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1.
Waste Manag ; 105: 511-519, 2020 Mar 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32143146

RESUMO

In order to improve characteristics of biochar, especially enhance immobilization of heavy metals in biochar, swine manure was pyrolyzed at low pyrolysis temperature (300 °C, 400 °C and 500 °C) with different amounts of sodium hydroxide (NaOH) added (0.5% and 2%, W/W). Results showed that NaOH addition during pyrolysis increased the pH, EC, ash content, yield rate, aromaticity and hydrophily, but did not increase surface area and porosity of resultant biochars. The addition of NaOH promoted the transformation of the mobile fraction of Cu, Zn and Cd into the oxidizable fraction. With respect to Cr and Pb, the oxidizable and residual fractions were increased slightly by the presence of NaOH. Meanwhile, adding NaOH could reduce the leachability and ecological risks of heavy metals in biochars. Our study suggested that NaOH-assisted pyrolysis of swine manure was an effective disposal approach for the immobilization of heavy metals.


Assuntos
Esterco , Metais Pesados , Animais , Carvão Vegetal , Hidróxido de Sódio , Suínos
2.
Sci Total Environ ; 715: 136809, 2020 May 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32007877

RESUMO

In this study, a novel 3D flower-sphere BiOBr/Bi4O5Br2 with proper-oxygen vacancies (OV) was successfully synthesized by using 3D BiOBr as a self-sacrificed template, NaOH as a structure-driving reagent and midwifery agent of OV. The synthesis mechanism was systematically studied. It revealed that Bi4O5Br2 lamina generated via in-situ phase transfer tightly interspersed in the interior and surface of 3D BiOBr hierarchical structures; calcination temperature, stirring time and -OH concentration can optimize the composition and structure of materials. Also, the calcination conditions (temperatures and air or N2 atmosphere) can regulate the OV's concentration. Ultimately, 3D hierarchical architectures, the optimal heterojunction composition and OV with proper concentrations three positive factors synergistically promoted the photoelectric activity of BiOBr/Bi4O5Br2-OV, making it exhibit ultrahigh photocatalytic activity for antibiotic photodegradation (tetracycline, TC; ciprofloxacin, CIP). We believe the synthesis methods and design idea mentioned in this paper have high instructive significance to prepare high-performance materials.


Assuntos
Fotólise , Antibacterianos , Bismuto , Flores , Oxigênio , Hidróxido de Sódio
3.
J Environ Manage ; 255: 109926, 2020 Feb 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32063307

RESUMO

Treatment of polluted wastewaters from industrial activities has become a source of major concern for the environment. In this work, real wastewater from a physico-chemical (WWFQ) treatment was tested through different oxidation technologies: Fenton and Fenton-like reagent and persulfate activated by NaOH and Fe(II). Oxidation reactions with Fenton's reagent were carried out in a 0.25 L batch reactor at 25 °C by adding either Fe(II) or Fe(III) and H2O2 to an aqueous solution of wastewater, whose pH was previously adjusted to 2 or 3. Iron concentration ranging from 25 to 100 mg/L and peroxide concentration from 2500 to 10000 mg/L were used. The total organic carbon slightly decreased when WWFQ was treated. Moreover, better results were obtained when Fe(II) was used than Fe(III). Both iron concentration and oxidant dosage had a positive influence on the chemical oxygen demand (COD) removal, until an asymptotic value of 30% was obtained. Oxidation of pollutants contained in WWFQ was studied with persulfate (18.4-294 mM) activated with NaOH and Fe(II) (36.8-588 mM). Again, a positive influence of both persulfate and NaOH was observed, although a similar asymptotic COD value was observed. This parallelism between both technologies confirms recalcitrant compounds were obtained.


Assuntos
Águas Residuárias , Poluentes Químicos da Água , Compostos Férricos , Compostos Ferrosos , Peróxido de Hidrogênio , Oxirredução , Hidróxido de Sódio , Eliminação de Resíduos Líquidos
4.
Bioresour Technol ; 304: 123001, 2020 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32088626

RESUMO

Giant reed was the first time used for photo-fermentative hydrogen production with HAU-M1 bacteria. Effects of NaOH and Ca(OH)2 pretreatments of giant reed on structural changes, enzymatic digestibility, hydrogen production, and energy conversion efficiency were evaluated. Compared to Ca(OH)2 pretreatment, NaOH pretreatment removed more dry matter and lignin at the same loading. The highest glucose yield (44.9%) of NaOH pretreatment was 1.74-fold higher than that of Ca(OH)2 pretreatment. 20% NaOH pretreated giant reed biomass achieved the highest hydrogen yield (98.3 mL/g TS), which was 20% and 70% higher than the highest level of Ca(OH)2 pretreated (20% Ca(OH)2) and untreated giant reed, respectively. Only giant reed biomass pretreated with 20% NaOH resulted in a significant (p < 0.05) increase (25%) in energy conversion efficiency.


Assuntos
Hidrogênio , Lignina , Biomassa , Fermentação , Hidrólise , Hidróxido de Sódio
5.
Bioresour Technol ; 301: 122706, 2020 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31945682

RESUMO

Bioemulsifiers are surface active compounds which could be potentially used in food processing, cosmetic sector and oil recovery. Sugarcane straw (SS), was used as the raw substrate for the production of bio-emulsifiers (BE) by Cutaneotrichosporon mucoides. Three different delignification strategies using dilute sodium hydroxide, sodium sulfite and ammonium hydroxide followed by enzymatic hydrolysis (Cellic CTec 2, 7.5% total solids, 15 FPU/g, 72 h) were studied. Enzyme hydrolysis of ammonium hydroxide pretreated SS showed a maximum of 62.19 ± 0.74 g/l total reducing sugars with 88.35% hydrolytic efficiency (HE) followed by sodium hydroxide (60.06 ± 0.33 g/l; 85.40% HE) and sodium sulfite pretreated SS (57.22 ± 0.52 g/l; 84.71% HE), respectively. The ultrastructure of SS (native and delignified) by fourier transform-infrared and near infrared spectroscopy, revealed notable structural differences. The fermentation of hydrolysates by C. mucoides into bioemulsifiers showing emulsification index (EI) of 54.33%, 48.66% and 32.66% from sodium sulfite, sodium hydroxide, and ammonium hydroxide pretreated SS, respectively.


Assuntos
Saccharum , Trichosporon , Hidróxido de Amônia , Fermentação , Hidrólise , Hidróxido de Sódio
6.
Waste Manag Res ; 38(1): 19-26, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31405339

RESUMO

The recovery of chromium from tannery sludge and from its respective ash constitutes an alternative process of tannery sludge treatment in order to ensure safe disposal. Chromium recovery was investigated based on simple hydrometallurgical processes, that is, leaching using aqueous solutions of acids. Leaching was applied either directly to air-dried sludge or to its respective ash, which results from thermal treatment of the air-dried sludge under anoxic conditions. The major parameters that influence the effectiveness of the leaching process were investigated to optimize chromium leaching. Specifically, contact time, pH value, temperature, liquid per solid ratio, and leaching agent (H2SO4 or HCl) were tested. Leached chromium, obtained directly from the initial tannery waste after 100 min leaching with H2SO4 at pH 1 and at 60°C, was used for the trivalent chromium precipitation by adding magnesia, calcium hydroxide, and sodium hydroxide as precipitation agents. The results revealed satisfactory leaching of trivalent chromium directly from the air-dried sludge. The chromium content in the solid precipitated using sodium hydroxide was about 59 wt %. In contrast, chromium was difficult to leach from the respective ash.


Assuntos
Cromo , Esgotos , Resíduos Industriais , Hidróxido de Sódio
7.
J Environ Manage ; 255: 109824, 2020 Feb 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31747627

RESUMO

Phosphorus (P) recovery from sludge has drawn widespread attention across the world to minimize the P load to the watershed, a concern for eutrophication, and to meet the stringent effluent discharge regulations in some countries. Waste activated sludge (WAS) and dewatered sludge (DS) were treated with a wide range of NaOH doses (0-0.75 g g-1 TS). The WAS sludge was diluted to 4.5%-2.25% of TS before the treatment to make comparable amount of TS as of DS (2.25%-1.5%). The kinetic study illustrated that P solubilization reached equilibrium within the first 20 min of treatment duration. Significant positive correlation was found between solution pH and P solubilization, whereas effect of TS was mostly insignificant. The experimental data was well fitted to the exponential models and exhibited maximum P solubilization of about 67% and 56% from the DS and WAS at NaOH doses of 0.71 and 0.27 g g-1 TS, respectively. The optimal NaOH application dose of 0.36 g g-1 TS for DS and 0.20 g g-1 TS for WAS were obtained with 64% and 48% of P solubilization, respectively. The modeling approach and the optimal dose of NaOH illustrated in this study could be utilized for other types of sludges having similar P to TS ratio and P solubilization mechanisms could be further extended to other type of P recovery techniques.


Assuntos
Fósforo , Esgotos , Concentração de Íons de Hidrogênio , Hidróxido de Sódio , Eliminação de Resíduos Líquidos
8.
Bioresour Technol ; 298: 122510, 2020 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31837582

RESUMO

A better understanding of biomass usability during storage would offer basis for management decisions in production. High-moisture corn stover was ensiled with sulfuric acid (H2SO4, 0.3% and 0.6%) or sodium hydroxide (NaOH, 0.5% and 1.0%) and ensiling characteristics, lignocellulosic profile and enzymatic saccharification were investigated on day 3, 7, 15, 30 and 60 of ensiling. The results showed that 0.6% H2SO4 reduced dry matter loss (9.81% to 6.34%) and ammonia-N content (3.89 to 1.04 g/kg DM) during ensiling, whereas it was converse for NaOH treatment (19.89%, 5.74 g/kg DM). Hemicellulose was reduced (27.98% to 22.61%, 16.81% DM) by 0.6% H2SO4 or 1.0% NaOH. Saccharification yield was decreased (306 to 229 mg/g DM) during ensiling, which was improved (229 to 356, 277 mg/g DM) by H2SO4 and NaOH treatments. This study suggests that ensiling with addition of 0.6% H2SO4 could improve nutrient preservation and saccharification yield of high-moisture corn stover.


Assuntos
Ácidos Sulfúricos , Zea mays , Fermentação , Hidrólise , Hidróxido de Sódio
9.
Carbohydr Polym ; 227: 115380, 2020 Jan 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31590848

RESUMO

Old corrugated containers with low recyclability were used as raw materials to synthesize a series of aerogels with varying cellulose concentrations in NaOH/urea solution via a freeze-drying process. The resulting aerogels had a rich porous structure with specific surface areas in the range of 132.72-245.19 m2.g-1 and mesopore volumes in the range of 0.73-1.53 cm3.g-1, and were tested for CO2 sorption at ambient temperature and pressure, displaying excellent CO2 adsorption capacities in the range of 1.96-11.78 mmol.g-1. Furthermore, the CO2/N2 selectivity of aerogels decreased with decreasing specific surface area, which was mainly caused by the decrease in CO2 capture. In addition, the CO2 sorption capacity of the sample with 2% cellulose content, CA-2, exceeded the values reported so far for many other sorbents with higher specific surface areas, and showed reasonable cyclic stability for CO2 capture. Therefore, this adsorbent represents an attractive prospect for CO2 uptake at room temperature.


Assuntos
Dióxido de Carbono/química , Sequestro de Carbono , Celulose/química , Adsorção , Géis , Papel , Porosidade , Reciclagem , Hidróxido de Sódio/química , Ureia/química
10.
Chemosphere ; 234: 917-924, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31519100

RESUMO

Nickel, massively used in plating industry but detrimental to ecosystem, tends to form stable complexes with organic additives in industrial effluents. Currently, most of the available processes aim at water decontamination from free toxic metal ions and thus, could not effectively remove nickel-carboxyl complexes from water. Herein, we employed a proprietary combined process Fe(III)/UV/NaOH, namely Fe(III) displacement and UV irradiation followed by alkaline precipitation, to validate its feasibility on the efficient removal of nickel-carboxyl complexes from synthetic and authentic effluents. Fe(III)/UV/NaOH outperformed other commonly used processes including NaOH precipitation, UV/NaOH, Fe(III) coagulation, and Fenton/NaOH. Each unit of the combined process was optimized, and the underlying mechanism was elucidated. Fe(III) displacement favored the stoichiometric release of free nickel ions and formation of Fe(III)-carboxyl complexes, which could be decarboxylated via ligand-metal charge transfer under UV irradiation. The precipitation unit aims at simultaneously removing the released Ni along with Fe species. Attractively, the presence of other organic species (ethylene glycol, ethyl acetate and humic acid) and anions (chloride and sulfate) exerted very slight effect on the final Ni removal, whereas greatly adverse effect occurred on the Fenton process under similar conditions. The feasibility of the combined process was validated by testing on an authentic electroplating effluent, resulting in the residual Ni below 0.1 mg/L, the most stringent discharge standard for Ni in electroplating effluent in China.


Assuntos
Compostos Férricos/química , Níquel/química , Poluentes Químicos da Água/química , Purificação da Água/métodos , China , Ecossistema , Galvanoplastia , Hidróxido de Sódio , Sulfatos , Raios Ultravioleta , Água , Poluentes Químicos da Água/análise
11.
Yakugaku Zasshi ; 139(9): 1195-1200, 2019.
Artigo em Japonês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31474635

RESUMO

In this study, we attempted to improve the non-aqueous titration method using N,N-dimethylformamide (DMF) in the Japanese Pharmacopoeia seventeenth edition (JP XVII) for advancement in experimental safety. As an alternative solvent for DMF, we demonstrate titrations using dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO), which has similar properties as and much higher safety than DMF. Five drugs (i.e., acetohexamide, glibenclamide, sulfamethoxazole, tranilast, and furosemide) listed in JP XVII use DMF as a solvent for titrations with sodium hydroxide standard solution. For these drugs, we examined whether DMF can be replaced with DMSO in quantitative analyses. As a result, a quantification similar to that of the Pharmacopoeia protocol is possible by simply replacing DMF with DMSO or using a mixed solvent of DMSO and water.


Assuntos
Dimetil Sulfóxido , Dimetilformamida , Farmacopeias como Assunto , Melhoria de Qualidade , Segurança , Solventes , Titulometria/métodos , Japão , Hidróxido de Sódio , Soluções , Água
12.
Mar Drugs ; 17(8)2019 Aug 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31374944

RESUMO

Microalgae are considered as excellent candidates for bioactive compounds, yet microalgal residues remaining after the extraction of one or two compounds are usually discarded, which is not economical. This study demonstrates the alkaline extraction of proteins from Chlorella pyrenoidosa residue after lipid and pigment extractions, and their functional properties. Single-factor experiments and response surface methodology were used to obtain the optimal conditions for protein extraction. Based on our results, a maximum protein yield of 722.70 mg/g, was obtained under the following extraction conditions: sodium hydroxide concentration 7.90%, extraction temperature 70.00 °C, extraction time 34.80 min, and microalgal residue concentration 8.20 mg/mL. The molecular weight of microalgal residue protein isolate (MRPI) was mainly distributed at the regions of 0.18-0.50 kDa, 0.50-1.50 kDa, and 1.50-5.00 kDa. The essential amino acid content was greater than the values recommended by FAO/WHO standards; a high essential amino acid index value (1.49) was another good indication that MRPI is suitable for human consumption. Moreover, MRPI exhibited excellent emulsifying properties and antioxidant activity, which suggests it may be useful as an emulsifying agent and antioxidant. These findings could improve the extraction methods of functional protein from microalgal residue and add value to microalgae-based bioactive compound production processes.


Assuntos
Chlorella/química , Microalgas/química , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Proteínas de Plantas/farmacologia , Sequência de Aminoácidos , Aminoácidos Essenciais/química , Antioxidantes/química , Antioxidantes/isolamento & purificação , Antioxidantes/farmacologia , Emulsificantes/química , Emulsificantes/isolamento & purificação , Emulsificantes/farmacologia , Alimento Funcional , Lipídeos/isolamento & purificação , Peso Molecular , Estresse Oxidativo/efeitos dos fármacos , Pigmentos Biológicos/isolamento & purificação , Extratos Vegetais/química , Extratos Vegetais/isolamento & purificação , Proteínas de Plantas/química , Proteínas de Plantas/isolamento & purificação , Hidróxido de Sódio/química , Temperatura Ambiente
13.
Chem Biodivers ; 16(9): e1900275, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31407869

RESUMO

The açaí fruit depulping produces large amounts of long lignocellulosic fiber bundles that are disposed in the environment. Chemical pretreatments may improve açaí fibers favoring their usage in advanced materials. This work aimed to define optimal alkali reaction parameters to improve the properties of açaí fibers. Two NaOH concentrations (5 % and 10 %) and two reaction temperatures (80 °C and 100 °C) were tested. The raw and treated fibers were analyzed by scanning electron microscopy, Fourier transformed infrared spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction, and thermal analyses. All the alkali pretreatments separated fibers from the bundles, unblocked pit channels by removing silicon structures, exposed the inner lignin, partially removed non-cellulosic compounds, and raised the cellulose crystalline index. The highest temperature and NaOH content resulted in better cleaning and isolation of the fibers, while milder conditions better preserved the cellulose crystalline structure and thermal stability.


Assuntos
Lignina/química , Hidróxido de Sódio/química , Lignina/isolamento & purificação , Tamanho da Partícula , Propriedades de Superfície , Temperatura Ambiente
14.
Chem Biol Interact ; 311: 108788, 2019 Sep 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31401088

RESUMO

Aqueous solutions of chlorpyrifos oxon are used to study the ability of chlorpyrifos oxon to catalyze protein crosslinking. Assays for protein crosslinking can avoid artifacts by using information on the stability of chlorpyrifos oxon in solution. We undertook to determine the half-life of chlorpyrifos oxon in aqueous solution because literature values do not exist. The rate of conversion of chlorpyrifos oxon to 3,5,6-trichloro-2-pyridinol was measured at 23 °C in 20 mM TrisCl pH 8 and pH 9 by recording loss of absorbance at 290 nm for chlorpyrifos oxon and increase in absorbance at 320 nm for 3,5,6-trichloro-2-pyridinol. The half-life of chlorpyrifos oxon was 20.9 days at pH 8 and 6.7 days at pH 9. Literature reports for the stability of other organophosphorus toxicants were summarized because our current studies suggest that other organophosphorus toxicants are also crosslinking agents.


Assuntos
Clorpirifos/análogos & derivados , Ésteres/química , Organofosfatos/química , Água/química , Butirilcolinesterase/química , Butirilcolinesterase/metabolismo , Clorpirifos/química , Clorpirifos/metabolismo , Meia-Vida , Humanos , Concentração de Íons de Hidrogênio , Hidrólise , Organofosfatos/metabolismo , Hidróxido de Sódio/química , Espectrofotometria
15.
Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci ; 60(10): 3669-3679, 2019 08 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31469894

RESUMO

Purpose: To investigate the presence and role of fibroblast senescence in the dynamic process of corneal wound healing involving stromal cell apoptosis, proliferation, and differentiation. Methods: An in vivo corneal wound healing model was performed using epithelial debridement in C57BL/6 mice. The corneas were stained using TUNEL, Ki67, and α-smooth muscle actin (α-SMA) as markers of apoptosis, proliferation, and myofibroblastic differentiation, respectively. Cellular senescence was confirmed by senescence-associated ß-galactosidase (SA-ß-gal) staining and P16Ink4a expression. Mitogenic response and gene expression were compared among normal fibroblasts, H2O2-induced senescent fibroblasts, and TGF-ß-induced myofibroblasts in vitro. The senescence was further detected in mouse models of corneal scarring, alkali burn, and penetrating keratoplasty (PKP). Results: The apoptosis and proliferation of corneal stromal cells were found to peak at 4 and 24 hours after epithelial debridement. Positive staining of SA-ß-gal was observed clearly in the anterior stromal cells at 3 to 5 days. The senescent cells displayed P16Ink4a+ vimentin+ α-SMA+, representing the major origin of activated corneal resident fibroblasts. Compared with normal fibroblasts and TGF-ß-induced myofibroblasts, H2O2-induced senescent fibroblasts showed a nonfibrogenic phenotype, including a reduced response to growth factor basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF) or platelet-derived growth factor-BB (PDGF-BB), increased matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)1/3/13 expression, and decreased fibronectin and collagen I expression. Moreover, cellular senescence was commonly found in the mouse corneal scarring, alkali burn, and PKP models. Conclusions: Corneal epithelial debridement induced the senescence of corneal fibroblasts after apoptosis and proliferation. The senescent cells displayed a nonfibrogenic phenotype and may be involved in the self-limitation of corneal fibrosis.


Assuntos
Senescência Celular/fisiologia , Lesões da Córnea/fisiopatologia , Fibroblastos/citologia , Cicatrização/fisiologia , Actinas/metabolismo , Animais , Apoptose , Western Blotting , Proliferação de Células , Lesões da Córnea/metabolismo , Fibroblastos/metabolismo , Citometria de Fluxo , Peróxido de Hidrogênio/toxicidade , Marcação In Situ das Extremidades Cortadas , Antígeno Ki-67/metabolismo , Masculino , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos BALB C , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase em Tempo Real , Hidróxido de Sódio/toxicidade
16.
Chemistry ; 25(61): 13885-13889, 2019 Nov 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31469925

RESUMO

Precipitation reactions under flow in confined media are relevant to the control of pathological biomineralization, processes affecting aquifers, and challenges in the petroleum industry. Here we show that for a simple geometry, such conditions create macroscopic structures including helices, tubes, lamellae, slugs, and disordered patterns. All structures emerge when salt solution is slowly injected into thin capillaries filled with hydroxide solution. For the helices, the pitch is proportional to the pump rate revealing a constant period of 0.63 s. Different morphologies of the insoluble metal hydroxide can co-exist causing random transitions along the capillary. On average, 15 % of the final system contains residual hydroxide solution. While mechanically stable for flow speeds above 25 mm min-1 , structures collapse and sediment for slower injection speeds. Some of the observed features share similarities with precipitate tubes in chemical gardens and the dynamics of liquid-liquid pipe flow.


Assuntos
Precipitação Química , Hidróxido de Sódio/química , Soluções/química , Sulfato de Zinco/química
17.
Waste Manag ; 99: 31-41, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31470264

RESUMO

To avoid the formation of undesired Cl compounds during polyvinyl chloride (PVC) wastes treatment and facilitate the recycling of valuable NaCl and dechlorinated hydrocarbons as feedstocks, advanced dechlorination (de-Cl) process should be developed. Here, an up-scale ball mill reactor was established for the de-Cl of real PVC wastes, including sealing strips from waste refrigerators and crushed cable coverings from waste cables. The effects of NaOH on de-Cl were validated with lab-scale studies and the influences of mechanical conditions were innovatively investigated. A maximum de-Cl degree of 99% was obtained with 1 M NaOH in ethylene glycol for sealing strips, whereas a maximum de-Cl degree of 92% was obtained with Φ1.27 cm stainless steel balls at a moderate rotation speed for cable coverings. The remaining Cl content in the sample residues was small and decreased with decreasing residue size, resulting in minimum contents of 0.49% and 0.61% for sealing strips and cable coverings, respectively. The de-Cl behavior was consistent with a shrinking-core model and the meaning of kinetic parameters was illustrated. The ball milling process was simulated by discrete element method (DEM). A positive correlation was observed between the apparent rate constant of the experimental de-Cl process and the specific impact energy calculated using DEM simulations. The combined experimental and simulation approach suggested that the surface of PVC is first dechlorinated and then crushed into fine particles by ball milling to expose the inner unreacted surface. For industrial application, the balance of chemical and mechanical conditions should be optimized.


Assuntos
Etilenoglicol , Cloreto de Polivinila , Halogenação , Reciclagem , Hidróxido de Sódio
18.
Carbohydr Res ; 484: 107773, 2019 Oct 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31404813

RESUMO

An HPLC method suitable for rapid monitoring of lactulose production by isomerization from lactose was developed. The separation of lactose and lactulose under hydrophilic interaction liquid chromatography (HILIC) mode was achieved with resolution 1.5 within 5 min. Since isocratic elution was used, there is no extra time necessary for the column equilibration. Application of the method was illustrated on monitoring lactulose isomerization with catalysis of sodium hydroxide in the presence of sodium tetraborate at 70 °C (pH = 11). The conversion yield obtained for lactulose was 86%, and corresponding purity 76%. For the first time, a polyhydroxy stationary phase for separation of lactose and lactulose is reported.


Assuntos
Fracionamento Químico/métodos , Lactose/química , Lactulose/análise , Boratos/química , Catálise , Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Pressão , Temperatura Alta , Interações Hidrofóbicas e Hidrofílicas , Isomerismo , Lactose/análise , Lactulose/química , Hidróxido de Sódio/química
19.
Bioresour Technol ; 291: 121844, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31400704

RESUMO

A low-temperature sodium hydroxide (NaOH) pretreatment for sugarcane bagasse (SCB) was obtained via the surface response design in this study. However, a large quantity of water consumption and wastewater generation which have been the common problems for alkaline pretreatment of lignocellulose still exists in this pretreatment. In order to reduce water consumption and wastewater generation, this study attempted to perform enzymatic hydrolysis and fermentation of NaOH-treated SCB without washing process. It showed that after pretreatment and solid-liquid separation, NaOH-treated SCB could be directly hydrolysed by cellulase via pH and solid-liquid adjustment without washing steps, and the maximum enzymatic hydrolysis efficiency could reach to 70.2%. A domesticated Saccharomyces cerevisiae Y2034 which can endure 6-times diluted BL was obtained, and realized 67.5% ethanol yield from the enzymatic hydrolysate of unwashed NaOH-treated SCB. It provided a clue for converting NaOH-treated lignocellulose to ethanol at low water consumption and wastewater generation.


Assuntos
Celulose/química , Etanol/química , Saccharum/química , Hidróxido de Sódio/química , Celulose/metabolismo , Temperatura Baixa , Etanol/metabolismo , Fermentação , Hidrólise , Lignina/química , Lignina/metabolismo , Saccharomyces cerevisiae/metabolismo , Saccharum/metabolismo , Águas Residuárias/química
20.
Acta Sci Pol Technol Aliment ; 18(2): 173-184, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31256545

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Performing iron fortification by adding the iron compound directly into foods helps to tackle the problem of iron deficiency. However, the fortification brings about some problems as well, including undesirable organoleptic effects, oxidation, and reduced bioavailability. Ensuring appropriate encapsulation can overcome these problems. Hence, it is crucial to identify a proper excipient for protecting the iron. Glucomannan has the potential to be a suitable iron encapsulation excipient. The present work therefore sought to prepare an iron excipient from modified glucomannan using the gelation method. Glucomannan modification was conducted by either chemical reaction or in combination with another compound. METHODS: Glucomannan was isolated from Amorphophallus oncophyllus flour. To maximize encapsulation performance, glucomannan was modified by either deacetylation using NaOH (0.4 M) or in combination with alginate. After dissolving the excipient (1%), this solution was mixed with FeSO4 to obtain 25 mg of iron per 1 g of excipient. The mixture was dropped into either an ethanol or CaCl2 solution for gelation. The beads of seven variations of the resultant glucomannan-based excipient were investigated for their encapsulation efficiency, bead size, and swelling. The release of iron in the two pH solutions together with their respective release models were also evaluated. RESULTS: It was revealed that the highest iron efficiency (64%) was achieved using deacetylated glucoman- nan, which was gelled in CaCl2. However, this matrix also resulted in the highest release rate in both pH solutions. The release rate of iron was lower in the low pH solution (pH: 1.2) than in the higher pH solution (pH: 6.8) for all matrix combinations. The Korsmeyer model was the most fitting model for describing the release profile of iron in both pH solutions (R2 ≥ 0.958) for all excipient variations. CONCLUSIONS: This study suggested the potency of modified glucomannan to be pH-sensitive for iron encapsulation.


Assuntos
Amorphophallus/química , Excipientes , Ferro/administração & dosagem , Mananas/química , Alginatos/química , Cloreto de Cálcio/química , Cápsulas , Géis , Humanos , Concentração de Íons de Hidrogênio , Hidróxido de Sódio/química
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