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1.
Front Biosci (Landmark Ed) ; 28(1): 14, 2023 Jan 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36722262

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Kidneys are among the vital organs of the human body; therefore, damage from any exogenous/endogenous agent may put human life at risk. Arachis hypogaea (AH) contains different free radical scavenging flavonoids, stilbenes, and tannins. This research aimed to elucidate the possible nephroprotective mechanism of AH methanolic crude extract (AHcr) and n-hexane oil fraction (AHO) against gentamycin-induced nephrotoxicity. METHODS: After the extraction of the crude oil of the plant, they were tested against a Gentamycin (GM)-treated group of Swiss Albino mice for their nephroprotective action. Animals were divided into six (6) equal groups with five (5) animals in each group. These groups were: control group (0.5 mL normal saline via intraperitoneal -i.p), gentamycin group (gentamycin 100 mg/kg i.p), Silymarin + gentamycin group (Silymarin 50 mg/kg and gentamycin 100 mg/kg i.p), plant extract (AHcr1) and gentamycin group (AHcr1 250 mg/kg and gentamycin 100 mg/kg i.p), AHcr2 + gentamycin group (AHcr2; 500 mg/kg and gentamycin 100 mg/kg i.p) and the hexane oil fraction (AHO) + gentamycin (AHO 1 mL/kg and GM 100 mg/kg i.p). After completion of doses, animals were sacrificed for the collection of blood to further investigate biochemical changes and histopathological changes in kidney tissues. RESULTS: Serum creatinine, urea, and blood urea nitrogen significantly increased (p < 0.001) in the gentamycin-treated group as compared to the control group. The elevated level of serum creatinine, urea, and blood urea nitrogen was decreased significantly (p < 0.001) in groups treated with AHcr and AHO compared to the gentamycin group. Similarly, the histopathological study of kidney tissues from the gentamycin group showed tubular necrosis, vacuolation, and fibrosis. CONCLUSIONS: The effect of crude extract and hexane soluble fraction of AH caused a significant reversal of gentamycin-induced nephrotoxicity.


Assuntos
Arachis , Hexanos , Camundongos , Animais , Humanos , Creatinina , Desenvolvimento de Medicamentos , Gentamicinas , Substâncias Protetoras/farmacologia
2.
Molecules ; 28(2)2023 Jan 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36677956

RESUMO

Moringa oleifera, native to India, grows in tropical and subtropical regions around the world and has valuable pharmacological properties such as anti-asthmatic, anti-diabetic, anti-inflammatory, anti-infertility, anti-cancer, anti-microbial, antioxidant, and many more. The purpose of this study was to assess the free radical scavenging ability of two extracts and two pure compounds of M. oleifera Lam (hexane, ethanol, compound E3, and compound Ra) against reactive oxygen species, as well as their reducing power and antimicrobial activities. Bioautography antioxidant assay, 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH), hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) free radical scavenging, and iron (iii) (Fe3+ to Fe2+) chloride reducing power assays were used to assess the extracts' qualitative and quantitative free radical scavenging activities. Furthermore, the extract and the compounds were tested against both Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacterial strains suspended in Mueller-Hinton Broth. The extracts and pure compounds showed noteworthy antioxidant potential, with positive compound bands in the Rf range of 0.05-0.89. DPPH), H2O2, and Fe3+ to Fe2+ reduction assays revealed that ethanol extract has a high antioxidant potential, followed by compound E3, compound Ra, and finally hexane extract. Using regression analysis, the half maximal inhibitory concentration (IC50) values for test and control samples were calculated. Compound Ra and ethanol exhibited high antioxidant activity at concentrations as low as ≈0.28 mg/mL in comparison with n-hexane extract, compound E3, ascorbic acid, and butylated hydroxytoluene standards. The radical scavenging activity of almost all M. oleifera plant extracts against DPPH was observed at 0.28 mg/mL; however, the highest activity was observed at the same concentration for ascorbic acid and butylated hydroxytoluene (BHT) with a low IC50 value of 0.08 mg/mL and compound Ra and ethanol with a low IC50 of 0.4 mg/mL, respectively. The extracts and pure compounds of M. oleifera have little to no antibacterial potential. M. oleifera extracts contain antioxidant agents efficient to alleviate degenerative conditions such as cancer and cardiovascular disease but have little activity against infectious diseases.


Assuntos
Anti-Infecciosos , Moringa oleifera , Antioxidantes/química , Moringa oleifera/química , Hexanos , Hidroxitolueno Butilado , Peróxido de Hidrogênio/química , Extratos Vegetais/química , Ácido Ascórbico/análise , Anti-Infecciosos/farmacologia , Anti-Infecciosos/análise , Folhas de Planta/química , Etanol/química
3.
J Oleo Sci ; 72(1): 39-47, 2023.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36624058

RESUMO

The objective of this study was to develop a method for isolation and purification of γ-oryzanol from hydrolyzed rice bran acid oil (RBAO) using semi-preparative chromatography by first applying silica coated-thin layer chromatography (TLC) to determine the suitable mobile phase. Subsequently, column chromatography was carried out to determine the effects of purification conditions such as the amount of and particle sizes of the sample silica gel, and elution modes, on the percentage of γ-oryzanol yield and recovery. The results from the TLC suggested that 75:25 (v/v) hexane to ethyl acetate mixture was a suitable mobile phase. The semi-chromatographic results indicated that the column containing 10 g of 25-40 µm silica gel with isocratic elution gave the highest yield (84%) of purified γ-oryzanol (> 95% purity). Further application of a step-gradient elution with 85:15 (v/v), followed by 75:25 (v/v) hexane to ethyl acetate mixture increased chromatographic resolution (Rs), resulting in enhanced separation efficiency, which in turn led to a higher yield of purified γ-oryzanol of 90%.


Assuntos
Oryza , Fenilpropionatos , Óleo de Farelo de Arroz/química , Hexanos , Sílica Gel , Fenilpropionatos/análise , Cromatografia em Camada Delgada , Oryza/química
4.
Chemosphere ; 316: 137759, 2023 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36621686

RESUMO

The reactive oxygen species (ROS) involved photocatalytic ozonation of gaseous n-hexane to heterocyclic compounds has been recently reported. However, whether such heterocyclization reaction happens on other alkanes and what is the contributing mechanism of ROS to the heterocyclic compound formation are still unclear. In present study, photocatalytic ozonation of three n-hexane's isomers (i.e. 2-methypentane, 3-methylpentane and 2,3-dimethylbutane) on Cu2O-CuO/TiO2-foam ceramic was investigated. Within reaction period, 2-methylpentane and 3-methylpentane not only showed higher average degradation efficiency than 2,3-dimethylbutane, but also separately converted to interfacial heterocyclic compounds of 5,5-dimethyldihydro-2(3H)-furanone and 4,5-dimethyl-4,5-dihydro-2(3H)-furanone. Enough reaction time, optimum experimental atmosphere and shorter light wavelength benefited the formation of heterocyclization products. None of O3, 1O2, electron and hole directly contributed to the heterocyclic compound formation. While •O2- dominated the production of the heterocyclic compound under the dry reaction atmosphere and •OH showed more important role than •O2- in the heterocyclic compound formation under the moist reaction atmosphere. Theoretical calculation confirmed that •OH or •O2- induced heterocyclization reaction of alkane was exothermic, while the former reaction released 0.47 eV higher energy than the later reaction. The findings provide a comprehensive understanding of contributing roles of ROS in heterocyclization reaction of alkanes, and are helpful for effective elimination of industrial alkanes by advanced oxidation methods.


Assuntos
Hexanos , Ozônio , Espécies Reativas de Oxigênio , Alcanos , Catálise
5.
J Toxicol Environ Health A ; 86(2-3): 51-68, 2023 Feb 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36543759

RESUMO

Vassobia breviflora (Sendtn.) Hunz is a plant of the Solanaceae family from South America and there are no apparent studies reported on the biological activity of the hexane extract. The aim of this investigation was to conduct phytochemical analyses using ESI-TOF-MS, while antioxidant activities were evaluated by the following methods 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) 2,2"-azinobis (3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid) radical capture (ABTS), ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP), total antioxidant capacity (TAC), and total oxidant status (TOS). Antimicrobial activities were performed by determining the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC), minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC), and antibiofilm formed. Cytotoxicity was measured by MTT and dsDNA PicoGreen tests, beyond the production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) determined by Dichlorodihydrofluorescein diacetate (DCFH-DA). The hexane extract showed the presence of 5 (choline, pantothenic acid, calystegine B, lanciphodylactone I, and 15"-cis-zeaxanthin) compounds detected. V. breviflora extract demonstrated reliable results utilizing different antioxidant methods. In antibacterial activity, V. breviflora extract exhibited inhibitory, bactericidal, and antibiofilm action in biofilm-forming bacteria. The hexane extract exhibited cytotoxicity against melanoma, lung cancer, glioblastoma, leukemia, uterine colon, and hepatocarcinoma tumor cells. In addition, all tested strains resulted in increased production of ROS. This plant extract may be considered in future as an alternative for development of new therapeutic options aimed at the treatment of diverse pathologies.


Assuntos
Antioxidantes , Solanaceae , Antioxidantes/farmacologia , Antioxidantes/química , Espécies Reativas de Oxigênio , Hexanos , Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Extratos Vegetais/química , Compostos Fitoquímicos/farmacologia
6.
Braz. j. biol ; 83: e240842, 2023. tab
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1339375

RESUMO

Abstract This research aimed to investigate various mosquitocidal activities of Chenopodium botrys whole- plant n-hexane extract against Culex quinquefasciatus. The extract showed remarkable larvicidal, pupicidal, adulticidal, oviposition deterrent and adult emergence inhibitory activities against Cx. quinquefasciatus. During the larvicidal and pupicidal activities, the 24-hour lethal concentration (LC50) of extract against 2nd instar larvae, 4th instar larvae and pupae were 324.6, 495.6 and 950.8 ppm, respectively. During the CDC (Centers for Disease Control and Prevention) bottle bioassay for adulticidal activity, the median knockdown times (KDT50) at 1.25% concentration was 123.4 minutes. During the filter paper impregnation bioassay for adulticidal activity, the KDT50 value at 0.138 mg/cm2 concentration was 48.6 minutes. The extract was fractionated into 14 fractions through silica gel column chromatography which were then combined into six fractions on the basis of similar retention factor (Rf) value. These fractions were screened for adulticidal activity by applying CDC bottle bioassay. The fraction obtained through 60:40 to 50:50% n-hexanes-chloroform mobile phase with 0.5 Rf value showed 100% adulticidal activity at 0.2% concentration. During oviposition deterrent activity, the highest concentration (1000 ppm) showed 71.3 ± 4.4% effective repellence and 0.6 ± 0.1 oviposition activity index. During adult emergence inhibition activity, the median emergence inhibition (EI50) value was 312.3 ppm. From the outcome of the present investigation, it is concluded that the n-hexane extract of C. botrys whole- plant possesses strong larvicidal, pupicidal, adulticidal, oviposition deterrent and adult emergence inhibitory activities against Cx. quinquefasciatus.


Resumo Esta pesquisa teve como objetivo investigar várias atividades mosquitocidas do extrato n-hexano de planta inteira de Chenopodium botrys contra Culex quinquefasciatus. O extrato mostrou atividades larvicida, pupicida, adulticida, dissuasora de oviposição e inibidora da emergência de adultos contra a Cx. quinquefasciatus. Durante as atividades larvicida e pupicida, a concentração letal de 24 horas (CL50) do extrato contra larvas de 2º estádio, larvas de 4º estádio e pupa foi de 324,6, 495,6 e 950,8 ppm, respectivamente. Durante o bioensaio com frasco do CDC (Centros para Controle e Prevenção de Doenças) para adulticida, o tempo médio de desativação (KDT50) na concentração de 1,25% foi de 123,4 minutos. Durante o bioensaio de impregnação com papel de filtro para a atividade adulticida do extrato, o valor KDT50 na concentração de 0,138 mg / cm2 foi de 48,6 minutos. O extrato foi fracionado em 14 frações através de cromatografia em coluna de gel de sílica que foram então combinadas em seis frações com base em um valor de fator de retenção (Rf) semelhante. Essas frações foram selecionadas quanto à atividade adulticida por meio da aplicação do bioensaio com garrafa do CDC. A fração obtida através da fase móvel de n-hexanos-clorofórmio 60:40% a 50:50% com valor de 0,5 Rf apresentou atividade adulticida de 100% na concentração de 0,2%. Durante a atividade de dissuasão da oviposição, a maior concentração de extrato (1000 ppm) apresentou repelência efetiva de 71,3 ± 4,4% e índice de atividade de oviposição de 0,6 ± 0,1. Durante a atividade de inibição da emergência de adultos, o valor médio de inibição da emergência (EI50) foi de 312,3 ppm. A partir do resultado da presente investigação, conclui-se que o extrato de n-hexano da planta inteira de C. botrys possui fortes atividades larvicida, pupicida, adulticida, dissuasora da oviposição e inibidora da emergência de adultos contra a Cx. quinquefasciatus.


Assuntos
Animais , Culex , Chenopodium , Inseticidas/farmacologia , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Folhas de Planta , Hexanos , Larva
7.
J Ayub Med Coll Abbottabad ; 34(Suppl 1)(4): S932-S935, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36550647

RESUMO

Background: Withania coagulans is one of the most important medicinal herbs due to its wide range of biological activities. The aim of this study was to compare the hepatoprotective activity of crude methanolic extract versus n- hexane fraction of fruit of Withania coagulans in CCl4 induced liver toxicity. Methods: This study was done on 36 Balb c mice in Department of Anatomy of Khyber Medical College Peshawar. Results: The mean serum of Group 1(control Group) was 33.41±1.82U/L, for Group 2 (CCl4 treated Group) was 89.01±7.51 U/L, for Group 3(low dose Group) was 49.91±3.48 U/L and for Group 4 (High dose Group) was 50.86±4.87 U/L. There was significant difference in the readings of Group1 and Group 2 which indicated CCL4 induced hepatotoxicity in two groups. There was significant difference in the values of Group 3 and Group 4 (p value .000), showing the hepatotoxicity in these Groups was further enhanced. The mean AST at the end of six weeks for Group1 was 26.80±3.21U/L, for Group 2 was 149.01±13.63U/L, for Group 3 (including both low doses) was 70.81±7.92U/L and for Group 4 (High doses group) was 51.01±11.05U/. Conclusion: Withania coagulans both fractions have hepatoprotective effect against CCL4 induced hepatic toxicity in high and low doses in Balb c mice.


Assuntos
Doença Hepática Induzida por Substâncias e Drogas , Withania , Camundongos , Animais , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Extratos Vegetais/uso terapêutico , Hexanos/farmacologia , Camundongos Endogâmicos BALB C , Fígado , Metanol/farmacologia , Doença Hepática Induzida por Substâncias e Drogas/prevenção & controle , Doença Hepática Induzida por Substâncias e Drogas/tratamento farmacológico
8.
Org Lett ; 24(50): 9200-9204, 2022 12 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36484531

RESUMO

A simple Ag(I)-catalyzed oxidative cyclopropanation of heteroatom-tethered 1,6-enynes for the establishment of valuable functionalized 3-aza-bicyclo[3.1.0]hexane is presented, which allows the formation of multiple chemical bonds in one step under 20 mol % silver(I) catalysts and air conditions. This approach is highly atom economical, easy to perform, and free of external oxidants and features good to excellent yields and gram-scale synthesis. The preliminary study showed that an uncommon silver carbenoid intermediate might be involved in this process.


Assuntos
Hexanos , Prata , Hexanos/química , Catálise , Estresse Oxidativo
9.
Zhonghua Lao Dong Wei Sheng Zhi Ye Bing Za Zhi ; 40(11): 867-871, 2022 Nov 20.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36510726

RESUMO

Objective: To understand the volatile organic components in the organic solvents used by enterprises in Baoan District, Shenzhen. Methods: From January to December 2020, a total of 541 organic solvent samples used by 86 companies were collected for volatile organic component analysis, and the main volatile components and high-risk occupational hazards in organic solvents used in different industries were analyzed. Results: A total of 201 volatile organic components were detected in 541 organic solvents. The top 5 components detected include xylene (29.76%, 116/541), toluene (21.81%, 118/541), methanol (20.70%, 112/541), n-hexane (14.79%, 80/541) and ethylbenzene (14.23%, 77/541). The detection rates of benzene, trichloroethylene, n-hexane, and 1, 2-dichloroethane, which were high-risk occupational hazards, were 2.40% (13/541), 3.70% (20/541), 14.79% (80/541), and 1.66% (9/541), respectively. The volatile components in organic solvents used in different industries was different. Benzene is more frequently detected in organic solvents used in the printing industry, trichloroethylene was more frequently detected in organic solvents used in the electronics industry, and n-hexane was more commonly found in organic solvents used in the electronics industry, printing and other industries, and 1, 2-dichloroethane has been more frequently detected in organic solvents used in the machinery industry. Conclusion: There are many types of organic solvents used by enterprises in Bao'an District, with complex components and differences in different industries.


Assuntos
Benzeno , Tricloroetileno , Benzeno/análise , Hexanos , Solventes , Indústrias
10.
J Am Chem Soc ; 144(51): 23685-23690, 2022 12 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36523116

RESUMO

The development of synthetic strategies for the preparation of bioisosteric compounds is a demanding undertaking in medicinal chemistry. Numerous strategies have been developed for the synthesis of bicyclo[1.1.1]pentanes (BCPs), bridge-substituted BCPs, and bicyclo[2.1.1]hexanes. However, progress on the synthesis of bicyclo[3.1.1]heptanes, which serve as meta-substituted arene bioisosteres, has not been previously explored. Herein, we disclose the first photoinduced [3σ + 2σ] cycloaddition for the synthesis of trisubstituted bicyclo[3.1.1]heptanes using bicyclo[1.1.0]butanes and cyclopropylamines. This transformation not only uses mild and operationally simple conditions but also provides unique meta-substituted arene bioisosteres. The applicability of this method is showcased by simple derivatization reactions.


Assuntos
Compostos Bicíclicos com Pontes , Heptanos , Compostos Bicíclicos com Pontes/química , Heptanos/química , Reação de Cicloadição , Hexanos/química , Butanos
11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36497886

RESUMO

Few studies have investigated personal exposure concentrations of not only some volatile organic compounds but also more types of chemicals including acidic gases and acrolein. We measured the personal exposure concentrations of 35 chemicals including these chemicals in indoor and outdoor air in Chiba-shi, Japan, for 7 days in summer and winter to assess the associated health risks in 22 people. The personal exposure concentrations of nitrogen dioxide were higher in winter than in summer, and those of formaldehyde, p-dichlorobenzene, and tetradecane were higher in summer than in winter. The personal exposure concentrations were mostly equal to or lower than the concentrations in indoor air, contrary to the results of a lot of previous studies. The high-risk chemicals based on personal exposure concentrations were identified as acrolein (max. 0.43 µg/m3), benzene (max. 3.1 µg/m3), and hexane (max. 220 µg/m3) in summer, and acrolein (max. 0.31 µg/m3), nitrogen dioxide (max. 320 µg/m3), benzene (max. 5.2 µg/m3), formic acid (max. 70 µg/m3), and hexane (max. 290 µg/m3) in winter. In addition, we estimated personal exposure concentrations according to the time spent at home and the chemical concentrations in indoor and outdoor air. We found that the estimated concentrations of some participants largely differed from the measured ones indicating that it is difficult to estimate personal exposure concentrations based on only these data.


Assuntos
Poluentes Atmosféricos , Poluição do Ar em Ambientes Fechados , Humanos , Poluição do Ar em Ambientes Fechados/análise , Poluentes Atmosféricos/análise , Dióxido de Nitrogênio/análise , Hexanos , Benzeno , Medição de Risco , Exposição Ambiental/análise , Monitoramento Ambiental/métodos
12.
Molecules ; 27(23)2022 Nov 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36500333

RESUMO

Pumpkin is considered a functional food with beneficial effects on human health due to the presence of interesting bioactives. In this research, the impact of unconventional ultrasound-assisted extraction (UAE) and microwave-assisted extraction techniques on the recovery of total non-polar carotenoids from Cucurbita moschata pulp was investigated. A binary (hexane:isopropanol, 60:40 v/v) and a ternary (hexane:acetone:ethanol, 50:25:25 v/v/v) mixture were tested. The extracts were characterized for their antioxidant properties by in vitro assays, while the carotenoid profiling was determined by high-performance liquid chromatography coupled with a diode array detector. UAE with the binary mixture (30 min, 45 °C) was the most successful extracting technique, taking into consideration all analytical data and their correlations. In parallel, solid lipid nanoparticles (SLN) were optimized for the encapsulation of the extract, using ß-carotene as a reference compound. SLN, loaded with up to 1% ß-carotene, had dimensions (~350 nm) compatible with increased intestinal absorption. Additionally, the ABTS ((2,2'-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid) assay showed that the technological process did not change the antioxidant capacity of ß-carotene. These SLN will be used to load an even higher percentage of the extract without affecting their dimensions due to its liquid nature and higher miscibility with the lipid with respect to the solid ß-carotene.


Assuntos
Carotenoides , Cucurbita , Humanos , Carotenoides/química , Cucurbita/química , Hexanos , beta Caroteno , Antioxidantes/química , Extratos Vegetais/química
13.
Molecules ; 27(23)2022 Nov 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36500433

RESUMO

Supercritical carbon dioxide (sCO2) has great potential for displacing shale oil as a result of its high solubility and low surface tension and viscosity, but the underlying mechanisms have remained unclear up to now. By conducting equilibrium molecular dynamics (EMD) simulations, we found that the displacing process could be divided into three steps: the CO2 molecules were firstly injected in the central region of shale slit, then tended to adsorb on the SiO2-OH wall surface and mix with hexane, resulting in loose hexane layer on the shale surface, and finally displaced hexane from the wall due to strong interactions between CO2 and wall. In that process, the displacing velocity and efficiency of hexane exhibit parabolic and increased trends with pressure, respectively. To gain deep insights into this phenomenon, we further performed non-equilibrium molecular dynamics (NEMD) simulations and found that both the Onsager coefficients of CO2 and hexane were correlated to increase with pressure, until the diffusion rate of hexane being suppressed by the highly dense distribution of CO2 molecules at 12 MPa. The rapid transportation of CO2 molecules in the binary components (CO2 and hexane) actually promoted the hexane diffusion, which facilitated hexane flowing out of the nanochannel and subsequently enhanced oil recovery efficiency. The displacing process could occur effectively at pressures higher than 7.5 MPa, after which the interaction energies of the CO2-wall were stronger than that of the hexane-wall. Taking displacing velocity and efficiency and hexane diffusion rate into consideration, the optimal injection pressure was found at 10.5 MPa in this work. This study provides detailed insights into CO2 displacing shale oil and is in favor of deepening the understanding of shale oil exploitation and utilization.


Assuntos
Dióxido de Carbono , Hexanos , Dióxido de Silício , Solubilidade , Minerais
14.
Molecules ; 27(21)2022 Oct 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36364146

RESUMO

Schinus molle is a plant traditionally used in Mexico to treat gastric disorders. However, no scientific evidence has been reported on its gastroprotective effect. The aim of the current contribution was to conduct a bioassay-guided study on S. molle to evaluate its gastroprotective activity in a model of Wistar rats given ethanol orally to induce gastric lesions. The hexane and dichloromethane extracts from the tested plant showed over 99% gastroprotection at a dose of 100 mg/kg. From the hexane extract, two of the three fractions (F1 and F2) afforded over 99% gastroprotection. The F1 fraction was subjected to column chromatography, which revealed a white solid. Based on the ESI-MS analysis, the two main compounds in this solid were identified. The predominant compound was probably a triterpene. This mixture of compounds furnished about 67% gastroprotection at a dose of 100 mg/kg. Pretreatment with L-NAME, indomethacin, and NEM was carried out to explore the possible involvement of nitric oxide, prostaglandins, and/or sulfhydryl groups, respectively, in the gastroprotective activity of the white solid. We found evidence for the participation of all three factors. No antisecretory activity was detected (tested by pylorus ligation). In conclusion, evidence is herein provided for the first time of the gastroprotective effect of S. molle.


Assuntos
Anacardiaceae , Antiulcerosos , Úlcera Gástrica , Ratos , Animais , Prostaglandinas/farmacologia , Óxido Nítrico/farmacologia , Úlcera Gástrica/induzido quimicamente , Úlcera Gástrica/tratamento farmacológico , Úlcera Gástrica/patologia , Antiulcerosos/química , Hexanos/farmacologia , Ratos Wistar , Compostos de Sulfidrila/farmacologia , Extratos Vegetais/química , Mucosa Gástrica
15.
Org Biomol Chem ; 20(46): 9108-9111, 2022 11 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36350230

RESUMO

Among the valuable saturated bicyclic structures incorporated in newly developed bio-active compounds, bicyclo[2.1.1]hexanes are playing an increasingly important role, while being still underexplored from a synthetic accessibility point of view. Here, we disclose an efficient and modular approach toward new 1,2-disubstituted bicyclo[2.1.1]hexane modules. Our strategy is based on the use of photochemistry to access new building blocks via [2 + 2] cycloaddition. The system can readily be derivatized with numerous transformations, opening the gate to sp3-rich new chemical space.


Assuntos
Compostos Bicíclicos com Pontes , Hexanos , Hexanos/química , Compostos Bicíclicos com Pontes/química , Reação de Cicloadição
16.
Molecules ; 27(21)2022 Nov 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36364323

RESUMO

The aim of this study was to conduct thermal characterization of sesame seeds and oils from various geographical origins (Ethiopia, India, Nigeria, Sudan, Turkey), different method of extraction (hexane and cold-pressing), and different types of derived products (halva and tahini). Thermal characterization was investigated using differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), which showed that origin of the seeds has no influence on the melting profile of sesame oil (peak temperature and enthalpy). Method of extraction (hexane and cold-pressing) influenced the peak temperatures of the resulting oils (p ≤ 0.05). The addition of 20% of palm olein to pure sesame oil influenced the significant changes in thermodynamic parameters such as peak temperature (Tm2), which was lowered from -5.89 °C to -4.99 °C, peak half width (T1/2), elevated from 3.01 °C to 4.52 °C, and the percentage of first peak area (% peak 1) lowered from 87.9 to 73.2% (p ≤ 0.05). The PCA method enabled to distinguish authentic and adulterated sesame oils of various origins. There were no significant differences in thermal properties among the products (halva, tahini) and the authentic sesame oil (p > 0.05). The obtained results showed DSC feasibility to characterize sesame oil and sesame products in terms of authenticity.


Assuntos
Sesamum , Sesamum/química , Óleo de Gergelim/química , Varredura Diferencial de Calorimetria , Hexanos , Sementes/química
17.
Biomed Res Int ; 2022: 4987929, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36325499

RESUMO

Medicinal plants are used to control and remediate oxidative stress related diseases caused by free radicals. Thus, these plants find their use as remedy. Moringa oleifera is an extremely valued plant for its medicinal properties. Herein, two indigenously produced accessions of Moringa oleifera seeds [originated from Multan (M-Mln) and India (PKM1)] were investigated for their antioxidant properties by 2.2-Diphenyl-1picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) assay, total phenolics content and total flavonoids content. The presence of various phenolics as well as flavonoids was further confirmed by high performance liquid chromatography. Moreover, fourier transform infrared spectroscopy detected the presence of various functional groups. In conclusion, these findings revealed that the methanol extract of M-Mln variety seeds showed high antioxidant potential, having IC50 value of 84 µg/ml. While, hexane extract of PKM1 showed least activity. The methanol extract of M-Mln was found to show highest total phenolics content as 33.83 ± 1.19 mg GAE/g. The methanol extract of M-Mln was found to show highest total flavonoids content as 76.07 ± 1.10 mg CAE/g. The hexane extract of PKM1 was found to show least total flavonoids content as 22.47 ± 1.70 mg CAE/g. The detection of phenolics (ferulic acid, caffeic acid, chlorogenic acid, coumaric acid, and gallic acid) as well as flavonoids (catechin and quercetin) revealed the potential of methanol extracts of both varieties as a good source of antioxidants. The results indicated the importance of seed extracts in the treatment of oxidative stress related diseases. In future, the use of natural antioxidants will prevent the progression of diseases.


Assuntos
Moringa oleifera , Moringa oleifera/química , Antioxidantes/química , Hexanos , Metanol , Extratos Vegetais/química , Sementes/química , Flavonoides/análise , Fenóis/análise , Folhas de Planta/química
18.
Future Med Chem ; 14(22): 1681-1692, 2022 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36317661

RESUMO

The phenyl group is the most prevalent ring system and plays an essential role as a pharmacophore or scaffold in marketed drugs. However, the indiscriminate employment of phenyl is also a major cause of poor physicochemical properties of active molecules. Nonclassical phenyl bioisosteres (NPBs) have emerged as effective replacements for phenyl in structural optimization due to their unique steric structures and physicochemical properties. Herein, the effects of widely reported NPBs on physicochemical properties and biological activities, including bicyclo[1.1.1]pentane (BCP), bicyclo[2.1.1]hexanes (BCH), bicyclo[2.2.2]octane (BCO), cubane (CUB) and closo-carboborane, are reviewed. Issues that require consideration while using NPBs and practical solutions to problems frequently encountered in structural optimization using NPBs are also discussed.


Assuntos
Hexanos
19.
Sci Rep ; 12(1): 20611, 2022 Nov 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36446843

RESUMO

The goal of this research is to determine what chemicals are present in two different extracts (hexane and acetone) of Vicia faba (family Fabaceae, VF) peels and evaluate their effectiveness as a corrosion inhibitor on mild steel in a saline media containing 3.5% sodium chloride. Gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC/MS) was used to determine the composition of various extracts. It was determined that fourteen different chemicals were present in the hexane extract, the most prominent of which were octacosane, tetrasodium tetracontane, palmitic acid, and ethyl palmitate. Heptacosane, lauric acid, myristic acid, ethyl palmitate, and methyl stearate were some of the 13 chemicals found in the acetone extract. Using open circuit potential, potentiodynamic polarisation, and electrochemical impedance spectroscopic techniques, we can approximate the inhibitory effects of (VF) extracts on mild steel. The most effective inhibitory concentrations were found to be 200 ppm for both the hexane and acetone extracts (97.84% for the hexane extract and 88.67% for the acetone extract). Evaluation experiments were conducted at 298 K, with a 3.5% (wt/v) NaCl content and a flow velocity of about 250 rpm. Langmuir adsorption isotherm shows that the two extracts function as a mixed-type inhibitor in nature. Docking models were used to investigate the putative mechanism of corrosion inhibition, and GC/MS was used to identify the major and secondary components of the two extracts. Surface roughness values were calculated after analyzing the morphology of the metal's surface with and without (VF) using a scanning electron microscope (SEM). The results showed that throughout the surface of the mild steel, a thick adsorbate layer was formed. Quantum chemical calculations conducted on the two extracts as part of the theoretical research of quantum chemical calculation demonstrated a connection between the experimental analysis results and the theoretical study of the major chemical components.


Assuntos
Aço , Vicia faba , Corrosão , Hexanos , Ácidos Graxos , Água , Análise Custo-Benefício , Acetona
20.
Drug Des Devel Ther ; 16: 3573-3588, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36248245

RESUMO

Data from globocan statistic in 2020 indicate that breast cancer has become highest incidence rate of cancer. Estrogen receptor (ER), progesterone receptor (PR) and human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2) are known immunohistochemistry (IHC) markers that mediate cell growth and survival signaling. Furthermore, regulator proteins, receptors, and their downstream signaling pathways have emerged as critical components in breast cancer formation and proliferation, and have become well-established therapeutic targets and the core focus of breast cancer therapy research. Garcinia is a big genus in the Clusiaceae family that contains a wide spectrum of biologically active metabolites for the chemical composition of their isolated fruits, stem barks, seeds, leaves, and roots, have resulted including polyisoprenylated benzophenones, polyphenols, bioflavonoids, xanthones, lactones, and triterpenes. This review article aimed to analyze the potential of Garcinia phytochemicals as a molecular therapy of breast cancer. The results showed that phytochemicals of Garcinia (i.e., α-mangostin, Cambogin, Gambogic Acid [GA], Garcinol, Griffipavixanthone, Friedolanostane triterpenoid, Hexane, Neobractatin, 7-Epiclusianone, xanthochymol - guttiferone E, and isoxanthochymol - cycloxanthochymol) have anticancer properties, including apoptosis, inhibition of proliferation, and metastasis. This review is important to provide information regarding phytochemicals of Garcinia as an alternative treatment for breast cancer patients. This article selected 28 article researches based on inclusion criteria with the keyword "Garcinia" and "Breast cancer", in English, and available in full text and abstract searching on PubMed.


Assuntos
Garcinia , Neoplasias , Plantas Medicinais , Triterpenos , Xantonas , Benzofenonas/química , Benzofenonas/farmacologia , Garcinia/química , Medicina Herbária , Hexanos , Humanos , Lactonas , Compostos Fitoquímicos/farmacologia , Polifenóis , Receptores de Estrogênio , Receptores de Progesterona , Triterpenos/química , Xantonas/química
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