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1.
Sci Total Environ ; 753: 141980, 2021 Jan 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33207456

RESUMO

The algae biological pump (ABP) effect for hydrophobic organic contaminants in deep oligotrophic lakes and oceans has been well studied. Suspended particulate matter (SPM) plays a connective role in ABP processes. However, little is known about the impacts of ABP effect on the occurrence, source apportionment and toxicity of SPM-bound polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in a typically shallow eutrophic lake under strong anthropogenic emissions of PAHs. In this study, we study this gap knowledge on the eutrophic Lake Chaohu, China. SPM-bound PAHs in Lake Chaohu were controlled by anthropogenic emissions in all seasons. Apparent ABP effect only occurred in spring and summer in lake area. Algae blooms in spring and summer significantly increased 46.5% ± 7.9% (mean ± standard deviation) and 19.8% ± 2.4% of Σ21 SPM-bound PAHs, and greatly enhanced their toxicity (1.98 ± 0.46 times in spring and 32.9% ± 4.2% in summer). Therefore, there need more attentions focusing on the coupling effect of persistent toxic substances such as PAHs and harmful algae blooms in aquatic environment for sustainable development. The apparent ABP effect had little influence on their source apportionment. However, it may cause a regime shift for the source apportionment on a short-term scale. Further study could pay more attentions on in-depth and short-term studies on ABP effect.


Assuntos
Proteínas de Membrana Transportadoras , Hidrocarbonetos Policíclicos Aromáticos , Poluentes Químicos da Água , China , Monitoramento Ambiental , Sedimentos Geológicos , Lagos/análise , Material Particulado/toxicidade , Hidrocarbonetos Policíclicos Aromáticos/análise , Hidrocarbonetos Policíclicos Aromáticos/toxicidade , Poluentes Químicos da Água/análise , Poluentes Químicos da Água/toxicidade
2.
Sci Total Environ ; 750: 142245, 2021 Jan 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33182168

RESUMO

The study of biodegradation of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) with metal ions as electron acceptors is still in its infancy. Here, a pure culture of PheF2 sharing 99.79% 16S rRNA-sequence similarity with Trichococcus alkaliphilus, which was recently reported to degrade PAHs, was isolated and found to degrade PAHs with Fe (III) or O2 reduction. Phenanthrene was selected as a model of PAH to study the biodegradation process by PheF2 with Fe (III) or O2 as an electron acceptor. PheF2 exhibited nearly 100%, 37.1%, and 28.5% anaerobic biodegradation of phenanthrene at initial concentrations of 280.7 µM, 280.6 µM, and 281.3 µM, respectively, within 10 days under anaerobic conditions with XAD-7 as a carrier, heptamethylnonane (HMN) as a solution, and nothing, respectively. PheF2 could degrade nearly 100% of the initial phenanthrene concentration of 283.4 µM under aerobic conditions within three days. The initial step of phenanthrene biodegradation by PheF2 involved carboxylation and dioxygenation under anaerobic and aerobic conditions, respectively. The biotransformation processes of phenanthrene degradation by PheF2 with Fe(III) or O2 as an electron acceptor were explored by metabolite and genome analysis. These findings provide an important theoretical support for evaluation of PAHs fate and for PAHs pollution control or remediation in anaerobic and aerobic environments.


Assuntos
Fenantrenos , Hidrocarbonetos Policíclicos Aromáticos , Biodegradação Ambiental , Biotransformação , Carnobacteriaceae , Elétrons , Compostos Férricos , Hidrocarbonetos Policíclicos Aromáticos/análise , RNA Ribossômico 16S
3.
J Environ Sci (China) ; 99: 72-79, 2021 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33183718

RESUMO

This study encompassed the regular observation of nine polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and three nitro-PAHs (NPAHs) in particulate matter (PM) in Shanghai in summer and winter from 2010 to 2018. The results showed that the mean concentrations of Æ©PAHs in summer decreased by 24.7% in 2013 and 18.1% in 2017 but increased by 10.2% in 2015 compared to the data in 2010. However, the mean concentrations of Æ©PAHs in winter decreased by 39.7% from 2010 (12.8 ± 4.55 ng/m3) to 2018 (7.72 ± 3.33 ng/m3), and the mean concentrations of 1-nitropyrene in winter decreased by 79.0% from 2010 (42.3 ± 16.1 pg/m3) to 2018 (8.90 ± 2.09 pg/m3). Correlation analysis with meteorological conditions revealed that the PAH and NPAH concentrations were both influenced by ambient temperature. The diagnostic ratios of PAHs and factor analysis showed that they were mainly affected by traffic emissions with some coal and/or biomass combustion. The ratio of 2-nitrofluoranthene to 2-nitropyrene was near 10, which indicated that the OH radical-initiated reaction was the main pathway leading to their secondary formation. Moreover, backward trajectories revealed different air mass routes in each sampling period, indicating a high possibility of source effects from the northern area in winter in addition to local and surrounding influences. Meanwhile, the mean total benzo[a]pyrene-equivalent concentrations in Shanghai in winter decreased by 50.8% from 2010 (1860 ± 645 pg/m3) to 2018 (916 ± 363 pg/m3). These results indicated the positive effects of the various policies and regulations issued by Chinese authorities.


Assuntos
Poluentes Atmosféricos , Hidrocarbonetos Policíclicos Aromáticos , Poluentes Atmosféricos/análise , China , Monitoramento Ambiental , Material Particulado/análise , Hidrocarbonetos Policíclicos Aromáticos/análise , Estações do Ano
4.
Food Chem ; 334: 127471, 2021 Jan 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32688174

RESUMO

Optimal QuEChERS (quick, easy, cheap, effective, rugged and safe) conditions with good accuracy, repeatability and precision were established to rapidly extract the European Union (EU) priority polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) from various food matrices (Category: Poultry and Meat, Fish and seafood, Grains, Soy beans and products, Root vegetables and Coffee). The QuEChERS conditions combined with the established high performance liquid chromatography-fluorescence detection conditions were used to rapidly determine the PAHs in 19 popular cooked foods in Taiwan and their corresponding original materials. These conditions also meet the EU and Taiwan Food and Drug Administration specifications. Charcoal grilled, gas stove grilled and smoked foods had higher PAHs contents, while fried and electric oven-baked/baked foods had lower PAHs contents. In addition to the effects of cooking methods, the contamination of original materials by PAHs in the environment should also have an important impact on the contents of PAHs in these cooked foods.


Assuntos
Análise de Alimentos/métodos , Contaminação de Alimentos/análise , Hidrocarbonetos Policíclicos Aromáticos/análise , Carvão Vegetal , Fracionamento Químico/métodos , Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Pressão , Culinária , União Europeia , Cromatografia Gasosa-Espectrometria de Massas/métodos , Limite de Detecção , Carne/análise , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Alimentos Marinhos/análise , Taiwan , Verduras/química
5.
Chemosphere ; 262: 127846, 2021 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32777615

RESUMO

Data for source apportionment estimation was obtained from combustion of 11 types of biomass (rubber wood, palm kernel, palm fiber, sugarcane bagasse, sugarcane leaves, maize residue, rice stubble, rice straw, Xylocarpus moluccensis, Avicennia alba Blume and Rhizophora mucronata) and bituminous coal. Combustion was carried out in a tube furnace and emitted particulate matter (PM) was collected using a nanosampler that segregated particle sizes down to 0.1 µm. Emission factors of PM < 0.1 µm were in the range of 0.11-0.28 g kg-1 (∼1-8% of total PM), except in the case of Rhizophora mucronata, which had an emission factor of 0.071 ± 0.004 g kg-1 (∼18% of total PM). The dominant polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) found on PM < 0.1 µm were chrysene from combustion of rubber wood, palm kernel, palm fiber, maize residue, Xylocarpus moluccensis, Avicennia alba Blume, Rhizophora mucronata and bituminous coal; benzo[b]fluoranthene from combustion of rice straw, sugarcane bagasse and sugarcane leaves; and benzo[k]fluoranthene from rice stubble combustion. The emission factors of PAHs bound to PM < 0.1 µm from biomass combustion ranged from 0.005 to 0.044 mg kg-1 and the emission factor from bituminous coal combustion was 0.1411 ± 0.0004 mg kg-1. The carcinogenic potency equivalent or benzo[a]pyrene equivalent was highest from bituminous coal combustion (0.1252 mg kg-1) and between 0.0019 and 0.0192 mg kg-1 from biomass combustion. However, emission factors of both PM and particle-bound PAHs from biomass combustion were affected by moisture content of biomass and moisture contents of biomass used in this study were quite low, ranging from 0.165 to 0.863%.


Assuntos
Poluentes Atmosféricos/análise , Monitoramento Ambiental , Material Particulado/análise , Hidrocarbonetos Policíclicos Aromáticos/análise , Biomassa , Carcinógenos/análise , Carvão Mineral/análise , Humanos , Tamanho da Partícula , Madeira/química
6.
Sci Total Environ ; 752: 142156, 2021 Jan 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33207514

RESUMO

Following the 2010 Deepwater Horizon oil spill, extensive research has been conducted on the toxicity of oil and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in the aquatic environment. Many studies have identified the toxicological effects of PAHs in estuarine and marine fishes, however, only recently has work begun to identify the combinatorial effect of PAHs and abiotic environmental factors such as hypoxia, salinity, and temperature. This study aims to characterize the combined effects of abiotic stressors and PAH exposure on the cardiac transcriptomes of developing Fundulus grandis larvae. In this study, F. grandis larvae were exposed to varying environmental conditions (dissolved oxygen (DO) 2, 6 ppm; temperature 20, 30 °C; and salinity 3, 30 ppt) as well as to a single concentration of high energy water accommodated fraction (HEWAF) (∑PAHs 15 ppb). Whole larvae were sampled for RNA and transcriptional changes were quantified using RNA-Seq followed by qPCR for a set of target genes. Analysis revealed that exposure to oil and abiotic stressors impacts signaling pathways associated with cardiovascular function. Specifically, combined exposures appear to reduce development of the systemic vasculature as well as strongly impact the cardiac musculature through cardiomyocyte proliferation resulting in inhibited cardiac function and modulated blood pressure maintenance. Results of this study provide a holistic view of impacts of PAHs and common environmental stressors on the cardiac system in early life stage estuarine species. To our knowledge, this study is one of the first to simultaneously manipulate oil exposure with abiotic factors (DO, salinity, temperature) and the first to analyze cardiac transcriptional responses under these co-exposures.


Assuntos
Fundulidae , Poluição por Petróleo , Petróleo , Hidrocarbonetos Policíclicos Aromáticos , Poluentes Químicos da Água , Animais , Fundulidae/genética , Poluição por Petróleo/efeitos adversos , Hidrocarbonetos Policíclicos Aromáticos/análise , Hidrocarbonetos Policíclicos Aromáticos/toxicidade , Transcriptoma , Poluentes Químicos da Água/análise , Poluentes Químicos da Água/toxicidade
7.
Sci Total Environ ; 752: 142224, 2021 Jan 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33207520

RESUMO

Despite combined plant/white-rot fungus remediation being effective for remediating polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH)-contaminated soil, the complex organismal interactions and their effects on soil PAH degradation remain unclear. Here, we used quantitative PCR, analysis of soil enzyme activities, and sequencing of representative genes to characterize the ecological dynamics of natural attenuation, mycoremediation (MR, using Crucibulum laeve), phytoremediation (PR, using Salix viminalis), and plant-microbial remediation (PMR, using both species) for PAHs in soil for 60 days. On day 60, PMR achieved the highest removal efficiency of all three representative PAHs (65.5%, 47.5%, and 62.4% for phenanthrene, pyrene, and benzo(a)pyrene, respectively) when compared with the other treatments. MR significantly increased the relative abundance of Rhizobium and Bacillus but antagonized the other putative indigenous PAH-degrading bacteria, which were enriched by PR. PR significantly reduced soil nutrients, such as NO3- and NH4+, and available potassium (AK), thereby changing the microbial community composition as reflected by redundancy analysis, significantly reducing the soil bacterial biomass relative to that in other treatments. These disadvantages hampered phenanthrene and pyrene removal. MR provided additional nutrients, which counteracted the nutrient consumption associated with PR, thereby maintaining the microbial community diversity and bacterial biomass of PMR at a level achieved in the NA treatment. Combination remediation therefore overcame the disadvantages of using PR alone. These results indicated that inoculation with the combination of S. viminalis and C. laeve synergistically stimulated the growth of indigenous PAH-degrading microorganisms and maintained bacterial biomass, thus accelerating the dissipation of soil PAHs.


Assuntos
Microbiota , Hidrocarbonetos Policíclicos Aromáticos , Poluentes do Solo , Biodegradação Ambiental , Hidrocarbonetos Policíclicos Aromáticos/análise , Solo , Microbiologia do Solo , Poluentes do Solo/análise
8.
Sci Total Environ ; 751: 141399, 2021 Jan 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32866829

RESUMO

We investigated the efficiency of a benthic diatom-associated bacteria in removing benzo(a)pyrene (BaP) and fluoranthene (Flt). The diatom, isolated from a PAH-contaminated sediment of the Bizerte Lagoon (Tunisia), was exposed in axenic and non-axenic cultures to PAHs over 7 days. The diversity of the associated bacteria, both attached (AB) and free-living bacteria (FB), was analyzed by the 16S rRNA amplicon sequencing. The diatom, which maintained continuous growth under PAH treatments, was able to accumulate BaP and Flt, with different efficiencies between axenic and non-axenic cultures. Biodegradation, which constituted the main process for PAH elimination, was enhanced in the presence of bacteria, indicating the co-metabolic synergy of microalgae and associated bacteria in removing BaP and Flt. Diatom and bacteria showed different capacities in the degradation of BaP and Flt. Nitzschia sp. harbored bacterial communities with a distinct composition between attached and free-living bacteria. The AB fraction exhibited higher diversity and abundance relative to FB, while the FB fraction contained genera with the known ability of PAH degradation, such as Marivita, Erythrobacter, and Alcaligenes. Moreover, strains of Staphylococcus and Micrococcus, isolated from the FB community, showed the capacity to grow in the presence of crude oil. These results suggest that a "benthic Nitzschia sp.-associated hydrocarbon-degrading bacteria" consortium can be applied in the bioremediation of PAH-contaminated sites.


Assuntos
Diatomáceas , Hidrocarbonetos Policíclicos Aromáticos , Bactérias/genética , Benzo(a)pireno , Biodegradação Ambiental , Fluorenos , Hidrocarbonetos Policíclicos Aromáticos/análise , RNA Ribossômico 16S/genética , Tunísia
9.
Sci Total Environ ; 751: 141831, 2021 Jan 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32871318

RESUMO

Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) are environmental pollutants, mainly due to anthropogenic emission. In this study, we used honeybees as bioindicators of PAHs pollution in 36 industrial sites distributed in 14 French departments, covering more than 950 km2 area of biomonitoring. Honeybees were sampled three times a year (spring, summer and autumn), during a period covering 2016 to 2019. Cluster and Principal Component Analysis allowed to classify sites in semi-natural, agricultural and urban lands according to their land use. We found that the higher the level of anthropization, the higher the concentration of PAH7 (PAH7: Benzo[a]Pyrene, Benzo[a]Anthracene, Benzo[b]Fluoranthene, Benzo[j]Fluoranthene, Benzo[k]Fluoranthene, Indeno[1,2,3-c,d]Pyrene and Dibenz[ah]Anthracene). We have found that 5 out of 20 compounds analyzed are significantly impacted by the landscape context (BjF, BaA, Chr, BbF and CPP). We observed significantly more 3-ringed PAHs in the autumnal samples than in the summer ones, but there was no seasonal effect on the PAH7 concentration. Moreover, diagnostic ratios show that high temperature processes are the main origin of PAHs, even in semi-natural environments.


Assuntos
Poluentes Ambientais , Hidrocarbonetos Policíclicos Aromáticos , Animais , Abelhas , Benzo(a)pireno , Monitoramento Biológico , Monitoramento Ambiental , Poluentes Ambientais/análise , Poluição Ambiental , Hidrocarbonetos Policíclicos Aromáticos/análise
10.
Chemosphere ; 262: 127767, 2021 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32763576

RESUMO

This study aimed to determine the spatial distribution of PM2.5 and PM10 collected in four regions (North, Central, South and East Coast) of Peninsular Malaysia during the southwest monsoon. Concurrent measurements of PM2.5 and PM10 were performed using a high volume sampler (HVS) for 24 h (August to September 2018) collecting a total of 104 samples. All samples were then analysed for water soluble inorganic ions (WSII) using ion chromatography, trace metals using inductively coupled plasma-mass spectroscopy (ICP-MS) and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAHs) using gas chromatography-mass spectroscopy (GC-MS). The results showed that the highest average PM2.5 concentration during the sampling campaign was in the North region (33.2 ± 5.3 µg m-3) while for PM10 the highest was in the Central region (38.6 ± 7.70 µg m-3). WSII recorded contributions of 22% for PM2.5 and 20% for PM10 mass, with SO42- the most abundant species with average concentrations of 1.83 ± 0.42 µg m-3 (PM2.5) and 2.19 ± 0.27 µg m-3 (PM10). Using a Positive Matrix Factorization (PMF) model, soil fertilizer (23%) was identified as the major source of PM2.5 while industrial activity (25%) was identified as the major source of PM10. Overall, the studied metals had hazard quotients (HQ) value of <1 indicating a very low risk of non-carcinogenic elements while the highest excess lifetime cancer risk (ELCR) was recorded for Cr VI in the South region with values of 8.4E-06 (PM2.5) and 6.6E-05 (PM10). The incremental lifetime cancer risk (ILCR) calculated from the PAH concentrations was within the acceptable range for all regions.


Assuntos
Poluentes Atmosféricos/análise , Monitoramento Ambiental/métodos , Metais/análise , Material Particulado/análise , Hidrocarbonetos Policíclicos Aromáticos/análise , Indústrias , Malásia , Tamanho da Partícula , Estações do Ano , Análise Espacial , Oligoelementos/análise
11.
Chemosphere ; 262: 127772, 2021 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32799140

RESUMO

This study utilized the freshwater amphipod (Hyalella azteca) for the indication of contamination risk levels of sediment-associated contaminants in the Erren (ER1∼ER10) and Sanye Rivers (SY1∼SY5) which were contaminated by metal scrap and smelting industries for decades. Toxicity identification evaluations involving the manipulation of pore water and whole-sediment samples were conducted to identify causative pollutants. Impacts on the aquatic environment were then evaluated in order to explore how industrial development led to contaminant accumulation in sediments and resulted in biological effects. A whole-sediment TIE indicated that the major toxicant at sampling sites ER8 and SY5 was ammonia and that its toxicity was significantly reduced by the addition of zeolite. Toxicity at sampling sites ER4 and ER9 was induced by ammonia and heavy metals (Zn, Cd, Cr, As), whereas Cr was at toxic levels at ER6. ∑PAHs was another major class of contaminants at site ER2. Metals (Zn, Ni, Pb, Cd, Cr, and As) were identified as major toxic contaminants at three sites (ER3, SY1, and SY3). The application of TIEs confirmed that a causative toxicant can be identified and that its measured toxicity correlated with its concentration. In conclusion, a TIE approach was successful in demarcating most effective contaminant groups (ammonia, heavy metals, and non-polar organic compounds) in whole-sediment cores, their porewaters and potential toxicities from a highly polluted river after remediation in southern Taiwan to an invertebrate animal model H. azteca.


Assuntos
Anfípodes/efeitos dos fármacos , Monitoramento Ambiental/métodos , Sedimentos Geológicos/química , Rios/química , Poluentes Químicos da Água/toxicidade , Amônia/análise , Amônia/toxicidade , Animais , Água Doce/química , Metais Pesados/análise , Metais Pesados/toxicidade , Hidrocarbonetos Policíclicos Aromáticos/análise , Hidrocarbonetos Policíclicos Aromáticos/toxicidade , Taiwan , Clima Tropical , Poluentes Químicos da Água/análise , Zeolitas/química
12.
Mar Pollut Bull ; 160: 111542, 2020 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33181915

RESUMO

The anthropogenic impact in the Wouri Estuary Mangrove located in the rapidly developing urban area of Douala, Cameroon, Africa, was studied. A set of 45 Persistent Organic Pollutant were analysed in surficial mangrove sediments at 21 stations. Chlorinated Pesticides (CLPs), Polychlorinated Biphenyls (PCBs) and Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAHs) have concentrations ranging from 2.2 - 27.4, and 83 - 544 ng/g, respectively. The most abundant CLPs were endosulfan, alachlor, heptachlor, lindane (γ-HCH) and DDT, which metabolites pattern revealed recent use. Selected PAHs diagnostic ratios show pyrolytic input predominantly. The sum of 7 carcinogenic PAHs (ΣC-PAHs) represented 30 to 50% of Total PAHs (TPAHs). According to effect-based sediment quality guidelines, the studied POPs levels imply low to moderate predictive biological toxicity. This study contributes to depict how far water resources are shifting within what is now termed the Anthropocene due to increasing local pressures in developing countries or African countries.


Assuntos
Poluentes Ambientais , Hidrocarbonetos Clorados , Praguicidas , Bifenilos Policlorados , Hidrocarbonetos Policíclicos Aromáticos , Poluentes Químicos da Água , Camarões , Monitoramento Ambiental , Estuários , Sedimentos Geológicos , Hidrocarbonetos Clorados/análise , Praguicidas/análise , Bifenilos Policlorados/análise , Hidrocarbonetos Policíclicos Aromáticos/análise , Poluentes Químicos da Água/análise
13.
Mar Pollut Bull ; 160: 111666, 2020 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33181941

RESUMO

River and coastal sediments were collected at 17 stations in Ulsan, the largest industrial city in South Korea, to evaluate the levels, profiles, emission sources, and spatial distribution of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). The mean concentration of Σ16 PAHs was 722 ng/g, and fluoranthene was a predominant compound. PAHs with 4-6 rings showed higher proportions than PAHs with 2-3 rings. The stations located near industrial complexes showed elevated levels of indicator compounds for petroleum, coal, coke, and fuel combustion. Therefore, petrochemical industries, coal pier, non-ferrous industries, and vehicles were identified as the emission sources. As industrialization and urbanization progressed, an increase in PAH levels and profile changes were observed as a result of the increasing industrial fuel consumption and the increasing number of vehicles. This is the first study that confirmed the change of PAHs in sediment caused by the change of emission sources over time in Ulsan.


Assuntos
Hidrocarbonetos Policíclicos Aromáticos , Poluentes Químicos da Água , China , Cidades , Monitoramento Ambiental , Sedimentos Geológicos , Hidrocarbonetos Policíclicos Aromáticos/análise , República da Coreia , Rios , Poluentes Químicos da Água/análise
14.
Mar Pollut Bull ; 160: 111687, 2020 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33181957

RESUMO

A phytoremediation experiment was carried out in mesocosms to investigate the performance of Rhizophora mangle in the remediation of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in mangrove sediment contaminated with crude oil. The water pH of the experiments (phytoremediation and natural attenuation) ranged from 4.9 to 8.4 at 0 and 90 days, respectively. The oxy-reduction potential (Eh) ranged from oxidising (108.0 mV, time 0) to reducing (approximately -110.0 mV, time 90) environments. Dissolved oxygen (DO) ranged from 5.7 mg L-1 (time 0) to 4.5 mg L-1 and 3.6 mg L-1 (time 90) in phytoremediation and natural attenuation, respectively. The sediments had silty texture and an average concentration of 5% organic matter (OM). Phytoremediation (60.76%) showed better efficiency in the remediation of the 16 PAHs compared to natural attenuation (49.57%). Principal component analyses showed a correlation between the concentrations of PAHs with pH, Eh, OM and DO in both experiments.


Assuntos
Petróleo , Hidrocarbonetos Policíclicos Aromáticos , Rhizophoraceae , Poluentes Químicos da Água , Biodegradação Ambiental , Monitoramento Ambiental , Sedimentos Geológicos , Hidrocarbonetos Policíclicos Aromáticos/análise , Poluentes Químicos da Água/análise
15.
Bull Environ Contam Toxicol ; 105(5): 758-763, 2020 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33068117

RESUMO

Cenotes are naturally occurring flooded caves that are frequent in Mexico's Yucatan Peninsula; they result from the collapse of limestone bedrock into the regional groundwater table. Cenotes in Quintana Roo are important ecological and economic hot spots but are susceptible to anthropogenic pollution. In this study, we collected water samples from 11 cenotes over multiple years to evaluate polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) concentrations and patterns as associated with tourist traffic. The primary PAHs detected in samples included fluoranthene, anthracene, phenanthrene and naphthalene, with total PAH concentrations increasing almost fivefold for cenotes sampled from 2016 to 2017. This is compared to only a 7% increase in tourist traffic during these years. Multivariate statistical analysis of the PAH concentration data suggests that diesel, gasoline and asphalt are the most likely pollution sources and that they are associated with periods of increased tourist traffic.


Assuntos
Monitoramento Ambiental/métodos , Poluição Ambiental/análise , Água Subterrânea/química , Hidrocarbonetos Policíclicos Aromáticos/análise , Poluentes Químicos da Água/análise , Região do Caribe , México , Análise de Componente Principal
16.
Aquat Toxicol ; 228: 105651, 2020 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33049420

RESUMO

Many early stages of estuarine species congregate at the surface or in the upper mixing layer making them prone to UV light exposure and oil sheens. Laboratory testing was used to assess UV-oil sheen interactions with grass shrimp (Palaemon pugio). Newly hatched grass shrimp larvae were exposed to a 1-µm thick oil sheen for 24 h with or without an 8-h pulse of UV light. Grass shrimp were then transferred to clean seawater and non-UV conditions to measure development, growth, and reproductive fitness. Minimal toxicity was observed after the initial exposure but larval development was significantly delayed in shrimp exposed to the UV enhanced sheen. After reaching sexual maturity, shrimp were paired to evaluate effects on reproduction. Shrimp initially exposed to the UV enhanced sheen as larvae had a significant reduction in fecundity compared to controls. This demonstrates the importance of examining interactions between UV light and oil since negative effects to aquatic organisms may be underestimated if based on standard laboratory fluorescent lighting. Acute exposures of early life stages to thin oil sheens and UV light may lead to long-term impacts to individuals and ultimately to grass shrimp populations.


Assuntos
Exposição Ambiental , Óleos/toxicidade , Palaemonidae/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Palaemonidae/efeitos da radiação , Animais , Feminino , Larva/efeitos dos fármacos , Larva/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Larva/efeitos da radiação , Masculino , Palaemonidae/efeitos dos fármacos , Hidrocarbonetos Policíclicos Aromáticos/análise , Reprodução/efeitos dos fármacos , Reprodução/efeitos da radiação , Água do Mar , Raios Ultravioleta , Poluentes Químicos da Água/toxicidade
17.
Environ Monit Assess ; 192(11): 670, 2020 Oct 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33009644

RESUMO

Antarctica is considered as one of the most pristine areas on Earth. However, increasing intensity of human presence on the sixth continent (scientific operations, functioning of the numerous scientific stations, tourism activities) makes it crucial to investigate the level of environmental pollution within the vulnerable ecosystem of Antarctica. Soils play a significant role in processes of accumulation, mobilization, redistribution of chemical elements within landscapes, and ecosystems. The aim of this work was to analyze the levels of 17 polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and eight trace elements in soils of King George and Ardley islands, Western Antarctica. Moreover, our work was aimed to determine the trends and reasons of anthropogenic pollution of Antarctic soils and characterization of accumulation levels of trace elements and PAHs. Results showed the predominance of light PAHs in all studied sites. The content of benzo(a)pyrene does not exceed the threshold concentration (adopted by different national environmental legislation systems). At the same time, the content of benzo(a)pyrene, which is a marker of anthropogenic contamination, is relatively low or equal to 0 in soils of reference landscapes. Cu and Zn were found as most abundant elements in all studied soils. The highest lead concentration content has been described in soil from Bellingshausen station. In general term, obtained Igeo values for trace elements in all samples were under or slightly above the 0 level, indicating low to moderate pollution of the studied soils. This study also contributes new data on trace element accumulation in soils strongly influenced by ornithogenic factor. Principal component analysis allowed to estimate the probable sources of specific trace metals and their relationship with soil variables. Ornithogenic factor has been also revealed as a driver for some trace element accumulation especially in breeding penguin colonies. High contents of organic matter in ornithogenic habitats could increase trace metal mobility, environmental risks for surrounding terrestrial environments should be considered.


Assuntos
Hidrocarbonetos Policíclicos Aromáticos/análise , Poluentes do Solo/análise , Oligoelementos/análise , Regiões Antárticas , Ecossistema , Monitoramento Ambiental , Humanos , Ilhas , Solo
18.
Environ Monit Assess ; 192(11): 727, 2020 Oct 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33098456

RESUMO

Many source apportionment models have been applied to identify pollution sources, and differences often exist in the diagnostic results. The reasons causing these differences have not been fully elucidated. In this study, three receptor models, principal component analysis-multiple linear regression (PCA-MLR), positive matrix factorization (PMF), and factor analysis-nonnegative constraints (FA-NNC), were compared and applied for the analysis of 16 EPA priority polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) adsorbed in street dust samples from Harbin City (China). The differences in the results were caused by different calculation approaches, including matrix decomposition, variable grouping extraction, and nonnegative constraints, especially between PCA-MLR and the other two models. PCA-MLR has no nonnegative constraints, making PCA-MLR less similar to the real world than the other two. Both PMF and FA-NNC have a nonnegative constraint process, which may be the main reason why their results were much more similar to each other than to those of PCA-MLR. PCA-MLR distinguishes variables into several groups that have the greatest variances from each other, whereas the other two methods find similarities among variables and extract them. In the case study of Harbin City, the contributions of mobile and industrial sources ranged from 47 to 69%, and the contributions of coal and other sources ranged from 30 to 52%. The recognized types of pollution sources were generally equivalent, but the proportional contributions were different. PCA-MLR performed best in calculating contributions, whereas PMF and FA-NNC were better in terms of source diagnosis.


Assuntos
Hidrocarbonetos Policíclicos Aromáticos , China , Cidades , Poeira , Monitoramento Ambiental , Análise Fatorial , Modelos Lineares , Hidrocarbonetos Policíclicos Aromáticos/análise , Análise de Componente Principal
19.
Wei Sheng Yan Jiu ; 49(5): 769-774, 2020 Sep.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33070822

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To analyze the pollution characteristics of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons(PAHs) in atmospheric PM_(2. 5) in Lianhu district and Yanta district of Xi'an City. METHODS: From 2016-2018, PM_(2. 5) samples were regularly collected at monitoring points in two districts of Xi'an City, and analyzed the content of naphthalene, acenaphthylene, fluorene, acenaphthene, phenanthrene, anthracene, fluoranthene, pyrene, chrysene, benz(a)anthracene, benzo(b)fluoranthene, benzo(k)fluoranthene, benzo(a)pyrene, dibenz(a, h)anthracene, benzo(g, h, i)perylene, indeno(1, 2, 3-cd)pyrene in the samples according to Ambient air and stationary source emissions-Determination of gas and particle-phase polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons-High performance liquid chromatography(HJ 647-2013). The test result were analyzed and evaluated according to different years, regions and seasons. RESULTS: The median total PAHs mass concentrations(ΣPAHs) in Lianhu district and Yanta district were 11. 68 and 12. 53 ng/m~3, respectively, with no significant difference(P>0. 05). The ΣPAHs of the two districts were decreasing year by year(P<0. 05). The median ΣPAHs in Lianhu district and Yanta district were highest in winter(55. 50, 55. 61 ng/m~3) and lowest in summer(4. 62, 4. 57 ng/m~3). The top three single indicators of the median PAHs in Lianhu district were benz(b)fluoranthene(1. 90 ng/m~3), benzo(g, h, i)perylene(1. 67 ng/m~3) and chrysene(1. 34 ng/m~3), In Yanta district, they were benz(b)fluoranthene(1. 95 ng/m~3), benzo(g, h, i)perylene(1. 63 ng/m~3) and pyrene(1. 47 ng/m~3). The average mass concentrations of benzo(a)pyrene in Lianhu district and Yanta district were 1. 33 ng/m~3 and 1. 10 ng/m~3, respectively. Among all the samples, the qualified samples of benzo(a)pyrene accounted for 72. 75% of the total samples, and the Lianhu district and Yanta district were 71. 20% and 74. 30%, respectively(P>0. 05). CONCLUSION: The degree of atmospheric PAHs pollution in Xi'an had decreased year by year, and PAHs pollution in winter was more serious.


Assuntos
Hidrocarbonetos Policíclicos Aromáticos , Benzo(a)pireno , Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Pressão , Crisenos , Poluição Ambiental , Hidrocarbonetos Policíclicos Aromáticos/análise
20.
Huan Jing Ke Xue ; 41(11): 4989-4998, 2020 Nov 08.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33124242

RESUMO

In order to study the pollution source and ecological risk assessment of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in the Jiaxing river network, PAHs were analyzed by GC-MS. The results show that with the influence of rainfall and surface runoff in the wet season, the types and mass concentrations of PAHs in the river network of Jiaxing differ from the dry season. Ten and 16 priority PAHs were detected in the dry season and wet season, respectively. The average mass concentration of PAHs in the dry season was 143.83ng·L-1 and 73.47ng·L-1 in the wet season. The range of mass concentration of PAHs in the dry and wet season was 77.32-283.76ng·L-1 and 13.05-133.02ng·L-1, respectively, and 2-ring and 3-ring PAHs accounted for 79.18% in the dry season and 73.60% in the wet season. PAHs pollution in the river network of Jiaxing was at a low level compared with the domestic and foreign areas. The isomer ratio and principal component analysis found that the PAHs in the Jiaxing river network mainly come from urban non-point source pollution, combustion source, and traffic pollution in the dry season and wet season. The results of the Kalf risk entropy method show that in the dry season, naphthalene(Nap), acenaphthylene(Acy), acenaphthene(Ace), fluorene(Flu), phenanthrene(Phe), anthracene(Ant), fluoranthene(Fla), pyrene(Pyr), and benzo(a)anthracene(BaA) are at moderate ecological risk. In the wet season, Nap, Acy, Flu, Phe, Fla, Pyr, BaA, benzo(b)fluoranthene(BbF), benzo(k)fluoranthene(BkF), benzo(a)pyrene(BaP), indeno(1,2,3-cd)pyrene(InP), and benzo(g,h,i)perylene(BghiP) are at moderate ecological risk. In the dry season, ∑PAHs are at moderate ecological risk, and low in the wet season. On the whole, PAHs pollution in the Jiaxing river network presents moderate ecological risk levels, and measures to reduce the ecological risk of PAHs in the river network should be taken by the Departments concerned.


Assuntos
Hidrocarbonetos Policíclicos Aromáticos , Monitoramento Ambiental , Poluição Ambiental , Hidrocarbonetos Policíclicos Aromáticos/análise , Medição de Risco , Rios , Estações do Ano
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