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1.
Ecotoxicol Environ Saf ; 207: 111319, 2021 Jan 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32947214

RESUMO

Organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) used in agricultural practices are of global concern due to their toxicological hazards on biomes of the impacted soil. Geochemistry and microbiome of OCPs-impacted (OW) soil was determined and compared with those of pristine (L1) soils. Microbiome of OW was based on sequencing total 16S rRNA genes of prokaryotes and Internal Transcribed Spacer (ITS2) regions between 5.8S and 28S rRNA genes of eukaryotes using Illumina MiSeq platform for bacterial and fungal communities, respectively. Geochemical properties of OW were assessed for ecological risks of OCPs on biota via risk quotient (RQ) and maximum cumulative ratio (MCR). It was established OW was polluted with 15 OCPs, along with consequential nitrate and phosphorous deficiencies. Ten of the 15 OCPs exerted severe ecological risk (RQ > 1: 4-992), of which endosulfan contributed 76% of the ecotoxicity (MCR = 1.3) on OW. The key players in OW were observed to be Enterobacteriaceae and Mortierellaceae represented by Escherichia and Mortierella taxa, respectively. Low abundance of Nitrospirae species and extinction of Glomeromycota in OW connoted serious toxicological consequences of the OCPs. Taxon XOR (Taxon Exclusive Or) analysis revealed 38,212 and 63,474 counts of bacterial and fungal species, respectively, were exclusively found in the impacted OW and possibly contributed to natural attenuation of the OCPs in the impacted agricultural soil. Conversely, 61,005 (bacteria) and 33,397 (fungi) species counts that were missing in OCPs-impacted OW, but present in pristine L1, opined the species as bio-indicators of OCPs ecotoxicity in agricultural soils. While the species tagged as bio-indicators would be valuable in monitoring OCPs pollution, those suggested to be players in self-recovery process will be invaluable to designing bioremediation strategies for OCPs-impacted agricultural soil.


Assuntos
Monitoramento Ambiental , Microbiota , Praguicidas/análise , Poluentes do Solo/análise , Agricultura , Bactérias , Biodegradação Ambiental , China , Endossulfano/análise , Hidrocarbonetos Clorados/análise , RNA Ribossômico 16S , Solo/química
2.
Sci Total Environ ; 756: 143843, 2021 Feb 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33303197

RESUMO

Previous studies have suggested that unidentified compounds constitute a large proportion of extractable organochlorine (EOCl) and extractable organobromine (EOBr) in the crude extracts without fractionation; however, the proportion of unidentified EOX (X = chlorine, bromine) associated with high-/low-molecular-weight compounds is still unknown. In this study, we applied gel permeation chromatography to fractionate extracts from archived liver samples of high-trophic marine and terrestrial mammals (striped dolphins, cats, and raccoon dogs), for which concentrations of legacy organohalogen contaminants (polychlorinated biphenyls, organochlorine pesticides, and polybrominated diphenyl ethers [PBDEs]) had been previously reported. EOX in high- (>1000 g/mol) and low- (≤1000 g/mol) molecular-weight fractions (EOX-H and EOX-L) were determined by neutron activation analysis. Comparison of EOCl and EOBr enabled the characterization among species. Despite small differences in the concentrations and molecular-weight profiles of EOCl among species, the contribution of chlorine in identified compounds to EOCl-L varied from 1.5% (cats) to 79% (striped dolphins). Considerable species-specific variations were observed in the concentrations of EOBr: striped dolphins exhibited significantly greater concentrations of both EOBr-H and EOBr-L than cats and/or raccoon dogs. Moreover, the contribution of bromine in PBDEs to EOBr-L was >50% in two cats, while it was <6% in other specimens. This is the first report on EOBr mass balance in cetaceans and on EOX mass balance in terrestrial mammals living close to humans. These results suggest the need for analysis of unidentified chlorinated compounds in terrestrial mammals and unidentified brominated compounds in marine mammals.


Assuntos
Hidrocarbonetos Clorados , Bifenilos Policlorados , Animais , Gatos , Monitoramento Ambiental , Éteres Difenil Halogenados , Hidrocarbonetos Clorados/análise , Mamíferos , Bifenilos Policlorados/análise
3.
Huan Jing Ke Xue ; 42(1): 147-158, 2021 Jan 08.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33372466

RESUMO

The pollution characteristics of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), organochlorine pesticides (OCPs), and phthalate esters (PAEs) in the surface sediments of Xiaoxingkai Lake were analyzed by GC-MS, and the main sources and biological toxicity risks of the pollutants were discussed. The results show that:① The content of PAHs in the sediments of xiaoxingkai lake ranged from 82.1 to 534.6 ng·g-1, and the concentration of PAHs in the northwestern port of the lake was higher. The content of OCPs and PAEs in the sediments ranged from 4.8 to 50.4 ng·g-1 and 33.3 to 401.6 ng·g-1, respectively. The concentration was higher in the southeastern lakes. ② PAHs in the sediments were dominated by 3-5-ring compounds (accounting for more than 85%), which were mainly combustion sources, among which the combustion of coal and firewood contributed 47%, the combustion of gasoline and diesel contributed 39%, and the oil product leakage contributed 14%. The OCPs were mainly HCHs (78%) from the use of new lindane and the input of a small amount of industrial HCHs. The PAEs were mainly dibutyl phthalate (DBP) and diethyl phthalate (2-ethyl hexyl) ester (DEHP; 94%), which were mainly derived from household garbage and common human articles. ③ Compared with other lakes in China, PAHs and PAEs in the sediments of Xiaoxingkai Lake are at a low pollution level, and there is no ecological risk at present, but some OCPs at some points present a moderate ecological risk.


Assuntos
Hidrocarbonetos Clorados , Hidrocarbonetos Policíclicos Aromáticos , Poluentes Químicos da Água , China , Monitoramento Ambiental , Sedimentos Geológicos , Humanos , Hidrocarbonetos Clorados/análise , Lagos , Hidrocarbonetos Policíclicos Aromáticos/análise , Medição de Risco , Rios , Poluentes Químicos da Água/análise
4.
Chemosphere ; 264(Pt 2): 128546, 2021 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33049510

RESUMO

Sampling points belonging to the Harz National Park river system, Germany, were selected between the period of 2014 and 2017 for monitoring polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) in water, air, and sediment. Triolein-containing Virtual Organisms (VO) were employed to assess the levels of chemicals in water, air and triolein as surrogate for natural fat. To avoid overestimation of the concentrations 20 performance reference compounds (PRCs)-16 PRCs-PAHs and 4 PRCs-PCBs were covering the range of properties of native compounds. Results manifested the highest concentration of individual PAH as follows: 31 ng fluoranthene/L water, 3600 ng pyrene/g fat, 62 ng phenanthrene/m3 air and 2800 ng fluoranthene/g dw sediment. All PCBs and OCPs values were below above mentioned PAH concentrations and far below EU-limit levels. Environmental partition of chemicals was investigated by calculating fugacity, suggesting a mass transport from water to air. Only quite volatile compounds such as hexachlorobutadiene showed higher fugacity in air. Ratios of sediment/water concentrations and log Kow within individual sampling periods at Holtemme River exhibited strong linear relationships. Interestingly, during summer months of the years water and fat contents well correlate to the flow rates of Holtemme River. Our results show that VO can be successfully used as a tool for ongoing exposure assessment studies and predictions of worst case levels in food and nutrition.


Assuntos
Poluentes Ambientais , Hidrocarbonetos Clorados , Praguicidas , Bifenilos Policlorados , Hidrocarbonetos Policíclicos Aromáticos , Poluentes Químicos da Água , Monitoramento Ambiental , Sedimentos Geológicos , Alemanha , Hidrocarbonetos Clorados/análise , Praguicidas/análise , Bifenilos Policlorados/análise , Hidrocarbonetos Policíclicos Aromáticos/análise , Poluentes Químicos da Água/análise
5.
Chemosphere ; 263: 128100, 2021 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33297096

RESUMO

We reconstructed the history of the inputs of hexachlorocyclohexanes (HCHs) and dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethanes (DDTs) into the marine environment to reveal the time-dependent influence of sources and associated anthropogenic activities in China, based on 210Pb-dated cores from the East China marginal seas (ECMS). The temporal dynamics of pesticide contamination expresses as deposition fluxes, inventories, and half-life estimations varied among the cores, suggesting heterogeneity in transport pathways of pollutants. The depth profiles of pesticide inputs closely followed their historical production and application timelines in China, and were also affected by human activities in catchments, with general declines in HCH and DDT inputs to the coring sites after their peak deposition. Despite the prevalence of occurrence of weathered HCH/DDT in the cores, there were clear source-dependent differences in isomeric composition and accumulation between before and after these pesticides were banned. α-HCH and p,p'-DDT were relatively more enriched in sediments from the pre-ban period when heavy technical HCHs and DDTs use occurred, as indicated by the higher α-/ß-HCH and lower (DDE + DDD)/DDTs ratios, and the larger fractions of α-HCH and p,p'-DDT influxes to the coring sites in the ΣHCH and ΣDDT fluxes, respectively, while this pattern shifted to be historical residue-based in the post-ban period. The difference in the recent influxes of pesticides to core sediments and their higher post-ban inventories highlight the increasing importance of historical sources over time and continuous input of weathered residues into marine environment via lateral transport.


Assuntos
Hidrocarbonetos Clorados , Praguicidas , Poluentes Químicos da Água , China , DDT/análise , Monitoramento Ambiental , Sedimentos Geológicos , Humanos , Hidrocarbonetos Clorados/análise , Oceanos e Mares , Praguicidas/análise , Poluentes Químicos da Água/análise
6.
Chemosphere ; 263: 128272, 2021 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33297216

RESUMO

Barnacles are ubiquitous in coastal ecosystems of different geographical regions worldwide. This is the first study attempting to assess the suitability of barnacles as bioindicators of persistent organic pollutants (POPs) in coastal environments. Barnacles were collected from the coasts around Peninsular Malaysia and analyzed for POPs including polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) and organochlorine pesticides (OCPs). Among POPs, PCBs showed the highest concentrations with elevated contributions of CB28 and CB153. As for PBDEs, BDE47 was the most frequently detected congener, while BDE209 was detected in barnacles from two stations in Port Klang and the levels reached up to >70% of total PBDE concentrations. Concentrations of OCPs detected in barnacles were in the order of CHLs > DDTs > HCHs > HCB and 4,4'-DDE and cis- and trans-chlordane were the predominant OCP compounds. A comparison with previous studies in Malaysia showed consistent levels of POPs. Green mussels collected from selected barnacles' habitats, for the sake of a comparison, showed almost similar profiles but lower concentrations of POPs. The spatial distribution of POPs observed in barnacles and comparison of POP levels and profiles with mussels indicated that barnacles can be useful bioindicators for monitoring POPs contamination in the coastal ecosystems.


Assuntos
Hidrocarbonetos Clorados , Praguicidas , Bifenilos Policlorados , Thoracica , Animais , Ecossistema , Biomarcadores Ambientais , Monitoramento Ambiental , Éteres Difenil Halogenados/análise , Hidrocarbonetos Clorados/análise , Malásia , Praguicidas/análise , Bifenilos Policlorados/análise
7.
Chemosphere ; 263: 128341, 2021 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33297267

RESUMO

Background contamination levels of contemporary persistent organic pollutants (POPs) may be elevated due to local discharges, and hence it is of high importance to assess and monitor them in alpine and Polar Regions. This study investigated the role of waste disposal in the Tibetan plateau as the local source of short-chain chlorinated paraffins (SCCPs). SCCPs were determined in soils from the urban landfill and rural dumpsites, with a concentration range of 56.8-1348 ng/g dw. The gradient descent of SCCP levels from Lhasa landfill to the surrounding soils with increasing distances suggested a significant SCCP release from waste disposal. The transport pattern was well fitted by the Boltzmann equation after normalization in terms of soil organic carbon contents. Compared to the landfill cells closed in early years, the recently closed cells contained higher concentrations but lower proportions of the short-chain congener groups, likely reflecting the SCCP use history in Tibet. In open-burning dumpsites, higher SCCP levels and dominance of lighter congener groups indicates that such crude waste treatment process might cause an extra release of volatile SCCPs. This study elucidates local SCCP inputs to the background environment, and demonstrates that both urbanization and badly-managed landfill have been contributing to the presence of contemporary POPs in the Tibetan Plateau.


Assuntos
Hidrocarbonetos Clorados , Parafina , Carbono , China , Monitoramento Ambiental , Hidrocarbonetos Clorados/análise , Parafina/análise , Solo , Tibet , Instalações de Eliminação de Resíduos
8.
Chemosphere ; 263: 128372, 2021 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33297282

RESUMO

Organochlorinated pesticides (OCPs) and Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in the surface sediments from shrimp ponds in four regions of the northern part of the Central Java coast (namely Brebes, Tegal, Pemalang, and Pekalongan) were investigated. The highest concentration of ∑ OCPs was found in Brebes Regency, ranging from 68.1 ± 3.4 to 168.1 ± 9.8 µg kg-1 dw. As indicated by the DDT ratio and chlordane ratio, the value suggested that those compounds may mainly originate from historical inputs rather than a recent application. The concentrations of Æ© 7 indicator PCBs were determined, with the concentration ranged from 1.2 ± 0.7 µg kg-1 dw (Pekalongan) to 2.2 ± 0.4 µg kg-1 dw (Tegal). The most toxic PCB congener, PCB 118, was detected in all studied regions, with the highest proportion found in Tegal. Source analysis indicated that PCBs in the sediments mainly originated from Aroclor 1254 and Aroclor 1248. Compared to sediment quality guidelines (SQGs), some OCPs were found with concentrations which potentially posed an adverse effect. Our findings suggested that more attention should be paid to ensure sustainable shrimp culture facing such a risk of the OCPs and PCBs.


Assuntos
Hidrocarbonetos Clorados , Praguicidas , Bifenilos Policlorados , Poluentes Químicos da Água , Aquicultura , Monitoramento Ambiental , Sedimentos Geológicos , Hidrocarbonetos Clorados/análise , Praguicidas/análise , Bifenilos Policlorados/análise , Medição de Risco , Poluentes Químicos da Água/análise
9.
Sci Total Environ ; 754: 142175, 2021 Feb 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32920409

RESUMO

The contamination of water resource and food chain by persistent organic pollutants (POPs) constitutes a major environmental and human health concern worldwide. The aim of this study was to investigate the levels of POPs in irrigation water, soil and in Amaranthus viridis (A. viridis) from different gardening sites in Kinshasa to evaluate the potential environmental and human health risks. A survey study for the use of pesticides and fertilizers was carried out with 740 market gardeners. The levels of POPs (including organochlorine pesticides (OCPs), polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs), and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs)) were analyzed in irrigation water and 144 vegetable samples collected from different gardening sites. The assessment of potential human health risk was estimated by calculating daily intake and toxic equivalency to quantify the carcinogenicity. The results show highest PAH levels in A. viridis from all studied sites. The concentrations of the sum of seven PCBs (Σ7PCBS) congeners in analyzed plants ranged between 15.89 and 401.36 ng g-1. The distributions of OCPs in both water and A. viridis were congener specific, chlorpyrifos-ethyl and p,p'-DDE were predominantly detected. Among PBDEs, only BDE47 was quantified with noticeable concentration in A. viridis, while no PBDEs were detected in irrigation water. Higher estimated daily intake values indicate that consuming leafy vegetables might associate with increased human health risks. However, calculated incremental lifetime cancer risk values indicates no potential carcinogenic risk for the local population. The results of this study provide important information on A. viridis contamination by POPs and strongly recommend implementing the appropriate measures to control the use of chemicals used in studied gardening areas. Thus in Kinshasa, urban agriculture control programs for POPs and fertilizers is very important in order to protect the public health through direct and dietary exposure pathways.


Assuntos
Amaranthus , Hidrocarbonetos Clorados , Praguicidas , Bifenilos Policlorados , República Democrática do Congo , Monitoramento Ambiental , Éteres Difenil Halogenados/análise , Humanos , Hidrocarbonetos Clorados/análise , Praguicidas/análise , Bifenilos Policlorados/análise , Medição de Risco
10.
Chemosphere ; 264(Pt 1): 128368, 2021 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33007566

RESUMO

Mass Nile crocodile (Crocodylus niloticus) deaths in Africa's premier conservation area, the Kruger National Park (KNP), prompted numerous studies to determine possible causes of the sudden die-offs. The majority highlighted the involvement of the anthropocene to crocodile mass mortalities. One of the potential causative agents was identified as legacy compounds such as organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) present in the various aquatic ecosystems of the KNP. Thus, this study aimed to quantify OCP levels in wild crocodiles from the aquatic systems associated with the KNP. As part of a larger study, muscle tissue samples were collected from tails of 12 wild crocodiles. Results indicated that eight of the 19 OCPs analysed for were quantifiable. These included DDTs (2130-167968 ng/g lw), chlordanes (BD - 7583 ng/g lw) and cyclodeines (BD - 872 ng/g lw). Measured concentrations indicated spatial- and sex-related differences in accumulation patterns. DDT and its metabolites, paricularly p,p'-DDE accumulated to the highest concentrations of the OCP groups. Levels of the different groups of OCPs were the highest recorded in recent history from any crocodilian tissue. The different measured OCP residues were between 2.5 and 120 times higher than levels reported in literature, depending on the compound. These results are of ecotoxicological significance and have several management implications. In view of individuals being sampled from a conservation area it emphasizes the fact that pollutants know no boundaries and that premier conservation areas such as the world renowned KNP may be some of the most contaminated areas of the world.


Assuntos
Jacarés e Crocodilos , Hidrocarbonetos Clorados , Praguicidas , Poluentes Químicos da Água , Animais , Ecossistema , Monitoramento Ambiental , Humanos , Hidrocarbonetos Clorados/análise , Praguicidas/análise , Poluentes Químicos da Água/análise
11.
Chemosphere ; 263: 128090, 2021 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33140724

RESUMO

Even though microplastic (MP) pollution in aquatic environment is nowadays widely studied, a huge gap of knowledge exists on their actual biological effects. In this study we first reported environmental baseline data on the occurrence and characterization of floating MPs in Italian coastal waters of the Central Adriatic Sea by using a standardized monitoring protocol. Further, we analyzed the concentrations of MP-associated chemicals and evaluated their potential adipogenic effects using 3T3-L1 preadipocytes. MPs were found in each sampling stations showing the highest abundance (1.88 ± 1.78 items/m3) in the sites more distant from the coast with fragments as the most common shape category. All targeted organic pollutants (i.e. polychlorinated biphenyls - PCBs, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons -PAHs, organophosphorus - OP, and organochlorine - OC pesticides) have been detected on the surface of the collected MPs. The highest concentrations of PAHs were found on MPs from inshore (i.e. <1.5 NM) surface waters with low-ring PAHs as dominant components. Similarly, MPs from inshore waters had higher ΣPCB concentrations (64.72 ng/g plastic) than those found in offshore (i.e. >6 NM) waters (10.37 ng/g plastic). Among pesticides, all measured OPs were detected in each sample analyzed with pirimiphos-methyl as the most representative compound. For OCs, the sum of all concentrations of congeners was higher in coastal with respect to offshore waters. Moreover, in vitro 3T3-L1 screening of MP extracts indicated potential metabolic effects resulting in both adipogenesis and lipid uptake/storage.


Assuntos
Monitoramento Ambiental , Microplásticos/análise , Poluentes Químicos da Água/análise , Adipogenia , Hidrocarbonetos Clorados/análise , Itália , Microplásticos/toxicidade , Praguicidas/análise , Plásticos , Bifenilos Policlorados/análise , Hidrocarbonetos Policíclicos Aromáticos/análise , Poluentes Químicos da Água/toxicidade
12.
Chemosphere ; 263: 127890, 2021 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32814130

RESUMO

Lipids generally represent the major matrix contributing to the absorptive capacity for hydrophobic organic contaminants in aquatic ecosystems. The aim of the present study was to determine whether contaminants partition to a different degree to the different storage lipid classes: wax ester (WE) and triacylglycerol (TAG). This was undertaken by studying experimentally the partitioning of organochlorine compounds between lipids (WE or TAG) and silicone rubber phase. Our results indicate that hydrophobic compounds have a slightly higher affinity for WE than for TAG. The findings thus corroborate earlier suggestions that contaminants accumulate to a greater extent in food webs with a higher reliance of on WE, such as in the Arctic. This knowledge is of interest since it implies that possible changes in planktonic community species composition, and thereby possible changes in the lipid composition, may have consequences for accumulation of hydrophobic contaminants in apex predators. However, the magnitude of these consequences remains unknown, and there may well be other factors of importance for previously observed higher accumulation of contaminants in Arctic systems. Thus, we have here identified aspects regarding partitioning of contaminants to lipids that need further scrutiny, and there is a need for further quantitative estimates of the suggested difference in absorptive capacities for hydrophobic contaminants between WE and TAG.


Assuntos
Poluentes Ambientais/química , Lipídeos/química , Animais , Regiões Árticas , Ecossistema , Cadeia Alimentar , Hidrocarbonetos Clorados/análise , Interações Hidrofóbicas e Hidrofílicas
13.
Environ Pollut ; 268(Pt B): 115685, 2021 Jan 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33011574

RESUMO

A program to reintroduce the Northern Aplomado falcon (Falco femoralis septentrionalis) in south Texas and the southwestern United States was initiated in the late 1970s. Fledgling Aplomado falcons were first released in the Laguna Atascosa National Wildlife Refuge in 1993 and the first nesting pair in the area was recorded by 1995. During 2004-2017 we collected addled eggs from nesting pairs in the Laguna Atascosa National Wildlife Refuge and Matagorda Island in south Texas, to determine if environmental contaminants in Aplomado falcon eggs had decreased over time and if eggshell thickness values were similar to those in the pre-DDT era. We analyzed organochlorine pesticides, PCBs, and PBDEs in 60 egg homogenates by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. Eggshells were measured to determine thickness and to correlate with contaminant concentrations. Mean concentration in eggs were 244 ng/g ww for p,p'- DDE, 270 ng/g ww for PCBs and 10 ng/g ww for PBDEs. These values were lower than those reported in a previous study for eggs collected between 1999 and 2003, with a mean of 821 ng/g ww for p,p'-DDE and 1228 ng/g ww for total PCBs. Eggshell thickness ranged from 0.206 mm to 0.320 mm (n = 156). Overall, contaminant concentrations in eggs of Aplomado falcons were low, at levels not likely to impact the recovery of the species. Data from this and previous studies indicate that DDE has decreased significantly in eggs of Aplomado falcons over the last 25 years in south Texas. Breeding populations have been steady at over 30 breeding pairs in south Texas since 2011, although they decreased to 24 pairs in 2018 following Hurricane Harvey.


Assuntos
Poluentes Ambientais , Falconiformes , Hidrocarbonetos Clorados , Bifenilos Policlorados , Animais , Ovos/análise , Monitoramento Ambiental , Poluentes Ambientais/análise , Hidrocarbonetos Clorados/análise , Bifenilos Policlorados/análise , Texas
14.
Environ Pollut ; 268(Pt A): 115762, 2021 Jan 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33049485

RESUMO

Chlorinated paraffins (CPs) are pervasive environmental pollutants which have been reported to be hepatotoxic by laboratory cell and animal studies. However, the related epidemiological reports on their hepatotoxic effects to humans are sparse. In this study, we evaluated the associations between six liver enzymes and serum short-chain CP (SCCP) or medium-chain CP (MCCP) concentrations of 197 residents in Jinan, China. Serum S/MCCPs were detected by quadrupole time-of-flight high-resolution mass spectrometry coupled with atmospheric pressure chemical ionization source (APCI-QTOF-HRMS), and quantified by pattern deconvolution method. The associations between total serum S/MCCP concentrations (ΣS/MCCPs) and continuous liver enzyme levels were assessed by linear regression. Odds ratios (ORs) for the effects of serum ΣS/MCCPs concentrations on liver function biomarkers dichotomized by clinical reference intervals were predicted by logistic regression, either treating ΣS/MCCPs as continuous or categorical dependents. After multivariable adjustment, linear regression results illustrated that 1-ln unit increase in serum ΣSCCPs was negatively associated with male PA levels [-6.08, 95% confidence interval (CI): -11.90, -3.25, p < 0.05], positively associated with male TB levels (1.80, 95% CI: 0.28, 3.31, p < 0.05), and positively associated with female AST levels (1.39, 95% CI: 0.07, 2.70, p < 0.05). One-ln unit increase in serum ΣMCCPs was negatively associated male PA levels (-7.56, 95% CI: -17.15, -4.03, p < 0.05). Logistic regression results suggested that male serum ΣSCCPs were associated with increased prevalence of abnormal PA (OR = 1.47 per 1 ln-unit increase, CI = 1.18, 1.82) and TB (OR = 1.75, 95% CI = 1.12, 2.76) levels, and male serum ΣMCCPs were significantly associated with increased prevalence of abnormal PA (OR = 1.43, 95% CI = 1.03, 1.97) levels. In addition, male participants with concentrations above the median ΣS/MCCPs were associated with increased risk for abnormal PA levels [SCCPs, 2.11-fold (95% CI = 1.15, 3.87); MCCPs, 1.94-fold (95% CI = 1.24, 3.03)]. Male participants with concentrations above the median ΣSCCPs were also associated with increased risk for abnormal TB levels (OR = 1.75, 95% CI = 1.12, 2.76). Conclusively, our results revealed that CP internal exposure was associated with disturbed liver biomarker levels, suggesting the hepatotoxicity of both SCCPs and MCCPs to humans.


Assuntos
Hidrocarbonetos Clorados , Parafina , Animais , Biomarcadores , China , Monitoramento Ambiental , Feminino , Humanos , Hidrocarbonetos Clorados/análise , Fígado/química , Parafina/análise
15.
Huan Jing Ke Xue ; 41(12): 5448-5457, 2020 Dec 08.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33374061

RESUMO

Residual levels of organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in karst groundwater in Nanshan Laolongdong were measured using a gas chromatograph equipped with a micro-63Ni electron capture detector to determine the residual characteristics including concentration, distribution, and source of OCPs and PCBs. Results revealed that the total concentration range of OCPs was 34.8-623.2 ng·L-1, and the mean value was 215.6 ng·L-1, among which the total concentration ranges of HCHs, DDTs, and other OCPs were 8.2-23.6, 4.5-363.7, and 22.2-235.9 ng·L-1, respectively, and the mean values were 15.9, 104.5, and 95.3 ng·L-1; the total concentration range of PCBs was 6.0-40.7 ng·L-1, and the mean value was 16.8 ng·L-1. Overall, the pollution of OCPs and PCBs was above average; the results of multiple comparisons revealed that statistically significant differences occurred in the concentration of some OCPs and PCBs. The pollution levels in the water of each sampling point in the study area were quite different; however, the seasonal distribution of OCPs and PCBs was relatively uniform. Source analyses revealed that HCHs' source was the input of lindane in the surrounding environment, DDTs recently originated from illegal use of industrial DDT, other OCPs originated from atmospheric deposition and agricultural input, and PCBs' sources included both historical remains and enterprise production processes. The results of Pearson correlation analyses revealed that some organo-halogen pollutants were homologous or had similar sources and decomposition mechanisms. According to health risk assessment model, drinking water in the study area would not cause obvious harm to human health, but children were more sensitive to pollutants than adults.


Assuntos
Água Subterrânea , Hidrocarbonetos Clorados , Praguicidas , Bifenilos Policlorados , Poluentes Químicos da Água , Criança , China , Monitoramento Ambiental , Humanos , Hidrocarbonetos Clorados/análise , Praguicidas/análise , Bifenilos Policlorados/análise , Poluentes Químicos da Água/análise
16.
Mar Pollut Bull ; 160: 111542, 2020 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33181915

RESUMO

The anthropogenic impact in the Wouri Estuary Mangrove located in the rapidly developing urban area of Douala, Cameroon, Africa, was studied. A set of 45 Persistent Organic Pollutant were analysed in surficial mangrove sediments at 21 stations. Chlorinated Pesticides (CLPs), Polychlorinated Biphenyls (PCBs) and Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAHs) have concentrations ranging from 2.2 - 27.4, and 83 - 544 ng/g, respectively. The most abundant CLPs were endosulfan, alachlor, heptachlor, lindane (γ-HCH) and DDT, which metabolites pattern revealed recent use. Selected PAHs diagnostic ratios show pyrolytic input predominantly. The sum of 7 carcinogenic PAHs (ΣC-PAHs) represented 30 to 50% of Total PAHs (TPAHs). According to effect-based sediment quality guidelines, the studied POPs levels imply low to moderate predictive biological toxicity. This study contributes to depict how far water resources are shifting within what is now termed the Anthropocene due to increasing local pressures in developing countries or African countries.


Assuntos
Poluentes Ambientais , Hidrocarbonetos Clorados , Praguicidas , Bifenilos Policlorados , Hidrocarbonetos Policíclicos Aromáticos , Poluentes Químicos da Água , Camarões , Monitoramento Ambiental , Estuários , Sedimentos Geológicos , Hidrocarbonetos Clorados/análise , Praguicidas/análise , Bifenilos Policlorados/análise , Hidrocarbonetos Policíclicos Aromáticos/análise , Poluentes Químicos da Água/análise
17.
Mar Pollut Bull ; 161(Pt B): 111709, 2020 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33038713

RESUMO

Bioaccumulation of organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) in red, green, and brown seaweeds from the Gulf of Mannar was investigated using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). The concentration of OCPs in all the seaweeds was in the order of endosulfan > endrin > HCH > DDT > aldrin > heptachlor > methoxychlor. The concentrations of HCH, endrin, endosulfan, and DDT in Sargassum wightii and Gelidiella acerosa, and HCH and endosulfan in Gracilaria verrucosa were above the limits prescribed by the European Commission. However, in Ulva lactuca, except for endosulfan, all other OCPs were below the permissible level. The bioaccumulation of OCPs in seaweeds was in the order of S. wightii > G. acerosa > Gracilaria verrucosa > U. lactuca. The results of comparative analysis of the levels of the investigated pesticides against the standard human health risk assessment revealed that pesticide exposure from seaweeds is hazardous to human health and the marine environment of the Gulf of Mannar.


Assuntos
Hidrocarbonetos Clorados , Resíduos de Praguicidas , Praguicidas , Alga Marinha , Monitoramento Ambiental , Humanos , Hidrocarbonetos Clorados/análise , Índia , Resíduos de Praguicidas/análise , Praguicidas/análise , Medição de Risco
18.
Environ Pollut ; 267: 115424, 2020 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32866869

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Pesticides used in agriculture are some of the most common pollutants in the world. This study aimed to investigate the effects of Organophosphorus Pesticides (OPPs) and Organochlorine Pesticides (OCPs) on the families of farmworkers in the southeast of Iran. METHODS: In the present case-control study, 141 family members of farmworkers (as the case group) and 59 family members of non-farmworkers (as the controls) were recruited. Serum levels of OCPs such as α-HCH, ß-HCH, γ-HCH, 2,4-DDE, 4,4-DDE, 2,4-DDT, and 4,4-DDT were determined. In addition, erythrocyte acetylcholinesterase (AChE) activity, malondialdehyde (MDA), total antioxidant capacity (TAC), protein carbonyl (PC), nitric oxide (NO) serum levels, arylesterase activity of paraoxonase 1 (PON-1), superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), and glutathione peroxidase (GPx) activity were determined in all participants. Furthermore, distance to farmlands, education, crops, type, and the number of consumed fruits were evaluated for each individual separately. RESULTS: The erythrocyte AChE activity and serum activities of GPx, SOD, and PON-1 and TAC levels were significantly decreased, whereas the concentration of MDA, PC, NO, and seven OCPs were significantly increased in the farmworkers' families as compared to the controls. Spearman correlation and linear regression suggest that OCPs increase the oxidative stress in farmworkers' family members. Moreover, distance, education, farming precedence, products, and ventilation had significant effects on the OCP levels and increased the odds ratio of OCP levels in farmworkers' families. CONCLUSION: With regards to the data obtained in this study, it was revealed that OCPs as illegal pesticides and OPPs were higher than expected in the farmworkers' family members. Furthermore, exposure to OCPs and OPPs, apart from the other effects on the body, leads to oxidative stress (OS) that may cause serious diseases in the exposed populations.


Assuntos
Hidrocarbonetos Clorados , Praguicidas , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Fazendeiros , Humanos , Hidrocarbonetos Clorados/análise , Irã (Geográfico) , Praguicidas/análise
19.
J Environ Sci Health B ; 55(11): 968-973, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32897838

RESUMO

The aim of this study was to identify organochlorine (OC) and organophosphorus (OP) pesticides levels in water samples collected in secondary water bodies in agricultural area planted with coffee and plantain. A descriptive cross-sectional study was carried out. A validated method for microwave-assisted extraction and gas chromatography with electron microcapture detector (MAE-GC-µECD) was used to analyze pesticide residues in samples. The determinations were based on certified reference material, Organochlorine Pesticide Mix AB #3, Canadian Drinking Organophosphorus Pesticides Mix, and pentachloronitrobenzene (ISTD) Internal Standard Mix 508.1. Pesticide residues were found in 81.3% of the samples, including OCs: 4.4'-DDT (38%), endosulfan II (19.7%), endosulfan sulfate, and endrin (11.7% and 8.8%), and others identified as 4.4'-DDE, Delta-HCB, parathion, chlorpyrifos, endrin aldehyde, heptachlor, heptachlor epoxide, endrin ketone, and methoxychlor. Parathion and/or chlorpyrifos were found in 5.8-8% of samples; the water bodies most heavily affected were those in Filandia and Quimbaya in which 100% of samples were contaminated, followed by those in Calarcá, Córdoba, Pijao, and Génova, with contamination found in over 75% of samples. The results indicated that surface waters from Quindío municipalities are contaminated with pesticide residues hazardous to human health, which are still in use despite being either restricted or prohibited.


Assuntos
Coffea , Hidrocarbonetos Clorados/análise , Organofosfatos/análise , Resíduos de Praguicidas/análise , Poluentes Químicos da Água/análise , Agricultura , Cromatografia Gasosa , Colômbia , Estudos Transversais , Monitoramento Ambiental/métodos , Humanos , Plantago
20.
Sci Rep ; 10(1): 15179, 2020 09 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32938983

RESUMO

Seventy-five wild tilapia samples from six rivers (ten sites) in Guangxi province were collected and analyzed for 53 organochlorine compounds. DDTs, endosulfan, and PCBs were the most dominant compounds found in this study. Tiandong County (TD) and Guigang City (GG) sites were found to be heavily contaminated with high levels of endosulfan (385-925 ng/g lw) and/or DDTs (20.1-422 ng/g lw). The diagnostic ratios indicated that the residues of DDTs and endosulfan in wild tilapia are associated with historical applications as well as the recent introduction of technical DDTs and endosulfan at some sampling sites. The correlation between total length, body mass, and organochlorines (OCs) was higher than the correlation between age and lipid content. There was no significant correlation between organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) and lipid content. Therefore, for organisms, the feeding intensity (related to length and mass) of fish could better reflect degree of pollution than exposure time (age) of fish. The hazardous ratios for the 50th and 95th percentile data of OCPs and PCBs in fish were both below 1, suggesting that daily exposure to OCPs and PCBs yields a lifetime cancer risk lower than 1 in 10,000.


Assuntos
Extratos Celulares/química , Hidrocarbonetos Clorados/análise , Músculos/química , Praguicidas/análise , Tilápia/fisiologia , Poluentes Químicos da Água/análise , Animais , Peso Corporal , Pesos e Medidas Corporais , China , Poluição Ambiental , Rios
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