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1.
Huan Jing Ke Xue ; 42(4): 1660-1667, 2021 Apr 08.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33742801

RESUMO

Coal-fired power plants (CFPPs) and waste incineration power plants (WIPPs) represent a large portion of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) sources in the environment, among which halogenated PAHs (HPAHs) are more toxic to the human body compared with their corresponding parent PAHs. In the current work, we investigated the occurrence, formation mechanism, and toxicity effects of HPAHs in the coal and waste combustion products from three CFPPs and one WIPP. The results indicate that the contents of chlorinated PAHs (Cl-PAHs) in the fly ash from the CFPPs and WIPP were 1.06-1.67 ng·g-1 and 2.76 ng·g-1, respectively, and the contents of brominated PAHs (Br-PAHs) in the fly ash from the CFPPs and WIPP were 26.4-44.2 ng·g-1 and 6.31 ng·g-1, respectively. The HPAH contents in the fly ash from the WIPP were significantly higher than those from the CFPPs primarily due to the abundant plastics in the domestic waste, represented by polyvinyl chloride, resulting in the formation of Cl-PAHs during combustion. The HPAH contents in the fly ash from the pulverized coal-fired (PC) boiler were significantly higher than those from the circulating fluidized bed (CFB) boiler mostly due to the higher combustion temperature operated in the PC boiler. The HPAHs in the fly ash from coal combustion were predominantly 7-BrBaA and 9-ClPhe, and those from domestic combustion were predominantly 9-BrPhe and 2-ClAnt. In addition, the contents of 7-BrBaA and 9,10-Br2 Ant in the coal combustion fly ash were significantly higher than those in domestic waste combustion fly ash, whereas 2-BrFle exhibited a contrasting profile. The content of Br-PAHs in the fly ash treated by semi-dry deacidification was twice that in dust removal fly ash but significantly increased in the chelating agent stabilization fly ash. The Pearson correlation analysis indicated the the formation mechanism of Cl-PAHs and Br-PAHs were the same but a secondary formation of HPAHs during the chelating agent stabilization of the fly ash was deduced. The TEQ values of the HPAHs in the fly ash (8.87×10-3-15.0×10-3 ng·g-1) from the WIPP were similar to those in the fly ash from the CFPPs (10.0×10-3 ng·g-1), which were significantly reduced in the fly ash treated by semi-dry deacidification due to the removal of 7-BrBaA. Moreover, the TEQ values of the HPAHs in the fly ash increased 5.4 times after the chelating agent stabilization. The ecological risk should be considered for the CFPP fly ash due to their massive amount of discharge and high TEQ values.


Assuntos
Incineração , Hidrocarbonetos Policíclicos Aromáticos , Carvão Mineral/toxicidade , Cinza de Carvão/análise , Cinza de Carvão/toxicidade , Humanos , Hidrocarbonetos Policíclicos Aromáticos/análise , Hidrocarbonetos Policíclicos Aromáticos/toxicidade , Centrais Elétricas
2.
Huan Jing Ke Xue ; 42(4): 1830-1838, 2021 Apr 08.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33742818

RESUMO

Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), two typical persistent organic pollutants, are the research focus due to their mutagenesis, carcinogenesis, teratogenesis, and bioaccumulation. The content distribution and residual characteristics of PAHs and PCBs were investigated in the sediments from the Sanya River. Source apportionment was further explored based on the analysis of the spatial distribution, and the ecological risk evaluation was carried out with the sediment quality criteria and standards. The results indicate that the content of ΣPAHs and ΣPCBs in the sediment range from 265.00 µg·kg-1 to 6735.00 µg·kg-1 and 1.75 µg·kg-1 to 92.75 µg·kg-1, with relatively high contents in the east and west river upstream, respectively, which had a strong correlation with the industrial structure and river movement of the study area. The composition and source apportionment demonstrate that PAHs originated mostly from the combustion of petroleum with low PAHs, and haxa-CB and hepta-CB are the predominant PCBs congeners, primarily resulting from the migration of PCBs in the capacitor. The ecological risk evaluation demonstrates that the biotoxic effect of the PAHs is not obvious, with a low ecological risk. However, several PAHs monomers exceeded the standard significantly in some sampling sites, which should be of concern due to its serious threat of exposure to organisms. The probability of a biotoxic effect of PCBs is 10%-50%, which occasionally produces a negative ecological effect.


Assuntos
Bifenilos Policlorados , Hidrocarbonetos Policíclicos Aromáticos , Poluentes Químicos da Água , China , Monitoramento Ambiental , Sedimentos Geológicos , Bifenilos Policlorados/análise , Bifenilos Policlorados/toxicidade , Hidrocarbonetos Policíclicos Aromáticos/análise , Hidrocarbonetos Policíclicos Aromáticos/toxicidade , Medição de Risco , Rios , Poluentes Químicos da Água/análise , Poluentes Químicos da Água/toxicidade
3.
Water Sci Technol ; 83(5): 1017-1027, 2021 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33724933

RESUMO

The polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) that accumulate during the coking wastewater treatment process are hazardous for the surrounding environment. High molecular weight (HMW) PAHs account for more than 85% of the total PAHs in coking wastewater and sludge, respectively. The degradation of total PAHs increased by 18.97% due to the increased bioavailability of PAHs, after the biosurfactant-producing bacteria Pseudomonas aeruginosa S5 was added. The toxicity of total PAHs to humans was reduced by 26.66% after inoculation with S5. The results suggest biosurfactant-producing bacteria Pseudomonas aeruginosa S5 not only increase the biodegradation of PAHs significantly, but also have a better effect on reducing the human toxicity of PAHs. Kinetic analyses show that PAHs biodegradation fits to first-order kinetics. The degradation rate constant (k) value decreases as the number of PAH rings increases, indicating that HMW PAHs are more difficult to be biodegraded than low molecular weight (LMW) PAHs. The results indicate the bioaugmentation with the biosurfactant-producing strain has significant potential and utility in remediation of PAHs-polluted sites.


Assuntos
Coque , Hidrocarbonetos Policíclicos Aromáticos , Purificação da Água , Bactérias , Biodegradação Ambiental , Humanos , Hidrocarbonetos Policíclicos Aromáticos/análise , Pseudomonas aeruginosa
4.
Water Sci Technol ; 83(5): 1039-1054, 2021 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33724935

RESUMO

The main focus of this study is exploring the spatial distribution of polyaromatics hydrocarbon links between oil spills in the environment via Support Vector Machines based on Kernel-Radial Basis Function (RBF) approach for high precision classification of oil spill type from its sample fingerprinting in Peninsular Malaysia. The results show the highest concentrations of Σ Alkylated PAHs and Σ EPA PAHs in ΣTAH concentration in diesel from the oil samples PP3_liquid and GP6_Jetty achieving 100% classification output, corresponding to coherent decision boundary and projective subspace estimation. The high dimensional nature of this approach has led to the existence of a perfect separability of the oil type classification from four clustered oil type components; i.e diesel, bunker C, Mixture Oil (MO), lube oil and Waste Oil (WO) with the slack variables of ξ ≠ 0. Of the four clusters, only the SVs of two are correctly predicted, namely diesel and MO. The kernel-RBF approach provides efficient and reliable oil sample classification, enabling the oil classification to be optimally performed within a relatively short period of execution and a faster dataset classification where the slack variables ξ are non-zero.


Assuntos
Poluição por Petróleo , Hidrocarbonetos Policíclicos Aromáticos , Hidrocarbonetos , Malásia , Máquina de Vetores de Suporte
5.
Huan Jing Ke Xue ; 42(2): 595-603, 2021 Feb 08.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33742853

RESUMO

In this study, PM2.5 samples were collected synchronously at Gaoxin and Linxiao in Luoyang City during autumn and winter (4 October 2018 to 30 January 2019). Sixteen priority polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) associated with fine particulate matter were analyzed by gas chromatography mass spectrometry (GC-MS). The concentrations and composition characteristics of the PAHs on clean and polluted days were studied. Diagnostic ratio analysis and principal component analysis (PCA) were used to identify the emission sources of PM2.5-bound PAHs and the equivalent carcinogenic concentration of benzo[a]pyrene (BaP) and incremental lifetime cancer risks (ILCRs) model were applied to evaluate health risks. During the sampling period, the concentrations of PAHs at Gaoxin and Linxiao ranged 24.33-90.26 ng·m-3 and 23.81-76.99 ng·m-3, respectively. With the increase in PM2.5 pollution, PAH concentrations increase significantly (the mean PAH concentration on polluted days was approximately 1.3 times higher than during clean days). PAH profiles at different polluting levels were similar; 4-ring PAHs (43%-48%) > 5-6 ring PAHs (32%-35%) > 2-3-ring PAHs (20%-22%). Diagnostic ratios and PCA demonstrated that PAHs in the study area were mainly derived from combustion sources including coal combustion, biomass burning, and motor vehicle emissions. The coal combustion was the main pollution source in the study area (clean days=49.28%-56.38%, polluted days=49.44%-60.60%). The results of the equivalent carcinogenic concentration of benzo[a]pyrene (BaP) and ILCR model revealed that the human health risk on polluted days was higher. Moreover, the cancer risks from adult exposure to PAHs were higher than those child exposure, which has an acceptable level of risk (<10-6).


Assuntos
Poluentes Atmosféricos , Hidrocarbonetos Policíclicos Aromáticos , Adulto , Poluentes Atmosféricos/efeitos adversos , Poluentes Atmosféricos/análise , Criança , China , Cidades , Monitoramento Ambiental , Humanos , Material Particulado/análise , Hidrocarbonetos Policíclicos Aromáticos/análise , Medição de Risco , Estações do Ano
6.
Environ Monit Assess ; 193(4): 228, 2021 Mar 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33772658

RESUMO

This study investigated the occurrence and seasonal variation in concentrations of emerging organic contaminants (EOCs) in shallow groundwater underlying two peri-urban areas of Bwaise (highly urbanised) and Wobulenzi (moderately urbanised) in Uganda. Twenty-six antibiotics, 20 hydrocarbons, including 16 polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), and 59 pesticides were investigated. Ampicillin and benzylpenicillin were the most frequently detected antibiotics in both areas, although at low concentrations to cause direct harm to human health, but could lead to a proliferation of antibiotic resistance genes. The most frequently detected hydrocarbons in Bwaise were naphthalene and xylene while anthracene and fluoranthene were the most frequent in Wobulenzi, also at low concentrations for ecological impact at long-term exposure. Molecular diagnostic ratios indicated pyrogenic and pyrolytic sources of PAHs in both areas. Cypermethrin (for vermin control) was the most frequent pesticide in Bwaise while metalaxyl (attributed to agriculture) was the most frequent in Wobulenzi. Banned organochlorines (8) were also detected in both areas in low concentrations. The pesticide concentrations between the two areas significantly differed (Z = - 3.558; p < 0.01), attributed to contrasting land-use characteristics. In Wobulenzi (wet season), the total pesticide concentrations at all the locations exceeded the European Community parametric guideline value while 75% of the detected compounds exceeded the individual pesticide guideline value. Thus, the antibiotic and pesticide residues in shallow groundwater underlying both Bwaise and Wobulenzi pose potential adverse ecological effects at long-term exposure. Monitoring of EOCs in both highly and moderately urbanised catchments should be strengthened towards mitigating associated risks.


Assuntos
Água Subterrânea , Hidrocarbonetos Policíclicos Aromáticos , Poluentes Químicos da Água , Monitoramento Ambiental , Humanos , Hidrocarbonetos Policíclicos Aromáticos/análise , Uganda , Poluentes Químicos da Água/análise
7.
Ecotoxicol Environ Saf ; 214: 112095, 2021 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33667735

RESUMO

In this study, urban stream sediment samples were collected in the Suzhou Industrial Park (SIP), one of the earliest national demonstration eco-industrial parks of China. PAHs were analyzed in these sediments, and concentrations of total PAHs were 180-81,000 ng g-1 (5700 ± 14,000 ng g-1). Medium molecular weight (4- ring) PAHs were predominant (42 ± 12%), followed by high molecular weight (5- and 6- ring) PAHs (31 ± 10%). No correlation was found between concentrations of PAHs and land uses of SIP in this study. Diagnostic ratios and a positive matrix factorization (PMF) model indicated that coal/biomass combustion might be the primary PAH source (61%), followed by non-combustion sources (21%) and vehicular emission (18%). According to the spatial analysis, PAHs in the sediments of SIP might be mainly associated with the coal/biomass combustion in the northeast industrial zone. Residential & commercial activities seem not to be the major causes of PAH contamination. Total PAH toxic equivalent concentrations, effect range low/effect range median values, and mean effects range-median quotient all showed that PAHs were present at a low toxicity risk level in most regions of the SIP. However, vigilance is required at some sampling sites with extremely high PAH concentrations or high mean effects range-median quotient.


Assuntos
Hidrocarbonetos Policíclicos Aromáticos/análise , Poluentes Químicos da Água/análise , China , Carvão Mineral/análise , Monitoramento Ambiental , Sedimentos Geológicos , Indústrias , Medição de Risco , Rios , Emissões de Veículos/análise
8.
Environ Sci Pollut Res Int ; 28(14): 18300-18307, 2021 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33704637

RESUMO

Heavy metals (HMs) and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) are persistent toxicants in coastal environments. Notably, in comparison to individual metal toxicity, knowledge about the effects of HMs and PAHs mixtures on kelps remains scarce. Accordingly, we performed in vitro experiments to determine the individual and combined effects of Cu, Cd, and PAHs on spore release, settlement, and germination on Macrocystis pyrifera and Lessonia spicata, two key-habitat forming kelp species of the coast of the Valparaíso Region in Chile. This region concentrates highly polluting industries, mainly due to unrestrained mining and fossil-fuel energy production. Single Cu, Cd, and PAHs treatments included concentrations in the ranges 5-200, 0.125-2000, and 0.05-100 µg/L, respectively, and a toxic-free treatment. Cu, Cd, and PAHs concentrations causing 20-50% (IC20, IC50) arrested spore release, settlement, and germination were determined, and the results shown in both species that single Cu, Cd, and PAHs IC20 values were generally lower on spore release than on spore settlement and germination, probably due to the absence of a cell wall in spores compared to later stages. Binary equitoxic IC20s mixture treatments changed from an antagonistic response to another with a greater inhibitory effect on spore release, from hour 1 to 7, whereas in IC50 treatments, the response was always antagonistic. The tertiary IC20 mixture of Cu+Cd+PAHs produced generally an antagonistic effect. Remarkably, all IC20 equitoxic mixture treatments showed a synergistic response on spore settlement in both kelps, suggesting that these toxicants are extremely harmful to kelp population persistence near highly polluted sites.


Assuntos
Kelp , Metais Pesados , Hidrocarbonetos Policíclicos Aromáticos , Poluentes Químicos da Água , Cádmio , Chile , Cobre , Ecossistema
9.
Ecotoxicol Environ Saf ; 214: 112082, 2021 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33721579

RESUMO

This study investigates the effects of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) on two potentially toxic Pseudo-nitzschia hasleana and P. mannii, isolated from a PAH contaminated marine environment. Both species, maintained in non-axenic cultures, have been exposed during 144 h to increasing concentrations of a 15 PAHs mixture. Analysis of the domoic acid, showed very low concentrations. Dose-response curves for growth and photosynthesis inhibition were determined. Both species have maintained their growth until the end of incubation even at the highest concentration tested (120 µg l-1), Nevertheless, P mannii showed faster growth and seemed to be more tolerant than P. hasleana. To reduce PAH toxicity, both species have enhanced their biovolume, with a higher increase for P. mannii relative to P hasleana. Both species were also capable of bio-concentrating PAHs and were able to degrade them probably in synergy with their associated bacteria. The highest biodegradation was observed for P. mannii, which could harbored more efficient hydrocarbon-degrading bacteria. This study provides the first evidence that PAHs can control the growth and physiology of potentially toxic diatoms. Future studies should investigate the bacterial community associated with Pseudo-nitzschia species, as responses to pollutants or to other environmental stressors could be strongly influence by associated bacteria.


Assuntos
Diatomáceas/fisiologia , Hidrocarbonetos Policíclicos Aromáticos/toxicidade , Poluentes Químicos da Água/toxicidade , Adaptação Fisiológica , Bactérias , Biodegradação Ambiental , Diatomáceas/metabolismo , Ácido Caínico/análogos & derivados , Fotossíntese , Hidrocarbonetos Policíclicos Aromáticos/metabolismo , Poluentes Químicos da Água/metabolismo
10.
Sci Total Environ ; 770: 144745, 2021 May 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33736363

RESUMO

Diluted bitumen, also known as dilbit, is transported by rail and pipeline across Canada and the United States. Due to the fewer number of studies characterizing the toxicity of dilbit, a dilbit spill poses an unknown risk to freshwater aquatic ecosystems. In the following study, we compared the impact of early-life exposure to conventional and unconventional crude oils on the optomotor behavior, reproductive success, and transgenerational differences in gene expression in zebrafish and their progeny. For exposures, water accommodated fractions (WAFs) of crude oil were generated using a 1:1000 oil to water ratio for 3 different crudes; mixed sweet blend (MSB), medium sour composite (MSC) and dilbit. All three oils generated unique volatile organic compound (VOC) and polycyclic aromatic compound (PAC) profiles. Of the WAFs tested, only dilbit decreased the eye size of 2 dpf larvae, and only MSB exposed larvae had an altered behavioral response to a visual simulation of a predator. Early-life exposure to crude oil had no lasting impact on reproductive success of adult fish; however, each oil had unique impacts on the basal gene expression of the somatically exposed offspring. In this study, the biological effects differed between each of the oils tested, which implied chemical composition plays a critical role in determining the sublethal toxicity of conventional and unconventional crude oils in freshwater ecosystems.


Assuntos
Poluição por Petróleo , Petróleo , Hidrocarbonetos Policíclicos Aromáticos , Poluentes Químicos da Água , Animais , Canadá , Ecossistema , Marcadores Genéticos , Petróleo/análise , Petróleo/toxicidade , Poluição por Petróleo/efeitos adversos , Poluentes Químicos da Água/toxicidade , Peixe-Zebra
11.
Sci Total Environ ; 770: 145402, 2021 May 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33736387

RESUMO

Identifying the nature and extent of atmospheric PM2.5-bound toxic organic pollutants is beneficial to evaluate human health risks of air pollution. Seasonal observations of PM2.5-bound polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and nitro-PAHs (NPAHs) in the Yangtze River Delta (YRD) were investigated, along with criteria air pollutants and meteorological parameters. With the elevated PM2.5 level, the percentage of 4-ring PAHs and typical NPAH including 3-Nitrobiphenyl (3-NBP) and 2-Nitrofluoranthene (2-NFLT) increased by 19-40%. PM2.5-bound 2-NFLT was positively correlated with O3 and NO2, suggesting the contribution of atmospheric oxidation capacity to enhance the secondary formation of NPAHs in the atmosphere. Positive matrix factorization (PMF) analysis indicated that traffic emissions (44.9-48.7%), coal and biomass combustion (27.6-36.0%) and natural gas and volatilization (15.3-27.5%) were major sources of PAHs, and secondary formation (39.8-53.8%) was a predominant contributor to total NPAH concentrations. Backward trajectory analysis showed that air masses from North China transported to the YRD region increased PAH and NPAH concentrations. Compare to clean days, the BaP equivalent concentrations of total PAHs and NPAHs during haze pollution days were enhanced by 10-25 and 2-6 times, respectively. The Incremental Lifetime Cancer Risks (ILCRs) of PAHs by inhalation exposure also indicated high potential health risks in the YRD region. The results implied that the health risks of PM2.5-bound PAHs and NPAHs could be sharply enhanced with the increase of PM2.5 concentrations.


Assuntos
Poluentes Atmosféricos , Poluição do Ar , Hidrocarbonetos Policíclicos Aromáticos , Poluentes Atmosféricos/análise , China , Monitoramento Ambiental , Humanos , Material Particulado/análise , Hidrocarbonetos Policíclicos Aromáticos/análise , Rios , Estações do Ano
12.
Sci Total Environ ; 773: 145076, 2021 Jun 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33582335

RESUMO

Knowledge of the origins of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) in vegetables is essential to reduce human health risks induced by dietary exposure. The current study developed a vegetation-advanced multimedia model, SESAMe-Veg, to identify the major uptake pathway of 15 priority PAHs in vegetables and assess the PAHs in edible parts of cabbages and carrots in Jinzhong City, Shanxi Province, China. The model was well evaluated against site- and plant-specific measurements. Edible parts exhibited lower PAH concentrations than the other parts for both vegetables. The estimated concentrations of ΣPAH15 were 79 ng/g in cabbage shoots and 83 ng/g in carrot roots. Higher concentrations were estimated in shoots of the leafy vegetable than in roots of the root vegetable for most PAHs. Although air-shoot is the major transport pathway, 98% was deposition of particles, which was attached outside and could be removed relatively easily by washing. Soils might be the origin of PAHs inside vegetables, especially for lighter PAHs. PYR was more likely to be stored in roots than other congeners. The translocation of PAHs inside vegetables was negligible. Adulthood dietary exposure to local vegetables probably caused a high health risk; however, contributions from consuming cabbages and especially carrots were low. Females generally exhibited slightly higher risks than males of exposure to PAHs in local vegetables. Considering the dominant role of particle deposition, carefully vegetable washing before ingestion could reduce this risk. This study has provided a functional tool to evaluate vegetable contamination by PAHs. CAPSULE: A vegetation-advanced multimedia model of PAHs in different parts of vegetables and other environmental media was developed to evaluate the potential health risk to local populations of different sexes and ages via vegetable ingestion.


Assuntos
Hidrocarbonetos Policíclicos Aromáticos , Poluentes do Solo , Adulto , China , Cidades , Monitoramento Ambiental , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Multimídia , Hidrocarbonetos Policíclicos Aromáticos/análise , Medição de Risco , Poluentes do Solo/análise , Verduras
13.
Sci Total Environ ; 773: 145403, 2021 Jun 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33582342

RESUMO

Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) are one of the most widely distributed persistent organic pollutants (POPs) in the environmental media. PAHs have been widely concerned due to their significant health risk and adverse effects to human and animals. Currently, the main sources of PAHs in the environment are the incomplete combustion of fossil fuels, as well as municipal waste incineration and agricultural non-surface source emissions. In this work, the scope of our attention includes 16 typical PAHs themselves without involving their metabolites and industrial by-products. Exposure of human and animals to PAHs can lead to a variety of adverse effects, including carcinogenicity and teratogenicity, genotoxicity, reproductive- and endocrine-disrupting effects, immunotoxicity and neurotoxicity, the type and severity of which depend on a variety of factors. On the other hand, the regulatory effect of microplastics (MPs) on the bio-toxicity and bioaccumulation capacity of PAHs has now gradually attracted attention. We critically reviewed the adsorption capacity and mechanisms of MPs on PAHs as well as the effects of MPs on PAHs toxicity, thus highlighting the importance of paying attention to the joint bio-toxicity caused by PAHs-MPs interactions. In addition, due to the extensive nature of the common exposure pathway of PAHs and ultraviolet ray, an accurate understanding of biological processes exposed to both PAHs and UV light is necessary to develop effective protective strategies. Finally, based on the above critical review, we highlighted the research gaps and pointed out the priority of further studies.


Assuntos
Hidrocarbonetos Policíclicos Aromáticos , Animais , Bioacumulação , Monitoramento Ambiental , Humanos , Incineração , Microplásticos , Plásticos , Hidrocarbonetos Policíclicos Aromáticos/análise , Hidrocarbonetos Policíclicos Aromáticos/toxicidade
14.
Mar Pollut Bull ; 165: 112052, 2021 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33582425

RESUMO

Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), and hopanes were analyzed in plastic resin pellets collected from 19 locations along the Persian Gulf coastline. PCBs were high at locations near industrial areas, where their concentrations (sum of 13 congeners, 54-624 ng/g-pellet) were higher than those in rural coastal towns, which were close to global background levels (<10 ng/g-pellet). PAH concentrations (sum of 27 PAH species) varied from 273 to 15,786 ng/g-pellet and were highest in industrial cities (Bushehr and Bandar Abbas), with a petrogenic signature at most locations, possibly due to the petroleum-based industries, refineries, and tankers. These levels were placed in the extremely polluted category on a global basis. The distribution of hopanes was relatively homogeneous, and their range of concentrations was 8048-59,778 ng/g-pellet. This range had a positive correlation with PAH concentrations. The PAH and hopane results emphasize the ubiquity of petroleum pollution in the Persian Gulf.


Assuntos
Bifenilos Policlorados , Hidrocarbonetos Policíclicos Aromáticos , Poluentes Químicos da Água , Cidades , Monitoramento Ambiental , Oceano Índico , Triterpenos Pentacíclicos , Plásticos , Bifenilos Policlorados/análise , Hidrocarbonetos Policíclicos Aromáticos/análise , Poluentes Químicos da Água/análise
15.
Mar Pollut Bull ; 165: 112151, 2021 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33601277

RESUMO

Assessing oil spill toxicity in real time is challenging due to dynamic field exposures and lack of simple, rapid, and sensitive tests. We investigated the relative sensitivity of two commercially available marine toxicity tests to aromatic hydrocarbons using the target lipid model (TLM). State of the art passive dosing in sealed vials was used to assess the sensitivity of brine shrimp (Artemia franciscana) and rotifer (Brachionus plicatilis). Organisms were exposed to toluene, 1-methylnaphthalene and phenanthrene for 24 h. Toxicity results were analysed using the TLM to estimate the critical target lipid body burden and support comparison to empirical data for 79 other aquatic organisms. Our findings demonstrate the applicability of passive dosing to test small volumes and indicate that the two rapid cyst-based assays are insensitive in detecting hydrocarbon exposures compared to other aquatic species. Our results highlight the limitations of applying these tests for oil pollution monitoring and decision-making.


Assuntos
Hidrocarbonetos Aromáticos , Poluição por Petróleo , Petróleo , Hidrocarbonetos Policíclicos Aromáticos , Rotíferos , Poluentes Químicos da Água , Animais , Petróleo/análise , Poluição por Petróleo/análise , Hidrocarbonetos Policíclicos Aromáticos/toxicidade , Testes de Toxicidade , Poluentes Químicos da Água/análise , Poluentes Químicos da Água/toxicidade
16.
Mar Pollut Bull ; 165: 112143, 2021 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33610110

RESUMO

Anthropogenic activities can introduce polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in coastal waters. Here, 16 priority PAHs were quantified by gas chromatography-mass spectroscopy (GC-MS) in seawater samples from three Iberian Atlantic habitats. Results showed global concentrations of ≅9 ng/L in the aqueous phase (DAP) and ≅94 ng/g, dw in suspended particulate matter (SPM). The identified sources were both petrogenic and pyrogenic. Nonetheless, the application of several quantitative approaches, including Principal Component Analysis, point to distinct PAHs inputs amongst the sampling areas and demonstrate that sources in S1 (fire forests/sea harbor) are different from those at S2 and S3 (oil refinery/sea harbor). The calculated carcinogenicity potential in both DAP and SPM was low for humans (high percentage of Group 3 PAHs). However, both toxic equivalent factors (TEQs) and environmental risks coefficients (RQs) reveal that the evaluated areas are not risk-free, as confirmed by the practical Artemia salina acute-test assay.


Assuntos
Hidrocarbonetos Policíclicos Aromáticos , Poluentes Químicos da Água , Carvão Mineral , Monitoramento Ambiental , Sedimentos Geológicos , Humanos , Hidrocarbonetos Policíclicos Aromáticos/análise , Poluentes Químicos da Água/análise
17.
Environ Pollut ; 276: 116759, 2021 May 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33639491

RESUMO

The majority of experimental studies carried out to date, regarding the effects of pollutants on meiofauna have been conducted by means of closed systems, and rarely using open ones. The current work explored the impact of three Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAHs), anthracene, pyrene and benzo[a]pyrene, applied alone or combined, on meiobenthic nematodes using both systems. The results revealed that single PAHs impacted the nematofauna similarly in closed or open systems with a higher toxicity observed for benzo[a]pyrene. However, the closed microcosms contaminated with PAHs became organically enriched, resulting in more non-selective deposit feeders and omnivores-carnivores. Taxonomic and functional effects related to combinations of PAHs were close to those of individual treatments in closed systems, however, for open ones, the outcomes were different. The caudal morphology influenced the response of taxa during their avoidance/endurance of hydrocarbons in open systems where the effects of PAHs mixtures appeared not only additive but also synergetic. Based on the results of the study, the use of open systems is preferred to closed ones as the research outcomes were more accurate and representing better conditions prevailing in nature.


Assuntos
Nematoides , Hidrocarbonetos Policíclicos Aromáticos , Animais , Antracenos/toxicidade , Benzo(a)pireno/toxicidade , Hidrocarbonetos Policíclicos Aromáticos/toxicidade , Pirenos
18.
Ecotoxicol Environ Saf ; 213: 112017, 2021 Apr 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33582414

RESUMO

The distribution of hydrophobic organic contaminants (HOCs) in eutrophic ecosystems has been widely studied, but how phytoplankton blooms affect their occurrence and benthic bioaccumulation is poorly understood. To fill this knowledge gap, the biological pump effects of phytoplankton on the fate of organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in sediments and benthos (Corbicula fluminea) from Lake Taihu, a hypereutrophic lake in China, were identified. The spatial-temporal distribution of HOCs suggests that higher phytoplankton biomass, coupled with sediment organic matter (SOM) content, greatly increased the concentration of HOCs in sediments in both winter and summer seasons. This could be attributed to the biological pump effects sequestering more HOCs from water to sediments with settling phytoplankton, especially during the summer. The biological pump effects further promoted the uptake of sediment-bound HOCs by benthos. The significant positive relationships between concentrations of HOCs in sediments and benthos were observed during the winter dormancy phase of benthos. Furthermore, the benthic bioaccumulation of HOCs could be strengthened by phytoplankton, due to their contribution to SOM and the following increased bioavailability of HOCs in sediments. Further research is needed to elucidate the phytoplankton biological pump effects on the fate of HOCs in benthic food chain, especially for hypereutrophic waters.


Assuntos
Monitoramento Ambiental , Hidrocarbonetos Clorados/análise , Poluentes Químicos da Água/análise , Bioacumulação , Biomassa , Ecossistema , Cadeia Alimentar , Sedimentos Geológicos/química , Interações Hidrofóbicas e Hidrofílicas , Lagos/química , Proteínas de Membrana Transportadoras , Praguicidas/análise , Fitoplâncton , Hidrocarbonetos Policíclicos Aromáticos/análise , Estações do Ano
19.
Aquat Toxicol ; 233: 105773, 2021 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33610857

RESUMO

The 2010 Deepwater Horizon (DWH) crude oil spill, among the largest environmental disasters in U.S. history, affected numerous economically important fishes. Exposure to crude oil can lead to reduced cardiac function, limiting oxygen transport, ATP production, and aerobic performance. However, crude oil exposure is not the only stressor that affects aerobic performance, and increasing environmental temperatures are known to significantly increase metabolic demands in fishes. As the DWH spill was active during warm summer months in the Gulf of Mexico, it is important to understand the combined effects of oil and temperature on a suite of metabolic parameters. Therefore, we investigated the effects of 24h crude oil exposure on the aerobic metabolism and hypoxia tolerance of red drum (Sciaenops ocellatus) following 3 week chronic exposure to four ecologically relevant temperatures (18 °C, 22 °C, 25 °C, 28 °C). Our results show that individuals acclimated to higher temperatures had significantly higher standard metabolic rate than individuals at lower temperatures, which resulted in significantly decreased critical oxygen threshold and reduced recovery from exercise. As predicted, crude oil exposure resulted in lower maximum metabolic rates (MMR) across the temperature range, and a significantly reduced ability to recover from exercise. The lowest temperature acclimation showed the smallest effect of oil on MMR, while the highest temperature showed the smallest effect on exercise recovery. Reduced respiratory performance and hypoxia tolerance are likely to have meaningful impacts on the fitness of red drum, especially with climate-induced temperature increases and continued oil exploration in the Gulf of Mexico.


Assuntos
Perciformes/fisiologia , Poluição por Petróleo/análise , Petróleo/toxicidade , Hidrocarbonetos Policíclicos Aromáticos/toxicidade , Respiração/efeitos dos fármacos , Temperatura , Poluentes Químicos da Água/toxicidade , Animais , Metabolismo Energético/efeitos dos fármacos , Golfo do México , Água do Mar/química
20.
Sci Total Environ ; 772: 144919, 2021 Jun 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33578157

RESUMO

Bioanodes in a soil microbial fuel cell (SMFC) can serve as sustainable electron acceptors in microbial metabolism processes; thus, SMFCs are considered a promising in situ bioremediation technology. Most related studies have focused on the removal efficiency of contaminants. Relatively few efforts have been made to comprehensively investigate the organic matter composition and biodegradation metabolites of organic contaminants and microbial communities at various distances from the bioanode. In this study, the level and composition of dissolved organic matter (DOM), biodegradation metabolites of benzo[a]pyrene (BaP), and microbial communities at two sites with different distances (S1cm and S11cm) to the bioanode were investigated in an SMFC. The consumption efficiency of dissolved organic carbon (RDOC) and removal efficiency of BaP (RBaP) at S1cm were slightly higher than those at S11cm after 100 days (RDOC 47.82 ± 5.77% at S1cm and 44.98 ± 10.76% at S11cm; RBaP 72.52 ± 1.88% at S1cm and 68.50 ± 4.34% at S11cm). More fulvic acid-like components and more low-molecular-weight metabolites (indicating a higher biodegradation degree) of BaP were generated at S1cm than at S11cm. The microbial community structures were similar at the two sites. Electroactive bacteria (EAB) and some polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon degraders were both enriched at the bioanode. Energy metabolism at the bioanode could be upregulated to generate more adenosine triphosphate (ATP). In conclusion, the bioanode could modulate the metabolic pathways in the adjacent soil by strengthening the contact between the EAB and BaP degraders, and providing more ATP to the BaP degraders.


Assuntos
Fontes de Energia Bioelétrica , Microbiota , Hidrocarbonetos Policíclicos Aromáticos , Poluentes do Solo , Benzo(a)pireno , Biodegradação Ambiental , Solo , Microbiologia do Solo
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