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1.
Arch Environ Contam Toxicol ; 78(4): 631-645, 2020 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32123945

RESUMO

Wetlands and their biodiversity are constantly threatened by contaminant pollution from urbanisation. Despite evidence suggesting that snakes are good bioindicators of environmental health, the bioaccumulation of contaminants in reptiles is poorly researched in Australia. We conducted the first broad-scale analysis of 17 metals and trace elements, 21 organochlorine pesticides, and 14 polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in the sediments (4 samples per site, December 2018) from four wetlands along an urban gradient in Perth, Western Australia, and from the livers (5 livers per site, February-April 2019) of western tiger snakes Notechis scutatus occidentalis captured at those sites. All 17 metals and trace elements were detected in the sediments of wetlands as well as 16 in the livers of tiger snakes. Arsenic, Cu, Hg, Pb, Se, and Zn were at concentrations exceeding government trigger values in at least one sediment sample. Two organochlorine pesticides and six of seven polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons were detected in the sediments of a single wetland, all exceeding government trigger values, but were not detected in tiger snakes. Metals and trace elements were generally in higher concentration in sediments and snake livers from more heavily urbanised wetlands. The least urbanised site had some higher concentrations of metals and trace elements, possibly due to agriculture contaminated groundwater. Concentrations of nine metals and trace elements in snake livers were statistically different between sites. Arsenic, Cd, Co, Hg, Mo, Sb, and Se near paralleled the pattern of contamination measured in the wetland sediments; this supports the use of high trophic wetland snakes, such as tiger snakes, as bioindicators of wetland contamination. Contamination sources and impacts on these wetland ecosystems and tiger snakes are discussed herein.


Assuntos
Elapidae/metabolismo , Biomarcadores Ambientais/efeitos dos fármacos , Monitoramento Ambiental/métodos , Poluentes Químicos da Água/análise , Áreas Alagadas , Animais , Austrália , Cidades , Sedimentos Geológicos/química , Hidrocarbonetos Clorados/análise , Fígado/efeitos dos fármacos , Fígado/metabolismo , Metais Pesados/análise , Praguicidas/análise , Hidrocarbonetos Policíclicos Aromáticos/análise , Oligoelementos/análise
2.
Arch Environ Contam Toxicol ; 78(4): 555-567, 2020 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32008049

RESUMO

Use of pesticides continues to be indiscriminate, and birds are one of the worst affected non-targeted organisms. Information on the ill effects of pesticides on birds far from desired in India. Despite the presence of a wide variety and number of birds, there is exceedingly little data on organochlorine pesticide (OCP) residues in colonial nesting birds in sanctuaries of India. A total of 76 individuals belonging to 14 species of birds found dead between March 2008 and March 2010 were analyzed for pesticide residues in various tissues. Of all the OCPs analyzed, concentration of HCH was found to be the highest. Magnitude of contamination varied widely among species. Accumulation pattern of OCPs in colonial nesting birds was in the order ∑HCH > ∑endosulfan > ∑DDT > heptachlor epoxide > dieldrin. Pesticides, namely p,p-DDE and ß-HCH contributed most towards the total OCPs. Concentrations of DDT and its metabolites, HCH and isomers, dieldrin, and heptachlor epoxide were lower than the concentrations reported for various species of birds elsewhere in India. Although the sanctuaries presently studied have official boundaries, physical demarcations are missing and there are no proper earthen dykes particularly in Vedanthangal and Koonthankulam Bird Sanctuaries. During monsoon, runoff not only floods the Sanctuaries but also the cultivated areas nearby. Run off brings in residues of pesticides and fertilizers from the agricultural lands into the sanctuaries. Although OCP results in this study were below threshold limits, it may be noted that the long duration exposure even to low levels of pesticides could create a significant impact at population level. Hence, earthen dykes need to be built to avoid agricultural runoff entering the Sanctuary and also help to hold sufficient amount of water for breeding birds.


Assuntos
Aves/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Monitoramento Ambiental/métodos , Hidrocarbonetos Clorados/análise , Resíduos de Praguicidas/análise , Animais , Aves/metabolismo , Encéfalo/efeitos dos fármacos , Encéfalo/metabolismo , Cruzamento , Índia , Fígado/efeitos dos fármacos , Fígado/metabolismo , Músculo Esquelético/efeitos dos fármacos , Músculo Esquelético/metabolismo
3.
Chemosphere ; 244: 125574, 2020 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32050349

RESUMO

Chlorinated paraffins (CPs) are high production volume chemicals of which some show resistance to environmental degradation, long-rang transport, bioaccumulation and toxicity potential. Information regarding their presence in humans is limited, including their human bioaccumulation potential. The present study aimed to evaluate CP levels in human serum from Australia in order to better understand their exposure and current pollution status as well as trends associated with age and time between 2004 and 2015. For this, we selected a male sub-group of the Australian population under 60 years old (n = 16 pools, total 1600 serum samples). While long-chain CP (C18-20) and most short-chain CP (C10-13, SCCPs) levels were below method detection limits (MDL), medium-chain CPs (C14-17, MCCPs) were found in most serum samples (detection frequency 94%) as well as CPs with a carbon chain length of nine (detection frequency 76%). The levels of ΣSCCPs and ΣMCCPs ranged from

Assuntos
Exposição Ambiental/estatística & dados numéricos , Poluentes Ambientais/metabolismo , Hidrocarbonetos Clorados/sangue , Parafina/metabolismo , Austrália , Monitoramento Ambiental/métodos , Poluição Ambiental/análise , Humanos , Hidrocarbonetos Clorados/análise , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Parafina/análise
4.
Food Chem ; 313: 126135, 2020 May 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31951883

RESUMO

Persistent halogenated compounds (PHCs) contamination has become a major concern over the world. Here we investigated occurrence, spatial distributions, congener profiles, as well as health risks of PHCs in farmed golden pompano in China using gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS). The concentrations of PCBs, PBDEs and OCPs were in the range of 0.78-4.79 ng/g wet weight (ww), not detected (nd)-1.14 ng/g ww and 1.1-38.8 ng/g ww, respectively. Furthermore, ρ,ρ'-DDT, ο,ρ'-DDT and PCB 101 were the dominant PHC contaminants. The estimated daily intakes of PHCs through consumption of golden pompano were up to 12.86 and 131.34 ng/kg body weight/day based on the mean and 95th concentrations determined in golden pompano, respectively. Risk-based analysis indicates that target PHCs in golden pompano would not pose risks to human. Our study presents the first report of a nationwide survey of PHCs contamination in farmed golden pompano in China.


Assuntos
Contaminação de Alimentos/análise , Hidrocarbonetos Clorados/análise , Perciformes , Poluentes Químicos da Água/análise , Animais , Aquicultura , Peso Corporal , China , Produtos Pesqueiros/análise , Cromatografia Gasosa-Espectrometria de Massas , Éteres Difenil Halogenados/análise , Humanos , Nível de Efeito Adverso não Observado , Praguicidas/análise , Bifenilos Policlorados/análise
5.
Environ Monit Assess ; 192(2): 122, 2020 Jan 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31953601

RESUMO

Chilika Lake is the largest coastal lagoon in Asia and the second largest in the world covering an area of 1100 km2 and spread over three districts of Odisha state of India. It is the first Indian wetland designated as a wetland of international importance under the Ramsar Convention in 1981. The lake ecosystem sustains large and diversified resources of plants and animals including fisheries. Pollution of the ecosystem caused by residues of pesticides originating from different sources was assessed through multiple sampling from 2012 to 2016 from three potential sites of contamination, viz., Palur Bridge, Daya River Estuary, and Makara River. Incidence of organochlorinated (OC) pesticide residues was noticed in about 25% water samples. HCH (α, γ&δ), DDD (op|), DDE (op|&pp.|) and heptachlor were the OCs detected in concentration varying from 0.025 to 23.4 µg/l. None of the eight targeted synthetic pyrethroid (SP) pesticides was found in water, but among the organophosphates (OP), chlorpyrifos (0.019-2.73 µg/l), and dichlorvos (0.647 µg/l) were recorded. In sediment samples, residues of OC or OP pesticides were not present, but one SP pesticide was recorded. Fish samples were contaminated to the extent of 55%, mostly with residues of OCs and OPs and less with SPs. However, their concentrations were below the permissible limit, so there was no direct threat of health hazards to humans.


Assuntos
Monitoramento Ambiental , Resíduos de Praguicidas/análise , Poluentes Químicos da Água/análise , Animais , Ecossistema , Peixes , Heptacloro/análise , Hidrocarbonetos Clorados/análise , Índia , Inseticidas , Lagos/química , Praguicidas/análise , Piretrinas , Rios/química , Áreas Alagadas
6.
Chemosphere ; 243: 125379, 2020 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31995866

RESUMO

Semi-volatile organic compounds (SVOCs) of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and organo-chlorinated pesticides (OCPs) were sampled (24 h, Hi-Vol XAD-2) in dry and wet season, and separately analyzed for particulate and gaseous phases. To reveal the influence of rice straw open burning (RSOB), SVOC levels and profiles were comparatively analyzed between two areas, rice plantation area (KL) with intensive RSOB activities and remote national park (KY), and with fresh RSOB smoke. PAHs were significantly higher in KL than KY in both seasons. PAHs levels in KL during burning season were ∼10 times above the wet season indicating RSOB influence. In KY, however, PAHs levels in wet season were 2 times above dry season suggesting impacts of local emission transport. OCPs levels were not statistically different between 2 seasons and between 2 sites in each season. RSOB smoke contained 5880 ng/m3 of 14 PAHs and 13.5 ng/m3 of 16 OCPs which were respectively 14 and 7 times above those in KL during burning period. The 4-ring compounds, most remarkably fluoranthene, and 5-ring (BbF and BaP) were dominant PAHs species in RSOB smoke. Similarity in PAH profiles and diagnostic ratios between KL dry season and RSOB smoke suggested its strong influence on the local air quality. Elevated OCPs levels in RSOB smoke may be associated with re-emission of the compounds accumulated in the paddy soil during the burning. RSOB in Southeast Asia has a serious implication on exposure to the toxic air pollutants hence should be eliminated with priority.


Assuntos
Agricultura/métodos , Poluentes Atmosféricos/análise , Oryza , Caules de Planta , Compostos Orgânicos Voláteis/análise , Poluição do Ar , Monitoramento Ambiental , Fluorenos , Hidrocarbonetos Clorados/análise , Praguicidas/análise , Hidrocarbonetos Policíclicos Aromáticos/análise , Estações do Ano , Fumaça , Solo , Tailândia
7.
Chemosphere ; 243: 125392, 2020 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31995868

RESUMO

Long-term (2004-2018) persistent organic pollutants (POPs) data were collected for urban soils of China. The dataset included concentrations of organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in soils, comprising a range of different compounds. Understanding the source of OCP and PCB pollution is an important step in controlling and reducing pollution levels in the environment. This study aimed to analyze the spatio-temporal distribution, pollution sources, and potential health risks of OCPs and PCBs in urban soils in different regions of China. It was found that the total OCP concentrations ranged from 7.6 to 37331 µg/kg with a mean value of 2861 µg/kg, and PCBs concentrations ranged from 0.3 to 123467 µg/kg with a mean value of 4984 µg/kg. The highest OCP concentrations were observed in Beijing and Hebei, whereas the highest PCB concentrations were found in the Zhejiang province. The geographical distribution showed that the total mean concentration of POPs of urban soil was much higher in East China than in West China. According to the isomer ratios, about 64% of provinces and cities showed new sources of dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (DDT) input and dicofol input was found in 30% of China. Hexachlorocyclohexane (HCH) in urban soils was mainly derived from fresh usage of lindane (γ-HCH) in most regions of China. Lifetime carcinogenic and non-carcinogenic risks of OCPs and PCBs through ingestion, inhalation, and dermal contact indicated that PCBs in urban soils of China often exceeded safe levels. The total lifetime carcinogenic risk values of PCBs were higher than the individual lifetime acceptable risk level (10-4) in 64% of the studied regions and the non-carcinogenic risk values exceeded the target risk level (10-1) in 53% of the regions. The improved knowledge of the distribution and main pollution sources of POPs in urban soil of China as a result of this study can contribute to better decision-making support for soil pollution control and monitoring.


Assuntos
Hidrocarbonetos Clorados/análise , Praguicidas/análise , Bifenilos Policlorados/análise , Poluentes do Solo/análise , Pequim , China , DDT/análise , Dicofol/análise , Monitoramento Ambiental , Hexaclorocicloexano , Análise Espaço-Temporal , Urbanização
8.
Chemosphere ; 241: 125029, 2020 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31604196

RESUMO

The sources and depositional history of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and organochlorine compounds (OCs) over the last century were investigated in sediment cores from the North Adriatic Sea (Po River prodelta) and the South-Western Adriatic Margin (SWAM). Contaminant concentrations were higher in the Po River prodelta. ∑16PAHs ranged from 193 to 533 ng g-1, ∑5PCBs ranged from 0.9 to 5.2 ng g-1 and ∑DDTs (p,p'-DDD + p,p'-DDE) ranged from 0.1 to 2.5 ng g-1. In the SWAM, ∑PAHs ranged from 11 to 74 ng g-1 while ∑PCB and ∑DDT concentrations were close to the MQL. Accordingly, contaminant fluxes were much higher in the northern (mean values of 152 ±â€¯31 ng cm2 y-1 and 0.70 ±â€¯0.35 ng cm2 y-1 for PAHs and OCs, respectively) than in the southern Adriatic (2.62 ±â€¯0.9 ng cm2 y-1 and 0.03 ±â€¯0.02 ng cm2 y-1 for PAHs and OCs, respectively). The historical deposition of PAHs seemed to be influenced by the historical socioeconomic development and by changes in the composition of fossil fuel consumption (from petroleum derivatives to natural gas) in Italy from the end of the 19th century to the present. Similarly, vertical variations in DDT concentrations matched its historical use and consumption in Italy, which started around in the mid-late 1940s to fight typhus during the II World War. Contaminant concentrations detected in sediments does not seem to pose ecotoxicological risk for marine organisms in the Adriatic Sea.


Assuntos
DDT/análise , Monitoramento Ambiental/métodos , Sedimentos Geológicos/química , Bifenilos Policlorados/análise , Hidrocarbonetos Policíclicos Aromáticos/análise , Monitoramento Ambiental/história , Combustíveis Fósseis/análise , História do Século XIX , História do Século XX , História do Século XXI , Hidrocarbonetos Clorados/análise , Itália , Rios/química , Poluentes Químicos da Água/análise
9.
Environ Pollut ; 256: 113418, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31732286

RESUMO

Pine needles are employed as alternative biomonitoring agents in atmospheric studies. In this study, pine (Pinus Pinea) components (needles and branches) and air samples were collected simultaneously to monitor polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) from Gemlik, Turkey between January and December 2016. The relationship between ambient air and pine needles were examined to enlighten the usability of pine components as passive samplers for persistent organic pollutants (POPs) in the Marmara region. Average ∑14PAH concentrations for the ambient air, pine needles, and pine branches were 23.1 ±â€¯18.3 ng/m3, 626 ±â€¯306 ng/g DW and 548 ±â€¯261 ng/g DW respectively. PCB concentrations were 118 ±â€¯74 pg/m3, 7.5 ±â€¯2.1 ng/g DW and 6.8 ±â€¯2.9 ng/g DW and ∑10 OCP concentrations were 122 ±â€¯89 ng/m3,1.3 ±â€¯1.5 ng/g DW and 10.0 ±â€¯3.8 ng/g DW in the same order. Levels of PAHs and PCBs were higher in needles than branches. PAH, PCB and OCP concentrations in pine components tended to decrease with increasing temperatures in spring. PAH compounds with medium and light molecular weighted ones were found to be dominant. On the other hand, the predominant PCB components were the medium-weighted congeners while γ-HCH, Heptachlor endo. Epox. Iso A, endrin aldehyde, and methoxychlor were the dominant OCP species.


Assuntos
Poluentes Atmosféricos/análise , Monitoramento Ambiental , Pinus/química , Poluentes Ambientais/análise , Hidrocarbonetos Clorados/análise , Praguicidas/análise , Bifenilos Policlorados/análise , Hidrocarbonetos Policíclicos Aromáticos/análise , Turquia
10.
Sci Total Environ ; 704: 135455, 2020 Feb 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31791777

RESUMO

Short chain chlorinated paraffins (SCCPs) are widely distributed persistent organic pollutants (POPs). Airborne chlorodecanes were hypothesized to be transformed by reactive phytogenic volatile organic compounds (PVOCs) in our previous work. To test this hypothesis, PVOCs of pumpkin (Cucurbita maxima x C. moschata) were collected and reacted with 1,1,1,3,8,10,10,10-octachlorodecane in the air phase of a sealed glass bottle under illumination for 10 days (reaction system I, simulating atmospheric reaction conditions with PVOCs). The reaction control group (reaction system II) was set at the same conditions but only had chlorodecane (without PVOCs) inside the bottle. Transformation of SCCPs in the air phase of reaction control group was unexpectedly found. Results showed that 1,1,1,3,8,10,10,10-octachlorodecane was transformed to a great extent to C10Cl5-8, C9Cl6-8, and C8Cl7-8 in the air phase after 10-d illumination in both with and without the presence of PVOCs, which is explained by carbon chain decomposition, dechlorination and chlorine rearrangement products of the parent SCCP. Those transformation processes were increased to some extent by the PVOCs from pumpkin seedlings. This study provides the first experimental data on atmospheric transformation of SCCPs and also the first evidence that plant emissions (PVOCs) can increase the transformation of SCCPs in air under light and experimental conditions. It provides new insight into the potential transformation and fate of CPs in the environment.


Assuntos
Poluentes Atmosféricos/química , Cucurbita , Hidrocarbonetos Clorados/química , Compostos Orgânicos Voláteis/química , Poluentes Atmosféricos/análise , China , Monitoramento Ambiental , Hidrocarbonetos Clorados/análise , Plântula
11.
Chemosphere ; 245: 125458, 2020 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31846790

RESUMO

Reindeers play an important role in the polar ecosystem, being long-lived sole vegetarians feeding on local vegetation. They can be used as a valuable bioindicator, helping us to understand contaminants' impact on the polar terrestrial ecosystem. Still, scarce data exist from research in which polar herbivores (especially those from the European parts of the Arctic) were a major study subject for trace elements and persistent organic pollutant determination. Here, Svalbard reindeer fur has been used to determine metals, non-metals and metalloids using ICP-MS, and several persistent organic pollutants including polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) using gas chromatography coupled to a tandem mass spectrometer (GC-MS/MS). Samples were collected from reindeer populations living in the area near Ny-Ålesund and Longyearbyen. Essential elements like Fe, Mg, Zn, K, Ca, Cu predominated in the trace elements profile. Median values of As, Cd, Co, Li, Ni, Se and V were all below 0.5 µg/g dw. Mercury was below detection limit in all samples, while the Pb median varied from 0.35 to 0.74 µg/g dw. Except acenaphthylene and fluorene, PAHs were detectable only in samples collected in the vicinity of Longyearbyen. Of 15 studied pesticides, only DDT and its metabolites were above the detection limit, and, of PCBs, only PCB28.


Assuntos
Pelo Animal/química , Monitoramento Ambiental/métodos , Poluentes Ambientais/análise , Animais , Regiões Árticas , Ecossistema , Hidrocarbonetos Clorados/análise , Praguicidas/análise , Bifenilos Policlorados/análise , Hidrocarbonetos Policíclicos Aromáticos/análise , Rena/metabolismo , Svalbard , Espectrometria de Massas em Tandem , Oligoelementos/análise
12.
Food Chem ; 305: 125487, 2020 Feb 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31518839

RESUMO

QuEChERS and switchable solvent liquid phase microextraction (SS-LPME) were respectively used as pretreatment and preconcentration tools to allow trace determination of selected organochlorine pesticides and hormones by gas chromatography mass spectrometry (GC-MS). The effects of principal SS-LPME variables and their interactions were evaluated with a Box-Behnken experimental design. The limits of detection obtained by direct GC-MS determination were enhanced by about 33-115 folds under the optimized SS-LPME conditions. The SS-LPME method was applied to tap water, well water, lake water, medical wastewater and tea samples. Satisfactory recovery results were obtained for all but the tea samples using the conventional calibration plot. Matrix matched calibration standards were used to improve the percent recovery of analytes to almost 100% in the tea samples. The combined QuEChERS and SS-LPME method was applied to tomato samples and matrix matching was also used to significantly improve analyte recoveries.


Assuntos
Cromatografia Gasosa-Espectrometria de Massas/métodos , Hormônios/análise , Hidrocarbonetos Clorados/análise , Microextração em Fase Líquida/métodos , Praguicidas/análise , Solventes/química , Ondas Ultrassônicas , Hormônios/isolamento & purificação , Hidrocarbonetos Clorados/isolamento & purificação , Limite de Detecção , Praguicidas/isolamento & purificação , Águas Residuárias/química , Poluentes Químicos da Água/análise , Poluentes Químicos da Água/isolamento & purificação
13.
Chemosphere ; 238: 124643, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31473532

RESUMO

Polychlorinated n-alkanes or chlorinated paraffins (CPs) contain a magnitude of structural isomers and are categorized as short-chain (SCCPs), medium-chain (MCCPs), and long-chain (LCCPs) CPs, according to the carbon chain lengths. In this study the Æ©SCCPs, Æ©MCCPs, and Æ©LCCP concentrations are reported for South African indoor dust and pet cat hair. The median concentrations of the Æ©CPs (C9-C37) ranged from 33 to 663 µg/g for freshly collected dust (FD), 36-488 µg/g for dust collected from household vacuum cleaner bags (VD), and 1.2-15 µg/g for cat hair (CH) samples. MCCPs were the dominant CP group, followed by SCCPs and LCCPs. The Æ©MCCP concentration ranged from 13 to 498 µg/g in dust and 0.6-6.5 µg/g in cat hair. SCCPs with shorter carbon chains and lower chlorine substitution were observed in cat hair. LCCPs with carbon chains > C20 were detected in dust and hair samples, possibly indicating the use of wax grade LCCP formulations. Non-traditional Kendrick mass defect plots were used to obtain information on the magnitude of CPs and provide evidence of possible interfering compounds. This is the first report on the occurrence of SCCPs, MCCPs, and LCCPs in the South African indoor environment.


Assuntos
Poeira/análise , Cabelo/química , Hidrocarbonetos Clorados/química , Parafina/química , Poluição do Ar em Ambientes Fechados , Animais , Gatos , Monitoramento Ambiental , Hidrocarbonetos Clorados/análise , Parafina/análise , África do Sul
14.
Chemosphere ; 240: 124983, 2020 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31726590

RESUMO

There is limited information about pesticide contamination in Iran's agricultural land, particularly in plains producing exportable fruits. The aim of this investigation was to evaluate the concentration of organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) including hexachlorocyclohexane (HCH), heptachlor, dichloro-diphenyl-trichloroethane (DDT), chlordane (CHL), and their isomers compounds in agricultural soils of southern Iran. A total of 28 topsoil samples were collected from agricultural lands of Dalaki and Shabankare areas, Bushehr, Iran. In Dalaki area, the mean value of ΣHCH (α, ß, γ, δ), ΣDDT (o,p-DDE, o,p-DDD, o,p-DDT, p,p-DDE, p,p-DDD, p,p-DDT, and DDT), and ΣCHL (Trans-chlordane, Cis-chlordane, Heptachlor-exo-epoxide, and Heptachlor) was found to be 0.411 ng/g (dry weight, dw), 4.37 ng/g dw, and 2.04 ng/g dw, respectively. In Shabankare area the mean value of ΣHCH, ΣDDT, and ΣCHL was measured to be 1.38 ng/g dw, 11.99 ng/g dw, and 1.62 ng/g dw, respectively. The concentration trend of pesticides in both areas was as follows: DDT > CHL > HCH. Source identification indicated recent usage of HCH and DDT in the studied areas. Obtaining a cis-chlordane/trans-chlordane ratio greater than one in Shabankare farmlands showed that chlordane was not used recently. The health risk assessment showed that children and adults groups in both areas are exposed to negligible cancer risk. More serious attempts are necessary to reduce usage of OCPs during the agricultural process and the protection of soil and human health in the studied areas.


Assuntos
Agricultura , Praguicidas/análise , Poluentes do Solo/análise , Adulto , Criança , Clordano , Diclorodifenil Dicloroetileno , Monitoramento Ambiental , Heptacloro , Hexaclorocicloexano , Humanos , Hidrocarbonetos Clorados/análise , Irã (Geográfico) , Medição de Risco , Solo , Tricloroetanos
15.
Ecotoxicol Environ Saf ; 188: 109895, 2020 Jan 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31706238

RESUMO

Seventeen soil samples collected in an industrial park located in Ningxia Province, Northwestern China were analyzed for polychlorinated naphthalenes (PCNs), polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans (PCDD/Fs), and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs). The PCN, PCDD/F, and PCB concentration ranges were 183-3340, 7.00-215, and 45.1-355 pg/g, respectively. Positive matrix factorization showed that secondary ferrous metal smelters and cement kilns contributed more than 70% of the total PCN concentration. Historical use of Halowax 1051 also affected the PCN concentrations in soil. Principal component analysis indicated that the PCDD/F concentrations in soil in the study area were mainly affected by thermal processes in secondary ferrous metal smelters. CB-209 was an important contributor to total PCBs in the study area, and likely originated from the phthalocyanine-type pigments used in a local recycled paper mill. Samples S10, S1, S17, and S6 had high ∑TEQ (PCDD/Fs + PCNs + PCBs) concentrations, and the carcinogenic risks of PCDD/Fs, PCNs, and PCBs for workers from these samples were 0.487 × 10-6, 0.234 × 10-6, 0.230 × 10-6, and 0.210 × 10-6, respectively. According to our results, the health risks of PCDD/Fs, PCNs, and PCBs for workers in this area should be given more attention.


Assuntos
Monitoramento Ambiental/métodos , Hidrocarbonetos Clorados/análise , Indústrias , Naftalenos/análise , Bifenilos Policlorados/análise , Dibenzodioxinas Policloradas/análise , Poluentes do Solo/análise , China , Humanos , Medição de Risco , Solo/química
16.
Ecotoxicol Environ Saf ; 188: 109876, 2020 Jan 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31704319

RESUMO

This study aimed to assess the levels of pyrethroids and organochlorine residues in the tissues of cultured Mugil capito and in water samples obtained from three different sites (Al-Hamol, Al-Riad and Sidi Salem; referred to as Area 1, Area 2, and Area 3, respectively) in the Delta region, Egypt. The study also assessed the biochemical markers in exposed mullet and evaluated the impact of these residues on the expression of insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-1) in muscle and cytochrome P4501A (CYP1A) in liver tissues using qRT-PCR and SDS-PAGE methods. The results revealed that pesticide residue levels in the water were variable, but were lower than detected levels in fish. Significant (P < 0.05) differences were found across the three study areas in terms of serum ALT, but the serum AST level was not significantly (P > 0.05) elevated in all study regions. Serum creatinine and urea levels were significantly (P < 0.05) elevated in area 3. Furthermore, glutathione and malondialdehyde concentrations significantly increased (P < 0.05) in liver tissues in area 3. Using the qRT-PCR technique, the results revealed that the expression level of IGF-1 was most significant in area 3, while the expression level of CYP1A was most significant in area 1. The protein profile showed some differences in band numbers and molecular weights of protein bands across different regions. Overall, the alteration in biochemical parameters revealed pesticide interference with the metabolic processes of fish. Furthermore, the pesticide pollution had an effect on the expression of IGF-1 and CYP1A genes and led to changes in the protein profile. Therefore, these markers can be used to monitor fish distress following exposure to the pollutant.


Assuntos
Família 1 do Citocromo P450/genética , Regulação da Expressão Gênica/efeitos dos fármacos , Hidrocarbonetos Clorados/toxicidade , Fator de Crescimento Insulin-Like I/genética , Proteínas Musculares/metabolismo , Piretrinas/toxicidade , Smegmamorpha/metabolismo , Animais , Aquicultura , Egito , Biomarcadores Ambientais/genética , Hidrocarbonetos Clorados/análise , Hidrocarbonetos Clorados/metabolismo , Fígado/efeitos dos fármacos , Fígado/metabolismo , Proteínas Musculares/química , Resíduos de Praguicidas/análise , Resíduos de Praguicidas/metabolismo , Resíduos de Praguicidas/toxicidade , Piretrinas/análise , Piretrinas/metabolismo , Alimentos Marinhos/análise , Poluentes Químicos da Água/análise , Poluentes Químicos da Água/metabolismo
17.
Chemosphere ; 246: 125691, 2020 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31887490

RESUMO

Although the etiology of ovarian cancer is not clear, certain factors are implicated in this disease, such as ovulation, gonadotropic and steroid hormones, growth factors, cytokines, environmental agents, etc. Epidemiological studies have proven environmental exposure to pesticides with an increased risk of Epithelial Ovarian Cancer (EOC); however, the molecular mechanism underlying the carcinogenic effects of pesticides in human ovary remains poorly understood. The present study aimed to study the pro-inflammatory response of organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) namely ß-hexachlorocyclohexane (ß-HCH), dichlorodiphenyldichloroethylene (DDE) and Dieldrin following exposure to human ovary surface epithelial cells (HOSE) for risk prediction of epithelial ovarian cancer. We found high level of Reactive oxygen species (ROS) production and DNA damage along with up-regulation of pro-inflammatory cytokines such as tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α, interleukin (IL)-1ß, IL-6, nuclear factor kappa B (NF-kB) and cyclooxygenase (COX)-2 expression in OCPs treated HOSE cells compared to control (DMSO). The result of the present study suggests that ß-HCH, DDE, and Dieldrin exposure induce ROS and pro-inflammatory response as well as DNA damage in HOSE cells. These various results show that OCPs may account for the neoplastic transformation of HOSE cells in the ovary.


Assuntos
Hidrocarbonetos Clorados/toxicidade , Praguicidas/toxicidade , Espécies Reativas de Oxigênio/metabolismo , Ciclo-Oxigenase 2/metabolismo , Citocinas/metabolismo , Dano ao DNA , Diclorodifenil Dicloroetileno/metabolismo , Exposição Ambiental , Células Epiteliais/metabolismo , Feminino , Humanos , Hidrocarbonetos Clorados/análise , Inflamação/metabolismo , Neoplasias Ovarianas/metabolismo , Praguicidas/análise , Testes de Toxicidade , Fator de Necrose Tumoral alfa/metabolismo
18.
Environ Monit Assess ; 192(1): 59, 2019 Dec 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31863207

RESUMO

Urban lakes represent the most extensive water bodies in cities and provide blue ecosystem services, by retaining pollutants, offering cultural services, and mitigating climate change. Human activities threaten to decrease the supply of ecosystem services associated with urban lakes. Exorheic lakes play an essential role in reducing and changing the characteristics of pollutants and organic matter along the environmental continuum. This study aims to gain further understanding on the distribution and fate of organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) in relation to fluorescent dissolved organic matter (DOM) within an exorheic lake system, located along Colentina river, Bucharest. Results indicated a historical usage of HCHs, which were present in lake water and sediment samples, in concentrations exceeding the regulatory limits, with potential eco-toxicity on aquatic biota. Decades of intense applications along the river, before OCPs ban, led to their accumulation in sediments and their re-mobilization, each year, after the lakes were drained, dredged, and refilled. Fluorescence measurements revealed that DOM accumulated in certain lakes due to wastewater discharges, and surface runoff, but decreased towards the end of the exorheic lakes through dilution, sedimentation, and biodegradation. The results also showed that fluorescent DOM may have a substantial impact on OCPs cycle in urban lakes and may help to determine the conditions and effectiveness of removing OCPs from water and sediments. These issues contribute to the decrease of ecosystem services supply associated with urban lakes, having multiple hidden consequences on the urban environment.


Assuntos
Monitoramento Ambiental/métodos , Sedimentos Geológicos/química , Hidrocarbonetos Clorados/análise , Lagos/química , Praguicidas/análise , Poluentes Químicos da Água/análise , Biodegradação Ambiental , China , Cidades , Ecossistema , Humanos , Rios/química
19.
Environ Sci Pollut Res Int ; 26(36): 36401-36409, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31722095

RESUMO

The Juarez Valley is an important agricultural region in northern Mexico, conveniently organized into three modules (I to III). For decades, their soils have been exposed to organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) and also have been irrigated with wastewaters, which may contain heavy metals. Nowadays, there is very limited information regarding the presence of OCPs and heavy metals in these soils. Thus, the aim of this study was to diagnose these soils for OCPs and heavy metal content by using gas chromatography coupled with electron micro-capture detector and atomic absorption spectrometry, respectively. The results indicated that 4,4'-dichlorodiphenyldichloroethylene and 4,4'-dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane were primarily disseminated across the three modules since they were found in 100% and 97% of the analyzed soils, respectively. According to international regulations, none of the determined OCP concentrations are out of the limits. Additionally, the Cu, Zn, Fe, Pb, and Mn were found in all sampled soils from the three modules. The highest concentration of Fe was found in module II (1902.7 ± 332.2 mg kg-1), followed by Mn in module III (392.43 ± 74.43 mg kg-1), Zn in module I (38.36 ± 26.57 mg kg-1), Pb in module II (23.48 ± 6.48 mg kg-1), and Cu in module I (11.04 ± 3.83 mg kg-1) (p ≤ 0.05). These values did not exceed the limits proposed by international standards. The Cd was detected in most of the analyzed soils and all their values, with an average of 2 mg kg-1, surpassed the Mexican standards (0.35 mg kg-1). This study has mapped the main OCPs and heavy metals in the Juarez Valley and can serve as a starting point to further monitor the behave of xenobiotics. Since these recalcitrant compounds might be bio-accumulated in biological systems, further analytical methods, as well as remediation techniques, should be developed.


Assuntos
Monitoramento Ambiental/métodos , Hidrocarbonetos Clorados/análise , Metais Pesados/análise , Praguicidas/análise , Poluentes do Solo/análise , Solo/química , Irrigação Agrícola , Agricultura , Cromatografia Gasosa-Espectrometria de Massas , México , Espectrofotometria Atômica , Águas Residuárias/química
20.
Mar Pollut Bull ; 145: 148-152, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31590771

RESUMO

Persistent organic pollutants (POPs) were analyzed in eighteen blubber samples biopsied from fin whales (Balaenoptera physalus) during the feeding season near the Antarctic Peninsula in the summer of 2013. POP content (in ng g-1 lipid weight) ranged from 46.4 to 708 for polychlorinated biphenyls (∑PCBs), 6.77 to 123 for hexachlorobenzene (HCB), 10.1 to 489 for dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane and derivatives (∑DDTs), 5.38 to 52.8 for hexachlorocyclohexanes (∑HCH) and <0.40 to 2.54 for polybrominated diphenyl ethers (∑PBDEs). The presence of those compounds in Southern Ocean fin whales is related to long-range transport and their diet based mainly on euphausiids (krill). Their contents were much lower compared to the same species in other locations, especially in the Northern Hemisphere, presumably due to differences in trophic position and the proximity of POP sources and contamination of prey items.


Assuntos
Tecido Adiposo/química , Baleia Comum , Poluentes Químicos da Água/análise , Animais , Regiões Antárticas , DDT/análise , Monitoramento Ambiental , Feminino , Éteres Difenil Halogenados/análise , Hexaclorobenzeno/análise , Hexaclorocicloexano/análise , Hidrocarbonetos Clorados/análise , Masculino , Oceanos e Mares , Bifenilos Policlorados/análise
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