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1.
Nat Commun ; 12(1): 1812, 2021 03 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33753739

RESUMO

Human hexokinase 2 is an essential regulator of glycolysis that couples metabolic and proliferative activities in cancer cells. The binding of hexokinase 2 to the outer membrane of mitochondria is critical for its oncogenic activity. However, the regulation of hexokinase 2 binding to mitochondria remains unclear. Here, we report that SUMOylation regulates the binding of hexokinase 2 to mitochondria. We find that hexokinase 2 can be SUMOylated at K315 and K492. SUMO-specific protease SENP1 mediates the de-SUMOylation of hexokinase 2. SUMO-defective hexokinase 2 preferably binds to mitochondria and enhances both glucose consumption and lactate production and decreases mitochondrial respiration in parallel. This metabolic reprogramming supports prostate cancer cell proliferation and protects cells from chemotherapy-induced cell apoptosis. Moreover, we demonstrate an inverse relationship between SENP1-hexokinase 2 axis and chemotherapy response in prostate cancer samples. Our data provide evidence for a previously uncovered posttranslational modification of hexokinase 2 in cancer cells, suggesting a potentially actionable strategy for preventing chemotherapy resistance in prostate cancer.


Assuntos
Carcinogênese/metabolismo , Hexoquinase/metabolismo , Mitocôndrias/metabolismo , Neoplasias da Próstata/metabolismo , Animais , Antineoplásicos/farmacologia , Apoptose/efeitos dos fármacos , Carcinogênese/genética , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Proliferação de Células/efeitos dos fármacos , Cisteína Endopeptidases/genética , Cisteína Endopeptidases/metabolismo , Docetaxel/farmacologia , Hexoquinase/genética , Humanos , Masculino , Camundongos , Neoplasias da Próstata/tratamento farmacológico , Neoplasias da Próstata/genética , Ligação Proteica , Sumoilação , Ensaios Antitumorais Modelo de Xenoenxerto/métodos
2.
Nat Immunol ; 22(2): 193-204, 2021 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33398181

RESUMO

Metabolic reprograming toward aerobic glycolysis is a pivotal mechanism shaping immune responses. Here we show that deficiency in NF-κB-inducing kinase (NIK) impairs glycolysis induction, rendering CD8+ effector T cells hypofunctional in the tumor microenvironment. Conversely, ectopic expression of NIK promotes CD8+ T cell metabolism and effector function, thereby profoundly enhancing antitumor immunity and improving the efficacy of T cell adoptive therapy. NIK regulates T cell metabolism via a NF-κB-independent mechanism that involves stabilization of hexokinase 2 (HK2), a rate-limiting enzyme of the glycolytic pathway. NIK prevents autophagic degradation of HK2 through controlling cellular reactive oxygen species levels, which in turn involves modulation of glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD), an enzyme that mediates production of the antioxidant NADPH. We show that the G6PD-NADPH redox system is important for HK2 stability and metabolism in activated T cells. These findings establish NIK as a pivotal regulator of T cell metabolism and highlight a post-translational mechanism of metabolic regulation.


Assuntos
Linfócitos T CD8-Positivos/enzimologia , Neoplasias do Colo/enzimologia , Metabolismo Energético , Ativação Linfocitária , Linfócitos do Interstício Tumoral/enzimologia , Melanoma Experimental/enzimologia , Proteínas Serina-Treonina Quinases/metabolismo , Animais , Linfócitos T CD8-Positivos/imunologia , Linfócitos T CD8-Positivos/transplante , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Neoplasias do Colo/imunologia , Neoplasias do Colo/patologia , Neoplasias do Colo/terapia , Citotoxicidade Imunológica , Estabilidade Enzimática , Feminino , Glucosefosfato Desidrogenase/metabolismo , Glicólise , Hexoquinase/genética , Hexoquinase/metabolismo , Imunoterapia Adotiva , Linfócitos do Interstício Tumoral/imunologia , Linfócitos do Interstício Tumoral/transplante , Masculino , Melanoma Experimental/imunologia , Melanoma Experimental/patologia , Melanoma Experimental/terapia , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Camundongos Knockout , NADP/metabolismo , Fenótipo , Proteínas Serina-Treonina Quinases/deficiência , Proteínas Serina-Treonina Quinases/genética , Espécies Reativas de Oxigênio/metabolismo , Transdução de Sinais , Microambiente Tumoral
3.
Carbohydr Polym ; 255: 117532, 2021 Mar 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33436261

RESUMO

Aldolase A (ALDOA) facilitated aerobic glycolysis in cancer cells is a potential target in the treatment of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). However, only few effective inhibitors of ALDOA have been reported until now. In this research, we found a polysaccharide called HDPS-4II from Holotrichia diomphalia Bates, which can specifically bind to ALDOA with a dissociation constant of 2.86 µM. HDPS-4II with a molecular weight of 19 kDa was a linear triple-helix glucan composed of ɑ-d-1,4-Glcp and ɑ-d-1,6-Glcp in a ratio of 1.0:10.0. HDPS-4II significantly inhibited aldolase enzyme activity, glycolysis, and further inhibited the expression of phosphorylated AMPKα in HCC cells. Through analyzing ALDOA-overexpressing and -knockdown cells, it was confirmed that ALDOA mediated the viability and glycolysis inhibition of HDPS-4II. Moreover, HDPS-4II administration markedly inhibited tumor growth in mice xenografted with HCCs. These findings suggest that HDPS-4II, as an ALDOA antagonist, is a promising remedy in the treatment and prevention of HCC.


Assuntos
Antineoplásicos/farmacologia , Besouros/química , Frutose-Bifosfato Aldolase/genética , Regulação Neoplásica da Expressão Gênica/efeitos dos fármacos , Glucanos/farmacologia , Neoplasias Hepáticas/tratamento farmacológico , Animais , Antineoplásicos/química , Antineoplásicos/isolamento & purificação , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Proliferação de Células/efeitos dos fármacos , Frutose-Bifosfato Aldolase/antagonistas & inibidores , Frutose-Bifosfato Aldolase/metabolismo , Glucanos/química , Glucanos/isolamento & purificação , Glicólise/efeitos dos fármacos , Glicólise/genética , Células Hep G2 , Hexoquinase/genética , Hexoquinase/metabolismo , Humanos , L-Lactato Desidrogenase/genética , L-Lactato Desidrogenase/metabolismo , Larva/química , Neoplasias Hepáticas/enzimologia , Neoplasias Hepáticas/genética , Neoplasias Hepáticas/patologia , Camundongos , Piruvato Quinase/genética , Piruvato Quinase/metabolismo , Carga Tumoral/efeitos dos fármacos , Ensaios Antitumorais Modelo de Xenoenxerto
4.
Am J Vet Res ; 82(2): 110-117, 2021 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33480281

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To develop a technique for isolation and culture of canine insulinoma cells and assess expression of cellular hexokinases (glucokinase and hexokinase I) and expression and secretion of insulin from these cells in vitro. SAMPLE: Pancreatic insulinomas and normal pancreatic tissue from 4 and 3 dogs, respectively. PROCEDURES: Tissues were collected by surgical excision or at necropsy. Insulinoma cells from 2 dogs were cultured for up to 10 weeks with standard techniques; insulin synthesis in vitro was confirmed by immunohistochemical analysis of freshly prepared slides of cultured cells, and insulin secretion was assessed by measurement of insulin concentrations in culture medium with an ultrasensitive mouse insulin ELISA. Expression of cellular hexokinases in insulinomas and adjacent normal (nontumor) pancreatic tissue from the same dog (n = 3) was examined by quantitative reverse transcriptase PCR assay. RESULTS: Insulinoma cells survived for up to 10 weeks but did not proliferate in culture. Insulin was detected in isolated cells and secreted into culture medium for up to 10 weeks. Both cellular hexokinases were expressed; glucokinase appeared to be overexpressed in insulinomas, compared with normal pancreatic tissue from the same dogs. CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE: Canine insulinomas expressed hexokinases responsible for glucose responsiveness. Insulinoma cells were successfully maintained in short-term culture; cultured cells remained functional for 10 weeks as evidenced by cellular insulin content and had detectable secretion of insulin into the culture medium for ≥ 5 weeks. Apparent glucokinase overexpression by insulinomas suggested a possible mechanism underlying excessive insulin release by these tumors.


Assuntos
Doenças do Cão , Insulinoma , Neoplasias Pancreáticas , Doenças dos Roedores , Animais , Cães , Glucoquinase/genética , Glucose , Hexoquinase/genética , Insulina , Insulinoma/veterinária , Camundongos , Neoplasias Pancreáticas/veterinária
5.
Life Sci ; 266: 118884, 2021 Feb 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33310038

RESUMO

AIMS: Growing evidence indicates insufficient autophagy is crucial to airway remodeling in asthma. However, it is uncertain whether p62, an autophagy major regulator, mediates the airway remodeling process. This study aimed to evaluate the role and underlying mechanism of p62 in airway remodeling in asthma. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Airway remodeling was confirmed via histopathology. Western blotting and RT-PCR were used to detect the expression of autophagic and glycolytic proteins, as well as glycolytic genes. Glycolysis was measured by glucose consumption and lactate production. Cell proliferation was analyzed by CCK8 assays while and the scratch test and transwell method were used for cell migration. KEY FINDINGS: We found that insufficient autophagic flux and increased p62 expression existed in chronic asthma mice. Additionally, knockdown of p62 inhibited asthmatic human bronchial smooth muscle cells (BSMCs) proliferation and migration in vitro. To elucidate the underlying mechanism of p62-mediated autophagy flux in directing BSMCs function, we demonstrated that knockdown of p62 decreased the glucose consumption and lactate production in BSMCs, whereas p62 overexpression had the opposite effect. Furthermore, we showed that p62 regulated glycolysis in BSMCs by the mTOR/c-Myc/hexokinase 2 (HK2) pathway. SIGNIFICANCE: Our findings suggest that p62 is involved in BSMCs proliferation and migration via the mTOR/c-Myc/HK2-mediated glycolysis, thereby providing a new target for airway remodeling treatment.


Assuntos
Remodelação das Vias Aéreas , Asma/patologia , Autofagia , Reprogramação Celular , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Miócitos de Músculo Liso/patologia , Proteína Sequestossoma-1/metabolismo , Animais , Asma/induzido quimicamente , Asma/metabolismo , Movimento Celular , Proliferação de Células , Feminino , Glicólise , Hexoquinase/genética , Hexoquinase/metabolismo , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos BALB C , Miócitos de Músculo Liso/metabolismo , Ovalbumina/toxicidade , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas c-myc/genética , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas c-myc/metabolismo , Proteína Sequestossoma-1/genética , Serina-Treonina Quinases TOR/genética , Serina-Treonina Quinases TOR/metabolismo
6.
Biomed Pharmacother ; 133: 111075, 2021 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33378974

RESUMO

N6-methyladenosine (m6A) is one of the most abundant messenger RNAs modification. Increasing evidence illustrates its critical role on gastric cancer. Here, present research focuses on the potential function of m6A methyltransferase Wilms' tumour 1-associated protein (WTAP) in gastric cancer tumorigenesis. Firstly, m6A immunoprecipitation sequencing analysis (MeRIP-Seq) analysis demonstrated the m6A profile in gastric cancer cells. Both WTAP and the m6A expression were up-regulated in gastric cancer tissue and cells. The high-expression of WTAP was closely correlated with poor prognosis of gastric cancer patients. Functional experiments illustrated that WTAP promoted the proliferation and glycolytic capacity (glucose uptake, lactate production and extracellular acidification rate) in vitro, and the knockdown of WTAP suppressed the tumor growth in vivo. Mechanistically, HK2 was identified to be the target of WTAP using MeRIP-Seq and MeRIP-qPCR. WTAP enhanced the stability of HK2 mRNA through binding with the 3'-UTR m6A site. In conclusion, our results demonstrate the oncogenic role of WTAP and its m6A-mediated regulation on gastric cancer Warburg effect, providing a novel approach and therapeutic target in gastric cancer.


Assuntos
Proteínas de Ciclo Celular/metabolismo , Hexoquinase/metabolismo , Fatores de Processamento de RNA/metabolismo , Neoplasias Gástricas/enzimologia , Animais , Proteínas de Ciclo Celular/genética , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Proliferação de Células , Estabilidade Enzimática , Feminino , Regulação Neoplásica da Expressão Gênica , Hexoquinase/genética , Humanos , Masculino , Camundongos Endogâmicos BALB C , Camundongos Nus , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Fatores de Processamento de RNA/genética , Estabilidade de RNA , Transdução de Sinais , Neoplasias Gástricas/genética , Neoplasias Gástricas/patologia , Carga Tumoral
7.
Mol Genet Genomics ; 295(6): 1489-1500, 2020 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32948893

RESUMO

Glucose, fructose and mannose are the preferred carbon/energy sources for the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Absence of preferred energy sources activates glucose derepression, which is regulated by the kinase Snf1. Snf1 phosphorylates the transcriptional repressor Mig1, which results in its exit from the nucleus and subsequent derepression of genes. In contrast, Snf1 is inactive when preferred carbon sources are available, which leads to dephosphorylation of Mig1 and its translocation to the nucleus where Mig1 acts as a transcription repressor. Here we revisit the role of the three hexose kinases, Hxk1, Hxk2 and Glk1, in glucose de/repression. We demonstrate that all three sugar kinases initially affect Mig1 nuclear localization upon addition of glucose, fructose and mannose. This initial import of Mig1 into the nucleus was temporary; for continuous nucleocytoplasmic shuttling of Mig1, Hxk2 is required in the presence of glucose and mannose and in the presence of fructose Hxk2 or Hxk1 is required. Our data suggest that Mig1 import following exposure to preferred energy sources is controlled via two different pathways, where (1) the initial import is regulated by signals derived from metabolism and (2) continuous shuttling is regulated by the Hxk2 and Hxk1 proteins. Mig1 nucleocytoplasmic shuttling appears to be important for the maintenance of the repressed state in which Hxk1/2 seems to play an essential role.


Assuntos
Núcleo Celular/metabolismo , Frutose/metabolismo , Glucose/metabolismo , Hexoquinase/metabolismo , Manose/metabolismo , Proteínas Repressoras/metabolismo , Proteínas de Saccharomyces cerevisiae/metabolismo , Saccharomyces cerevisiae/metabolismo , Transporte Ativo do Núcleo Celular , Regulação Fúngica da Expressão Gênica , Hexoquinase/genética , Fosforilação , Transporte Proteico , Proteínas Repressoras/genética , Saccharomyces cerevisiae/genética , Saccharomyces cerevisiae/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Proteínas de Saccharomyces cerevisiae/genética
8.
Life Sci ; 259: 118215, 2020 Oct 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32768579

RESUMO

AIMS: Infantile hemangioma (IH) is one of the most common tumors in infancy, which etiology and pathogenesis has not been fully elucidated, hypoxia and abnormal glucose metabolism is regarded as critical pathogenic factors. This study investigated the expression and function of glycolysis-associated molecules (GLUT1, HK2, PFKFB3, PKM2, and LDHA) under normoxic and hypoxic conditions to further understand the pathogenesis of IH. MAIN METHODS: Hemangioma-derived endothelial cells (HemECs) were isolated from proliferating phase infantile hemangiomas and identified by immunofluorescence. HemECs and human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) were cultured under normoxic and hypoxic conditions. RNA and protein expression of glycolysis-associated molecules were analyzed by quantitative real-time RT-PCR, western blotting, and immunohistochemistry. Glucose consumption, ATP production and lactate production were measured. Glycolysis-associated molecules were inhibited by WZB117, 3BP, 3PO, SKN, and GSK 2837808A and the resulting effects on HemECs proliferation, migration, and tube formation were quantified. KEY FINDINGS: Glycolysis-associated molecules were highly expressed at both mRNA and protein levels in HemECs compared with HUVECs (P < 0.05). Glucose consumption and ATP production were higher in HemECs than in HUVECs, while lactate production in HemECs was lower than in HUVECs (P < 0.05). Inhibition of some glycolysis-associated molecules reduced the proliferation, migration, and tube formation capacity of HemECs (P < 0.05). SIGNIFICANCE: Our study revealed that glycolysis-associated molecules were highly expressed in IH. Glucose metabolismin HemECs differed from normal endothelial cells. Altering the expression of glycolysis-associated molecules may influence the phenotype of HemECs and provide new therapeutic approaches to the successful treatment of IH.


Assuntos
Glicólise/fisiologia , Hemangioma/metabolismo , Apoptose/efeitos dos fármacos , Proliferação de Células/efeitos dos fármacos , China , Feminino , Transportador de Glucose Tipo 1/genética , Transportador de Glucose Tipo 1/metabolismo , Glicólise/genética , Hemangioma/fisiopatologia , Hexoquinase/genética , Hexoquinase/metabolismo , Células Endoteliais da Veia Umbilical Humana , Humanos , Hipóxia , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , L-Lactato Desidrogenase/genética , L-Lactato Desidrogenase/metabolismo , Masculino , Fosfofrutoquinase-2/genética , Fosfofrutoquinase-2/metabolismo , Cultura Primária de Células , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas c-akt/metabolismo , Transdução de Sinais/efeitos dos fármacos , Transcriptoma/genética
9.
Nat Commun ; 11(1): 4319, 2020 08 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32859923

RESUMO

Disrupted energy metabolism drives cell dysfunction and disease, but approaches to increase or preserve ATP are lacking. To generate a comprehensive metabolic map of genes and pathways that regulate cellular ATP-the ATPome-we conducted a genome-wide CRISPR interference/activation screen integrated with an ATP biosensor. We show that ATP level is modulated by distinct mechanisms that promote energy production or inhibit consumption. In our system HK2 is the greatest ATP consumer, indicating energy failure may not be a general deficiency in producing ATP, but rather failure to recoup the ATP cost of glycolysis and diversion of glucose metabolites to the pentose phosphate pathway. We identify systems-level reciprocal inhibition between the HIF1 pathway and mitochondria; glycolysis-promoting enzymes inhibit respiration even when there is no glycolytic ATP production, and vice versa. Consequently, suppressing alternative metabolism modes paradoxically increases energy levels under substrate restriction. This work reveals mechanisms of metabolic control, and identifies therapeutic targets to correct energy failure.


Assuntos
Trifosfato de Adenosina/metabolismo , Redes e Vias Metabólicas/genética , Redes e Vias Metabólicas/fisiologia , Trifosfato de Adenosina/genética , Sistemas CRISPR-Cas , Linhagem Celular , Metabolismo Energético , Feminino , Fibroblastos , Regulação da Expressão Gênica , Técnicas de Silenciamento de Genes , Glucose/metabolismo , Glicólise/fisiologia , Hexoquinase/genética , Hexoquinase/metabolismo , Humanos , Células K562 , Metabolômica , Mitocôndrias/metabolismo , Via de Pentose Fosfato , Mutação Puntual
10.
Neoplasma ; 67(4): 773-781, 2020 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32726127

RESUMO

Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is one of the most common malignancies with a rising incidence around the world. MicroRNAs (miRNAs) have been reported to play essential roles in the progression of HCC. However, the precise mechanism of miR-3662 in the HCC process remains poorly understood. This study was aimed to determine the regulatory network of miR-3662 and hexokinase 2 (HK2) in HCC. Quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) was performed to detect miR-3662 expression. Cell proliferation and invasion were measured by Cell Counting Kit-8 (CCK-8) assay and Transwell assay, respectively. Glucose consumption and lactate production assays were used to detect glucose metabolism activity in HCC cells. The potential binding sites between miR-3662 and HK2 were predicted by TargetScan online software and the relationship between miR-3662 and HK2 was verified by luciferase report assay. The protein expression of HK2 was measured by western blot analysis. A xenograft tumor model was established to confirm the role of miR-3662 and HK2 in vivo. miR-3662 expression was downregulated in HCC tissues and cells, and it was reduced in hypoxia-induced HCC cells in a time-dependent manner. Overexpression of miR-3662 or knockdown of HK2 inhibited cell proliferation, invasion, and glucose metabolism in HCC cells, which could be reversed by upregulating HK2. Besides, HK2 was a direct target of miR-3662 in HCC cells, and hypoxia upregulated the expression of HK2. In addition, the upregulation of HK2 could abolish miR-3662 overexpression-induced inhibitory effects on tumor growth and glucose metabolism in vivo.


Assuntos
Carcinoma Hepatocelular , Neoplasias Hepáticas , MicroRNAs , Invasividade Neoplásica , Carcinoma Hepatocelular/genética , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Proliferação de Células/genética , Regulação Neoplásica da Expressão Gênica , Glucose/metabolismo , Hexoquinase/genética , Hexoquinase/metabolismo , Humanos , Neoplasias Hepáticas/genética , MicroRNAs/genética , MicroRNAs/fisiologia
11.
PLoS Genet ; 16(7): e1008484, 2020 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32673313

RESUMO

Yeast and fast-growing human tumor cells share metabolic similarities in that both cells use fermentation of glucose for energy and both are highly sensitive to the glucose analog 2-deoxyglucose. Spontaneous mutations in S. cerevisiae that conferred resistance to 2-deoxyglucose were identified by whole genome sequencing. Missense alleles of the HXK2, REG1, GLC7 and SNF1 genes were shown to confer significant resistance to 2-deoxyglucose and all had the potential to alter the activity and or target selection of the Snf1 kinase signaling pathway. All three missense alleles in HXK2 resulted in significantly reduced catalytic activity. Addition of 2DG promotes endocytosis of the glucose transporter Hxt3. All but one of the 2DG-resistant strains reduced the 2DG-mediated hexose transporter endocytosis by increasing plasma membrane occupancy of the Hxt3 protein. Increased expression of the DOG (deoxyglucose) phosphatases has been associated with resistance to 2-deoxyglucose. Expression of both the DOG1 and DOG2 mRNA was elevated after treatment with 2-deoxyglucose but induction of these genes is not associated with 2DG-resistance. RNAseq analysis of the transcriptional response to 2DG showed large scale, genome-wide changes in mRNA abundance that were greatly reduced in the 2DG resistant strains. These findings suggest the common adaptive response to 2DG is to limit the magnitude of the response. Genetic studies of 2DG resistance using the dominant SNF1-G53R allele in cells that are genetically compromised in both the endocytosis and DOG pathways suggest that at least one more mechanism for conferring resistance to this glucose analog remains to be discovered.


Assuntos
Metabolismo Energético/genética , Glucose/metabolismo , Hexoquinase/genética , Monoéster Fosfórico Hidrolases/genética , Proteínas Serina-Treonina Quinases/genética , Proteínas de Saccharomyces cerevisiae/genética , Desoxiglucose/efeitos adversos , Desoxiglucose/farmacologia , Endocitose/efeitos dos fármacos , Endocitose/genética , Regulação Fúngica da Expressão Gênica/efeitos dos fármacos , Proteínas Facilitadoras de Transporte de Glucose/genética , Humanos , Mutação/genética , Proteína Fosfatase 1/genética , RNA Mensageiro/genética , Saccharomyces cerevisiae/efeitos dos fármacos , Saccharomyces cerevisiae/genética , Transdução de Sinais/efeitos dos fármacos , Sequenciamento Completo do Genoma
12.
Ecotoxicol Environ Saf ; 201: 110861, 2020 Sep 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32544748

RESUMO

Marine biota have been co-challenged with ocean warming and mercury (Hg) pollution over many generations because of human activities; however, the molecular mechanisms to explain their combined effects are not well understood. In this study, a marine planktonic copepod Pseudodiaptomus annandalei was acutely exposed to different temperature (22 and 25 °C) and Hg (0 and 118 µg/L) treatments in a 24-h cross-factored experiment. Hg accumulation and its subcellular fractions were determined in the copepods after exposure. The expression of the genes of superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutathione peroxidase (GPx), metallothionein1 (mt1), heat shock protein 70 (hsp70), hsp90, hexokinase (hk), and pyruvate kinase (pk) was also analyzed. Both the Hg treatment alone and the combined exposure of warmer temperature plus Hg pollution remarkably facilitated Hg bioaccumulation in the exposed copepods. Compared with the Hg treatment alone, the combined exposure increased total Hg accumulation and also the amount of Hg stored in the metal-sensitive fractions (MSF), suggesting elevated Hg toxicity in P. annandalei under a warmer environment, given that the MSF is directly related to metal toxicity. The warmer temperature significantly up-regulated the mRNA levels of mt1, hsp70, hsp90, and hk, indicating the copepods suffered from thermal stress. With exposure to Hg, the mRNA level of SOD increased strikingly but the transcript levels of hsp90, hk, and pk decreased significantly, indicating that Hg induced toxic events (e.g., oxidative damage and energy depletion). Particularly, in contrast to the Hg treatment alone, the combined exposure significantly down-regulated the mRNA levels of SOD and GPx but up-regulated the mRNA levels of mt1, hsp70, hsp90, hk, and pk. Collectively, the results of this study indicate that ocean warming will potentially boost Hg toxicity in the marine copepod P. annandalei, which is information that will increase the accuracy of the projections of marine ecosystem responses to the joint effects of climate change stressors and metal pollution on the future ocean.


Assuntos
Copépodes/efeitos dos fármacos , Temperatura Alta , Mercúrio/toxicidade , Poluentes Químicos da Água/toxicidade , Animais , Copépodes/genética , Copépodes/metabolismo , Glutationa Peroxidase/genética , Glutationa Peroxidase/metabolismo , Proteínas de Choque Térmico HSP70/metabolismo , Proteínas de Choque Térmico HSP90/genética , Proteínas de Choque Térmico HSP90/metabolismo , Hexoquinase/genética , Hexoquinase/metabolismo , Mercúrio/farmacocinética , Metalotioneína/genética , Metalotioneína/metabolismo , Piruvato Quinase/genética , Piruvato Quinase/metabolismo , RNA Mensageiro/metabolismo , Superóxido Dismutase/genética , Superóxido Dismutase/metabolismo , Regulação para Cima , Poluentes Químicos da Água/farmacocinética
13.
Hum Cell ; 33(3): 790-800, 2020 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32304027

RESUMO

Anterior gradient 2 (AGR2) was proved to modulate cancer progression. However, the role of AGR2 on endometrial cancer was not established. Here, we investigated the effects of AGR2 expression on endometrial cancer and explored the regulation mechanism. In the study, we found that AGR2 was overexpressed in tumor tissues of 30 endometrial cancer patients. A high level of AGR2 promoted endometrial cancer cells proliferation, migration and invasion. AGR2 induced the expression of lactate dehydrogenase A (LDHA), phosphoglycerate kinase 1 (PGK1), kallikrein 2 (HK2), and enolase 1-α (ENO1), glucose uptake and lactate production. AGR2 could bind to MUC1 and induce MUC1 and hypoxia-inducible factor 1α (HIF-1α). The inhibition effects of AGR2 knockdown on cells proliferation, migration and invasion ability were abolished by the overexpression of MUC1. Besides, the overexpression of MUC1 also reversed the inhibition effects of AGR2 knockdown on the expression of LDHA, HK2, PGK1 and ENO1, glucose uptake and lactate production. AGR2 knockdown inhibited tumor growth, the levels of Ki-67, MUC1, HIF-1α and glycolysis. In conclusion, AGR2 was overexpressed in endometrial cancer and AGR2-induced glucose metabolism facilitated the progression of endometrial carcinoma via the MUC1/HIF-1α pathway. AGR2 may be an effective therapeutic target for endometrial carcinoma.


Assuntos
Carcinoma/genética , Carcinoma/patologia , Neoplasias do Endométrio/genética , Neoplasias do Endométrio/patologia , Glucose/metabolismo , Subunidade alfa do Fator 1 Induzível por Hipóxia/genética , Subunidade alfa do Fator 1 Induzível por Hipóxia/metabolismo , Mucina-1/genética , Mucina-1/metabolismo , Mucoproteínas/fisiologia , Proteínas Oncogênicas/fisiologia , Biomarcadores Tumorais/genética , Biomarcadores Tumorais/metabolismo , Carcinoma/metabolismo , Carcinoma/terapia , Movimento Celular/genética , Proliferação de Células/genética , Proteínas de Ligação a DNA/genética , Proteínas de Ligação a DNA/metabolismo , Progressão da Doença , Neoplasias do Endométrio/metabolismo , Neoplasias do Endométrio/terapia , Feminino , Expressão Gênica , Hexoquinase/genética , Hexoquinase/metabolismo , Humanos , L-Lactato Desidrogenase/genética , L-Lactato Desidrogenase/metabolismo , Terapia de Alvo Molecular , Mucoproteínas/genética , Mucoproteínas/metabolismo , Invasividade Neoplásica/genética , Proteínas Oncogênicas/genética , Proteínas Oncogênicas/metabolismo , Fosfoglicerato Quinase/genética , Fosfoglicerato Quinase/metabolismo , Fosfopiruvato Hidratase/genética , Fosfopiruvato Hidratase/metabolismo , Transdução de Sinais/efeitos dos fármacos , Transdução de Sinais/fisiologia , Proteínas Supressoras de Tumor/genética , Proteínas Supressoras de Tumor/metabolismo
14.
Biochem Pharmacol ; 177: 113988, 2020 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32330495

RESUMO

Chloroethylnitrosoureas (CENUs) are bifunctional antitumor alkylating agents, which exert their antitumor activity through inducing the formation of dG-dC interstrand crosslinks (ICLs) within DNA double strand. However, the complex process of tumor biology enables tumor cells to escape the killing triggered by CENUs, as for instance with the detoxifying activity of O6-methylguanine DNA methyltransferase (MGMT) to accomplish DNA damage repair. Considering the fact that most tumor cells highly depend on aerobic glycolysis to provide energy for survival even in the presence of oxygen (Warburg effect), inhibition of aerobic glycolysis may be an attractive strategy to overcome the resistance and improve the chemotherapeutic effects of CENUs. Especially, 3-bromopyruvate (3-BrPA), a small molecule alkylating agent, has been emerged as an effective glycolytic inhibitor (energy blocker) in cancer treatment. In view of its tumor specificity and inhibition on cellular multiple targets, it is likely to reduce the chemoresistance when chemotherapeutic drugs are combined with 3-BrPA. In this study, we investigated the effects of 3-BrPA on the chemosensitivity of two human hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) cell lines to the cytotoxic effects of l,3-bis(2-chloroethyl)-1-nitrosourea (BCNU) and the underlying molecular mechanism. The sensitivity of SMMC-7721 and HepG2 cells to BCNU was significantly increased by 2 h pretreatment with micromolar dosage of 3-BrPA. Moreover, 3-BrPA decreased the cellular ATP and GSH levels, and extracellular lactate excreted by tumor cells, and the effects were more effective when 3-BrPA was combined with BCNU. Cellular hexokinase-II (HK-II) activity was also reduced after exposure to the treatment of 3-BrPA plus BCNU. Based on the above results, the effects of 3-BrPA on the formation of dG-dC ICLs induced by BCNU was investigated by stable isotope dilution high-performance liquid chromatography electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry (HPLC-ESI-MS/MS). The results indicated that BCNU produced higher levels of dG-dC ICLs in SMMC-7721 and HepG2 cells pretreated with 3-BrPA compared to that without 3-BrPA pretreatment. Notably, in MGMT-deficient HepG2 cells, the levels of dG-dC ICLs were significantly higher than MGMT-proficient SMMC-7721 cells. In general, these findings revealed that 3-BrPA, as an effective glycolytic inhibitor, may be considered as a potential clinical chemosensitizer to optimize the therapeutic index of CENUs.


Assuntos
Antineoplásicos Alquilantes/farmacologia , Carmustina/farmacologia , Reagentes para Ligações Cruzadas/farmacologia , DNA de Neoplasias/genética , Regulação Neoplásica da Expressão Gênica , Glicólise/efeitos dos fármacos , Piruvatos/farmacologia , Trifosfato de Adenosina/biossíntese , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , DNA/química , DNA/genética , DNA/metabolismo , Dano ao DNA , Reparo do DNA/efeitos dos fármacos , DNA de Neoplasias/química , DNA de Neoplasias/metabolismo , Combinação de Medicamentos , Resistencia a Medicamentos Antineoplásicos/efeitos dos fármacos , Resistencia a Medicamentos Antineoplásicos/genética , Sinergismo Farmacológico , Glutationa/metabolismo , Glicólise/genética , Células Hep G2 , Hexoquinase/antagonistas & inibidores , Hexoquinase/genética , Hexoquinase/metabolismo , Humanos , O(6)-Metilguanina-DNA Metiltransferase/deficiência , O(6)-Metilguanina-DNA Metiltransferase/genética
15.
Biochem Pharmacol ; 177: 113995, 2020 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32339494

RESUMO

Few discoveries have influenced drug discovery programs more than the finding that mitochondrial membranes undergo swings in permeability in response to cellular perturbations. The conductor of these permeability changes is the aptly named mitochondrial permeability transition pore which, although not yet precisely defined, is comprised of several integral proteins that differentially act to regulate the flux of ions, proteins and metabolic byproducts during the course of cellular physiological functions but also pathophysiological insults. Pursuit of the pore's exact identity remains a topic of keen interest, but decades of research have unearthed provocative functions for the integral proteins leading to their evaluation to develop novel therapeutics for a wide range of clinical indications. Chief amongst these targeted, integral proteins have been the Voltage Dependent Anion Channel (VDAC) and the F1FO ATP synthase. Research associated with the roles and ligands of VDAC has been extensive and we will expand upon 3 examples of ligand:VDAC interactions for consideration of drug discovery projects: Tubulin:VDAC1, Hexokinase I/II:VDAC1 and olesoxime:VDAC1. The discoveries that cyclosporine blocks mitochondrial permeability transition via binding to cyclophilin D, and that cyclophilin D is an important component of F1FO ATP synthase, has heightened interest in the F1FO ATP synthase as a focal point for drug discovery, and we will discuss 2 plausible campaigns associated with disease indications. To date no drug has emerged from prospective targeting these integral proteins; however, continued exploration such as the approaches suggested in this Commentary will increase the likelihood of providing important therapeutics for severely unmet medical needs.


Assuntos
Esclerose Amiotrófica Lateral/tratamento farmacológico , Colestenonas/uso terapêutico , Ciclosporina/uso terapêutico , Mitocôndrias/efeitos dos fármacos , Proteínas de Transporte da Membrana Mitocondrial/genética , Canal de Ânion 1 Dependente de Voltagem/genética , Esclerose Amiotrófica Lateral/genética , Esclerose Amiotrófica Lateral/metabolismo , Esclerose Amiotrófica Lateral/patologia , Ciclofilinas/genética , Ciclofilinas/metabolismo , Regulação da Expressão Gênica , Hexoquinase/genética , Hexoquinase/metabolismo , Humanos , Mitocôndrias/metabolismo , Proteínas de Transporte da Membrana Mitocondrial/antagonistas & inibidores , Proteínas de Transporte da Membrana Mitocondrial/metabolismo , Membranas Mitocondriais/efeitos dos fármacos , Membranas Mitocondriais/metabolismo , ATPases Mitocondriais Próton-Translocadoras/antagonistas & inibidores , ATPases Mitocondriais Próton-Translocadoras/genética , ATPases Mitocondriais Próton-Translocadoras/metabolismo , Neoplasias/tratamento farmacológico , Neoplasias/genética , Neoplasias/metabolismo , Neoplasias/patologia , Doenças Neurodegenerativas/tratamento farmacológico , Doenças Neurodegenerativas/genética , Doenças Neurodegenerativas/metabolismo , Doenças Neurodegenerativas/patologia , Doenças do Sistema Nervoso Periférico/tratamento farmacológico , Doenças do Sistema Nervoso Periférico/genética , Doenças do Sistema Nervoso Periférico/metabolismo , Doenças do Sistema Nervoso Periférico/patologia , Permeabilidade/efeitos dos fármacos , Ligação Proteica , Isoformas de Proteínas/antagonistas & inibidores , Isoformas de Proteínas/genética , Isoformas de Proteínas/metabolismo , Tubulina (Proteína)/genética , Tubulina (Proteína)/metabolismo , Canal de Ânion 1 Dependente de Voltagem/antagonistas & inibidores , Canal de Ânion 1 Dependente de Voltagem/metabolismo
16.
Sci Rep ; 10(1): 4242, 2020 03 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32144321

RESUMO

It have been significantly demonstrated that Hexokinase (HXK), Granule-bound starch synthase (GBSS) and ADP-glucose pyrophosphorylase (AGPase) are three critical enzymes in the starch biosynthetic pathway and are related to starch (amylose, amylopectin and total starch) content in lotus. It is important to develop functional markers in marker-assisted selection of lotus breeding. So far there have been few reports about lotus functional markers. In this study, based on insertion-deletions (INDELs) and single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs), we developed three functional markers, FMHXK-E1, FMGBSS-I8 and FMAGPL-I1. FMHXK-E1 was developed based on polymorphisms of two haplotypes of NnHXK. 26 lotus cultivars that the 320-bp fragment presented in NnHXK had a lower content of amylose and a higher content of amylopectin. FMGBSS-I8 was developed based on polymorphisms of two haplotypes of NnGBSS. The group containing 32 lotus cultivars with the 210-bp fragment had less amylose content and more amylopectin content. FMAGPL-I1 was developed based on polymorphisms of two haplotypes of NnAGPL (ADP-glucose pyrophosphorylase large subunit gene). The group containing 40 lotus cultivars with the 362-bp fragment had less amylopectin, total starch content and more amylose content. According to the study, FMHXK-E1, FMGBSS-I8 and FMAGPL-I1 are closely related to lotus starch content. It could be provided research basis for molecular assisted selection of lotus starch content improve breeding efficiency.


Assuntos
Lotus/genética , Locos de Características Quantitativas , Característica Quantitativa Herdável , Amido , Sequência de Bases , Hexoquinase/química , Hexoquinase/genética , Hexoquinase/metabolismo , Mutação INDEL , Lotus/metabolismo , Melhoramento Vegetal , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Amido/biossíntese , Sintase do Amido/química , Sintase do Amido/genética , Sintase do Amido/metabolismo
17.
Oncol Rep ; 43(3): 999-1009, 2020 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32020232

RESUMO

Acute myeloid leukemia (AML) is a hematological malignancy derived from immature myeloid cells, which have the characteristics of abnormal proliferation and differentiation. Glycolysis has been a popular topic of research in recent years, with increasing uptake and consumption of glucose. The present study aimed to investigate the glycolysis of tumor cells in patients with AML; in particular, how programmed cell death 1 ligand 1 (PD­L1) regulates tumor cells glycolysis using real time PCR (RT­PCR), western blotting and flow cytometry. PD­L1 high expression predicted poor outcome in patients with AML in the public database Gene Expression Profiling Interactive Analysis. PD­L1 expression was decreased in the samples from patients with AML with complete remission compared to that in patients with relapsed or refractory AML. In AML cell lines, glycolysis­associated genes ALDOA, PGK1, LDHA and HK2 were highly expressed in a PD­L1 high­expressed cell line. Overexpressed PD­L1 enhanced glucose consumption and the extracellular acidification rate, accompanied by decreased apoptosis and accumulation of cells in the S phase. In contrast, the apoptosis rate of tumor cells and the percentage of cells in the S phase were significantly increased following PD­L1 knockdown in the THP1 cell line. HK2 and LDHA expression decreased after AML tumor cells were treated with Akt inhibitor or rapamycin. In addition, the PD­L1­overexpressed cell line (PD­L1­OV) MOLM­13 exhibited rapid tumor progression. Glycolysis­associated genes were highly expressed in tumor tissues of PD­L1­OV MOLM­13, with increased Ki67. Based on these findings, PD­L1 may be considered as a suitable marker for prognosis and treatment in the clinical setting.


Assuntos
Antígeno B7-H1/genética , Subunidade alfa do Fator 1 Induzível por Hipóxia/genética , Leucemia Mieloide Aguda/genética , Serina-Treonina Quinases TOR/genética , Apoptose/genética , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Frutose-Bifosfato Aldolase/genética , Regulação Neoplásica da Expressão Gênica/genética , Glicólise/genética , Hexoquinase/genética , Humanos , L-Lactato Desidrogenase/genética , Leucemia Mieloide Aguda/patologia , Proteína Oncogênica v-akt/genética , Fosfoglicerato Quinase/genética , Transdução de Sinais/genética
18.
Mol Cell Biochem ; 466(1-2): 103-115, 2020 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32006291

RESUMO

Increasing evidence confirmed that the Warburg effect plays an important role involved in the progression of malignant tumors. Resibufogenin (RES) has been proved to have a therapeutic effect in multiple malignant tumors. However, the mechanism of whether RES exerted an antitumor effect on breast cancer through regulating the Warburg effect is largely unknown. The effect of RES on glycolysis was determined by glucose consumption, lactate production, ATP generation, extracellular acidification rate and oxygen consumption rate in breast cancer cells. The total RNA and protein levels were respectively measured by RT-qPCR and western blot. Cell proliferation and apoptosis were examined using the CCK-8 assay, colony formation assay, and flow cytometry, respectively. The interaction between miR-143-3p and HK2 was verified by dual-luciferase reporter gene assay. We also evaluated the influence of RES on the tumor growth and Warburg effect in vivo. RES treatment significantly decreased glycolysis, cell proliferation and induced apoptosis of both MDA-MB-453 and MCF-7 cells. Simultaneously, the expression of HK2 was decreased in breast cancer cells treated with RES, which was positively associated with tumor size and glycolysis. Moreover, HK2 was a direct target gene of miR-143-3p. Mechanistically, upregulation of miR-143-3p by RES treatment inhibited tumor growth by downregulating HK2-mediated Warburg effect in breast cancer. Our findings suggested that RES exerted anti-tumorigenesis and anti-glycolysis activities in breast cancer through upregulating the inhibitory effect of miR-143-3p on HK2 expression, which provided a new potential strategy for breast cancer clinical treatment.


Assuntos
Neoplasias da Mama , Bufanolídeos/farmacologia , Glicólise/efeitos dos fármacos , Hexoquinase/metabolismo , MicroRNAs/metabolismo , Proteínas de Neoplasias/metabolismo , RNA Neoplásico/metabolismo , Transdução de Sinais/efeitos dos fármacos , Neoplasias da Mama/tratamento farmacológico , Neoplasias da Mama/genética , Neoplasias da Mama/metabolismo , Neoplasias da Mama/patologia , Feminino , Glicólise/genética , Hexoquinase/genética , Humanos , Células MCF-7 , MicroRNAs/genética , Proteínas de Neoplasias/genética , RNA Neoplásico/genética , Transdução de Sinais/genética
19.
Science ; 367(6481): 1039-1042, 2020 02 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32108112

RESUMO

The actin fold is found in cytoskeletal polymers, chaperones, and various metabolic enzymes. Many actin-fold proteins, such as the carbohydrate kinases, do not polymerize. We found that Glk1, a Saccharomyces cerevisiae glucokinase, forms two-stranded filaments with ultrastructure that is distinct from that of cytoskeletal polymers. In cells, Glk1 polymerized upon sugar addition and depolymerized upon sugar withdrawal. Polymerization inhibits enzymatic activity; the Glk1 monomer-polymer equilibrium sets a maximum rate of glucose phosphorylation regardless of Glk1 concentration. A mutation that eliminated Glk1 polymerization alleviated concentration-dependent enzyme inhibition. Yeast containing nonpolymerizing Glk1 were less fit when growing on sugars and more likely to die when refed glucose. Glk1 polymerization arose independently from other actin-related filaments and may allow yeast to rapidly modulate glucokinase activity as nutrient availability changes.


Assuntos
Actinas/química , Adenosina Trifosfatases/química , Glucoquinase/química , Hexoquinase/química , Proteínas de Saccharomyces cerevisiae/química , Saccharomyces cerevisiae/enzimologia , Adenosina Trifosfatases/genética , Glucoquinase/genética , Hexoquinase/genética , Polimerização , Proteínas de Saccharomyces cerevisiae/genética
20.
J Zhejiang Univ Sci B ; 21(1): 77-86, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31898444

RESUMO

In this study, we aimed to evaluate the toxic effects, changes in life span, and expression of various metabolism-related genes in Caenorhabditis elegans, using RNA interference (RNAi) and mutant strains, after 3-bromopyruvate (3-BrPA) treatment. C. elegans was treated with various concentrations of 3-BrPA on nematode growth medium (NGM) plates, and their survival was monitored every 24 h. The expression of genes related to metabolism was measured by the real-time fluorescent quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR). Nematode survival in the presence of 3-BrPA was also studied after silencing three hexokinase (HK) genes. The average life span of C. elegans cultured on NGM with 3-BrPA was shortened to 5.7 d compared with 7.7 d in the control group. hxk-1, hxk-2, and hxk-3 were overexpressed after the treatment with 3-BrPA. After successfully interfering hxk-1, hxk-2, and hxk-3, the 50% lethal concentration (LC50) of all mutant nematodes decreased with 3-BrPA treatment for 24 h compared with that of the control. All the cyp35 genes tested were overexpressed, except cyp-35B3. The induction of cyp-35A1 expression was most obvious. The LC50 values of the mutant strains cyp-35A1, cyp-35A2, cyp-35A4, cyp-35B3, and cyp-35C1 were lower than that of the control. Thus, the toxicity of 3-BrPA is closely related to its effect on hexokinase metabolism in nematodes, and the cyp-35 family plays a key role in the metabolism of 3-BrPA.


Assuntos
Caenorhabditis elegans/efeitos dos fármacos , Piruvatos/toxicidade , Animais , Caenorhabditis elegans/metabolismo , Proteínas de Caenorhabditis elegans/genética , Sistema Enzimático do Citocromo P-450/genética , Hexoquinase/genética , Hexoquinase/fisiologia , Piruvatos/metabolismo , RNA Mensageiro/análise
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