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1.
Chemosphere ; 242: 125299, 2020 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31896194

RESUMO

The physicochemical characteristics are different for suspended particles (SPS) with different sizes in rivers. Here, we studied the effect of SPS (1 g L-1) with three different sizes (63-106 µm, 20-63 µm, and <20 µm) on the bioaccumulation of deuterated polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (phenanthrene-d10, anthracene-d10, fluoranthene-d10 and pyrene-d10) in zebrafish using passive dosing devices to maintain the freely dissolved concentrations of PAHs-d10 constant in water. The results showed that all the three grain size SPS could be ingested by zebrafish, and there was no significant difference in the amount of ingested SPS among the three grain sizes. The concentrations (lipid-normalized or not) of PAHs-d10 in zebrafish were promoted in the presence of the three different size SPS, and the PAH-d10 concentrations in zebrafish increased with decreasing particle size. Compared with the systems without SPS, the lipid-normalized concentrations of PAHs-d10 increased by 12%-72%, 34%-130%, and 60%-196%, respectively in zebrafish in systems with 63-106 µm, 20-63 µm, and <20 µm of SPS after exposure for 20 h. The stronger effect of SPS with smaller grain sizes was probably due to their lower organic carbon content, lower ratio of black carbon to organic carbon content, smaller particle size, and higher dissolved organic matter contents, which could promote the desorption of PAHs-d10 from ingested SPS and bioaccessibility of PAHs-d10 to zebrafish. This study suggests that in addition to SPS concentration, the suspended particle size should be considered in ecological risk assessment for hydrophobic organic compounds in aquatic environment.


Assuntos
Material Particulado/análise , Hidrocarbonetos Policíclicos Aromáticos/análise , Rios/química , Poluentes Químicos da Água/análise , Peixe-Zebra/metabolismo , Animais , Bioacumulação , Sedimentos Geológicos/química , Modelos Teóricos , Tamanho da Partícula , Material Particulado/química , Hidrocarbonetos Policíclicos Aromáticos/química , Poluentes Químicos da Água/química
2.
Chemosphere ; 239: 124731, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31499303

RESUMO

The fish bioconcentration factor (BCF) is an important aspect within bioaccumulation assessments. Several factors have been suggested to influence BCF values - including species, developmental stage, mixture exposure, and calculation method. However, their exact contribution to variance in BCF values is unknown. Within this study we assessed the relative impact of these test characteristics on BCF values and analyzed the reproducibility of aquatic exposure bioconcentration tests. Linear mixed effects analyses were performed on a newly develop database to investigate the relationship between the response variable (i.e. lipid normalized log BCF values) and several test characteristics as fixed effects. Lower BCF values were observed for substances that were simultaneously applied with high molecular weight polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons compared to single substance exposure (with an average difference of -0.81 log BCF). Also, lower BCFs upon kinetic determination were observed compared to steady-state BCFs (log BCF -0.27), and lower BCFs for species from the Ostariophysi subcohort level (log BCF -0.17 to -0.15). In addition, data analysis showed high variation within BCF values for single substances (average SD = log BCF 0.21), which questions the robustness of the current bioaccumulation assessments. For example, the 95% confidence range of a BCF value of 2500 ranges from 953 ('not-bioaccumulative') to 6561 ('very bioaccumulative'). Our results show that the use of one single BCF leads to a high uncertainty in bioaccumulation assessments. We strongly recommend that within future bioconcentration studies, the used experimental design and test conditions are described in detail and justified to support solid interpretation.


Assuntos
Ecotoxicologia/métodos , Peixes , Poluentes Químicos da Água/farmacocinética , Animais , Bioacumulação , Exposição Ambiental/análise , Cinética , Peso Molecular , Hidrocarbonetos Policíclicos Aromáticos/análise , Hidrocarbonetos Policíclicos Aromáticos/química , Hidrocarbonetos Policíclicos Aromáticos/farmacocinética , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Poluentes Químicos da Água/análise , Poluentes Químicos da Água/química
3.
Chemosphere ; 240: 124852, 2020 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31542585

RESUMO

This study presents four years ambient monitoring data of seventeen 2,3,7,8-chlorine substituted polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDD/Fs), twelve dioxin-like polychlorinated biphenyls (dl-PCBs) and sixteen polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) designed by the US EPA at a background site in central Europe during 2011-2014. The concentrations expressed as toxic equivalents (TEQs) using the WHO2005-scheme for PCDD/Fs (0.2 fg m-3-61.1 fg m-3) were higher than for dl-PCBs (0.01 fg m-3-2.9 fg m-3), while the opposite was found in terms of mass concentrations. ΣPAHs ranged from 0.20 ng m-3 to 134 ng m-3. The mass concentration profile of PCDD/Fs, dl-PCBs and PAHs was similar throughout the four years. PCDD/Fs and PAHs concentrations were dominated by primary sources peaking in winter, while those of dl-PCBs were controlled by secondary sources characterized by a spring-summer peak. During 2011-2014, no significant decrease in the atmospheric levels of ΣPCDD/Fs was observed. On the other hand, the concentrations of Σdl-PCBs and ΣPAHs were decreasing, with halving times of 5.7 and 2.7 years, respectively. We estimated that 422 pg m-2 year-1-567 pg m-2 year-1 TEQ PCDD/Fs and 3.48 pg m-2 year-1-15.8 pg m-2 year-1 TEQ dl-PCBs were transferred from the air to the ground surfaces via dry particulate deposition during 2011-2014.


Assuntos
Poluentes Atmosféricos/análise , Dibenzofuranos Policlorados/análise , Dibenzodioxinas Policloradas/análise , Hidrocarbonetos Policíclicos Aromáticos/análise , República Tcheca , Monitoramento Ambiental , Bifenilos Policlorados/análise , Estações do Ano
4.
J Environ Sci (China) ; 87: 349-360, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31791508

RESUMO

Low-density polyethylene (LDPE) has been widely used as a sorbent for passive sampling of hydrophobic organic contaminants (HOCs) in aquatic environments. However, it has seen only limited application in passive sampling for measurement of freely dissolved concentrations of parent and substituted PAHs (SPAHs), which are known to be toxic, mutagenic and carcinogenic. Here, the 16 priority PAHs and some typical PAHs were selected as target compounds and were simultaneously determined by gas chromatography-mass spectrometer (GC-MS). Some batch experiments were conducted in the laboratory to explore the adsorption kinetics of the target compounds in LDPE membranes. The results showed that both PAHs and SPAHs could reach equilibrium status within 19-38 days in sorption kinetic experiments. The coefficients of partitioning between LDPE film (50 µm thickness) and water (KLDPE) for the 16 priority PAHs were in good agreement with previously reported values, and the values of KLDPE for the 9 SPAHs are reported in this study for the first time. Significant linear relationships were observed, i.e., log KLDPE = 0.705 × log KOW + 1.534 for PAHs (R2 = 0.8361, p < 0.001) and log KLDPE = 0.458 × log KOW + 3.092 for SPAHs (R2 = 0.5609, p = 0.0077). The selected LDPE film was also proven to meet the condition of "zero sink" for the selected target compounds. These results could provide basic support for the configuration and in situ application of passive samplers.


Assuntos
Monitoramento Ambiental/métodos , Hidrocarbonetos Policíclicos Aromáticos/análise , Polietileno/análise , Poluentes Químicos da Água/análise , Adsorção , Interações Hidrofóbicas e Hidrofílicas , Cinética , Hidrocarbonetos Policíclicos Aromáticos/química , Polietileno/química , Poluentes Químicos da Água/química
5.
Food Chem ; 303: 125398, 2020 Jan 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31470272

RESUMO

Roasting is an important process in cocoa production which may lead to formation of non-desirable compounds such as polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). Therefore, PAH4 (sum of four different polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons; benz[a]anthracene, chrysene, benzo[b]fluoranthene, and benzo[a]pyrene) in roasted cocoa beans was determined using a modified method (combination of QuEChERS and DLLME), and quantified by HPLC-FLD. The modified method was validated and met the performance criteria required by the EU Regulation (No. 836/2011). Results show a significant (p < 0.05) increase of PAH4 (0.19-7.73 ng/g) with an increase in temperatures (110-190 °C) and duration (10-50 min). The PAHs content in whole cocoa bean roasting was detected even at the lowest temperature (110 °C) compared to nib roasting detected at 150 °C which indicates that PAHs was transferred from dried shells to roasted cocoa beans during the roasting process. The data obtained may help to control and minimize PAH4 formation during cocoa processing.


Assuntos
Cacau/química , Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Pressão/métodos , Microextração em Fase Líquida/métodos , Hidrocarbonetos Policíclicos Aromáticos/análise , Hidrocarbonetos Policíclicos Aromáticos/isolamento & purificação , Antracenos/análise , Antracenos/isolamento & purificação , Benzo(a)pireno/análise , Benzo(a)pireno/isolamento & purificação , Crisenos/análise , Crisenos/isolamento & purificação , Fluorenos/análise , Fluorenos/isolamento & purificação , Sementes/química
6.
Sci Total Environ ; 702: 135056, 2020 Feb 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31731128

RESUMO

Limited researches are available on seasonal variation of inhalation exposure of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and its cancer risk assessment in China. We recruited 20 fresh postgraduates and measured outdoor and indoor (dormitories, offices and laboratories) daily PM2.5 concentrations in four seasons (seven consecutive days in every season) during 2014 -2015, calculated daily potential doses of personal exposure to total Benzo[a]pyrene equivalent concentration (BaPeq) in the microenvironments based on the total BaPeq and the time-activity patterns, and estimated incremental lifetime cancer risk (ILCR) using Monte Carlo method. Daily average concentrations of PM2.5-bound ∑PAHs on the campus ranked from high to low were winter, autumn, spring, summer in the dormitories and offices. Daily average concentration of PM2.5-bound ∑PAHs were higher in indoor environments than outdoor in the same season, except for that of PM2.5-bound ∑PAHs in laboratories in the winter. Median values of ILCR in both sexes from high to low were winter (men vs. women: 5.35e-9 vs. 4.96e-9), spring (3.71e-9 vs. 4.00e-9), autumn (2.92e-9 vs. 3.02e-9), summer (1.71e-9 vs. 1.87e-9). Indoor and outdoor PM2.5-bound PAHs concentrations showed seasonal and spatial variations. The ILCR value for PM2.5-bound PAHs was higher in women than in men.


Assuntos
Poluentes Atmosféricos/análise , Monitoramento Ambiental , Exposição por Inalação/estatística & dados numéricos , Material Particulado/análise , Hidrocarbonetos Policíclicos Aromáticos/análise , Adulto , China/epidemiologia , Humanos , Neoplasias/epidemiologia , Medição de Risco , Estações do Ano
7.
Chemosphere ; 239: 124496, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31505446

RESUMO

Electrical resistance heating (ERH) is a promising thermal remediation method for treating volatile soil pollutants. However, the remediation of soil contaminated by polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) based on lab-scale ERH devices must be extensively studied to determine the factors affecting the remediation. Therefore, this study used a lab-scale ERH equipment to investigate the influence factors of ERH, PAH removal efficiency, and changes in soil properties through the treatment process. The results suggested that moisture and salinity were basic factors affecting electric conductive capability; heating 15 g of soil to the target temperature required at least 4 g solution of 0.1% salt. Meanwhile, higher electric strength can ensure heating efficiency and maximum temperature. The removal efficiency of PAHs, which is highly related to boiling point, was significantly affected by its benzene rings and bond structure; during 90 min ERH treatment, more than 40% of the pollutants were removed synchronously with the evaporation of water. Hence, co-boiling with water was confirmed to be the primary mechanism of ERH. The influence of the treatment on soil properties (organic matter, particle size, fertility, enzymatic activity) was limited, suggesting that soil functionality can be retained by ERH.


Assuntos
Poluição Ambiental/análise , Recuperação e Remediação Ambiental/métodos , Hidrocarbonetos Policíclicos Aromáticos/análise , Poluentes do Solo/análise , Solo/química , Impedância Elétrica , Calefação , Temperatura Alta , Temperatura de Transição
8.
Chemosphere ; 240: 124757, 2020 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31726607

RESUMO

In this study, in order to determine atmospheric PAH concentrations in Inegol/Turkey, ambient air samples were collected from two different sites representing industrial and uncontrolled furniture manufacturers regions. Sampling campaign took place between December 2017 and November 2018. Air samples were collected using high volume air samplers (HVAS) and PAH concentrations were determined in both gas and particulate phases. The mean of the atmospheric PAH concentrations obtained in the gas phase in the furniture workshops (FW) and industrial district (ID) regions were 697.82 ±â€¯637 ng/m3 and 772.92 ±â€¯864.23 ng/m3, respectively. The concentrations in the particulate phase in the regions were 413.52 ±â€¯430.23 ng/m3 and 342.40 ±â€¯527.48 ng/m3, respectively. The average total (gas + particlulate phases) concentration of ∑16PAH determined in the site of FW was 1111.34 ±â€¯1045.24 ng/m3 while that was 772.92 ±â€¯864.23 ng/m3 in ID. These values are over the ambient levels reported for urban sites wherein big industries exist around the world. Additionally, the average of particle phase percentage was 30% because of nearby combustion sources. The determination of possible sources of PAHs in the regions was performed using principal component analysis (PCA). PCA results showed that the main sources of pollutants of the regions are intertwined (combustion, traffic, industries). However, the most effective source is thought to be uncontrolled combustion of furniture wastes as fuel for residential heating. Health risks for the citizens were calculated for both regions and were found not to be at high-class risk.


Assuntos
Poluentes Atmosféricos/análise , Monitoramento Ambiental/métodos , Indústrias , Material Particulado/análise , Hidrocarbonetos Policíclicos Aromáticos/análise , Cidades , Carvão Mineral/análise , Análise de Componente Principal , Estações do Ano , Turquia
9.
Chemosphere ; 238: 124569, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31442777

RESUMO

Point pollution sources may differently impact lakes littoral, possibly leading to local ecological risks. The concomitant chemical analysis of littoral-benthic organisms and sediment can provide insights into the bioavailability and thus the ecological risk of contaminants. In this study, the autochthonous Corbicula fluminea was used to assess the sources and transfer of six trace metals (TMs) and fourteen Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAHs) to the littoral-benthic biota of a large lake. The contaminant concentrations spatially varied with a value scale from 1 to 280 000 times along the lake littoral in both the sediment and clams. Multiple linear regressions were performed to explain the spatial variability of Corbicula fluminea contamination by considering both watershed and in-lake sources. The concentration of the sum of PAHs in clams was significantly correlated with sediment contamination, suggesting that PAHs contamination of the benthic biota mainly occur from the sediment. Most of the internal TM concentrations of clams were significantly correlated with stormwater drainage areas in the lake watershed, highlighting the importance of stormwater runoffs in the littoral biota contamination. The transfer of TMs and PAHs was assessed through the bioconcentration factor defined as the ratio of internal and sediment concentrations. As, Cd, Cu, Zn and light molecular weight PAHs were more bioconcentrated in C. fluminea than Pb, Sn and heavy molecular weight PAHs, suggesting differences in their bioavailability. This study underlines the relevance of using autochthonous organisms as bioindicators of lake littoral biota contamination concomitantly with sediment matrices, and illustrates the challenge of tracking pollution sources in lakes.


Assuntos
Corbicula/química , Monitoramento Ambiental/métodos , Sedimentos Geológicos/química , Hidrocarbonetos Policíclicos Aromáticos/análise , Oligoelementos/análise , Poluentes Químicos da Água/análise , Animais , Biota , Biomarcadores Ambientais , Lagos/química , Metais Pesados/análise , Alimentos Marinhos/análise
10.
Chemosphere ; 238: 124620, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31472354

RESUMO

Particulate toxic species, such as polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDD/Fs), polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and heavy metals may have significant health risks. This study investigated characteristics, sources and health risks of all three classes of toxic species in PM2.5 (particles with aerodynamic diameter ≤2.5 µm) samples collected at an industrial area in Changzhou, a big city in the Yangtze Delta region of China. Fourteen heavy metals altogether constituted 2.87% of PM2.5 mass, with Fe, Al and Zn as the major elements. Principal component analysis (PCA) suggested that heavy metals came from four sources: vehicles, industry, crustal dust, mixed coal combustion and industrial process. The daily average concentration of 18 PAHs was 235.29 ng/m3, accounting for 0.21% of PM2.5 mass. The dominant PAHs were high molecular weight ones, contributing 73.5% to the total PAHs. Diagnostic analyses indicated that sources of PAHs included vehicle/coal combustion and petroleum emissions, wherein diesel emission played a more important role than gasoline emission. PCA showed that the largest contributor of PAHs was vehicle exhaust mixed with coal combustion, followed by three industry-related sources. Total concentration of 17 PCDD/Fs varied between 3.14 and 37.07 pg/m3, with an average of 14.58 pg/m3. The 10 PCDFs accounted for 70.5% of total concentration of 17 PCDD/Fs. Health risk assessments showed that the carcinogenic risk of heavy metals was acceptable, while risks from PAHs and PCDD/Fs cannot be ignored. Back trajectory analysis indicated that local/regional transported air masses from northern China was the major source areas of the toxic species.


Assuntos
Exposição por Inalação/efeitos adversos , Metais Pesados/análise , Neoplasias/induzido quimicamente , Material Particulado/efeitos adversos , Dibenzodioxinas Policloradas/análise , Hidrocarbonetos Policíclicos Aromáticos/análise , Medição de Risco/métodos , Adulto , Poluentes Atmosféricos/análise , Carcinógenos/análise , Criança , China , Monitoramento Ambiental , Feminino , Humanos , Indústrias , Exposição por Inalação/análise , Masculino , Material Particulado/administração & dosagem , Dibenzodioxinas Policloradas/efeitos adversos , Hidrocarbonetos Policíclicos Aromáticos/efeitos adversos , Estações do Ano , Emissões de Veículos/análise
11.
Chemosphere ; 238: 124651, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31472346

RESUMO

A harbour sediment, previously remediated, was tested for soilless strawberry cultivation (Camarosa and Monterey cultivars), as an innovative, cost-effective and environment-friendly approach of sediment management. Sediments were tested as such (TS100) and mixed 1/1 (v/v) with a peat-based commercial substrate (TS50), using the peat-based medium as control (TS0). Substrates were characterized for some physicochemical properties (e.g. density, porosity and water capacity). Minerals (P, Ca, K, Na and Fe), heavy metals (Cu, Zn, Mn, Ni, Cr, Pb and Cd), aliphatic hydrocarbons (C > 12), polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), dibenzodioxins and dibenzofurans were analysed in substrates and fruits. Sugars and organic acids, including the ascorbic, were also determined in fruits, as quality indicators. Notwithstanding remediation, sediments showed concentrations of Zn (206 mg kg-1), C > 12 (86 mg kg-1) and PAHs (47 mg kg-1) exceeding the limits established by the Italian L.D. 152/2006, regulating the contamination of soil in green areas, thus making its relocation in the environment not permitted as such. No evidence of fruit contamination by Cr, Pb and Cd was highlighted. Moreover, Cu, Zn and Ni fruit concentrations were comparable among treatments. Conversely, Mn showed statistically higher concentrations in TS0 fruits (56-57 mg kg-1) compared to those grown in sediment-based substrates (8-20 mg kg-1). Among organic contaminants, only dioxin-like PCBs were determined in fruits, at toxic equivalent concentrations fourfold lower than the limit established by the European Union. TS100 fruits showed a yield reduction from 40 to 70% for Camarosa and Monterey, but higher sugar and ascorbic acid contents.


Assuntos
Produtos Agrícolas/normas , Monitoramento Ambiental , Fragaria/metabolismo , Frutas/química , Sedimentos Geológicos/química , Produtos Agrícolas/química , Produtos Agrícolas/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Fragaria/química , Itália , Metais Pesados/análise , Minerais/análise , Bifenilos Policlorados/análise , Hidrocarbonetos Policíclicos Aromáticos/análise , Poluentes do Solo/química
12.
Chemosphere ; 240: 124746, 2020 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31568946

RESUMO

The skin is one of the main organs exposed to airborne particulate matter (PM), which may contain various pollutants linked to a wide range of adverse health endpoints. In the present work, we analyzed the proinflammatory and oxidative effects of some PM components leading to inflammatory responses, cell proliferation or cell death. We investigated four redox-active chemicals, such as Cu (II) metal and quinones generated from polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), i.e., 9,10 phenanthrenequinone and isomers 1,2 and 1,4 naphthoquinone. We performed in vitro biological tests on human keratinocyte (HaCaT) cells and also acellular assays based on the oxidation of dithiothreitol and ascorbic acid, antioxidants to assess the oxidative potential (OP). We found that treated keratinocytes showed increased activation of the redox-sensitive transcription factor NFκB and increased transcript levels of the NFκB-dependent gene IL8. Moreover, the treatment with Cu(II) and quinones increased the activities and the expression of genes involved in the redox response, SOD1 and GPX, suggesting that PM components induced cellular damage due to redox imbalances. Finally, we found alteration of the mitochondrial ultrastructure and increased apoptosis after 24 h of treatment. The results presented suggest that all of the analyzed pollutant components are able to modulate similar signal transduction pathways, resulting in activation of inflammatory processes in the skin, followed by oxidative damage. Altogether these observations indicate that exposure of skin to air pollutants modifies the redox equilibrium of keratinocytes, which could explain the increased skin damage observed in populations that live in high-pollution cities.


Assuntos
Poluentes Atmosféricos/toxicidade , Queratinócitos/efeitos dos fármacos , Estresse Oxidativo/fisiologia , Material Particulado/toxicidade , Poluentes Atmosféricos/análise , Antioxidantes/metabolismo , Humanos , Metais/análise , Mitocôndrias/metabolismo , Oxirredução , Estresse Oxidativo/efeitos dos fármacos , Material Particulado/análise , Hidrocarbonetos Policíclicos Aromáticos/análise , Quinonas/metabolismo , Transdução de Sinais/efeitos dos fármacos , Pele/efeitos dos fármacos
13.
Ecotoxicol Environ Saf ; 187: 109838, 2020 Jan 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31677564

RESUMO

Due to population growth and the considerable increase in usage of the resources, Human environment quality has been highly threatened by pollutants in recent decades. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) are widespread, persistent organic pollutants which are of great concern due to their carcinogenicity. The present study is the first investigation that assesses contamination, sources and cancer risk of 16 priority PAHs proposed by US EPA in urban dust samples (n = 80) taken in different land-uses of Tehran metropolis, the capital of Iran. Gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) is used to measure PAHs concentrations. The results showed that the average concentration of the total 16 PAHs and the average Benzo[a]pyrene total potency equivalency were 566 µg kg-1 dry weight and 36.4 µg kg-1, respectively. In the commercial and residential land-uses high molecular weight (HMW) PAHs were dominated, whereas in green lands, light molecular weight (LMW) PAHs showed maximum contribution. The highest concentration of total PAHs were observed in the commercial areas due to limited air circulation and heavy traffic loads. Incremental Lifetime Cancer Risk (ILCR) model was applied to evaluate the cancer risk of exposure to PAHs contaminated dust. Based on the results, Tehran's residents (children and adults) in various land-uses except for green lands, are in high potential cancer risk of PAHs via ingestion and dermal contact exposure routs. Ace, Chr, Pyr, and BghiP which are indicators of traffic emissions, were found to be predominant PAH contributors in urban dust of commercial areas. Also, Ace, Fl, Phe, and BghiP which are derived from fossil fuel combustion, were mainly observed in the industrial land-use. Based on the results of factor analysis and diagnostic ratios, Diesel/gasoline engine vehicular emissions and combustion were found to be the main sources of PAHs in urban dust of Tehran.


Assuntos
Poeira/análise , Monitoramento Ambiental/métodos , Poluentes Ambientais/análise , Neoplasias/epidemiologia , Hidrocarbonetos Policíclicos Aromáticos/análise , Adulto , Criança , Cidades , Gasolina/análise , Humanos , Indústrias , Irã (Geográfico) , Medição de Risco , Emissões de Veículos/análise
14.
Ecotoxicol Environ Saf ; 187: 109843, 2020 Jan 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31678701

RESUMO

Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) contained in creosote oil are particularly difficult to remove from the soil environment. Their hydrophobic character and low bioavailability to soil microorganisms affects their rate of biodegradation. This study was performed on samples of soil that were (for over forty years) subjected to contamination with creosote oil, and their metagenome and physicochemical properties were characterized. Moreover, the study was undertaken to evaluate the biodegradation of PAHs by autochthonous consortia as well as by selected bacteria strains isolated from long-term contaminated industrial soil. From among the isolated microorganisms, the most effective in biodegrading the contaminants were the strains Pseudomonas mendocina and Brevundimonas olei. They were able to degrade more than 60% of the total content of PAHs during a 28-day test. The biodegradation of these compounds using AT7 dispersant was enhanced only by Serratia marcescens strain. Moreover, the addition of AT7 improved the effectiveness of fluorene and acenaphthene biodegradation by Serratia marcescens 6-fold. Our results indicated that long-term contact with aromatic compounds induced the bacterial strains to use the PAHs as a source of carbon and energy. We observed that supplementation with surfactants does not increase the efficiency of hydrocarbon biodegradation.


Assuntos
Caulobacteraceae/isolamento & purificação , Creosoto/análise , Hidrocarbonetos Policíclicos Aromáticos/análise , Pseudomonas mendocina/isolamento & purificação , Microbiologia do Solo , Poluentes do Solo/análise , Biodegradação Ambiental , Caulobacteraceae/metabolismo , Monitoramento Ambiental , Indústrias , Polônia , Pseudomonas mendocina/metabolismo , Solo/química
15.
Environ Monit Assess ; 191(12): 775, 2019 Nov 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31773280

RESUMO

This study investigated the concentration and sources of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in the sediments of Oji River due to point sources of pollution from abattoir and power plant and determined the ecological and human health risks associated with the PAHs in the sediments. Oji River in Nigeria receives contaminants from anthropogenic activities relating to waste tires used in singeing cow meats in abattoir and preparing hides and skin for local consumption. It also receives contaminants from power distribution station where the defunct coal power plant used to be situated. These activities have the potential to release polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons that could accumulate in the river sediments. The PAHs were measured using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). This study found that the abattoir is responsible for the occurrence of benzo[b]fluoranthene, benzo[k]fluoranthene and benzo[a]pyrene in the sediments around the abattoir. The occurrence and distribution of PAHs around the area affected by the power station was profound as among all the 16 priority PAHs; only naphthalene benzo[g,h,i]perylene, dibenzo[a,h]anthracene and indeno[1,2,3-cd]pyrene were not detected. The five-member ring PAHs were predominant in this section of the river affected by power station. Ecological risks of the PAHs due to the effects of the power station are significant. The total toxicity equivalence (TEQ) of the PAHs upstream the abattoir is insignificant but significant around the abattoir and within the area impacted by the power station. The values of the hazard index (HI) and risk index (RI) indicate insignificant carcinogenic and non-carcinogenic human health risks in all the locations except the area within the influence of the power station where there are insignificant non-carcinogenic risks but significant carcinogenic risks.


Assuntos
Matadouros , Exposição Ambiental/estatística & dados numéricos , Monitoramento Ambiental , Sedimentos Geológicos/química , Centrais Elétricas , Rios/química , Matadouros/normas , Animais , Bovinos , Carvão Mineral , Poluição Ambiental/análise , Cromatografia Gasosa-Espectrometria de Massas , Humanos , Nigéria , Hidrocarbonetos Policíclicos Aromáticos/análise , Centrais Elétricas/normas , Poluentes Químicos da Água/análise
16.
Environ Monit Assess ; 191(12): 773, 2019 Nov 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31773284

RESUMO

The study aim was to analyse the influence of a municipal solid waste landfill site in operation for over 10 years on the aquatic environment using multiple indicators. The water around the landfill area must be controlled due to the possibility of leachate interaction with harmful substances in the environment. The tests were carried out on the basis of 24 indicators, of which four were the most significant: depth of groundwater retention, ammoniacal nitrogen (NH4-N), dissolved oxygen (DO), and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). The assessment of the quality of the surface water and groundwater and the analysis of the leachate pollution indices enabled the interpretation of the influence of a specific municipal waste landfill on the nearby water environment condition, despite not exceeding the permissible content at the highest average concentration of NH4-N at 1.34 mg L-1. The differences were significant at the level of p < 0.05 in the content of DO in the water below the landfill. The concentration of NH4-N in the groundwater below the landfill was statistically significantly correlated with the depth of the groundwater deposits (r = 0.609). Similarly, the surface water below the landfill site showed a statistically significant relation in the piezometer, which was also below the landfill, to ammoniacal nitrogen (r = 0.749). This result confirmed the statistically significant differences in the aquatic environment and the correlations with NH4-N and that, below the landfill, the penetration water seepage is moderate with a low waste accumulation not exceeding 10 Mg per day.


Assuntos
Monitoramento Ambiental , Água Subterrânea/química , Água Subterrânea/normas , Instalações de Eliminação de Resíduos , Poluentes Químicos da Água/análise , Nitrogênio/análise , Hidrocarbonetos Policíclicos Aromáticos/análise , Eliminação de Resíduos , Resíduos Sólidos/análise
17.
Environ Monit Assess ; 191(11): 700, 2019 Oct 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31667668

RESUMO

The distribution of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in the muscle, liver, spleen and kidney tissue of two fish species was studied using an optimised diatomaceous earth assisted modified QuEChERS extraction method. Five-year-old free-ranging male African sharptooth catfish (Clarias gariepinus) and 5-year-old male common carp (Cyprinus carpio) sampled from the Hartbeespoort Dam in South Africa were used for method development. Acetonitrile extraction produced more precise recoveries than hexane extraction. Fluorene and naphthalene were the most abundant PAHs detected in the majority of fish tissues analysed. PAH bioaccumulation in 5-year-old carp and 5-year-old catfish was in the order muscle > kidney > liver > spleen and liver > muscle > kidney > spleen, respectively. PCBs were mostly detected in carp spleen and kidney. Two-year-old carp were analysed to determine PCB and PAH bioaccumulation trends. The differences in ∑16PAH concentrations between the four organs tested were all statistically insignificant for the 3 fish tested (p > 0.05). All other organs with the exception of 5-year-old carp spleen and 5-year-old carp kidney recorded total 31 PCB concentrations (∑31PCB) < 25 ng g-1. Only 5-year-old carp spleen (∑31PCB of 592 ng g-1) and 5-year-old carp kidney (∑31PCB of 561 ng g-1) had significant differences (p < 0.05) from the spleen and kidney in 5-year-old catfish and 2-year-old carp. Whilst the carp and catfish sampled can be considered low PCB risk foods, 5-year-old carp muscle can be considered to be a high PAH risk food, with a benzo(a)pyrene concentration of 7 µg g-1, based on the EU Commission Regulation 2005/208/EC pertaining to the maximum permissible benzo(a)pyrene level in fresh fish muscle.


Assuntos
Carpas/metabolismo , Peixes-Gato/metabolismo , Monitoramento Ambiental , Bifenilos Policlorados/metabolismo , Hidrocarbonetos Policíclicos Aromáticos/metabolismo , Poluentes Químicos da Água/metabolismo , Animais , Bioacumulação , Peixes-Gato/fisiologia , Fígado/metabolismo , Masculino , Músculos/química , Bifenilos Policlorados/análise , Hidrocarbonetos Policíclicos Aromáticos/análise , África do Sul
18.
Sci Total Environ ; 688: 1413-1421, 2019 Oct 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31726569

RESUMO

In 2015, 443 atmospheric PM2.5 samples were collected at five sampling sites in Beijing. The concentrations of PM2.5-bound PAH8 (Chr, BaA, BbF, BkF, B[a]P, DBA, BghiP, and IND) were determined via high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). The annual concentration of PM2.5-bound PAH8, lifetime cancer risk, and the increasing value due to heating season factors (heating and meteorological conditions) were analyzed. The results showed that the sum concentration of PM2.5-bound PAH8 during heating season was 72.6 ng/m3 and higher than the non-heating season concentration of 4.77 ng/m3. The annual concentration was 10.6 ng/m3, which increased 5.83 ng/m3 due to heating season factors. The B[a]P annual concentration was 1.67 ng/m3 and higher than the limit of 1 ng/m3, which was 15.2 times that of non-heating season. Diesel vehicles and gasoline vehicles were the primary PAH8 sources during non-heating season, while the mixed sources of diesel vehicles, gasoline vehicles, and combustion were the dominant PAH8 sources during heating season. The most significant health hazard pollutant was B[a]P, which accounted for 72%, 74%, and 69% of the B[a]P equivalent concentration (B[a]Peq) of PAH8 during heating season, non-heating season, and throughout 2015, respectively. The lifetime cancer risk was 2.67 × 10-6, which increased 1.36 × 10-6 due to heating season factors. Therefore, heating season factors nearly doubled the annual concentration of PM2.5-bound ∑PAH8 and lifetime cancer risk. The results indicated that to protect human health, it is very important to control PM2.5-bound ∑PAH8 emissions during heating season, especially B[a]P emissions.


Assuntos
Poluentes Atmosféricos/análise , Poluição do Ar/estatística & dados numéricos , Exposição Ambiental/estatística & dados numéricos , Neoplasias/epidemiologia , Material Particulado/análise , Hidrocarbonetos Policíclicos Aromáticos/análise , Pequim/epidemiologia , Calefação , Humanos , Estações do Ano
19.
Ecotoxicol Environ Saf ; 186: 109775, 2019 Dec 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31614299

RESUMO

This study aimed at developing a simple and accurate method for determination of emerging chlorinated polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (Cl-PAHs) in fish by stable isotope dilution gas chromatography tandem mass spectrometry. Fish samples were extracted by improved accelerated solvent extraction (ASE) method. Matrix effects were observed, and matrix-matched calibration was verified with good intra-day and inter day precisions (lower than 16.1% and 15.1% respectively). Method detection limits were 0.10-5.62 ng g-1 (dry weight) with satisfactory linearity, and recoveries ranged from 50% to 150%, with relative standard deviation values less than 18.5% at different concentration levels. This improved ASE method was proved to be suitable for analyzing Cl-PAHs in fish samples, with good analytical selectivity, linearity, recovery and precision. Furthermore, the composition analysis revealed that chlorinated compounds of phenanthrene, pyrene and acenaphthene were dominated in Cl-PAHs contaminants. The correlationship between the pollution of Cl-PAHs and their corresponding parent structures in fish samples was also analyzed in detail.


Assuntos
Peixes , Cromatografia Gasosa-Espectrometria de Massas/métodos , Hidrocarbonetos Clorados/análise , Extração Líquido-Líquido/métodos , Hidrocarbonetos Policíclicos Aromáticos/análise , Poluentes Químicos da Água/análise , Animais , Isótopos , Limite de Detecção , Músculos/química , Alimentos Marinhos/análise , Solventes/química
20.
Environ Sci Pollut Res Int ; 26(33): 34401-34411, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31637617

RESUMO

The peri-urban soil is exposed to pollutants because of its proximity to the city, which may influence the quality of agricultural products. In this study, the occurrence of 16 trace elements (TEs), 16 polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), and 33 contaminants of emerging concern (CECs) was analyzed in two soil sites of the peri-urban area of Barcelona (Spain) (S2 and S3) and a pristine site (S1). Levels of Pb (S2 164 and S3 150 mg kg-1) are around 2.5 times higher than the guideline values. Values for Cu (178 mg kg-1) in S2 are 1.8-fold higher, whereas for Zn, levels are slightly above the threshold in S2 (208 mg kg-1) and S3 (217 mg kg-1). The total concentrations of PAHs are significantly below the limits: 24 ng g-1 dw (S1), 38 ng g-1 dw (S2), 49 ng g-1 dw (S3), whereas only some CECs are detected with low concentrations. We also developed a simple and rapid method to assess soil pollution. Here, we use two plant growth indexes (seed germination rate and root elongation at the initial stage) of three seeds (lettuce, tomato, and cauliflower) to assess soil chemical contamination on agriculture. In the peri-urban soil, the concentration of Pb was 2.5 times higher than the guideline values, whereas for Cu and Zn, values were slightly above their limits, while only few PAHs and CECs were detected. Results for principal component analysis suggest that root elongation is a more sensitive measurement endpoint than germination rate, especially for lettuce. The germination rate of tomato relied on the nitrate in the soil and decreased sharply in the site with pollution of Cu and As. Under the specific conditions of this study, cauliflower should not be recommended to assess environmental pollution due to its low sensitivity to pollutants. In conclusion, this is a low-cost, simple, and rapid method for evaluating the effects of chemical pollution of agriculture soils on seed growth.


Assuntos
Monitoramento Ambiental , Poluentes do Solo/toxicidade , Agricultura , Cidades , Poluição Ambiental/análise , Germinação/efeitos dos fármacos , Alface , Hidrocarbonetos Policíclicos Aromáticos/análise , Sementes/química , Solo/química , Poluentes do Solo/análise , Espanha , Oligoelementos/análise
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