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1.
JAMA ; 323(3): 225-236, 2020 01 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31961418

RESUMO

Importance: It is not known if use of colloid solutions containing hydroxyethyl starch (HES) to correct for intravascular deficits in high-risk surgical patients is either effective or safe. Objective: To evaluate the effect of HES 130/0.4 compared with 0.9% saline for intravascular volume expansion on mortality and postoperative complications after major abdominal surgery. Design, Setting, and Participants: Multicenter, double-blind, parallel-group, randomized clinical trial of 775 adult patients at increased risk of postoperative kidney injury undergoing major abdominal surgery at 20 university hospitals in France from February 2016 to July 2018; final follow-up was in October 2018. Interventions: Patients were randomized to receive fluid containing either 6% HES 130/0.4 diluted in 0.9% saline (n = 389) or 0.9% saline alone (n = 386) in 250-mL boluses using an individualized hemodynamic algorithm during surgery and for up to 24 hours on the first postoperative day, defined as ending at 7:59 am the following day. Main Outcomes and Measures: The primary outcome was a composite of death or major postoperative complications at 14 days after surgery. Secondary outcomes included predefined postoperative complications within 14 days after surgery, durations of intensive care unit and hospital stays, and all-cause mortality at postoperative days 28 and 90. Results: Among 826 patients enrolled (mean age, 68 [SD, 7] years; 91 women [12%]), 775 (94%) completed the trial. The primary outcome occurred in 139 of 389 patients (36%) in the HES group and 125 of 386 patients (32%) in the saline group (difference, 3.3% [95% CI, -3.3% to 10.0%]; relative risk, 1.10 [95% CI, 0.91-1.34]; P = .33). Among 12 prespecified secondary outcomes reported, 11 showed no significant difference, but a statistically significant difference was found in median volume of study fluid administered on day 1: 1250 mL (interquartile range, 750-2000 mL) in the HES group and 1500 mL (interquartile range, 750-2150 mL) in the saline group (median difference, 250 mL [95% CI, 83-417 mL]; P = .006). At 28 days after surgery, 4.1% and 2.3% of patients had died in the HES and saline groups, respectively (difference, 1.8% [95% CI, -0.7% to 4.3%]; relative risk, 1.76 [95% CI, 0.79-3.94]; P = .17). Conclusions and Relevance: Among patients at risk of postoperative kidney injury undergoing major abdominal surgery, use of HES for volume replacement therapy compared with 0.9% saline resulted in no significant difference in a composite outcome of death or major postoperative complications within 14 days after surgery. These findings do not support the use of HES for volume replacement therapy in such patients. Trial Registration: ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT02502773.


Assuntos
Abdome/cirurgia , Hidratação/métodos , Derivados de Hidroxietil Amido/uso terapêutico , Complicações Pós-Operatórias/prevenção & controle , Solução Salina/uso terapêutico , Procedimentos Cirúrgicos Operatórios/efeitos adversos , Lesão Renal Aguda/prevenção & controle , Idoso , Método Duplo-Cego , Feminino , Humanos , Cuidados Intraoperatórios , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Cuidados Pós-Operatórios , Complicações Pós-Operatórias/epidemiologia , Complicações Pós-Operatórias/mortalidade , Estatísticas não Paramétricas
2.
J Surg Res ; 245: 225-233, 2020 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31421367

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: In the past, protective effects in terms of prolonged survival of malate-containing solutions were demonstrated in the treatment of experimental hemorrhagic shock (HS). The objective of the present study was to investigate malate's impact on the kidneys. Therefore, renal function and morphological and histological anomalies were examined. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Male Wistar rats were subjected to severe HS by dropping the mean arterial blood pressure to 25-30 mmHg. The depth was held for 60 min. Subsequently, reperfusion with Ringer's solution or a 10 mM malate-containing solution was performed both together with blood in a 2:1 relation, followed by an observation period of 150 min. RESULTS: Compared with the control group (Ringer's solution), malate increased diuresis and, thus, enhanced excretion of creatinine and urea. Shock-induced histopathological changes were reduced by malate administration. Renal hemorrhages in the straight proximal tubule and in the distal tubule were reduced and even significantly reduced in the proximal convoluted tubule. Malate significantly preserved the endothelial glycocalyx in the proximal tubule. Surprisingly, malate induced glucosuria in the absence of a significant renal dysfunction, morphological damage, or hyperglycemia. CONCLUSIONS: The protective effect of malate observed in the treatment of severe HS in the rat may be explained by a certain protective effect of this substance for the kidney.


Assuntos
Lesão Renal Aguda/prevenção & controle , Hidratação/métodos , Malatos/administração & dosagem , Ressuscitação/métodos , Choque Hemorrágico/terapia , Lesão Renal Aguda/etiologia , Lesão Renal Aguda/patologia , Animais , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Humanos , Infusões Intravenosas , Rim/efeitos dos fármacos , Rim/patologia , Masculino , Ratos , Ratos Wistar , Índice de Gravidade de Doença , Choque Hemorrágico/complicações , Choque Hemorrágico/diagnóstico , Resultado do Tratamento
6.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 98(48): e18145, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31770252

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Hypotensive resuscitation is an old study. But its benefits and losses are still controversial. In clinic, the method of fluid resuscitation needs more reliable experimental evidence. This study's objective is to systematically evaluate the efficacy of hypotensive resuscitation in patients with traumatic hemorrhagic shock. METHODS AND ANALYSIS: Through October 2019, Web of Science, PubMed, the Cochrane Library, EMBASE, and Clinical Trials will be systematically searched to identify randomized controlled trials exploring the efficacy of hypotensive resuscitation in traumatic hemorrhagic shock. Strict screening and quality evaluation will be independently performed on the obtained literature by 2 researchers; outcome indexes will be extracted, and a meta-analysis will be performed on the data using Revman 5.3 software. ETHICS AND DISSEMINATION: The stronger evidence about the efficacy of hypotensive resuscitation in traumatic hemorrhagic shock will be provided for clinicians. TRIAL REGISTRATION NUMBER: PROSPERO CRD42019133169. STRENGTHS OF THIS STUDY: This study is not only a simple combination of data, but also to verify and discuss the reliability of the results, and provide more convincing evidence for clinicians. LIMITATIONS OF THIS STUDY: Firstly, according to the previous literature researching, it is found that the number of relevant randomized controlled trials is small and the quality level of the literature is uneven. Secondly, the efficacy of hypotensive resuscitation is discussed for a long time, different trials may take place at different times. Comparability between different trials is reduced.


Assuntos
Hidratação/métodos , Ressuscitação , Choque Hemorrágico , Ferimentos e Lesões/complicações , Protocolos Clínicos , Humanos , Hipotensão Controlada/métodos , Metanálise como Assunto , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Ressuscitação/efeitos adversos , Ressuscitação/métodos , Choque Hemorrágico/complicações , Choque Hemorrágico/terapia
7.
Presse Med ; 48(11 Pt 2): 347-353, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31694791

RESUMO

Plasma exchange is a well-established therapeutic procedure commonly used in many autoimmune disorders. The beneficial effects of plasma exchange are thought to occur through the elimination of pathogenic mediators found in plasma, including autoantibodies, complement components, and cytokines. The catastrophic antiphsopholipid syndrome (CAPS) is a life-threatening variant of the antiphospholipid syndrome (APS) where several thrombosis take place in a short period of time in patients with circulating antiphospholipid antibodies. The triple therapy with anticoagulation, corticosteroids and plasma exchange or intravenous immunoglobulins has been proposed in CAPS. CAPS is a rare disease precluding the conduction of formal clinical trials. However, the observation of a better clinical course of patients who received this treatment supports their use. Plasma exchange has become an established therapeutic procedure in CAPS but there are no studies regarding the better approach and thus its use relies on the experience of the physicians in charge. The current article aims to review potential mechanisms of action of plasma exchange and the technical aspects of this procedure and will focus on its current role in CAPS, the experience published in treating this condition and the treatment protocol that we use in our institution.


Assuntos
Síndrome Antifosfolipídica/terapia , Troca Plasmática/métodos , Corticosteroides/uso terapêutico , Anticorpos Antifosfolipídeos/sangue , Anticoagulantes/uso terapêutico , Síndrome Antifosfolipídica/sangue , Síndrome Antifosfolipídica/imunologia , Terapia Combinada/métodos , Hidratação/métodos , Humanos
8.
Med. intensiva (Madr., Ed. impr.) ; 43(8): 480-488, nov. 2019. ilus, graf, tab
Artigo em Inglês | IBECS | ID: ibc-185885

RESUMO

Immunotherapy seeks to harness the power of the immune system to eradicate malignant tissues. Despite impressive therapeutic success, however, it can be accompanied by severe adverse effects such as cytokine release syndrome (CRS). These therapies cause the release of a great amount of cytokines, with IL-6 playing a central role, that can potentially lead to multiple organ dysfunction. The diagnosis is based on the presence of compatible clinical symptoms, elevated biomarkers and recent treatment with a biological agent. Mild cases can be managed through symptomatic treatment and fluids, while more severe episodes may need supportive therapy and specific care with the anti-IL-6 receptor monoclonal antibody tocilizumab. Although corticosteroids are also effective, they suppress T-cell activity, and so should only be considered as second line therapy or in cases of severe neurological involvement, since tocilizumab does not cross the blood-brain barrier. Cytokine release syndrome generally has a good prognosis, often being reversible and with a good response to specific treatment. Despite possible concerns about the admission of such patients (mainly with advanced oncological disease), we consider that the Intensive Care Unit should remain an option, since these individuals present a potentially reversible drug-related adverse event and are being treated with a new drug that could change the prognosis of the disorder. Intensive care medicine will become a key component in the management of the complications of modern cancer therapies, dealing with patients presenting an overactive immune system producing organ dysfunction while also trying to maintain treatment efficacy. This is the new paradigm


La inmunoterapia potencia el sistema inmunitario para erradicar las células malignas. A pesar de mostrar un importante éxito terapéutico, puede ir acompañada de efectos adversos graves, como el síndrome de liberación de citocinas. Dichas terapias pueden causar la liberación de importantes cantidades de citocinas, siendo IL-6 el mediador principal, e inducir un cuadro de disfunción multiorgánica. El diagnóstico se basa en la presencia de síntomas clínicos compatibles, elevación de biomarcadores y tratamiento reciente con un agente biológico. Los casos leves se pueden manejar con tratamiento sintomático y fluidoterapia, mientras que los episodios graves necesitarán tratamiento de soporte y específico con tocilizumab, un anticuerpo monoclonal anti-receptor de IL-6. Los corticoides, aunque efectivos, suprimen la actividad de las células T, por lo que su uso se considera de segunda línea o en afectación neurológica grave, ya que tocilizumab no cruza la barrera hematoencefálica. A pesar de que puedan existir dudas sobre el ingreso en unidades de críticos de estos pacientes, principalmente con enfermedad avanzada, consideramos que podrían beneficiarse del ingreso en las UCI, ya que se trata de pacientes con un evento adverso potencialmente reversible, recibiendo un nuevo fármaco que podría cambiar el pronóstico de su enfermedad. La medicina intensiva es clave en el manejo de las complicaciones de las nuevas terapias oncológicas, tratando pacientes con un sistema inmunitario excesivamente activado mientras se intenta preservar la eficacia del tratamiento. Este es el nuevo paradigma


Assuntos
Humanos , Citocinas , Síndrome , Unidades de Terapia Intensiva , Imunoterapia , Prognóstico , Neoplasias/terapia , Biomarcadores , Hidratação/métodos , Neoplasias/fisiopatologia , Linfócitos T/efeitos dos fármacos
9.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 98(43): e17586, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31651865

RESUMO

RATIONALE: Tolvaptan, an oral vasopressin V2 receptor antagonist, is a new approach for the treatment of adult patients with the syndrome of inappropriate antidiuresis (SIADH). However, dose-dependent side effect including rapid increase in serum sodium levels and liver injury, and the expensive price limit the long-term use of tolvaptan. We report a case of SIADH patient treated with intermittent lower dose of tolvaptan combined with fluid restriction. PATIENT CONCERNS: A 60-year-old woman presented of nausea and vomiting, dizzy and amaurosis, and transient disturbance, after a week of persistent diarrhea. DIAGNOSIS: Diagnosis of SIADH was based on severe persistent hyponatremia, decreased plasma osmolality, raised urinary sodium excretion, and the absence of other causes. INTERVENTIONS: She was given the treatment of tolvaptan 15 mg once daily, and experienced tolvaptan-related side effects including thirst and dry mouth, polyuria, and dizziness. Then, single dose of tolvaptan was reduced from 15 to 7.5 mg, and the interval between medication was gradually prolonged from 24 to 72 hours. Meanwhile, serum sodium was negatively correlated with the amount of daily water intake in interval days, so daily water intake of the patient was restricted to 1500 mL in interval days. OUTCOMES: Serum sodium was maintained within the normal range, 137 to 141 mmol/L without liver damage. LESSONS: For patients with chronic SIADH, the tolvaptan dose should be individualized, and the regimen of intermittent lower dose of tolvaptan combined with fluid restriction maybe an effective choice.


Assuntos
Antagonistas dos Receptores de Hormônios Antidiuréticos/administração & dosagem , Hidratação/métodos , Síndrome de Secreção Inadequada de HAD/terapia , Tolvaptan/administração & dosagem , Terapia Combinada , Feminino , Humanos , Síndrome de Secreção Inadequada de HAD/sangue , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Sódio/sangue , Resultado do Tratamento
10.
Am Surg ; 85(10): 1171-1174, 2019 Oct 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31657318

RESUMO

Avoiding excess fluid administration is necessary when managing critically ill surgical patients. The aim of this study was to delineate the current practices of IV electrolyte (IVE) replacement in a surgical ICU and quantify their contribution to the fluid balance (FB) status. Patients admitted to the surgical ICU over a six-month period were reviewed. Patients undergoing dialysis and those with ICU stay <72 hours were excluded. A total of 248 patients were included. The median age was 60 years, and 57 per cent were male. Overall, 1131 patient ICU days were analyzed. The median daily FB was 672 mL. IVEs were administered in 62 per cent of ICU days. In days that IVEs were used, negative FB was significantly less likely to be achieved (62% vs 69%, P = 0.02). The most commonly administered IVE was calcium (32% of ICU days); however, the largest volume of IVE was administered in the form of phosphorus (median 225 mL). Diuretics were administered in 17 per cent of ICU days. Patients who received diuretics were significantly more likely to receive IVE (70% vs 61%, P = 0.02). Administration of IVE may contribute to the daily positive FB of surgical ICU patients. Implementation of practices that can ameliorate this effect is encouraged.


Assuntos
Estado Terminal , Eletrólitos/administração & dosagem , Infusões Intravenosas/métodos , Procedimentos Cirúrgicos Operatórios , Equilíbrio Hidroeletrolítico , Cálcio/administração & dosagem , Diuréticos/administração & dosagem , Feminino , Hidratação/efeitos adversos , Hidratação/métodos , Humanos , Infusões Intravenosas/estatística & dados numéricos , Unidades de Terapia Intensiva , Sulfato de Magnésio/administração & dosagem , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Fósforo/administração & dosagem , Potássio/administração & dosagem , Estudos Retrospectivos
11.
Zhonghua Shao Shang Za Zhi ; 35(10): 733-739, 2019 Oct 20.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31658544

RESUMO

Objective: To preliminarily investigate the effect of intraoperative goal-directed fluid management (GDFM) on pulmonary function and oxygen dynamics in patients with severe burns. Methods: From February 2017 to May 2018, 30 patients admitted to Burn Department of our hospital with severe burns who met the criteria for inclusion and needed escharectomy and skin grafting were enrolled in this prospective randomized controlled trial. The patients were divided into group GDFM of 15 cases [14 males and 1 female, (45±14) years old] and conventional liquid management group of 15 cases [12 males and 3 females, (42±10) years old] according to the random number table. During escharectomy and skin grafting, volume of patients in group GDFM was managed according to the GDFM scheme, based on cardiac output index, stroke volume variation, stroke volume index, hemoglobin, central venous oxygen saturation (ScvO(2)), and other parameters; volume of patients in conventional liquid management group was managed according to clinical experience and conventional liquid management scheme, based on mean arterial pressure, central venous pressure, urine output, hemoglobin, and other parameters. At post operation hour (POH) 1, 6, 12, and 24, arterial and venous blood was collected from patients of the two groups to determine the levels of extravascular lung water index (ELWI), global end-diastolic volume index (GEDI), oxygenation index, ScvO(2), central venous-to-arterial blood carbon dioxide partial pressure difference (Pcv-aCO(2)), lactic acid, pH value, bicarbonate ion, and base excess routinely. Data were processed with Fisher's exact probability test, t test, analysis of variance for repeated measurement, and least significant difference test. Results: (1) The ELWI of patients in group GDFM was (4.3±1.1) mL/kg at POH 1, which was significantly lower than (6.5±3.6) mL/kg in conventional liquid management group (t=2.26, P<0.05). The ELWI levels of patients in group GDFM at POH 6, 12, and 24 were (6.8±2.2), (6.6±2.0), and (6.9±1.6) mL/kg, respectively, significantly higher than the level at POH 1 within the same group (P<0.01), and similar to (8.5±3.1), (7.8±2.3), and (8.0±3.5) mL/kg in conventional liquid management group (t=1.73, 1.53, 1.10, P>0.05). The GEDI levels between patients of the two groups were similar, and there was no significantly statistical difference between the two groups as a whole (treatment factor main effect F=2.35, time factor main effect F=0.44, interaction F=0.07, P>0.05). (2) The oxygenation index of patients in group GDFM was (350±78) mL/kg at POH 1, which was significantly higher than (259±109) mL/kg in conventional liquid management group (t=2.63, P<0.05). In conventional liquid management group, the oxygenation index of patients at POH 6 was significantly higher than that at POH 1, 12, or 24 (P<0.01). The ScvO(2) levels of patients in group GDFM at POH 1, 6, and 12 were 0.516±0.105, 0.679±0.121, and 0.713±0.104, respectively, which were significantly higher than 0.382±0.194, 0.545±0.194, and 0.595±0.191 in conventional liquid management group (t=2.35, 2.27, 2.10, P<0.05). The ScvO(2) levels of patients in the two groups at POH 6, 12, and 24 were significantly higher than those levels at POH 1 within the same group (P<0.01), and the ScvO(2) of patients in conventional liquid management group at POH 24 was significantly higher than that at POH 6 or 12 within the same group (P<0.05 or P<0.01). The Pcv-aCO(2) levels of patients in group GDFM were significantly lower than those in conventional liquid management group at POH 1 and 6 (t=2.55, 2.71, P<0.05). The Pcv-aCO(2) of patients in group GDFM at POH 12 was significantly lower than that at POH 6 or 24 within the same group (P<0.05). (3) The blood lactic acid levels and pH values between patients of the two groups were similar at POH 1, 6, 12, and 24 (t=0.89, 0.19, 0.26, 0.23; 1.55, 0.71, 0.77, 0.77, P>0.05). In conventional liquid management group, the blood lactic acid levels of patients at POH 6, 12, and 24 were significantly lower than the level at POH 1 within the same group (P<0.05), and the pH values of patients at POH 6, 12, and 24 were significantly higher than the value at POH 1 within the same group (P<0.05). The levels of bicarbonate ion and base excess between patients of the two groups were similar, and there were no significantly statistical differences between the two groups as a whole (treatment factor main effect F=0.06, 0.11, time factor main effect F=2.07, 1.59, interaction F=1.45, 0.91, P>0.05). Conclusions: GDFM is helpful to improve the pulmonary function and oxygen dynamics in patients with severe burns in the short term after escharectomy and skin grafting. It has certain significance in preventing and reducing pulmonary edema and pulmonary complications in patients with severe burn after operation.


Assuntos
Queimaduras/terapia , Hidratação/métodos , Pulmão/fisiologia , Oxigênio , Adulto , Queimaduras/complicações , Pressão Venosa Central , Feminino , Metas , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Prospectivos , Transplante de Pele , Resultado do Tratamento
12.
Br J Anaesth ; 123(6): 768-776, 2019 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31627889

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Sufficient tissue oxygen tension may reduce the risk of postoperative wound infections. Supplemental administration of crystalloids increases subcutaneous oxygen tension (Psqo2). Colloids remain longer in the intravascular system and might therefore increase Psqo2 even more than crystalloids. Therefore, we tested the hypothesis that goal-directed colloid administration increases the perioperative Psqo2 more compared with crystalloid administration. METHODS: We randomly assigned 80 patients undergoing elective open abdominal surgery to receive fluid boluses of hydroxyethyl starch (HES) or lactated Ringer's (LR) solution guided by oesophageal Doppler. Intraoperative Psqo2 was measured in the upper arm. After operation, we measured the Psqo2 in the upper arm and in the surgical wound. RESULTS: Forty patients were enrolled in each group. Patients in the colloid group received HES solution 750 ml (500; 1000) and LR solution 1500 ml (1000; 2000). Patients in the crystalloid group received LR solution 2825 ml (2000; 3960). The goal-directed administration of colloids did not improve intraoperative Psqo2 in the arm compared with crystalloid administration (11.4 kPa [9.0; 16.6] vs 11.2 kPa [8.6; 15.1], respectively; P=0.58). Postoperative arm Psqo2 was 8.1 kPa (6.5; 9.6) in the colloid group and 7.3 kPa (5.7; 9.1) in the crystalloid group (P=0.11). Postoperative surgical wound Psqo2 was 10.7 kPa (8.6; 13.4) in the colloid group and 10.1 kPa (8.1; 12.7) in the crystalloid group (P=0.68). CONCLUSIONS: Goal-directed colloid administration did not increase Psqo2 compared with goal-directed crystalloid administration in patients undergoing open abdominal surgery. CLINICAL TRIAL REGISTRATION: NCT00517127.


Assuntos
Abdome/cirurgia , Hidratação/métodos , Derivados de Hidroxietil Amido/administração & dosagem , Oxigênio/metabolismo , Lactato de Ringer/administração & dosagem , Tela Subcutânea/metabolismo , Adulto , Idoso , Braço , Coloides , Soluções Cristaloides , Feminino , Metas , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Substitutos do Plasma/administração & dosagem , Adulto Jovem
13.
Thorac Surg Clin ; 29(4): 447-455, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31564402

RESUMO

Paraesophageal hernia repairs are complex surgical cases frequently performed on patients of advanced age with multiple comorbidities, both of which create difficulties in the anesthetic management. Preoperative evaluation is challenging because of overlapping cardiopulmonary symptoms. The patient's symptoms and anatomy lead to an increased aspiration risk and the potential need for a rapid sequence induction. Depending on the surgical approach, lung isolation may be required. Communication with the surgeon is vital throughout the case, especially when placing gastric tube and bougies. Multimodal analgesia should include regional and/or neuraxial techniques, in addition to the standard intravenous and oral pain medications.


Assuntos
Anestesia Geral/métodos , Hérnia Hiatal/cirurgia , Herniorrafia/métodos , Manuseio das Vias Aéreas/métodos , Hidratação/métodos , Humanos , Intubação Gastrointestinal/métodos , Laparoscopia , Bloqueadores Neuromusculares/uso terapêutico , Dor Pós-Operatória/terapia , Respiração Artificial/métodos , Medição de Risco
14.
Zhonghua Wei Zhong Bing Ji Jiu Yi Xue ; 31(8): 1028-1032, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31537233

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To explore the effects of different fluid replenishment methods on the internal environment, body thermal regulatory response and severe heatstroke of 5-km armed cross-country training soldiers. METHODS: A Special Force officers and soldiers who participated in 5-km armed cross-country training (2-3 times a week, 25-30 minutes each time for 3 weeks) during summer training from June to July in 2018 were enrolled, and they were divided into three groups according to the random number table, with 300 trainees in each group. 200 mL of drinking fluids were given to each group 15 minutes before and after each 5-km armed cross-country training: A group with boiled water, B group with purified water, and C group with beverage prepared by pharmaceutical laboratory of the 990th Hospital of PLA Joint Logistics Support Force (100 mL containing 6 g carbohydrates, 42 mg sodium, and 11 mg potassium). The venous blood was collected before and after the last training or during the onset of severe heatstroke to do the following tests: serum cardiac troponin I (cTnI, chemiluminescence), MB isoenzyme of creatine kinase (CK-MB, immunosuppressive), serum creatinine (SCr, enzymatic method), urea nitrogen (BUN, enzymatic method), alanine aminotransferase (ALT, tryptase), aspartate transaminase (AST, tryptase), and Na+, K+, Cl- (electrode method). The heart rate (HR) and core temperature (Tc, anal temperature) were monitored at the same time. The amount of sweat in training and the occurrence of severe heatstroke were also recorded. RESULTS: There was no significant difference in heart, liver, kidney function, electrolyte and body heat regulation reaction among three groups of 5-km armed cross-country trainees before training. Compared with before training, the levels of serum cTnI, CK-MB, SCr, BUN, ALT, AST, HR and Tc were significantly increased after training or during the onset of severe heatstroke in three groups, while the contents of Na+, K+, Cl- were significantly decreased, but the increase or decrease of group C was relatively smaller compared with group A and group B [cTnI (µg/L): 0.9 (0.6, 1.4) vs. 1.1 (0.7, 2.8), 1.0 (0.6, 3.3); CK-MB (U/L): 7.0 (5.0, 11.0) vs. 9.0 (6.0, 14.5), 8.0 (6.0, 15.0); SCr (µmol/L): 92.09±18.64 vs. 102.78±18.77, 103.64±20.07; BUN (mmol/L): 7 (6, 9) vs. 9 (8, 11), 10 (8, 13); ALT (U/L): 27 (22, 34) vs. 36 (30, 43), 34 (27, 43); AST (U/L): 37 (31, 48) vs. 41 (34, 50), 39 (34, 51); HR (bpm): 87.01±17.07 vs. 95.88±21.06, 96.59±22.04; Tc (centigrade): 37.73±0.81 vs. 38.03±1.05, 38.10±1.04; Na+ (mmol/L): 150.14±3.86 vs. 144.18±8.89, 144.04±9.39; K+ (mmol/L): 4.32±0.57 vs. 4.15±0.62, 4.13±0.51; Cl- (mmol/L): 100.43±3.71 vs. 98.42±4.24, 98.41±4.58; all P < 0.01]. The incidence of severe heatstroke in group C was significantly lower than that in group A and group B [1.67% (5/300) vs. 5.00% (15/300), 5.33% (16/300), χ2 = 6.424, P = 0.040]. There was no significant difference in sweating volume in groups A, B, C (g: 370.47±48.71, 370.85±50.66, 370.17±50.21, F = 0.014, P = 0.986). There was no significant difference in the above indexes between group A and group B (all P > 0.05). Bi-classification Logistic regression analysis showed that the increase of HR, Tc and excessive loss of Na+, K+, Cl- were risk factors for severe heatstroke [odds ratio (OR) was 0.848, 0.138, 1.565, 17.996 and 2.328 respectively, all P < 0.01]. CONCLUSIONS: Timely supplementation of carbohydrate, sodium and potassium ions can effectively change the internal environment and body heat regulation reaction of 5-km armed cross-country trainees, so as to reduce the occurrence of severe heatstroke. The increases of HR, Tc and excessive loss of Na+, K+, Cl- are risk factors for severe heatstroke.


Assuntos
Hidratação/métodos , Golpe de Calor , Militares , Regulação da Temperatura Corporal , Creatina Quinase Forma MB , Eletrólitos , Temperatura Alta , Humanos
15.
J Spec Oper Med ; 19(3): 76-81, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31539437

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: In recent combat operations, 5% to 15% of casualties sustained thermal injuries, which require resource-intensive therapies. During prolonged field care or when caring for patients in a multidomain battlefield, delayed transport will complicate the challenges that already exist in the burn population. A lack of resources and/or vascular access in the future operating environment may benefit from alternative resuscitation strategies. The objectives of the current report are 1) to briefly review actual and potential advantages/caveats of resuscitation with enteral fluids and 2) to present new data on palatability of oral rehydration solutions. METHODS: A review of the literature and published guidelines are reported. In addition, enlisted US military active duty Servicemembers (N = 40) were asked to taste/rank five different oral rehydration solutions on several parameters. RESULTS AND CONCLUSIONS: There are several operational advantages of using enteral fluids including ease of administration, no specialized equipment needed, and the use of lightweight sachets that are easily reconstituted/ administered. Limited clinical data along with slightly more extensive preclinical studies have prompted published guidelines for austere conditions to indicate consideration of enteral resuscitation for burns. Gatorade® and Drip-Drop® were the overall preferred rehydration solutions based on palatability, with the latter potentially more appropriate for resuscitation. Taken together, enteral resuscitation may confer several advantages over intravenous fluids for burn resuscitation under resource-poor scenarios. Future research needs to identify what solutions and volumes are optimal for use in thermally injured casualties.


Assuntos
Queimaduras/terapia , Hidratação/métodos , Medicina Militar , Humanos , Soluções para Reidratação/administração & dosagem , Soluções para Reidratação/provisão & distribução , Paladar , Resultado do Tratamento
16.
Transplant Proc ; 51(7): 2262-2264, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31400980

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: The ideal crystalloid solution to be used during the perioperative period in patients undergoing kidney transplantation remains unclear. Normal saline (NS), the intravenous fluid commonly using during the perioperative period, contains a high chloride content, which may be associated with hyperchloremic metabolic acidosis and acute kidney injury. Balanced crystalloid (BC) solutions have a lower chloride content. The purpose of the study was to determine if a BC solution prevents the incidence of hyperchloremia and hyperkalemia during renal transplantation. METHODS: NS and BC given during kidney transplantation are compared. The primary outcome was hyperchloremia and hyperkalemia within 24 hours after surgery. Secondary outcomes were levels of serum creatinine at preoperative and within 5 days after transplantation, the incidence of acute rejection episodes, graft failure, length of stay at hospital, and mortality. RESULTS: A total of 60 patients were included in the study (30 in the BC group and 30 in the NS group). The mean postoperative chloride was 103.0 mmol/L (95% CI, 101-105) in the NS group and 100 mmol/L (95% CI, 98-102) in the BC group (P < .05). There were no significant differences in demographic characteristics, serum creatinine values within 5 days, short-term outcomes, and graft survival rates at 28 days postoperatively between groups (P > .05). CONCLUSIONS: Our results suggest that a moderate volume (approximately 1500.0 mL) of NS infusion causes hyperchloremia rather than adverse clinical outcomes. A moderate amount of NS infusion can be used safely during uncomplicated living-donor kidney transplantations.


Assuntos
Acidose/epidemiologia , Lesão Renal Aguda/epidemiologia , Soluções Cristaloides/efeitos adversos , Hidratação/efeitos adversos , Hiperpotassemia/epidemiologia , Transplante de Rim , Solução Salina/efeitos adversos , Acidose/induzido quimicamente , Lesão Renal Aguda/induzido quimicamente , Adulto , Creatinina/sangue , Feminino , Hidratação/métodos , Humanos , Hiperpotassemia/induzido quimicamente , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Período Perioperatório
17.
Int Heart J ; 60(5): 1077-1082, 2019 Sep 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31447466

RESUMO

Patients with ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) who are treated by primary percutaneous coronary intervention (PPCI) have an increased risk of developing contrast-induced nephropathy (CIN) when compared with patients undergoing elective percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI). However, CIN prevention measures are less frequently applied in PPCI than in elective PCI. At present, no preventive strategy has been recommended by the current guidelines for patients with STEMI undergoing PPCI.Published research was scanned by formal searches of electronic databases (PubMed, EMBASE, and the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials) from 1966 to July 2018. Internet-based sources of information on the results of clinical trials in cardiology were also searched.A total of three randomized trials involving 924 patients were included in the present meta-analysis, of whom 462 received hydration with isotonic saline (hydration group) and 462 received no hydration (control group). Periprocedural hydration with isotonic saline was associated with a significant decrease in the rate of CIN (16.9% in the hydration group versus 26.4% in the control group; summary risk ratio: 0.64, 95% confidence interval: 0.50-0.82, P = 0.0005). There was no difference in the rate of postprocedural hemodialysis or death between the groups.Intravenous saline hydration during PPCI reduced the risk of CIN without significantly altering the rate of requirement for renal replacement therapy or mortality.


Assuntos
Lesão Renal Aguda/induzido quimicamente , Lesão Renal Aguda/terapia , Meios de Contraste/efeitos adversos , Hidratação/métodos , Intervenção Coronária Percutânea/métodos , Infarto do Miocárdio com Supradesnível do Segmento ST/terapia , Lesão Renal Aguda/prevenção & controle , Idoso , Angiografia Coronária/efeitos adversos , Angiografia Coronária/métodos , Feminino , Seguimentos , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Intervenção Coronária Percutânea/efeitos adversos , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto , Medição de Risco , Papel (figurativo) , Infarto do Miocárdio com Supradesnível do Segmento ST/diagnóstico por imagem , Infarto do Miocárdio com Supradesnível do Segmento ST/mortalidade , Análise de Sobrevida , Resultado do Tratamento
20.
Crit Care ; 23(1): 259, 2019 07 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31337421

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Intravenous fluids, an essential component of sepsis resuscitation, may paradoxically worsen outcomes by exacerbating endothelial injury. Preclinical models suggest that fluid resuscitation degrades the endothelial glycocalyx, a heparan sulfate-enriched structure necessary for vascular homeostasis. We hypothesized that endothelial glycocalyx degradation is associated with the volume of intravenous fluids administered during early sepsis resuscitation. METHODS: We used mass spectrometry to measure plasma heparan sulfate (a highly sensitive and specific index of systemic endothelial glycocalyx degradation) after 6 h of intravenous fluids in 56 septic shock patients, at presentation and after 24 h of intravenous fluids in 100 sepsis patients, and in two groups of non-infected patients. We compared plasma heparan sulfate concentrations between sepsis and non-sepsis patients, as well as between sepsis survivors and sepsis non-survivors. We used multivariable linear regression to model the association between volume of intravenous fluids and changes in plasma heparan sulfate. RESULTS: Consistent with previous studies, median plasma heparan sulfate was elevated in septic shock patients (118 [IQR, 113-341] ng/ml 6 h after presentation) compared to non-infected controls (61 [45-79] ng/ml), as well as in a second cohort of sepsis patients (283 [155-584] ng/ml) at emergency department presentation) compared to controls (177 [144-262] ng/ml). In the larger sepsis cohort, heparan sulfate predicted in-hospital mortality. In both cohorts, multivariable linear regression adjusting for age and severity of illness demonstrated a significant association between volume of intravenous fluids administered during resuscitation and plasma heparan sulfate. In the second cohort, independent of disease severity and age, each 1 l of intravenous fluids administered was associated with a 200 ng/ml increase in circulating heparan sulfate (p = 0.006) at 24 h after enrollment. CONCLUSIONS: Glycocalyx degradation occurs in sepsis and septic shock and is associated with in-hospital mortality. The volume of intravenous fluids administered during sepsis resuscitation is independently associated with the degree of glycocalyx degradation. These findings suggest a potential mechanism by which intravenous fluid resuscitation strategies may induce iatrogenic endothelial injury.


Assuntos
Endotélio/fisiopatologia , Hidratação/efeitos adversos , Glicocálix/efeitos dos fármacos , Sepse/tratamento farmacológico , Administração Intravenosa , Adulto , Idoso , Angiopoietina-2/análise , Angiopoietina-2/sangue , Fator Natriurético Atrial/análise , Fator Natriurético Atrial/sangue , Biomarcadores/análise , Biomarcadores/sangue , Endotélio/efeitos dos fármacos , Endotélio/metabolismo , Feminino , Hidratação/métodos , Hidratação/estatística & dados numéricos , Glicocálix/metabolismo , Heparitina Sulfato/análise , Heparitina Sulfato/sangue , Humanos , Masculino , Espectrometria de Massas/métodos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Peptídeo Natriurético Encefálico/análise , Peptídeo Natriurético Encefálico/sangue , Ressuscitação/efeitos adversos , Ressuscitação/métodos , Ressuscitação/estatística & dados numéricos , Sepse/sangue , Sepse/fisiopatologia , Sindecana-1/análise , Sindecana-1/sangue , Trombomodulina/análise , Trombomodulina/sangue , Ativador de Plasminogênio Tecidual/análise , Ativador de Plasminogênio Tecidual/sangue , Receptor 1 de Fatores de Crescimento do Endotélio Vascular/análise , Receptor 1 de Fatores de Crescimento do Endotélio Vascular/sangue
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