dados numéricos , Homossexualidade Masculina/estatística & dados numéricos , Assunção de Riscos , Comportamento Sexual/etnologia , Revelação da Verdade , Adulto , Bissexualidade/etnologia , Bissexualidade/psicologia , Bissexualidade/estatística & dados numéricos , Infecções por HIV/psicologia , Infecções por HIV/transmissão , Inquéritos Epidemiológicos , Heterossexualidade/etnologia , Heterossexualidade/psicologia , Heterossexualidade/estatística & dados numéricos , Hispano-Americanos/psicologia , Homossexualidade Masculina/etnologia , Homossexualidade Masculina/psicologia , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Uso Comum de Agulhas e Seringas , Comportamento Sexual/psicologia , Comportamento Sexual/estatística & dados numéricos , Parceiros Sexuais , Abuso de Substâncias por Via Intravenosa/psicologia , Sexo sem Proteção/estatística & dados numéricos , Adulto Jovem
18.
J Sex Res ; 53(9): 1082-1095, 2016.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26986557

RESUMO

This study has been motivated by the scarcity of research that adopts an unproblematic focus on sexuality in South African Black and Colored low-income communities. We explored the sexual intimacy constructions of 15 Colored married/cohabiting couples who live in a low-income, historical South African farmworker community. Using a social constructionist thematic analysis method, we identified four themes: (a) metaphoric and indirect sexual language; (b) the use of a romantic discourse to talk about sexual experiences; (c) male-centered sexual relationships; and (d) lack of privacy brings both restriction and pleasure. We consider how these themes may be linked to the participants' community context and colonial and apartheid history. Finally, we emphasize the need for research that also explores positive sex functions and experiences rather than focuses narrowly on problematic sexual behavior.


Assuntos
Heterossexualidade/etnologia , Pobreza/etnologia , Comportamento Sexual/etnologia , Cônjuges/etnologia , Adulto , Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Africano/etnologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , População Rural , África do Sul/etnologia , Adulto Jovem
19.
Cult Health Sex ; 18(8): 860-74, 2016 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26907581

RESUMO

Research on Black sexual health often fails to represent the heterogeneity of Black ethnic groups. For people of Caribbean descent in the USA, ethnicity is a salient cultural factor that influences definitions and experiences of sexual health. Most research on people of Caribbean descent focuses on the relatively high rate of STIs, but sexual health is defined more broadly than STI prevalence. Psychological and emotional indicators and the voice of participants are important to consider when exploring the sexual health of a minority culture. The purpose of this study was to qualitatively explore how heterosexual Black men of Caribbean descent define and understand sexual health for themselves. Eleven men who self-identified as Black, Caribbean and heterosexual participated in three focus groups and were asked to define sexual health, critique behaviours expertly identified as healthy and address what encourages and discourages sexual health in their lives. Findings point to six dimensions of sexual health for heterosexual Black men of Caribbean descent. These include: heterosexually privileged, protective, contextual, interpersonal, cultural and pleasurable dimensions. There were some notable departures from current expert definitions of sexual health. Recommendations for further theory development are provided.


Assuntos
Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Africano/psicologia , Heterossexualidade/etnologia , Grupos Minoritários , Saúde Reprodutiva/etnologia , Adulto , Região do Caribe/etnologia , Grupos Focais , Teoria Fundamentada , Infecções por HIV/prevenção & controle , Infecções por HIV/psicologia , Heterossexualidade/psicologia , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Pesquisa Qualitativa , Estados Unidos
20.
J Sex Res ; 53(2): 137-48, 2016.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26132515

RESUMO

Homosexual males could balance their low fitness by increasing benefits to relatives either through kin-directed altruism or by avuncularity (altruistic behavior toward the children of siblings). Evidence in support of kin selection and avuncularity includes the fact that homosexuals seem to be more empathic and altruistic than heterosexuals. Other studies have not confirmed behaviors that increase kin altruism in homosexuals. We explored altruistic behavior and avuncularity in a sample of 278 subjects, either homosexual or heterosexual, from three populations: Italian, Spanish, and Urak-Lawoi, a Southeast Asian tribal population. Among the Urak-Lawoi, the kathoeys, androphilic men who dress and behave as women, were compared with heterosexuals. All populations were rated for societal norms on the expression of affiliative behavior. No greater kin altruism or avuncularity among the kathoeys or in homosexuals in either Mediterranean population was found. Greater avuncularity and kin-directed altruism, independent of sexual orientation, were found among the Urak-Lawoi, and these traits were the least prevalent among the Italians, corresponding to different societal norms. The increase in kin altruism and avuncularity was associated in all males with societal differences and norms on general altruism toward nonkin children, suggesting it is not an adaptive design to maintain homosexuality in humans.


Assuntos
Altruísmo , Relações Familiares/etnologia , Heterossexualidade/etnologia , Homossexualidade Masculina/etnologia , Adulto , Humanos , Itália/etnologia , Masculino , Espanha/etnologia , Tailândia/etnologia , Adulto Jovem
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